Sample records for reforestation agroforestry practices

  1. Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Montagnini; P. K. R. Nair

    2004-01-01

    Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can\\u000a make them effective carbon

  2. Agroforestry and forestry-related practices in the Midwestern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Rule; J. P. Colletti; T. P. Liu; S. E. Jungst; C. W. Mize; R. C. Schultz

    1994-01-01

    A survey, conducted in 1990–1991 on agroforestry and forestry-related systems in eight Midwestern states, showed that three traditional and three nontraditional agroforestry systems are practiced in the region. Of 46 traditional systems reported, most common was agrisilviculture (28), then silvipasture (12) and agrisilvipasture (6). These systems often involved corn, soybeans, and hay planted with tree species for nut, timber, or

  3. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    practices. Keywords Agrobiodiversity Á Farmers' perception Á Farming practices Á Trees outside forest Á of agroforestry, such as its role in biodiversity conservation, regulation of physical and chemical fluxes

  4. Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

  5. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  6. WILL LANDOWNERS ADOPT REFORESTATION PRACTICES? ANSWERS FROM THE MISSOURI RIVER FLOOD PLAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Treiman; J. Dwyer

    Reforestation of ecologically sensitive flood plain lands will depend greatly on private landowners. This paper develops several competing models that can help public agencies to predict landowner adoption of reforestation cost-share programs. Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) is used to rank the models, based on data from a mail survey of flood plain landowners along the Missouri River. Results show that

  7. Projecting the bird community response resulting from the adoption of shelterbelt agroforestry practices in Eastern Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Pierce II; D. T. Farrand; W. B. Kurtz

    2001-01-01

    Evolving agricultural policies have influenced management practices within agroecosystems, impacting available habitats for\\u000a many species of wildlife. Enhancing wildlife habitat has become an explicit objective of existing agricultural policy. Thus,\\u000a there is renewed focus on field borders and the use of shelterbelt agroforestry systems to achieve conservation goals in the\\u000a Midwest. Two Representative Farms – a 283-ha dryland and 510-ha

  8. Farmers’ local knowledge and topsoil properties of agroforestry practices in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zebene Asfaw; Göran I. Ĺgren

    2007-01-01

    Based on farmers’ knowledge and laboratory studies, the nutrient accumulation in the topsoil (0–20 cm) under Cordia africana Lam (Cordia), Millettia ferruginea Hochst (Millettia) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnhardt (Red gum) managed under two agroforestry practices on different farms at three sites was evaluated. The number\\u000a of these trees on individual farms has increased during the last two decades. The number of

  9. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  10. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eike Luedeling; Gudeta Sileshi; Tracy Beedy; Johannes Dietz

    \\u000a Agroforestry can raise carbon (C) stocks of agricultural systems, and such increases can potentially be sold as CO2 emission offsets. We assembled information on the biophysical, technical, economic, and practical potential of agroforestry\\u000a to sequester C for the West African Sahel, East Africa, and Southern Africa. Agroforestry systems (AFS) such as parklands,\\u000a live fences, and homegardens had substantial C stocks,

  11. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems

    PubMed Central

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-01-01

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  12. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  13. Tropical floodplain agroforestry systems in mid-Orinoco River basin, Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Barrios; R. Herrera; J. L. Valles

    1994-01-01

    Agricultural studies in seasonally flooded areas in the tropics have been limited. Orinoco alluvial soils are more fertile than adjacent non-flooded soils, and have been considered as potential areas for further agricultural development. Traditional agroforestry practices offer some possibilities to overcome the most limiting factors of floodplain cultivation. Indigenous knowledge of these traditional agroforestry practices was assessed and some indicators

  14. Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Padoch; J. Chota Inuma; W. DE JONG; J. Unruh

    1985-01-01

    Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system practiced by non-tribal ‘Mestizo’ farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption, and for a regional market. The

  15. Impacts of Afforestation, Deforestation, and Reforestation on

    E-print Network

    Song, Conghe

    Impacts of Afforestation, Deforestation, and Reforestation on Forest Cover in China from 1949 in the terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: afforestation, deforestation, reforestation, forest cover F orests play on forest cover in China from 1949 to 2003. Data Data for afforestation, deforestation, and reforestation

  16. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  17. Agroforestry Systems and Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    The goal of enhancing human well-being and dignity for the communities surrounding Podocarpus National Park (PNP) is inexorably connected to the goal of protecting ecosystem health and integrity in the southern Andes. While these goals are often viewed as conflicting, one area where they clearly overlap is in agroforestry practices. Agroforestry has the potential to improve food security and economic

  18. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  19. Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

  20. Modelled soil carbon changes after reforestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miko U. F. Kirschbaum

    2004-01-01

    One of the approaches towards managing atmospheric CO2 concentration is the planting of trees on former agricultural land, but it is uncertain whether soil carbon stocks will increase or decrease after reforestation. A modelling analysis was carried out to assess what changes in soil organic carbon are possible upon reforesting former grassland. It was based on runs with the whole-system

  1. Reforesting the Earth. Worldwatch Paper 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra; Heise, Lori

    This document deals with efforts aimed at reforesting large areas of degraded lands. It includes sections on: (1) tree cover trends; (2) fuelwood challenges of the future; (3) the need to supply industrial wood; (4) stabilizing soil and water resources; (5) forests and climate change; and (6) mobilization for reforestation. (TW)

  2. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  3. Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving

    E-print Network

    development efforts towards a stable and sustainable land use and gender equity in rural development. ItsRecent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving Forces and Changing Gender Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving Forces and Changing Gender Relations Abstract

  4. Contribution of trees to soil carbon sequestration under agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asako Takimoto; Vimala D. Nair; P. K. Ramachandran Nair

    2009-01-01

    Consequent to recent recognition of agricultural soils as carbon (C) sinks, agroforestry practices in the West African Sahel\\u000a (WAS) region have received attention for their C sequestration potential. This study was undertaken in the Ségou region of\\u000a Mali that represents the WAS, to examine the extent of C sequestration, especially in soils, in agroforestry systems. Five\\u000a land-use systems were selected

  5. Community assessment of agroforestry opportunities in GaMothiba, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Kelso; Michael Jacobson

    Evaluating environmentally sustainable and culturally sensitive approaches to natural resource management issues is a necessary\\u000a step towards improving livelihoods in rural South Africa. This study assessed the applicability of various agroforestry practices\\u000a to natural resource management issues in the village of GaMothiba located in the northwestern region of South Africa. Agroforestry\\u000a assessments were carried out using a community based approach

  6. Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

  7. Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

  8. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction.

    PubMed

    Nair, P K Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades-albeit modest-have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early research focused mostly on farm or local levels, broader-level ecosystem services of agroforestry systems (AFS) have raised high expectations in recent years. The nine papers included in this special collection deal with three of such environmental benefits of AFS: water-quality enhancement, carbon sequestration, and soil improvement. These benefits are based on the perceived ability of (i) vegetative buffer strips (VBS) to reduce surface transport of agrochemical pollutants, (ii) large volumes of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees to store high amounts of C deeper in the soil profile, and (iii) trees to enhance soil productivity through biological nitrogen fixation, efficient nutrient cycling, and deep capture of nutrients. The papers included have, in general, substantiated these premises and provided new insights. For example, the riparian VBS are reported to increase the reservoir life, in addition to reducing transport of agrochemicals; the variations in C storage in different soil-fraction sizes suggest that microaggregate (250-53 ?m) dynamics in the soil could be a good indicator of its C-storage potential; and the use of vector analysis technique is recommended in AFS to avoid consequences of inaccurate and overuse of fertilizers. The papers also identified significant knowledge gaps in these areas. A common theme across all three environmental quality issues covered is that more and varied research datasets across a broad spectrum of conditions need to be generated and integrated with powerful statistical tools to ensure wide applicability of the results. Furthermore, appropriate management practices that are acceptable to the targeted land users and agroforestry practitioners need to be designed to exploit these environmental benefits. The relative newness of research in environmental quality of AFS will pose some additional challenges as well. These include the lack of allometric equations for tree-biomass determination, absence of standardized norms on soil sampling depth, and limitations of fixed-effect models arising from issues such as pseudo-replication and repeated measures that are common in studies on preexisting field plots. Overall, this special collection is a timely effort in highlighting the promise of AFS in addressing some of the environmental quality issues, and the challenges in realizing that potential. PMID:21546663

  9. Reforesting "bare hills" in Vietnam: social and environmental consequences of the 5 million hectare reforestation program.

    PubMed

    McElwee, Pamela

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, forestry has been strongly promoted by the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam through large-scale projects to rehabilitate and reforest millions of hectares of land. One project to reforest 5 million hectares has received hundreds of millions of US dollars for implementation. Yet based on a case study in one area of northern Vietnam, this project appears to have had a number of unforeseen consequences. Large areas of land classified as "bare hills" have been targeted for reforestation, despite the fact that these lands already harbor a number of species that were used by local communities. The bare hills were especially economically important to poor households and to women who collected a variety of nontimber forest products there. Because the reforestation project focused most efforts on establishing new plantations rather than supporting natural regeneration, diverse sources of non-timber forest products were being replaced with monocrop exotic tree plantations. A strong inequity in the allocation of private lands for reforestation has characterized the regreening projects to date, and this may have continuing unwelcome social, environmental, and economic impacts into the future, particularly for the poor. PMID:19860156

  10. Agro-Economic Performance of Jackfruit-Pineapple Agroforestry System in Madhupur Tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. HASAN; M. M. AHMED; M. G. MIAH

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out in two villages of Durgapur union under Kapasia upazila of Gazipur district during January to March, 2005 to investigate profitability, problems and management system of practicing jackfruit-pineapple agroforestry practice. Result revealed that the existing jackfruit-pineapple agroforesty system is profitable and has a great contribution to the meet up of nutritional demand. There is a scope

  11. Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills; Jui-Chen Yang

    2003-01-01

    In light of the large number of empirical studies of agroforestry adoption published during the last decade, we believe it is time to take stock and identify general determinants of agroforestry adoption. In reviewing 120 articles on adoption of agricultural and forestry technology by small holders, we find five categories of factors that explain technology adoption within an economic framework:

  12. Managing biological and genetic diversity in tropical agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Atta-Krah; R. Kindt; J. N. Skilton; W. Amaral

    2004-01-01

    The issues of biological and genetic diversity management in agroforestry are extremely complex. This paper focuses on genetic\\u000a diversity management and its implications for sustainable agroforestry systems in the tropics, and presents an analysis of\\u000a the role and importance of inter- and intra-specific diversity in agroforestry. Diversity within and between tree species\\u000a in traditional agroforestry systems and modern agroforestry technologies

  13. The future role of reforestation in reducing buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1993-12-31

    Among the options posed for mitigating the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2} is planting new forest areas to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Among the questions of interest in modeling the global carbon cycle is the extent to which reforestation is likely to succeed in providing physical removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are many strategies for using forest land to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of CO{sub 2}: decreasing the rate at which forests are cleared for other land uses, increasing the density of carbon storage in existing forests, improving the rate and efficiency at which forest products are used in the place of other energy intensive products, substitution of renewable wood fuels for fossil fuels, improved management of forests and agroforestry, and increasing the amount of land in standing forest. Because increasing the area of forests has social, political, and economic limitations; in addition to physical limitations; it is hard to envision a large increase in forest area except where there are associated economic benefits. The authors speculation is that, over the next several decades, the forest strategies most likely to be pursued for the express purpose of CO{sub 2} mitigation are those which provide more or more-efficient substitution of forest products for energy or energy-intensive resources and that the physical accumulation of additional carbon in forests will be of lesser importance.

  14. Tree recovery and seed dispersal by birds: Comparing forest, agroforestry and abandoned agroforestry in coastal Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannya Lozada; G. H. J. de Koning; Raphael Marché; Alexandra-Maria Klein; Teja Tscharntke

    2007-01-01

    We used a highly replicated study to examine vegetation characteristics between patches of intervened forest, abandoned agroforestry systems with coffee and actively managed agroforestry systems with coffee in a tropical landscape. In all habitats, plant structural characteristics, individual abundance, species richness and composition were recorded for the three plant size classes: adult trees, saplings and seedlings. Furthermore, bird species richness

  15. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  16. Adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Mercer

    2004-01-01

    The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the\\u000a tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based\\u000a development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental understanding of how\\u000a and why farmers

  17. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take spuriously precise model results at face value, and it is able to make predictions even where data is scarce. It thus provides a rapid and honest assessment option that can quickly supply decision-makers with system performance estimates, offering an opportunity to improve the targeting of agroforestry interventions.

  18. Strategies for Reforestation under Uncertain Future Climates: Guidelines for Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Laura K.; Hamann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background Commercial forestry programs normally use locally collected seed for reforestation under the assumption that tree populations are optimally adapted to local environments. However, in western Canada this assumption is no longer valid because of climate trends that have occurred over the last several decades. The objective of this study is to show how we can arrive at reforestation recommendations with alternative species and genotypes that are viable under a majority of climate change scenarios. Methodology/Principal Findings In a case study for commercially important tree species of Alberta, we use an ecosystem-based bioclimate envelope modeling approach for western North America to project habitat for locally adapted populations of tree species using multi-model climate projections for the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. We find that genotypes of species that are adapted to drier climatic conditions will be the preferred planting stock over much of the boreal forest that is commercially managed. Interestingly, no alternative species that are currently not present in Alberta can be recommended with any confidence. Finally, we observe large uncertainties in projections of suitable habitat that make reforestation planning beyond the 2050s difficult for most species. Conclusion/Significance More than 50,000 hectares of forests are commercially planted every year in Alberta. Choosing alternative planting stock, suitable for expected future climates, could therefore offer an effective climate change adaptation strategy at little additional cost. Habitat projections for locally adapted tree populations under observed climate change conform well to projections for the 2020s, which suggests that it is a safe strategy to change current reforestation practices and adapt to new climatic realities through assisted migration prescriptions. PMID:21853061

  19. Monitoring of reforested areas using LANDSAT data. [Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.

  20. Effect of reforestation on streamflow in central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, William Joseph; Ayer, Gordon Roundy

    1961-01-01

    Hydrologic data have been collected since 1932 in central New York State to determine the effect of reforestation on streamflow. Data are available for three small partly reforested areas and for one nonreforested control area. From 35 to 58 percent of the 3 areas were reforested, mostly with species of pine and spruce. The trees were allowed to grow without thinning or cutting, and by 1958 these reforested areas had developed into dense coniferous woodlots. Intensive statistical analyses of the data from the four study areas were made in 1958. Analyses were made for three hydrologic periods: the dormant season represented by the 6-month period ending April 30, the growing season represented by the 6-month period ending October 31, and the year represented by the 12-month period ending April 30. Analyses of the hydrologic data using multiple correlation with time as a variable and analyses of covariance between early and late periods of record indicated that several significant changes had occurred in the streamflow from the partly reforested study areas. Based on correlation with precipitation, total runoff for the dormant season from the 3 study areas was reduced by annual rates of 0.17 to 0.29 inches per year. Based on correlations with streamflow from a control area, total runoff from the partly reforested Shackham Brook area was reduced by average rates of 0.14 inches per growing season, 0.23 inches per dormant season, and 0.36 inches per hydrologic year. Peak discharges on Shackham Brook during the dormant season were reduced by 1958 by an average of 41 percent for the season, with reductions ranging from an average of 66 percent for November to an average of 16 percent for April. No significant changes were found in the peak discharges for the growing season, rates of base-flow recession, volumes of direct runoff, or annual low flows of streams in the three partly reforested areas. The significant reductions in total runoff are attributed to increases in interception and transpiration in the reforested areas. The reductions in peak discharges during the dormant period are attributed largely to increased interception and sublimation of snowfall, and a gradual desynchronization of snowmelt runoff from the wooded and open areas of partly reforested watersheds. The changes in streamflow occurred gradually over the years; it could not be determined from the data whether changes in streamflow were still occurring in 1958, or whether they had reached a maximum.

  1. Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park; )

    2006-05-01

    Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

  2. CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

  3. Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

  4. Agroforestry as a sustainable landuse option in degraded tropical forests: a study from Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahbubul Alam; Yasushi Furukawa; Kazuhiro Harada

    2010-01-01

    The tropical deciduous forest in Bangladesh provides a substantial part of country’s forest and where the government has introduced\\u000a participatory agroforestry landuse. This study examined management issues, financial viability, and environmental as well\\u000a as social sustainability of this landuse system. The forest department allocated a plot of size 1.0 ha among the selected\\u000a participants where they were allowed to practice agriculture

  5. Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shibu Jose

    2009-01-01

    Agroforestry systems are believed to provide a number of ecosystem services; however, until recently evidence in the agroforestry\\u000a literature supporting these perceived benefits has been lacking. This special issue brings together a series of papers from\\u000a around the globe to address recent findings on the ecosystem services and environmental benefits provided by agroforestry.\\u000a As prelude to the special issue, this

  6. INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LARGE-SCALE REFORESTATION: PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the workshop was to identify major operational and ecological considerations needed to successfully conduct large-scale reforestation projects throughout the forested regions of the world. Large-scale" for this workshop means projects where, by human effort, approx...

  7. Soil properties following reforestation or afforestation of marginal cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reforestation or afforestation of marginal agricultural lands offers opportunities to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and improve the quality of degraded soils. The objectives of this study were to identify the extent and distribution of marginally productive cropland that was originally under f...

  8. Agroforestry development: An environmental economic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. R. Alavalapati; R. K. Shrestha; G. A. Stainback; J. R. Matta

    2004-01-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFS) provide a mix of market goods and nonmarket goods and services. We postulate that if nonmarket\\u000a goods and services can be internalized to the benefit of landowners, the adoption of AFS will increase. Using the theory of\\u000a externality as a conceptual framework, this paper provides an environmental economic logic for developing incentive policies\\u000a to internalize environmental services

  9. Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

  10. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance. PMID:16261277

  11. Stand development on reforested bottomlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the southeastern United States has markedly increased in recent years due, in part, to financial incentives provided by conservation programs. Currently > 250,000 ha of marginal farmland have been returned to hardwood forests. I observed establishment of trees and shrubs on 205 reforested bottomlands: 133 sites were planted primarily with oak species (Quercus spp.), 60 sites were planted with pulpwood producing species (Populus deltoides, Liquidambar styraciflua, or Platanus occidentalis), and 12 sites were not planted (i.e., passive regeneration). Although oak sites were planted with more species, sites planted with pulpwood species were more rapidly colonized by additional species. The density of naturally colonizing species exceeded that of planted species but density of invaders decreased rapidly with distance from forest edge. Trees were shorter in height on sites planted with oaks than on sites planted with pulpwood species but within a site, planted trees attained greater heights than did colonizing species. Thus, planted trees dominated the canopy of reforested sites as they matured. Planted species acted in concert with natural invasion to influence the current condition of woody vegetation on reforested sites. Cluster analysis of species importance values distinguished three woody vegetation conditions: (1) Populus deltoides stands (2) oak stands with little natural invasion by other tree species, and (3) stands dominated by planted or naturally invading species other than oaks. Increased diversity on reforested sites would likely result from (a) greater diversity of planted species, particularly when sites are far from existing forest edges and (b) thinning of planted trees as they attain closed canopies.

  12. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    Only about 2.8 million ha of an estimated original 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests still exist in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of the United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and state agencies initiated reforestation efforts in the late 1980s to improve wildlife habitat. We surveyed restorationists responsible for reforestation in the LMAV to determine the magnitude of past and future efforts and to identify major limiting factors. Over the past 10 years, 77,698 ha have been reforested by the agencies represented in our survey and an additional 89,009 ha are targeted in the next 5 years. Oaks are the most commonly planted species and bare-root seedlings are the most commonly used planting stock. Problems with seedling availability may increase the diversity of plantings in the future. Reforestation in the LMAV is based upon principles of landscape ecology; however, local problems such as herbivory, drought, and flooding often limit success. Broad-scale hydrologic restoration is needed to fully restore the structural and functional attributes of these systems, but because of drastic and widespread hydrologic alterations and socioeconomic constraints, this goal is generally not realistic. Local hydrologic restoration and creation of specific habitat features needed by some wildlife and fish species warrant attention. More extensive analyses of plantings are needed to evaluate functional success. The Wetland Reserve Program is a positive development, but policies that provide additional financial incentives to landowners for reforestation efforts should be seriously considered.

  13. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  14. Environmental services from multistrata agroforestry systems in Chiapas, México 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorena Soto-Pinto; Carlos M. Aguirre; Guillermo Jiménez-Ferrer; Manuel Anzueto-Martínez; Marcela Delgadillo

    Agroforestry systems (AFS) play an important role as carbon sinks. This study was undertaken in agricultural plots which form part of the Scolel' te carbon capture project established in 1994, in Chiapas, Mexico. The aim was to measure the carbon reservoirs corresponding to different components of agroforestry systems. The study was carried out in 10 localities along an altitudinal gradient

  15. Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experiences of a national program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Puri; P. K. R. Nair

    2004-01-01

    India has been in the forefront of agroforestry research ever since organized research in agroforestry started worldwide about\\u000a 25 years ago. Considering the country's unique land-use, demographic, political, and sociocultural characteristics as well\\u000a as its strong record in agricultural and forestry research, India's experience in agroforestry research is important to agroforestry\\u000a development, especially in developing nations. Agroforestry has received much

  16. Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica 

    E-print Network

    Toness, Anna Sutherland

    1993-01-01

    . In Sustained Producti vi ty of Forest Soils. Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Soils Conference. Vancouver, British Colombia. p. 290-300. Instituto Costariccense de Turismo. 1993. Costa Rica tourist orientation guide. Mercado Profesional Mepro, S...FARMER INVOLVEMENT IN A REFORESTATION RESEARCE PROJECT IN COSTA RICA A Professional Paper by Anna Sutherland Toness "Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of" Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  17. Biochar application during reforestation alters species present and soil chemistry.

    PubMed

    Drake, J A; Carrucan, A; Jackson, W R; Cavagnaro, T R; Patti, A F

    2015-05-01

    Reforestation of landscapes is being used as a method for tackling climate change through carbon sequestration and land restoration, as well as increasing biodiversity and improving the provision of ecosystem services. The success of reforestation activities can be reduced by adverse field conditions, including those that reduce germination and survival of plants. One method for improving success is biochar addition to soil, which is not only known to improve soil carbon sequestration, but is also known to improve growth, health, germination and survival of plants. In this study, biochar was applied to soil at rates of 0, 1, 3 and 6 t ha(-1) along with a direct-seed forest species mix at three sites in western Victoria, Australia. Changes in soil chemistry, including total carbon, and germination and survival of species were measured over an 18 month period. Biochar was found to significantly increase total carbon by up to 15.6% on soils low in carbon, as well as alter electrical conductivity, Colwell phosphorous and nitrate- and ammonium-nitrogen. Biochar also increased the number of species present, and stem counts of Eucalyptus species whilst decreasing stem counts of Acacia species. Biochar has the potential to positively benefit reforestation activities, but site specific and plant-soil-biochar responses require targeted research. PMID:25679816

  18. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P?agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden. PMID:24790810

  19. The problem of experimental design in temperate agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Stamps; M. J. Linit

    1998-01-01

    The design and execution of temperate agroforestry experiments has many problems. Difficulties include the selection of measurement\\u000a criteria, proper randomization of treatments, and issues of timing and scale of experiments. A major problem facing most experimenters\\u000a is the proper randomization of treatments to insure independence: few properly designed temperate agroforestry plots currently\\u000a exist, and it will be many years before

  20. A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

  1. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

  2. Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (20012010) T. Mitchell Aide1,7

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001­2010) T. Mitchell Aide1 have documented extensive deforestation, but there are also many local studies reporting forest evaluated deforestation and reforestation from the municipal to continental scale, we lack a comprehensive

  3. Modes of Communication and Effectiveness of Agroforestry Extension in Eastern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Glendinning; Ajay Mahapatra; C. Paul Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    Development of extension in agroforestry draws on the application of the innovation-diffusion process in agriculture. To be effective, agroforestry extension needs to fit the dynamics of the target farming system, the local socioeconomic and technological systems, and land use constraints. Failure of agroforestry extension has been blamed on inadequate and inappropriate methods, but there have been few studies to identify

  4. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  5. Landscape level reforestation priorities for forest breeding landbirds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Uihlein, W.B., III

    2005-01-01

    Thousands of ha of cleared wetlands are being reforested annually in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Despite the expansive and long-term impacts of reforestation on the biological communities of the MAV, there is generally a lack of landscape level planning in its implementation. To address this deficiency we used raster-based digital data to assess the value of forest restoration to migratory landbirds for each ha within the MAV. Raster themes were developed that reflected distance from 3 existing forest cover parameters: (1) extant forest, (2) contiguous forest patches between 1,012 and 40,000 ha, and (3) forest cores with contiguous area 1 km from an agricultural, urban, or pastoral edge. Two additional raster themes were developed that combined information on the proportion of forest cover and average size of forest patches, respectively, within landscapes of 50,000, 100,000, 150,000, and 200,000 ha. Data from these 5 themes were amalgamated into a single raster using a weighting system that gave increased emphasis to existing forest cores, larger forest patches, and moderately forested landscapes while deemphasizing reforestation near small or isolated forest fragments and within largely agricultural landscapes. This amalgamated raster was then modified by the geographic location of historical forest cover and the current extent of public land ownership to assign a reforestation priority score to each ha in the MAV. However, because reforestation is not required on areas with extant forest cover and because restoration is unlikely on areas of open water and urban communities, these lands were not assigned a reforestation priority score. These spatially explicit reforestation priority scores were used to simulate reforestation of 368,000 ha (5%) of the highest priority lands in the MAV. Targeting restoration to these high priority areas resulted in a 54% increase in forest core - an area of forest core that exceeded the area of simulated reforestation. Bird Conservation Regions, developed within the framework of the Partners in Flight: Mississippi Alluvial Valley Bird Conservation Plan, encompassed a large proportion (circa 70%) of the area with highest priority for reforestation. Similarly, lands with high reforestation priority often were enrolled in the Wetland Reserve Program.

  6. Discerning Fragmentation Dynamics of Tropical Forest and Wetland during Reforestation, Urban Sprawl, and Policy Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940–2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr?1 in 1977–1991 versus 2.17% yr?1 in 1991–2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land planning to reduce future fragmentation. PMID:25409016

  7. Streamflow and stream salinity in a small water supply catchment in southwest Western Australia after reforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, H.; Bell, R. W.; Loh, I. C.

    1988-11-01

    In the mid-1970s high salinities developed in the Padbury reservoir in southwest Western Australia due to the conversion of 80% of its catchment from native forest to farmland in previous decades. Between 1977 and 1983 some 70% of this farmland was planted with pines and eucalypts. Most of the slopes were reforested, but only some of the valleys. In 1978 a gauging station was established in the catchment to monitor the effect of reforestation on streamflow and stream salinity. Results obtained by the end of 1986 are presented here. Reforestation led to a substantial and continuous reduction in streamflow. There was also a steady reduction in salt discharge from the catchment. In most years the reduction in streamflow outweighed the reduction in salt discharge. Stream salinity was therefore generally higher than it would have been without reforestation. Since 1978, when hydrologic monitoring began, the annual rainfall was generally below the long-term mean of 880 mm, and often below 800 mm. While these dry conditions were at least partly responsible for the increases in stream salinity, it is not known whether salinity would have decreased in all years if the rainfall had been normal. It is argued that completely replanting the valleys would have resulted in lower stream salinities. If rainfall had been normal, or if the valleys had been planted, and particularly with a combination of the two, reforestation may have resulted in a general decrease in stream salinity. Yet, any salinity benefit due to reforestation must be balanced against the concurrent reduction in streamflow. For a small water supply catchment like the one described here, reforestation may therefore not be an appropriate strategy to alleviate salinity problems. However, it is shown that reforestation is useful in large salt-affected catchments in the region where the areas which contribute most of the salt generate only little of the streamflow.

  8. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 ?m) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 ?m). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar SCR (4.5%). C content in the mineral fraction increased for SRC and AF 1.3-1.5 times compare to cropland, showing that the early stage of trees development lead to C accumulation in stable fractions. CO2 efflux from the surface 0-3 cm was in 2-3 times higher than from 3-20 cm. CO2 efflux did not follow soil C contents and was the highest for poplar SRC plot (1.8 mg C g-1 soil), followed by willow AF (1.6 mg C g-1 soil), willow SRC (1.4 mg C g-1 soil) and cropland (0.8 mg C g-1 soil). Estimated size of labile C pool for forest soils was two times higher and decomposition rates were 1.3 times faster than for the arable site. We conclude that afforestation in the first years mainly affects C accumulation in the top soil. Due to changing in soil structure most of the C was associated with large macroaggregates. Afforestation measures promoted C accumulation in the mineral fractions, whereas C associated with free POM even decreased in case of poplar SRC, compare to cropland soil.

  9. Waiting for trees to grow: nest survival, brood parasitism, and the impact of reforestation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazler, K.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Cooper, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Of the forested wetlands that once covered the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, only -25% remain due to large-scale conversion to agriculture. Reforestation efforts are currently underway, but tracts planted with slow-growing oaks maintain the structure of a grassland for 5 yr or longer, and will require at least 40 yr to resemble a mature forest. Nonetheless, it is hoped that reforestation, even in early stages, can effectively increase core area in extant tracts of mature forest by reducing higher rates of nest failure and brood parasitism often associated with forest-agriculture interfaces. To test this, we monitored nests of a mature-forest specialist, the Acadian Flycatcher, in extensive bottomland forests adjacent to agricultural fields and reforested tracts (<20 yr-old). We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate alternative hypotheses regarding the relative impacts of agriculture and reforestation in the landscape. Controlling for year, season, and stand basal area, there was little evidence that landscape context significantly affected nest survival, although survival tended to increase with decreasing amounts of agriculture. The probability of brood parasitism increased with greater proportions of open habitats in the landscape. There was much stronger support for the hypothesis that parasitism rates depended on the sum of agricultural and reforested tracts, rather than on the amount of agriculture alone. Thus, reforested tracts are not expected to have the desired effect of reducing parasitism rates in the adjacent mature forest until several decades have passed.

  10. Agroforestry Development Posters in Spanish Based on SUCO's Machete Verde

    E-print Network

    Agroforestry Development Posters in Spanish Based on SUCO's Machete Verde These posters were) to work in Honduras. The posters are composed of images from the outstanding set of booklets titled. The posters were developed by Ben Hasse, an FNR student now with the Peace Corps in Nicaragua, and Dr. Tamara

  11. Coffee Agroforestry Systems for Conservation and Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christie M. Young

    2003-01-01

    The agroforestry program of the AMISCONDE Initiative was implemented in 13 buffer zone communities of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve. This program introduced citrus (Citrus spp.) and promoted the widespread inclusion of poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) shade trees, ground story vegetation, and soil conservation techniques to the local cultivation of coffee (Coffea arabica var caturra). This program sought long-term socioeconomic and ecological

  12. Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

  13. Impacts of coffee agroforestry management on tropical bee communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jha; J. H. Vandermeer

    2010-01-01

    Though it is undoubted that tropical bees are influenced by habitat composition, few studies have investigated the relative importance of both local and landscape-level habitat parameters in supporting large and diverse bee communities. The conservation of native bee communities within agroforestry landscapes is particularly urgent given the importance of pollination services within these systems. In this study, we examined tropical

  14. Reforestation of degraded hills in Nepal: Review of silvicultural and management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.; Dickmann, D.I. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Nepal's Middle Hill regions have been excessively deforested. The government has launched a community-based reforestation project with help of international donors. However, results have been far from satisfactory. Plantation targets have not been met and survival rates of the planted trees are poor averaging around 60%. Social factors are given more blame than technical ones for these failures. However, an analysis of the available information indicates, rather, that about two-thirds of the failures were due to technical and administrative reasons. Only about 13% of the failures could be attributed to social causes. Poor quality seeds are used to raise undersized seedlings which are planted improperly during the wrong time of the year. Species selected are not appropriate for the site or the people for whom the plantations are being created; rather they are selected for the ease of planting and to meet administrative targets. The overall trend has been to plant conifers (mainly pinus roxburghii) and to plant on relatively easy sites. The result has been the creation of forest plantations which often do not have any management plant, while the few which often do not have any management plan, while the few which do are without any committed managers. There is a tremendous lack of information regarding user demand, growth, yield, and harvesting and utilization techniques. This paper stresses that research to improve practical methods in plantation establishment and training to produce competent, and dedicated resource managers be immediately initiated.

  15. Belowground interactions for water between trees and grasses in a temperate semiarid agroforestry system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Elena Fernández; Javier Gyenge; Julian Licata; Tomás Schlichter; Barbara J. Bond

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is the complementary use of soil resources. However, productivity of many agroforestry\\u000a systems has been lower than expected due to net competition for water, highlighting the need for a mechanistic understanding\\u000a of belowground interactions. The goal of this study was to examine root–root interactions for water in a temperate semiarid\\u000a agroforestry system, based on ponderosa

  16. A review of belowground interactions in agroforestry, focussing on mechanisms and management options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schroth

    1998-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on root interactions in agroforestry systems, discussing cases from temperate and\\u000a tropical ecosystems and drawing on experiences from natural plant communities where data from agroforestry systems are lacking.\\u000a There is an inherent conflict in agroforestry between expected favourable effects of tree root systems, e.g. on soil fertility\\u000a and nutrient cycling, and competition between tree and

  17. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  18. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  19. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Coupled Socioecological Systems in East Africa: The Case of the Chagga Agroforestry and Maasai Agropastoralism across the Greater Environments of Mount Kilimanjaro Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The various types of rainfall-dependent coupled socioecological systems that conspicuously characterize mountain-environments across Africa, such as the Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, constitute a major economic backbone to the local inhabitants. Similarly, agropastoralism that characterizes the adjoining rangelands of such mountain-environments, such as that practiced by the Maasai people of Kenya, in the northern plains that adjoins Mount Kilimanjaro, is major contributor to local food security. Both Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism also contribute greatly to broader-scale economic sectors and respectively to sustainable utilization of rangeland and mountain-environment resources. Like similar coupled socioecological systems across Africa, the Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism are being, and will continue to be affected by the changing climate. This study uses an integrated approach to explore the sustainability of Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, in the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Concurrently, the sustainability of the Maasai agropastoralism (a livelihood-diversification type) in the northern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and the adjoining plains in Kenya is explored. This explication is followed by conceptualization of the potential future of Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism systems under diverse scenarios of climate change—and alongside simultaneous effects of cross-scale social and biophysical factors, processes, and their interactions—in an integrated model. The premise of this study is that coupled socioecological systems, such as Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism, linked to and/or dependent on mountain environments and microclimates, are natural-laboratories. Apropos this last point, the two systems offer timely insight into how similar systems in different geographical locations are likely to be influenced by the continuously changing climate amidst simultaneously heightened permeation of global socioeconomic and sociopolitical change. This insight become important as climate-influenced agriculture and pastoralism and their various derivatives continues to dominant livelihood systems across Africa.

  20. Factors controlling carbon distribution on reforested minelands and regenerating clearcuts in Appalachia, USA.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Tara; Barton, Chris; Arthur, Mary; Coyne, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Increasing carbon (C) storage in soils of degraded lands, such as surface coal mines, is of interest because of its potential role in mitigating increases in atmospheric CO2. While it has been shown that reforesting degraded lands can significantly increase C storage in soils, there are limited studies addressing what processes control soil C in these systems. A study was initiated with the following objectives: 1) quantify the amount of soil C accumulating on reforested mine lands; and 2) examine several biological processes that govern the amount of C sequestered into soil (decomposition, soil respiration and microbial dynamics). A chronosequence approach was used to examine C changes with time in reforested mine lands (years 1, 3, and 8) and unmined regenerating clear-cuts (years 4, 12 and 20). From a C perspective, our results indicated that the young reforested mines (ages 1 and 3) differed significantly from the older mines (age 8) and all regenerating clear-cuts for all parameters examined. However, after 8 years litterfall, microbial biomass C and nitrogen (N), microbial activity, litter decomposition and CO2 efflux were similar on the mine as that found on the 12-year-old naturally regenerating clear-cut. Although soil organic C (SOC) content was lower on the reforested mines than the regenerating forests, rates of SOC accumulation were greater on the mine sites, likely because the young mine lands were initially devoid of SOC and conditions were suitable for rapid sequestration. PMID:23332715

  1. [Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

    2014-10-01

    As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time. PMID:25796917

  2. Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming systems in the Nyando district

    E-print Network

    Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming of Agricultural Sciences #12;2 Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya - A comparative study: agroforestry, carbon, farming systems, Kenya, manure, nitrogen, sugarcane #12;3 #12;4 Preface This Bachelor

  3. Ecosystem Services from Smallholder Forestry and Agroforestry in the Tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis Idol; Jeremy Haggar; Linda Cox

    \\u000a Smallholder forestry and agroforestry systems in the tropics provide essential products and services for millions of producers,\\u000a their surrounding communities, national and international consumers, and global society. The diversity of products provided\\u000a by these systems meet the needs of smallholder producers for fuelwood, food, animal fodder, and other household and farm needs;\\u000a they provide additional income to supplement major commodity

  4. Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

  5. Soil enzyme activities under agroforestry systems in northern Jiangsu Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuxu Wan; Ping Chen

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented the enzyme characteristics of catalase, sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase under agroforestry\\u000a systems in northern Jiangsu Province. The results show that soil enzyme activities reduce gradually from top to bottom layer\\u000a of the soil profile, and the fluctuations of catalase and urease are smaller than those of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase.\\u000a Soil enzyme activities differe significantly in

  6. Contribution of deforestation to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and reforestation as an option to control CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.; Marland, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we discuss various aspects of global climate change as related to forests: the rate of deforestation; CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from deforestation; and reforestation as a means to control atmospheric CO/sub 2/. We also include for perspective a discussion of current policy considerations related to methods for reducing deforestation or promoting reforestation. 68 refs.

  7. Adoption of agroforestry in the hills of Nepal: a logistic regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramji P. Neupane; Khem R. Sharma; Gopal B. Thapa

    2002-01-01

    Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as

  8. Economic factors in farmer adoption of agroforestry: Patterns observed in Western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara J. Scherr

    1995-01-01

    A study of agroforestry adoption by 3,000 project participants in Siaya and South Nyanza Districts in Kenya supports three hypotheses. 1.(1) Historical increases in tree domestication and management intensity are responses to declining supply of uncultivated tree resources, increased subsistence and commercial demand for tree products, and perceived risks of ecological degradation. Adoption of agroforestry is most likely where consistent

  9. Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

    2008-01-01

    Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry

  10. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract…

  11. Integer Programming (IP) formulation for minimizing sediment delivery in a watershed by reforestation of optimal sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Vanegas; Dirk Cattrysse; Jos Van Orshoven

    2009-01-01

    Several approaches exist to model the production, transport and delivery of water and sediment flows in watersheds but none of these are dealing with spatial optimality requirements. However, policy and decision makers dealing with environmental conservation and land use planning often require identifying potential sites for contributing to minimize sediment flow reaching riverbeds. This is the case of reforestation initiatives,

  12. Original article The decline of a Pinus nigra Arn. reforestation stand

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article The decline of a Pinus nigra Arn. reforestation stand on a limestone substrate / manganese / Pinus nigra subsp. nigra / chlorosis Résumé - Le dépérissement des reboisements de Pinus nigra / Pinus nigra subsp. Nigra / chlorose 1. INTRODUCTION In the first half of this century, several species

  13. Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland with contrasting

    E-print Network

    Espigares, Tíscar

    Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland, and weeds are strong competitors for resources, particularly water. We conducted a 3-year experiment of full-light versus artificial shading and weed presence versus weed mowing. We measured seedling

  14. Lowering of a shallow, saline water table by extensive eucalypt reforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, M. A.; Schofield, N. J.

    1992-05-01

    Land and stream salinisation in Western Australia has occurred as a result of the clearing of native vegetation for agricultural development. One approach to controlling the salinisation, extensive reforestation, has been tested on a site which was 35% cleared and converted to pasture in the 1950s. By 1979 saline ground water was discharging in the valley where the clearing had taken place. At that time 63 Eucalyptus and two Pinus species were planted in 0.5 ha blocks across the site, covering some 70% of the cleared land. The reforestation has been succesful in substantially lowering the saline groundwater table across the site. Over the 1980-1989 period, the average minimum groundwater levels beneath reforestation declined by 5.5 m relative to the ground level and by 7.3 m relative to a nearby pasture control site. After the first 3 years the rate of decline was near-uniform with time. The average salinity of the ground water beneath reforestation decreased by 11%.

  15. Pre and post-reforestation gully development in Mangatu Forest, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Marden; Greg Arnold; Basil Gomez; Donna Rowan

    2005-01-01

    Following clearance of the indigenous forest and conversion of the land to pasture early in the 20th century, gully erosion became a pervasive feature in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin, and was notably problematic in the 140-km2 area now covered by the Mangatu Forest. In this area, before reforestation in 1961, gully erosion affected c. 4% of the

  16. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree species (e.g., cottonwood [Populus deltoides], or sycamore [Platanus occidentalis]) in the planting stock to encourage rapid avian colonization.

  17. Carbon sequestration potential and climatic effects of reforestation in an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian; Schmidt, Hauke

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the global climatic effects of afforestation have mainly focused on the carbon sequestration potential of plausible scenarios while neglecting biogeophysical effects or were based on highly idealised afforestation scenarios. Here we assess the reduction potential for the atmospheric CO2 concentration and possible consequences for the global climate of following a strong reforestation scenario during this century taking into account both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. We perform simulations using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM), forced by anthropogenic emissions according to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but using land use transitions according to RCP 4.5. Thereby we are able to isolate the effects of land use changes in this scenario in which agricultural intensification leads to abandonment of agricultural areas and a regrowth of forest of about 8 million km2 in our model. We find that this reforestation reduces the atmospheric CO2 concentration by about 85 ppm by the end of the century as compared to RCP 8.5. This value is higher than previous estimates for plausible reforestation scenarios, mostly because the CO2 fertilisation effect on the terrestrial vegetation has not been accounted for in previous studies. Due to the lower CO2 concentration the global mean temperature increase is reduced by about 0.27 K. Regionally the simulated effect may exceed 2 K, but the largest annual mean cooling signal occurs in only sparsely populated regions. Concerning temperature extremes, however, the effect can also be large in densely populated areas, mostly caused by local biogeophysical effects of the vegetation changes. Thus, we conclude that the mitigation potential of reforestation is higher than previously thought, the need for adaptation in many regions of the world is still strong, but temperature extremes may be reduced.

  18. Approaches to Kyoto Afforestation Reforestation and Deforestation Mapping in Siberia using Object Oriented Change Detection Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hese; C. Schmullius

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mapping Kyoto protocol specific Afforestation, Reforestation and Deforestation processes with Earth observation and remote sensing is challenging,because underlying causes of changes cannot be classified in most,cases. Integrated data analysis techniques have to be developed that combine,GIS techniques with image processing. In this work the potential of an,object oriented image analysis toolbox is tested with the aim to derive,classes that

  19. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year. PMID:22182538

  20. The costs and benefits of reforestation in Liping County, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S; Yin, Y; Xu, W; Ji, Z; Caldwell, I; Ren, J

    2007-11-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is becoming a pressing issue for the global community. Afforestation and reforestation are promoted worldwide as an effective means of sequestering carbon. For its national interest and global concerns, China has made great efforts to protect its existing forests and develop programs of afforestation and reforestation. Based on two surveys recently conducted in Liping County, Guizhou province, this paper investigates the economic changes associated with the implementation of the "Grain For Green" policy. Based on the analytical framework of benefit cost analysis, this paper concludes that the implementation of the reforestation of sloping agricultural land policy would not be possible if there were no government subsidies for the peasants. The short term economic returns of land and labour from forestation are substantially lower than those generated from grain or cash crop production on the steep slope lands. The government subsidies provide great economic incentives for peasants to take part in the project. The subsidies in fact have elevated peasant income in rural Liping. The estimated potential economic returns of plantations over the long run indicate that the removal of the government financial subsidies would not create an economic crisis for the peasants if the current market conditions continue. PMID:17125905

  1. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  2. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  3. Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

  4. Reforesting the Built Environment - a Practical Feasibility Case Study in Christchurch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Mulligan; S. C. Page

    As the demand for infill housing increases in suburban areas, more land becomes sealed and impervious to water . The demand on the storm water systems increases, along with an increase in the detrimental effects of erosion and water pollution. Green roofs can assist in managing the demand on storm water systems as well as provide increased thermal insulation, improving

  5. Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry Publications on Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 2008 ­ 2011 (Contact: pknair@ufl.edu) #12;cacao

  6. Reforestation as a post-mining land use in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    With the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), some very stringent requirements for the successful establishment of trees and shrubs have come into effect. In response to these requirements, AMAX Coal Company is developing a reforestation program for seven surface mines in Indiana and Illinois using the best technology currently available. The program emphasizes obtaining good quality stock, the proper care and handling of stock, the proper planting of the stock, and an effective weed control program. The value of weed control for the establishment and growth of hardwoods has long been recognized in the forest industry, but has not been used extensively in the reforestation of surface mined lands. The improved survival of tree seedlings with the use of weed control justifies the additional cost. Weed control also enhances the growth of tree seedlings. However, the long term growth of seedlings is questionable due to the compaction resulting from the extensive grading required to achieve approximate original contour. To minimize compaction, a forest area in Illinois is being minimally graded only to the extent necessary for environmental stability. Minimal grading is designed to reduce compaction which in turn will promote the development of a more productive forest resource.

  7. Tropical Forest Ecosystem and Agroforestry Management (Forest TEAM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.

  8. Inequitable access to urban reforestation: the impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold A. Perkins; Nik Heynen; Joe Wilson

    2004-01-01

    There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are

  9. Secondary forests as temporary carbon sinks? The economic impact of accounting methods on reforestation projects in the tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Olschewski; Pablo C. Benítez

    2005-01-01

    Tropical forestry is often not competitive with agricultural land uses such as pasture for cattle ranching. Additional revenues from carbon sequestration generated by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol can change this situation. In three different zones of north-western Ecuador, minimum compensation payments for carbon sequestration were determined, which would make reforestation a feasible land-use alternative. Based

  10. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in neem-based agroforestry systems in Rajasthan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Pande; J. C Tarafdar

    2004-01-01

    A field study of traditional agroforestry systems in six districts of the arid and semiarid zones of Rajasthan was undertaken where annual rainfall varied from 140 to 1000mm and soil types ranged from coarse fine sand in Jaisalmer to clay loams in Kota. The field investigation showed that Glomus, Gigaspora and Sclerocystis were the genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi present

  12. Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),

  13. Agroforestry Programs and Issues in the Northern Marianas Anthony Paul Tudela2

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    throughout the islands making up the CNMI through the coop- eration and involvement of locally and federally is also working on integrating agriculture and forestry in its re- search and extension programs. Land Methodologies and Applications for Pacific Island Agroforestry, July 16-20, 1990, Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated

  14. Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment K for correspondence: E-mail: klaus@bgumail.bgu.ac.il) Key words: Acacia saligna, complementarity, cowpea, intercropping, resource capture, sorghum Abstract. Water is the most limiting factor for plant production

  15. AGROFORESTRY IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. An online course delivered via Sakai

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    1 FOR 6934 AGROFORESTRY IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. 3 credits Fall, 2013 An online course delivered anytime. The preferred email method is by using the Sakai mail tool on the course web site because this allows all course emails to be kept together as a record. I will try to respond within a day. Course

  16. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  17. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  18. KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

  19. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  20. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  1. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orisakwe Lambert; Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small

  2. Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil; and eventually, this leads to high levels of soil organic matter content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and macrofaunal communities in soil and litte...

  3. Contextual Analysis of Agroforestry Adoption in the Buffer Zone of Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice C. Bond

    2009-01-01

    Promoting sustainable agriculture and community development is an important strategy both to alleviate resource pressures on Ecuador's Podocarpus National Park (PNP) and surrounding forested areas in its buffer zone, and to aid local communities. However, the development and adaptation of agroforestry systems must take into account the wide array of contextual factors that influence land use. Included in this analysis

  4. Coffee Yield and Microenvironmental Factors in a Native Tree Agroforestry System in Southeast Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Santos; Luisa Rodrigues; Carlos Lima; Catalina Jaramillo-Botero

    2012-01-01

    In Minas Gerais State, Brazil, some shade coffee production systems presented extremely low yield and have become economically unsustainable for family coffee farmers. In this study, coffee yield and microenvironmental factors in the agroforestry system were associated with tree species and the number of trees at different distances from the coffee shrubs. Forty coffee shrubs were marked, and concentric circles

  5. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  6. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Souza de H. N; Goede de R. G. M; L. Brussaard; I. M. Cardoso; E. M. G. Duarte; R. B. A. Fernandes; L. C. Gomes; M. M. Pulleman

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production and biodiversity conservation can be mutually supportive in providing multiple ecosystem services to farmers and society. This study aimed to determine the contribution of agroforestry systems, as tested by family farmers in the Brazilian Rainforest region since 1993, to tree biodiversity and evaluated farmers’ criteria for tree species selection. In addition, long-term effects on microclimatic temperature conditions for

  7. Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

  8. Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

  9. REPLICATING NATURAL TREE STAND PATTERNS IN A NORTHERN MICHIGAN ROCK OUTCROP LANDSCAPE: A FRACTAL BASED METHOD AND APPLICATION FOR REFORESTING A RECLAIMED MICHIGAN SURFACE MINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade J Lehmann

    2009-01-01

    Abstract REPLICATING NATURAL TREE STAND PATTERNS IN A NORTHERN MICHIGAN ROCK OUTCROP LANDSCAPE: A FRACTAL BASED METHOD AND APPLICATION FOR REFORESTING A RECLAIMED MICHIGAN SURFACE MINE By Wade,J Lehmann ,Landscape,planners,and,designers,are interested in

  10. Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Goldenberg

    2011-10-25

    This article focuses on the role and techniques of effective ("distributed") practice that leads to full and fluent mastery of mental mathematics as well as conceptual growth around properties of arithmetic. It lists the essential mental math skills needed for fluent computation at grades 1, 2, and 3. The article describes a number of strategies for developing mental skills and links to pages with more details on others (some not yet complete). While this article refers to the Think Math! curriculum published by EDC, the methods generalize to any program. The Fact of the Day technique and a related video are cataloged separately.

  11. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

  12. The Influence of Farmers’ Mental Models on an Agroforestry Extension Program in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Baynes; John Herbohn; Iean Russell

    The influence of farmers’ mental models on the success of an agroforestry extension program on Leyte Island in the Philippines\\u000a was investigated. Knowledge of farmers’ mental models and hence the likely acceptance of technology was used to inform the\\u000a design of a hypothetically expanded program. To gain an insight into the reasons behind differing acceptance of extension\\u000a assistance, data were

  13. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  14. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  15. Ecological interactions, management lessons and design tools in tropical agroforestry systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. García-Barrios; C. K. Ong

    2004-01-01

    During the 1980s, land- and labor-intensive simultaneous agroforestry systems (SAFS) were promoted in the tropics, based on\\u000a the optimism on tree-crop niche differentiation and its potential for designing tree-crop mixtures using high tree-densities.\\u000a In the 1990s it became clearer that although trees would yield crucial products and facilitate simultaneous growing of crops,\\u000a they would also exert strong competitive effects on

  16. Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

  17. Reforestation with native mixed-species plantings in a temperate continental climate effectively sequesters and stabilizes carbon within decades.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Shaun C; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Mac Nally, Ralph; Paul, Keryn I; Baker, Patrick J; Beringer, Jason; Thomson, James R; Thompson, Ross M

    2015-04-01

    Reforestation has large potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. Native mixed-species plantings have a higher potential to reverse biodiversity loss than do plantations of production species, but there are few data on their capacity to store carbon. A chronosequence (5-45 years) of 36 native mixed-species plantings, paired with adjacent pastures, was measured to investigate changes to stocks among C pools following reforestation of agricultural land in the medium rainfall zone (400-800 mm yr(-1)) of temperate Australia. These mixed-species plantings accumulated 3.09 ± 0.85 t C ha(-1) yr(-1) in aboveground biomass and 0.18 ± 0.05 t C ha(-1) yr(-1) in plant litter, reaching amounts comparable to those measured in remnant woodlands by 20 years and 36 years after reforestation respectively. Soil C was slower to increase, with increases seen only after 45 years, at which time stocks had not reached the amounts found in remnant woodlands. The amount of trees (tree density and basal area) was positively associated with the accumulation of carbon in aboveground biomass and litter. In contrast, changes to soil C were most strongly related to the productivity of the location (a forest productivity index and soil N content in the adjacent pasture). At 30 years, native mixed-species plantings had increased the stability of soil C stocks, with higher amounts of recalcitrant C and higher C:N ratios than their adjacent pastures. Reforestation with native mixed-species plantings did not significantly change the availability of macronutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S) or micronutrients (Fe, B, Mn, Zn, and Cu), content of plant toxins (Al, Si), acidity, or salinity (Na, electrical conductivity) in the soil. In this medium rainfall area, native mixed-species plantings provided comparable rates of C sequestration to local production species, with the probable additional benefit of providing better quality habitat for native biota. These results demonstrate that reforestation using native mixed-species plantings is an effective alternative for carbon sequestration to standard monocultures of production species in medium rainfall areas of temperate continental climates, where they can effectively store C, convert C into stable pools and provide greater benefits for biodiversity. PMID:25230693

  18. The impact of agroforestry combined with water harvesting on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in central Chile evaluated using the ICBM\\/N model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvaldo Salazar; Manuel Casanova; Thomas Kätterer

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N) stocks in an agroforestry system with water harvesting were analysed in a field experiment and the results compared with those of other crop management systems in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile. Agroforestry with water harvesting showed higher positive effects on N stocks, mainly in the upper soil layer, than the other

  19. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    PubMed

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree-based intercropping site, higher wheat biomass, grain yield and number of grains per spike were observed in agroforestry than in conventional agricultural system soils, but in the drought treatment only. Drought (windbreak site) and flooding (both sites) treatments significantly reduced wheat yield and 1000-grain weight in both types of system. Relationships between soil biochemical properties and soil microbial resilience or wheat productivity were strongly dependent on site. This study suggests that agroforestry systems may have a positive effect on soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience, which could operate positively on crop productivity and tolerance to severe water stress. PMID:23792247

  20. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and aggregates with carbonate, clay, ferrous and/or manganese oxides) indicates a low potential reserve of plant nutrients. The clay mineralogy, with the presence of 2:1 minerals, explains the high CEC (60.95 cmolc dm-3). Moderately alkaline pH is above the desirable range. P (282 mg kg-1) is high, while N (0.3 g kg-1) is low. ESP < 4% classifies the waste as non-sodium and the EC (60.95 cmolc dm-3) reflects mainly the Ca. The low values of soil organic matter (3,56 g kg-1) indicate the relevance of using organic amendments for the reconstruction of the soil for plant growth. Based on these data a forestation experiment (randomized block design) was done on a large waste heap preserved for scientific research, where 500 tree seedling were planted (9 different species) in a plot of 134 m x 60 m in size.Two substrates treatments were used: block with 1.4 kg organic matter per plant hole and blocks without organic matter. The preliminary statistical data show good responses to the treatments. This constitutes a way to transform gypsum mining wastes into soil. Application of these technologies for environmental rehabilitation can be used in other problems.

  1. Satellite Data-Based Phenological Evaluation of the Nationwide Reforestation of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Gim, Hyeon-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950–53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982–2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r?=?0.54) and spatially (r?=?0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade?1, perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development. PMID:23520541

  2. Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Everett, R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Wenatchee, WA (United States). Forestry Science Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

  3. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  4. POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

  5. Calibration of a water content reflectometer and soil water dynamics for an agroforestry practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjith P. UdawattaStephen; Stephen H. Anderson; Peter P. Motavalli; Harold E. Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Water content reflectometers allow temporal and continuous assessment of spatial differences in soil water dynamics. We hypothesized\\u000a that volumetric soil water content estimated by the water content reflectometers (CS616 Campbell Sci. Inc., Logan, UT) is\\u000a influenced by clay content and temperature and therefore site- and or soil-specific equations are required for accurate estimations\\u000a of soil water. Objectives of the study

  6. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional research is required to incorporate principal component analysis for improving the SQI and site potential assessment. It is also important to evaluate the minimum data set (MDS) required for SQI and productivity assessment in agroforestry systems. PMID:25863315

  7. Mineral control of soil carbon storage with reforestation of abandoned pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Swanston, C. W.; Torn, M. S.; Burton, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    We applied CP MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy and radiocarbon modeling to soil C density fractions to track changes in the quality and turnover of C with forest regrowth on former pasturelands. Our results showed that inter-aggregate, unattached particulate organic C (free light fraction) and C located inside soil aggregates (occluded light fraction) represent distinct soil C pools. The signal intensity of the O-alkyl region, representing cellulose, decreased with mineral-association, while alkyl C, attributed to waxy compounds and microbially resynthesized lipids, increased from the free to the occluded light fractions. The alkyl/O-alkyl ratio changed consistently with changes in C-to-N and ?15N across different land cover types, and thus appears to be a reliable index of humification. In contrast to cellulose, proteins, lipids and lignin did not show any consistent trends, suggesting different controls on their decomposition. Greater variability in the chemical makeup of the occluded light fraction suggests that it represents material in different stages of decay. Mean residence times (MRT) of the free light C were significantly shorter (4.3 ± 0.5 yrs) than for the occluded fraction (7.3 ± 0.8 yrs). The occluded fraction in active pastures and secondary forests in the earliest stage of succession had shorter MRT than in primary forests and older secondary forests, which would be explained by lower aggregate stability and faster cycling rates in disturbed versus undisturbed soils. The mineral associated C in the disturbed soils had slower cycling C (MRT = 98.9 ± 10.6 yrs) than the undisturbed sites (65.8 ± 2.1 yrs), most likely due to a preferential loss of labile C in the first. Incorporation of C into soil aggregates afforded some protection from decomposition, but the main mechanism of stabilization was direct mineral association. As the sorptive capacity of a soil is dependent on its mineral composition, it appears that the Oxisols at our sites have reached their maximum C storage capacity. This may explain their resiliency to land-use change and why we have observed no significant accumulation of soil C despite large increases in aboveground biomass with reforestation.

  8. Effect of tree species and crown pruning on root length and soil water content in semi-arid agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jones; F. L. Sinclair; V. L. Grime

    1998-01-01

    Soil cores were taken to estimate root length prior to transplanting and after 60 days growth of a dry season sorghum crop in an agroforestry experiment in a semi-arid region of north-east Nigeria. The experiment compared sorghum grown alone and with two tree species (Acacia nilotica subsp adstringens and Prosopis juliflora) and one management treatment (pruning of tree crowns). Data

  9. Soil enzyme activities and physical properties in a watershed managed under agroforestry and row-crop systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjith P. Udawatta; Robert J. Kremer; Harold E. Garrett; Stephen H. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The proportion of water-stable aggregates (WSA) and a diverse microbial activity influence soil quality, crop growth, nutrient retention, water infiltration, and surface runoff. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that permanent vegetative buffers increase WSA and contribute to increased soil enzyme activity. Soil samples (5cm diameter and 10cm long) from agroforestry (AG), grass buffer (GB), grass

  10. Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics G. Schroth1, *, J. Lehmann2

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics G. Schroth1, *, J. Lehmann Project, National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil; 2 College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 909

  11. Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R. [Univ. of Agricultural Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Farm Forestry

    1992-12-31

    Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

  13. Effects of a deep container on morpho-functional characteristics and root colonization in Quercus suber L. seedlings for reforestation in Mediterranean climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Chirino; A. Vilagrosa; E. I. Hernández; A. Matos; V. R. Vallejo

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, reforestation and afforestation programs are being carried out mainly with containerized seedlings. Container design determines the morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings. However, container characteristics are often the same for plant species with very different growth strategies. The most commonly used nursery containers are relatively shallow and limit tap root growth; consequently, species relying on the

  14. Tree Roots in Agroforestry: Evaluating Biomass and Distribution with Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, Kira Alia

    The root systems of five tree species (Populus deltoides x nigra clone DN-177, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Picea abies, and Thuja occidentalis) are described following non-intrusive imaging using ground penetrating radar (GPR). This research aimed to 1) assess the utility of GPR for in situ root studies and 2) employ GPR to estimate tree root biomass and distribution in an agroforestry system in southern Ontario, Canada. The mean coarse root biomass estimated from GPR analysis was 54.1 +/- 8.7 kg tree-1 (+/- S.E.; n=12), within 1 % of the mean coarse root biomass measured from matched excavations. The vertical distribution of detected roots varied among species, with T. occidentalis and P. abies roots concentrated in the top 20 cm and J. nigra and Q. rubra roots distinctly deeper. I evaluate these root systems based on their C storage potential and complementary root stratification with adjacent crops.

  15. Extrapolating soil redistribution rates estimated from 137Cs to catchment scale in a complex agroforestry landscape using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Leticia; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The use of fallout radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, in soil erosion investigations has been successfully used over a range of different landscapes. This technique provides mean annual values of spatially distributed soil erosion and deposition rates for the last 40-50 years. However, upscaling the data provided by fallout radionuclides to catchment level is required to understand soil redistribution processes, to support catchment management strategies, and to assess the main soil erosion factors like vegetation cover or topography. In recent years, extrapolating field scale soil erosion rates estimated from 137Cs data to catchment scale has been addressed using geostatistical interpolation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This study aims to assess soil redistribution in an agroforestry catchment characterized by abrupt topography and an intricate mosaic of land uses using 137Cs data and GIS. A new methodological approach using GIS is presented as an alternative of interpolation tools to extrapolating soil redistribution rates in complex landscapes. This approach divides the catchment into Homogeneous Physiographic Units (HPUs) based on unique land use, hydrological network and slope value. A total of 54 HPUs presenting specific land use, strahler order and slope combinations, were identified within the study area (2.5 km2) located in the north of Spain. Using 58 soil erosion and deposition rates estimated from 137Cs data, we were able to characterize the predominant redistribution processes in 16 HPUs, which represent the 78% of the study area surface. Erosion processes predominated in 6 HPUs (23%) which correspond with cultivated units in which slope and strahler order is moderate or high, and with scrubland units with high slope. Deposition was predominant in 3 HPUs (6%), mainly in riparian areas, and to a lesser extent in forest and scrubland units with low slope and low and moderate strahler order. Redistribution processes, both erosion and deposition processes, were recorded in 7 HPUs (49%). The units of forest with high slope but low strahler order showed low redistribution rates because the soil surface was well protected by vegetation, while cultivated units with moderate slope and low strahler order showed high erosion and deposition rates due to the tillage practices. This new approach provides the basis for extrapolating field-scale soil redistribution rates at catchment scale in complex landscapes. Additional 137Cs data in strategic locations would improve the results with a better characterization of some of the HPU's.

  16. Decomposition and nutrient release from pruning residues of two indigenous agroforestry species during the wet and dry seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tesfay Teklay

    2007-01-01

    The decomposition of leaves from Cordia africana Lam. and Albizia gummifera G. F.Gmel was investigated during the wet and dry seasons at Wondo Genet (Ethiopia). Litterbags of leaves were buried in\\u000a soils under farmland and shaded-coffee agroforestry systems. Residual matter was recovered after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks and\\u000a analysed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), cellulose, lignin, soluble

  17. The Australian Master TreeGrower Program 1996-2004. Development, delivery and impact of a national agroforestry education program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rowan Reid

    The Australian Master TreeGrower Porgram is a comprehensive outreach and extension package that aims to ensure that the development of agroforestry is driven by the aspirations and opportunities of farmers and supported by the interests of industry, governments and community groups. By the end of 2004, sixty-three regional Master TreeGrower landholder education programs had been conducted involving over 1240 participants

  18. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in soils of smallholder agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems in southwestern Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diriba Muleta; Fassil Assefa; Sileshi Nemomissa; Ulf Granhall

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are associated with the root system of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants, but their distribution in smallholder agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems is not well known. This study\\u000a investigates the spatial distribution of AMF spores in a field study in southwestern Ethiopia. Soil samples from different\\u000a depths (0–50 cm) were collected under the tree canopies of Acacia

  19. Effects of check dams, reforestation and land-use changes on river channel morphology: Case study of the Rogativa catchment (Murcia, Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Boix-Fayos; G. G. Barberá; F. López-Bermúdez; V. M. Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Catchment-scale land-use changes and erosion-control works have geomorphic consequences as can be seen in the morphological evolution of river channels. An analysis of the consequences of check dams and reforestation works that took place in the 1970s on the channel morphology in the Rogativa catchment (53 km2) in SE Spain is conducted. A land-use change detection analysis of the catchment between

  20. Responses of native legume desert trees used for reforestation in the Sonoran Desert to plant growth-promoting microorganisms in screen house

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Bashan; Bernardo Salazar; Ma. Esther Puente

    2009-01-01

    Three slow-growing legume trees used for desert reforestation and urban gardening in the Sonoran Desert of Northwestern Mexico\\u000a and the Southwestern USA were evaluated whether their growth can be promoted by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria\\u000a (Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), unidentified arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (mainly Glomus sp.), and supplementation with common compost under regular screenhouse cultivation common to

  1. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  2. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

  3. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment. PMID:25004755

  4. The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, Joăo do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2009-07-01

    Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

  5. Depletion of Stem Water of Sclerocarya birrea Agroforestry Tree Precedes Start of Rainy Season in West African Sudanian Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding water use by agroforestry trees in dry-land ecosystems is essential for improving water management. Agroforestry trees are valued and promoted for many of their ecologic and economic benefits but are often criticized as competing for valuable water resources. In order to understand the seasonal patterns of source water used by agroforestry trees, samples from rain, ground, and surface water were collected weekly in the subcatchment of the Singou watershed that is part of the Volta Basin. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from and under a Sclerocarya birrea agroforstry trees located in this catchment in sealed vials, extracted, and analyzed with a Picarro L2130-i CRDS to obtain both ?O18 and ?DH fractions. Meteorological measurements were taken with a network of wireless, autonomous stations that communicate through the GSM network (Sensorscope) and two complete eddy-covariance energy balance stations, in addition to intense monitoring of sub-canopy solar radiation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil moisture. Examination of the time series of ?O18 concentrations confirm that values in soil and xylem water are coupled, both becoming enriched during the dry season and depleted during the rainy season. Xylem water ?O18 levels drops to groundwater ?O18 levels in early March when trees access groundwater for leafing out, however soil water does not reach this level until soil moisture increases in mid-June. The relationship between the ?DH and ?O18 concentrations of water extracted from soil and tree samples do not fall along the global meteoric water line. In order to explore whether this was a seasonally driven, we grouped samples into an "evaporated" group or a "meteoric" group based on the smaller residual to the respective lines. Although more soil samples were found along the m-line during the rainy season than tree samples or dry season soil samples, there was no significant difference in days since rain for any group This suggests that xylem water is always under stress from evapotranspiration and soil water underwent evaporation soon after a rain event. Visual observation of tree confirms conclusion that trees access deep ground water in March and April, before rain begins and before soil is connected to groundwater. Results from the research are being integrated into a local outreach project to improve use of agroforestry.

  6. Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

  7. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  8. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-01

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

  9. Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

  10. Changes in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Long Lerm Improved Natural and Traditional Agroforestry Management Systems of Cacao Genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  11. REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

  12. Effects of Syn-pandemic Fire Reduction and Reforestation in the Tropical Americas on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During European Conquest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    A new reconstruction of the Late Holocene biomass burning history of the tropical Americas is consistent with expanding fire use by Mesoamerican and Amazonian agriculturalists from 2000-500 BP and a subsequent period of fire reduction due to indigenous demographic collapse. Our reconstruction synthesizes published data from 50 charcoal accumulation records obtained from stratified lacustrine sediments and from soils, including soil charcoal records recovered from archeological sites. Synthesis of stratigraphic charcoal records yields indexes of the mean rate of regional charcoal accumulation and of variability in charcoal accumulation among sites during 500-year increments since 3500 BP. The age distribution of dated soil charcoal particles from non-archeological sites provides an independent measure of variation in regional charcoal accumulation; whereas age distribution of soil charcoal dates from archeological sites records variation in charcoal accumulation related to anthropogenic biomass burning. We observe that the charcoal accumulation indexes derived from stratigraphic records begin to increase at 2000 BP, remain high until 500 BP, and then decline to near-minimum values during the 500-year period subsequent to European contact. Similarly, the age distributions of soil charcoal dated from both non-archeological and archeological sites indicate increases in charcoal accumulation from 2000 to 500 BP followed by decline. An index of the inter- site variability in charcoal accumulation obtained from the stratigraphic records attains a maximum during the time period between 1000 and 500 BP and a near-minimum value afterward. We interpret the covariation between measures of charcoal accumulation derived from archeological and non-archeological sites as a consequence of the expansive influence of anthropogenic activity on the regional fire regime. Increases in regional charcoal accumulation apparent in both the stratigraphic and soil charcoal records beginning at 2000 BP correlate with expanding indigenous population, agriculture, and fire use in the tropical Americas. The rise in inter-site variability in charcoal accumulation after 2000 BP is consistent with a demographic shift toward sedentary agrarian communities and localized increases in charcoal accumulation in densely populated centers. Declines in regional charcoal accumulation and inter-site variability after 500 BP suggest a correlative cause related to reduction in anthropogenic biomass burning resulting from pandemic-driven population collapse. Published reconstructions of Pre-Columbian demography indicate that during European conquest, pandemics killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~60 million), estimated to represent ~20% of the 16th century global population. Our predictive calculations suggest that fire reduction in the tropical Americas is associated with massive forest regeneration on ~5 x 105 km2 of land and sequestration of 5-10 Gt C into the terrestrial biosphere, which can account for 13- 50% of the ~2% global reduction in atmospheric CO2 levels and the 0.1‰ increase in ?13C of atmospheric CO2 from 1500 to 1700 CE recorded in Antarctic ice cores and tropical sponges. New archeological discoveries revealing extensive networks of geoglyphs and urban polities in Pre-Columbian Amazonia suggest that our estimates of reforestation, and consequent effects on atmospheric CO2, may be conservative.

  13. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929

  14. Phosphorus monthly losses at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sande-Fouz, Patricia; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus levels in runoff waters help to estimate the possible contamination associated with them and to know the existence of eutrophication conditions. The amounts of P transported from catchments depended on the hydrology, on soil P contents, and on the amount of P added as fertilizer and manure. The aim of this study was to monthly losses of total P (TP), sedimentary P (TSP), and dissolved P (TDP) at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate. This research was conducted at Valińas River catchment in Coruńa (NW Spain), a periurban area of 36.3 km2. Land use is as follows: 35% arable land, 20% grassland or pastures and 45% forest. This study reported data from January 1999 to September 2006. The total sample number was 872, varying from 53 in 1999 and 193 in 2003. Sampling time variability was related to rainfall distribution. The different P forms, TP and TDP, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The TSP was calculated from the difference between TP and TDP. To calculate the mass balance of these P forms, discharge data at the catchment outlet were estimated. Suspended solids were assessed by filtration. Relations between the three P forms and suspended solids were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concentrations of the three studied P forms varied widely during the whole study period. Total P yearly losses ranged from 0.350 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 to 1.199 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. From January to September 2006 they were 0.259 kg ha-1 month-1. TSP losses varied between 0.201 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 and 0.7315 kg ha-1 month-1 in 1999. Finally, TDP losses oscillated between 0.140 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2005 and 0.508 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. The main causes for these variations were rainfall and flow regimes, soil management, and wastewater discharges. Considering the different seasons, flow regime was low from July to September during the studied years, whereas the highest flows were registered in the period from January to March or from October to December, depending on the year. This fact is coincident with the highest rainfall records. Consequently, TP losses were higher during January to March and October to December than during the rest of the year. The period from July to September presented the lowest losses. TSP levels were always greater than those of TDP except in the period from July to September. Significant correlations between suspended solids and TP and TSP were observed throughout the whole study period. This fact indicates the erosive origin of the P exported to this catchment. A significant correlation between TDP and suspended solids was observed only in 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2005. These correlations would indicate that TDP concentrations in this catchment have different origins, not only erosion but wastewater discharges and manure applications. Rainfall was significantly correlated to TP and TSP along the studied period, whereas rainfall and TDP were significantly correlated only in some years, as the relation between flow and the different phosphorus forms. These results may indicate the influence on the season on the phosphorus concentrations although, due to the characteristics of the studied catchment, several origins are possible. For instance, runoff and erosion would increase TSP losses and manure application may increase TDP.

  15. Process studies in a Pinus radiata -pasture agroforestry system in a subhumid temperature environment. I. Water use and light interception in the third year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. M. Yunusa; D. J. Mead; K. M. Pollock; R. J. Lucas

    1995-01-01

    In this study we determined soil moisture storage, evapotranspiration (ET) and light interception in an agroforestry trial consisting of pine trees grown over (1) control (bare ground), (2) ryegrass\\/clovers (Lolium perene\\/Trifolium spp.), (3) lucerne (Medicago sativa), and (4) ryegrass only during the third growing season between 1992 and 1993. The results show that:1. \\u000aIn the period when rainfall was frequent

  16. Climate change and tree genetic resource management: maintaining and enhancing the productivity and value of smallholder tropical agroforestry landscapes. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian K. Dawson; Barbara Vinceti; John C. Weber; Henry Neufeldt; Joanne Russell; Ard G. Lengkeek; Antoine Kalinganire; Roeland Kindt; Jens-Peter B. Lillesř; Jim Roshetko; Ramni Jamnadass

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems\\u000a upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the\\u000a current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder\\u000a setting. Required measures to respond to

  17. Agroforestry in the Western Ghats of peninsular India and the satoyama landscapes of Japan: a comparison of two sustainable land use systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mohan Kumar; K. Takeuchi

    2009-01-01

    Agroforestry in the Western Ghats (WG) of peninsular India and satoyama in rural Japan are traditional land-use systems with\\u000a similar evolutionary trajectories. Some of their relevance was lost by the middle of the twentieth century, when modern agricultural\\u000a technologies and urbanisation engineered shifts in emphasis towards maximising crop production. There has been, however, a\\u000a resurgence of interest in traditional land-use

  18. Relationships of stable carbon isotopes, plant water potential and growth: an approach to asses water use efficiency and growth strategies of dry land agroforestry species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aster Gebrekirstos; Meine van Noordwijk; Henry Neufeldt; Ralph Mitlöhner

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between annual wood stable carbon isotope composition (?13C), dry season midday plant water potential, and annual growth rate were investigated to asses the ability of agroforestry\\u000a species to adapt to climate changes. 6–8 stem disks from four co-occurring species (Acacia senegal, A. seyal, A. tortilis and Balanites aegyptiaca) were collected for radial growth measurements using tree-ring analysis spanning

  19. Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration. Methods Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models. Results and discussion The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g. Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees, loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge. Conclusions Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses. For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in agroforestry. These native species should be ecologically sound and selected on their potential to provide subsistence and promising commercial uses. In addition to offering socio-economic and environmental services, agroforestry initiatives using native trees and shrubs can play a crucial role in recovering elements of the lost ancient landscape that still forms part of local people’s collective identity. PMID:24359597

  20. FOREST MANAGEMENT AND AGROFORESTRY TO SEQUESTER AND CONSERVE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...

  1. The impact of reforestation on discharge and sediment fluxes in drylands: long-term evidences from the Western Rift Valley Escarpment (Northern Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaha, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Deforestation and land degradation have been common problems in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, including for the Western Rift Valley Escarpment. In particular, the rapid deforestation of the steep catchments (average slope gradient of 44% ± 10%) in the second half of 20th century, together with rainfall variability and over-cultivation, resulted in the development of dense gully and scar networks. Subsequently, huge amounts sediment were taken to the densely populated graben bottoms. In response, extensive reforestation interventions were carried out as of the 1980s, resulting in improvements of vegetation cover in many catchments. This study analyses the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover and rainfall variability and their impact on discharge and sediment transport in escarpment catchments. Degree of rehabilitation was examined in 20 adjacent catchments by correlating the density of scar networks incised down to the bed rock with Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and slope gradient. Based on these results, 11 contrasting catchments were selected for detailed investigation. To study the current spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and its relation with daily peak discharge, 7 rain gauges were installed at different locations and altitudes. Trendlines of decadal rainfall variability since 1996 will be established based on the analysis of NOAA's rainfall estimates, and long-term rainfall variability will be explored by correlating the field data to long-term rainfall measurements in nearby synoptic stations. The changes in land use and cover will be detected from aerial photos of the 1935, 1965 and 1986. Peak discharges were monitored using 11 crest stage gauges. Fixed boulders were painted in stream reaches to quantify the transport of bedload. This was done by photographing the stream reaches and by measuring the displacement of painted boulders after flood events. In a multiple regression analysis, scar density was negatively related with NDVI and positively with average gradient of very steep slopes (r2 = 0.53; p<0.01, n= 20). Data for the rainy season of 2012 showed no relationship between rainfall distribution and altitude. Average daily peak discharge in the 11 rivers was positively related with daily rainfall depth as well as with catchment size and negatively with NDVI (r2 = 0.83; p<0.01, n=11). Further analysis of the data will allow better understanding of past degradation phases and the impact of land use/cover changes and rainfall variability on the rehabilitation of mountain streams. Keywords: peak discharge; crest stage gauge; boulders; bed load; reforestation.

  2. [Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

    2007-01-01

    Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes. PMID:19086397

  3. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved. PMID:21360994

  4. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (high Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2015-06-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (high Agri Valley - Basilicata region) that occurred over 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European onshore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the forest/non-forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, and expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  5. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2014-08-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  6. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  7. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  8. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  9. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

  10. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  11. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  12. Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

    2014-12-01

    This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface and subsurface soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed, natural broadleaved forest; (ii) a 25-year-old, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to mainly reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broadleaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 mm year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

  13. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative. PMID:16295915

  14. Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

    Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

  15. Soil infiltration characteristics in agroforestry systems and their relationships with the temporal distribution of rainfall on the loess plateau in china.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  16. The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

  17. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21359868

  18. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21751010

  19. Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

  20. Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

    2001-01-01

    The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

  1. COUNSELING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WATERLOO, GLENN E.

    THE NEED FOR COUNSELING IS EMPHASIZED BY THE FACT THAT 875,000 CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL IMPEDIMENTS TO LEARNING. TYPICAL COUNSELING PRACTICES ARE PROBLEM-CENTERED COUNSELING, EXCLUSIVELY "VOCATIONAL" OR "EDUCATIONAL" COUNSELING WITH LITTLE CONCERN FOR THE WHOLE INDIVIDUAL, EXTREME DIRECTIVE OR NONDIRECTIVE COUNSELING,…

  2. Practice guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. A. Hayward; Mark C. Wilson; Sean R. Tunis; Gordon H. Guyatt; Karen-Ann Moore; Eric B. Bass

    1996-01-01

    To determine features of the presentation of clinical practice guidelines that may enhance their use by internists, we conducted\\u000a a cross-sectional survey to which 1,513 (60%) of 2,513 eligible internists responded. Endorsements by respected colleagues\\u000a and by major organizations were identified as very important by 72% and 69% of respondents, respectively. Respondents preferred\\u000a short pamphlets and manuals summarizing a number

  3. Long-term impact of a gliricidia-maize intercropping system on carbon sequestration in southern Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilkson Makumba; Festus K. Akinnifesi; Bert Janssen; Oene Oenema

    2007-01-01

    Tree\\/crop systems under agroforestry practice are capable of sequestering carbon (C) in the standing biomass and soil. Although studies have been conducted to understand soil organic C increases in some agroforestry technologies, little is known about C sequestered in simultaneous tree\\/crop intercropping systems. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of agroforestry practice on C sequestration

  4. 36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest Stand Improvement...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

  5. 36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest Stand Improvement...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

  6. 36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest Stand Improvement...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

  7. REFORESTATION TECHNIQUES IN COGONGRASS-INFESTED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cogongrass is a nonnative grass that is rapidly invading the gulf coast states, with projected spread into the interior of the Southeastern U.S. Cogongrass is particularly damaging to forested land as it decreases biodiversity and wildlife habitat, hinders plantation establishment, creates a wildfi...

  8. Reforestation efforts reshape Hawaii's soil hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    Starting with the arrival in Hawaii of Polynesian settlers in the fourth century and peaking in the mid-1800s, the destructive forces of wildfires and pests and the grazing of feral pigs, goats, and cattle reduced the native forests of Maui to just one tenth of their original extent. Maui's native vegetation was replaced largely by imported or invasive species. Over time, the invasive grasses that took root reshaped the hydrological properties of the soil, reducing the viability of native plant species, which had evolved to thrive under Hawaii's previous hydrological dynamics. Maui's ecosystem had been changed for so long that scientists were uncertain whether the region could actually again support the native flora

  9. Practical Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-17

    The Nuffield Foundation was created in 1943 by William Morris, the founder of Morris Motors. He wanted to contribute to improvements in society, primarily the "advancement of social well-being." According to the site, he "emphasised the importance of education, training and research in achieving that goal." This website, created by the Foundation, is a logical extension of his work, containing practical activities designed for use in the classroom with students in high school and college. The activities here are arranged into a dozen topics, including Astronomy, Atoms and nuclei, and Physics applications. The activities here include "Hearing a laser beam," "What's the frequency?," and 75 others that use video clips, interactive graphics, and other visual materials to make these concepts and principles come alive. The Forces and Motion area is one of the best, as it is host to activities that really delve into the concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration. Visitors can also use the search engine to look for specific items of interest.

  10. Comparisons of solo practices and group practices.

    PubMed

    Graham, J W

    1979-04-01

    This report of The Manpower Survey of Oral Surgery in 1974 showed that the type of practice, namely solo practice or group practice, had many effects on the characteristics of the practice of oral surgery. It affected significantly the number of offices an oral surgeon had. More oral surgeons in solo practice tended to have a single office than those in group practice. Oral surgeons over 35 years of age and in group practice tended, in general, to have a higher income than those in solo practice. There was a slight tendency for group practices to increase with the size of trade area served. Oral surgeons in group practices reported that they employed more full-time equivalent staff, but there were proportionately fewer full-time equivalent staff members per oral surgeon. Group practices tended to be located in metropolitan areas. Oral surgeons in group practice seemed to perform a larger number of surgical procedures than those in solo practice. They also seemed to spend more time in travel between home and place of work. More oral surgeons under 40 years of age in solo practice indicated that they planned to add an associate or partner in the next five years than those over 40 years of age or those in group practice. PMID:285253

  11. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oblé Neya

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

  12. Frankia-actinorhizal plant symbiosis Actinorhizal plants form root nodules in symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    and agroforestry for reforestation and reclamation of poor soils, but also for commercial use as nurse trees information on the occurrence and diversity of Frankia populations in soil is scarce. Questions on the ecology on the diversity of frankiae in different soils. Diversity was analyzed in plant bioassays with subsequent

  13. Theory into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of putting theory into practice can be addressed and advocated to educators and gifted students through the presentation of a Continuum of Practice. Articulating the sequence and phases of practice can underscore how practice can take place; it also can change the perspective and meaning of practice.

  14. CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    REPORT TOWARDS CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE Use of patient records from general practice of General Practice, University of Glasgow Nicola Perrin, Senior Policy Adviser, Wellcome Trust Citing Practice: Use of patient records from general practice for research. London: Wellcome Trust; 2009. www

  15. PUTTING PARTICIPATORY DOMESTICATION INTO PRACTICE IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. TCHOUNDJEU; E. K. ASAAH; P. ANEGBEH; A. DEGRANDE; P. MBILE; C. FACHEUX; A. TSOBENG; A. R. ATANGANA; M. L. NGO-MPECK; A. J. SIMONS

    2006-01-01

    The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working in the African Humid Tropics (AHT) since 1987. Despite its natural wealth, small-scale farmers of AHT are among the poorest people in the world and have relied on extractive harvesting of forest products and traditional shifting cultivation for their food and other needs. After years of severe deforestation, alternatives now have to

  16. The advanced practice nurse in collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Nugent, K E; Lambert, V A

    1996-01-01

    Establishing interdisciplinary collaborative practice models is vital to the success of health care reform. Paramount in this assumption is the need to change the roles and relationships between nurses and physicians. To facilitate this change, the authors have prepared a model of collaborative practice based on the concepts of common purpose, professional contributions of practitioners, collegiality, communication, and client-focused practice. PMID:8788631

  17. Windows : patterns & practices,

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    #12; Windows Azure, 2- : patterns & practices, Windows Azure. ( , , ..) Microsoft ­ Windows Azure. aExpense, ASP.NET . -, , , , -, , , . : \\ : Windows Azure : 2012 patterns & practices : patterns & practices #12;1 Copyright © 2012 by Microsoft

  18. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  19. Impact of land use practices on faunal abundance, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of desert pedoecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

    2005-11-01

    Increased dependence of resource-poor rural communities on soils of low inherent fertility are the major problem of desert agroecosystem. Agrisilviculture practices may help to conserve the soil biota for maintaining essential soil properties and processes in harsh climate. Therefore, the impacts of different land use systems on faunal density, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of soil were studied in agrisilviculture system of Indian desert. The selected fields had trees (Zizyphus mauritiana, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica) and crops (Cuminum cyminum, Brassica nigra, Triticum aestivum) in different combinations. Populations of Acari, Myriapoda, Coleoptera, Collembola, other soil arthropods and total soil fauna showed significant changes with respect to different land use practices and tree species, indicating a strong relation between above and below ground biodiversity. The Coleoptera exhibited greatest association with all agrisilviculture fields. The Z. mauritiana system indicated highest facilitative effects (RTE value) on all groups of soil fauna. Soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were greater under tree than that of tree plus cropping system. It showed accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen in tree field and more utilization by crops in cultivated lands. Positive and significant correlation among organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity clearly reflects increase in soil nutrients with the increase in microbial and other biotic activity. P. cineraria field was the best pedoecosystem, while C. cyminum was the best winter crop for cultivation in desert agroforestry system for soil biological health and soil sustainability. The increase in organic carbon, soil nutrients and microbial activity is associated with the increase in soil faunal population which reflect role of soil fauna in fertility building. This suggests that strategies may be developed for nurturing fertility-building soil fauna and managing degraded pedoecosystem in desert just by adopting suitable agricultural practices. PMID:16335596

  20. Windows Azure patterns & practices

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    Windows Azure patterns & practices : patterns & practices, Windows Azure. , , Windows Azure, , , , : , , .. , , , . , (), , , . : \\ : Windows Azure, Windows Azure SQL Database, SQL Server, Windows Identity Foundation, Windows Azure Service

  1. Orientations to reflective practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bud Wellington; Patricia Austin

    1996-01-01

    Researchers, teacher educators and practitioners involved with reflective practice tend to think and write about those things they perceive as practical. This paper delineates and details five orientations to reflective practice: the immediate, the technical, the deliberative, the dialectic and the transpersonal. Each orientation represents a notion of the practical derived not only from specific social science paradigms, but also

  2. CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    BRIEFING TOWARDS CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE Use of patient records from general practice Use of patient records from general practice for research Introduction Research is a core part in patient records. Patient records in general practice surgeries, which cover almost the entire population

  3. Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Peńuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2014-10-01

    We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. PMID:25065287

  4. Representing Practice: Practice Models, Patterns, Bundles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, Isobel; Finlay, Janet; Fincher, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This article critiques learning design as a representation for sharing and developing practice, based on synthesis of three projects. Starting with the findings of the Mod4L Models of Practice project, it argues that the technical origins of learning design, and the consequent focus on structure and sequence, limit its usefulness for sharing…

  5. Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

  6. Best Practice BestPracticeForum

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    the significance of the change, such as effects on children, changing roles of husbands and wives, increasinglyBest Practice BestPracticeForum Forum Center for Educational Resources c e r Innovative Instructor excellence at Johns Hopkins About the CER The Center for Educational Resources partners with faculty

  7. Practical Tips for Increasing Listening Practice Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Learning a language--like learning to dance ballet, weaving carpets, or playing the saxophone--takes time and practice. In general, it is safe to say that the more practice one gets, the better one will become. This article will help teachers of English reconsider how to think about listening tasks. It will provide guidance for increasing…

  8. Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

  9. A farm-scale framework for assessing vineyard soil fertility and restoration practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Leclercq, Léa

    2015-04-01

    The design of sustainable vineyard management is needed at varied scales and particularly at farm-scale. More and more winegrowers wish to adopt environmental-friendly practices while better controlling harvest composition. This leads to question complex issues with regard to sustainability of winegrowing agroecosystem and the adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. This study aims at elaborating a multivariate approach framework for vineyard soil fertility assessment over a 6 ha-farm planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at the regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey comprising ~20 soil pits, physico-chemical analyses for all soil profile horizons, and a series of additional soil surface samples analyzed for several parameters including soil organic carbon, calcium carbonate, copper and the major mineral nutrients, is here carried out. Along with soil parameters and soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing are collected. Very high resolution multispectral satellite data and resistivity EMI data are acquired and processed in order to characterize spatial variations in both physiological responses, soil surface conditions, soil depth and/or the presence of coarse elements. Multi-temporal historical aerial photographs are used in order to complement farmer's surveys regarding past management practices. The farm is characterized by a diversity of soils including Red Mediterranean soils (chromic luvisols), colluvic calcisols, arenosols, fluvisols, and regosols, which develop from top to slope then bottom of a Neogene molassic and conglomeratic plateau. Soil management past practices are marked by the absence of chemical/organic manuring in the last decades, resulting in erosional features and weakened vines. Relationships between vine spatial variability, soil spatial variability and the impact of past practices are analyzed and result in formalizing decision rules. Several restoration scenarios are then proposed, that focus either on chemical fertilizer and/or organic amendment and/or interrow cover and/or agroforestry practices.

  10. Practice Safer Sex

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This information in Spanish ( en espańol ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...

  11. Defining Empirically Based Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a definition of empirically based practice, both conceptually and operationally. Describes a study of how research and practice were integrated in the graduate social work program at the School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago. (JAC)

  12. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  13. Environmental Public Health Practice

    E-print Network

    Environmental Public Health Practice in the Southeastern United States Southeast Regional Academic Center for Environmental Public Health School of Public Health University of Alabama at Birmingham #12; Environmental Public Health Practice

  14. Best Environmental Management Practices

    E-print Network

    Best Environmental Management Practices Farm Animal Production Comprehensive Nutrient Management What is a CNMP? A Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP) is a total planning tool that details's production practices, as well as the equipment and structure(s) used. It combines conservation practices

  15. Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices submitted in the 2012 Training Top 125 application. Best practices: (1) Edward Jones: Practice Makes Perfect (sales training); (2) Grant Thornton LLP: Senior Manager Development Program (SMDP); (3) MetLife, Inc.: Top Advisor…

  16. Philosophy of logical practice

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    Philosophy of logical practice: a case study in formal semantics nikhil maddirala www.nikhilmaddirala.com #12;Philosophy of logical practice: a case study in formal semantics MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie shall be known as "philosophy of logical practice" and to make a modest contribution to this field

  17. Literate Statistical Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Rossini

    Literate Statistical Practice (LSP) is an method for statistical practice which suggests that documentation and specication occur at the same time as statistical coding. It applies literate programming Knuth (1992) to the practice of statistics. We discuss 2 dierent approaches for LSP, one currently implemented using Emacs with Noweb and Emacs Speaks Statistics (ESS), and the other developed based on

  18. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  19. When practice transformation impedes practice improvement.

    PubMed

    Bujold, Edward

    2015-05-01

    I lead a small practice in rural western North Carolina. We have embraced the patient-centered medical home model and other practice-improvement initiatives, and I have seen our practice transformed in many positive ways. But in the past year alone, my staff and I have spent hundreds of hours studying for and taking exams, certifying for numerous programs, and updating our electronic health records system (EHR) to meet new national requirements and then relearning our EHR. Seeing patients used to be the hardest part of my job. It is now the easiest by far. I am considering walking away from the time-intensive PCMH certification even though it would cause financial hardship. We have more important business at hand-taking excellent care of patients, improving our practice, and meaningfully engaging with our patients. PMID:25964408

  20. Educating Advanced Practice Nurses for Practice Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamric, Ann B.; Hanson, Charlene M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains why content related to role acquisition and transition is critical in preparing advanced practice nurses. Recommends teaching strategies and timing and placement options for role content in graduate education. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  1. Nutrition Education and Practices Among Practicing Chiropractors

    E-print Network

    Werner, Donna

    2008-04-29

    .? Most chiropractors using nutrition in their practices base their findings and recommendations on a combination of patient history and clinical symptoms. Even though a large percentage of chiropractors use nutritional services in their practices... was defined as ?a regimen designed to provide for the patient?s continued well-being or for maintaining the optimum state of heath while minimizing recurrences of the clinical status.? (9,10) Initial speculation that chiropractors treat people only through...

  2. Improving clinical practice guidelines for practicing cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Dwyer, Edward M; Eberly, Shirley; Francis, Charles; Gillespie, John A; Goldstein, Robert E; Greenberg, Henry; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald J; Klein, Helmut; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Marcus, Frank I; Moss, Arthur J; Oakes, David; Ryan, Daniel H; Bloch Thomsen, Poul E; Zareba, Wojciech

    2015-06-15

    Cardiac-related clinical practice guidelines have become an integral part of the practice of cardiology. Unfortunately, these guidelines are often long, complex, and difficult for practicing cardiologists to use. Guidelines should be condensed and their format upgraded, so that the key messages are easier to comprehend and can be applied more readily by those involved in patient care. After presenting the historical background and describing the guideline structure, we make several recommendations to make clinical practice guidelines more user-friendly for clinical cardiologists. Our most important recommendations are that the clinical cardiology guidelines should focus exclusively on (1) class I recommendations with established benefits that are supported by randomized clinical trials and (2) class III recommendations for diagnostic or therapeutic approaches in which quality studies show no benefit or possible harm. Class II recommendations are not evidence based but reflect expert opinions related to published clinical studies, with potential for personal bias by members of the guideline committee. Class II recommendations should be published separately as "Expert Consensus Statements" or "Task Force Committee Opinions," so that both majority and minority expert opinions can be presented in a less dogmatic form than the way these recommendations currently appear in clinical practice guidelines. PMID:25918027

  3. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

  4. Ambulatory equine practice management.

    PubMed

    Baus, Mark R

    2012-04-01

    The horse owner not only expects outstanding care for their horse; they also recognize and appreciate a well-run equine practice. They expect their veterinarian to show up on time for appointments; they expect to receive decipherable invoices and statements on a regular basis and they appreciate an assistant who enhances the services that their veterinarian provides. A well-managed ambulatory equine practice supports the ideals of both high standards of care and mobility. In fact, a poorly managed practice will ultimately impact the care that an equine veterinarian attempts to provide the horses in his or her care. Without careful attention to profitability and efficiency, the practice’s ability to grow and develop with emerging therapies and technologies is impossible. Furthermore, a poorly managed practice will significantly contribute to the frustration that an equine veterinarian feels after working long hours and receiving only nominal pay. PMID:22640576

  5. Presenting practice financial information.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lee Ann H

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance. PMID:17974087

  6. Supporting Clinical Research Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Brett; Diane Arnold-Reed; Robert Moorhead

    2007-01-01

    The notion of developing a network of general practices capable of undertaking clinical research is both intriguing and elusive. This paper outlines efforts to support research practices as an integral part of the Notre Dame PHC RED research capacity building program and indicates some cautious optimism is warranted.\\u000aThe recruitment and support of three general practices involved in the Fremantle

  7. Teaching engineering practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward W. Banios

    1991-01-01

    Many-in-depth studies of engineering education have been performed over the past 35 years. It is noted that, surprisingly, the results of these studies possess a consistent thread; in general the engineering education programs in this country fail to prepare the students to practice engineering. The author reviews candidate practices course topics. He discusses their implementation as curriculum content, investigates the

  8. Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…

  9. Supporting Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Gianna

    2006-01-01

    Written to support all teaching and learning staff in developing good inclusive practice, this book provides knowledge and understanding about a range of inclusion issues, such as what an inclusive school might look like and practical guidance on supporting the development of such a school. It also explores issues surrounding: (1) Ethnicity; (2)…

  10. EMAIL & FIPPA BEST PRACTICES

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    EMAIL & FIPPA BEST PRACTICES Email is increasingly used for conducting University business best practices are to help the University community use and manage their email in a manner consistent with the requirement of FIPPA. 1. Email is not confidential. Even if your email is not subject to FIPPA it can

  11. Sintering Theory and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall M. German

    1996-01-01

    Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment

  12. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  13. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classroom assessment practices of 3rd- through 12th-grade teachers in a Midwestern state. In addition to determining the frequency with which specific assessment item formats were utilized, the level of use of selected "best practice" approaches to assessment was considered ("performance-based assessment, teacher-made tests,…

  14. Toward practicing privacy

    PubMed Central

    Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice. PMID:23243088

  15. Exploring Practical Teaching Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhard, Jerry G.

    Ways that teacher educators can provide opportunities for novice teachers to develop their beliefs about teaching and learning and their teaching practices are discussed. It is suggested that practical teaching experience is essential to teacher development, but that teachers must also be able to process their experiences in ways that allow time…

  16. Practical knowledge and abilities

    E-print Network

    Glick, Ephraim N

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is an exploration of the relations between know-how, abilities, and ordinary knowledge of facts. It is shown that there is a distinctively practical sort of know-how and a corresponding interpretation of 'S knows ...

  17. CONTRACTORS' CODE OF PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    carry out their work safely and to prevent accidents or potential adverse health effects eitherCONTRACTORS' CODE OF PRACTICE HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT SUMMER 2007 #12;CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ON FRAGILE ROOFS............................................................ 11 20 CONTROL OF POLLUTION

  18. Soccer field Practice cricket

    E-print Network

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Soccer field Basketball court Tennis court Practice cricket pitch Buchanan Park Key to car parking and laundry. A3 Sporting facilities Basketball courts. A4 Beach volleyball court. A3 Soccer field. B2 #12;

  19. Practicing like Thomas Edison.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil; Ornstein, Hal

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices. PMID:23866659

  20. Practice Parameter Allergy Diagnostic Testing: An Updated Practice

    E-print Network

    Levetin, Estelle

    Practice Parameter Allergy Diagnostic Testing: An Updated Practice Parameter I. Leonard Bernstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S67 XV. Assessment of Inhalant Allergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S74 XVI. Assessment of Food Allergy

  1. Building resilience to social-ecological change through farmers' learning practices in semi-arid Makueni County Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe; Kiteme, Boniface; Kimathi Mbae, John; Schmude, Miron

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological change is resulting in various risks and opportunities to farmers, which they address through complex multi-strategies to sustain their agricultural-based livelihoods and agricultural landscapes. This paper examines how various stakeholders such as research and government organisations, local and international non-governmental organisations, private companies, farmer groups, individual actors and farmers draw on scientific, external and localised knowledge to address the needs of farmers in sustainable land management and food production. What is the structure of collaboration between the various actors and how does this influence the potential for learning, not only for the farmers but also for other stakeholders? How does the supplied knowledge meet farmers' knowledge needs and demands for sustainable land management and food production? To what extent and how is knowledge co-produced among the various stakeholders? What different types of learning can be identified and what are their influences on farmers' sustainable land management practices? How does farmer learning foster the resilience of agricultural landscapes? Answers to these questions are sought through a case study in the semi-arid areas of Makueni County, Kenya. Particular environmental risks in the study area relate to recurrent droughts and flooding, soil erosion and general land degradation. Opportunities in the study area arise short-term due to more conducive rainfall conditions for crop and vegetation growth, institutional arrangements that foster sustainable land management such as agroforestry programmes and conservation agriculture projects. While farmers observe changes in their environment, they weigh the various risks and opportunities that arise from their social-ecological context and their own capacity to respond leading to the prioritization of certain adaptations relative to others. This can mean that while certain farmers may have knowledge on sustainable land management practices, their capacity to act can be constrained by various factors. Through learning about new land management technologies and adaptation practices, and adapting these to their local contexts, farmers attempt to balance the risks and opportunities arising from social-ecological change. They share and transfer the acquired knowledge to other farmers. While success has been achieved in adoption of sustainable land management practices by many farmers, adoption by other farmers and practice by all farmers remain constrained by various social-ecological factors. The implications of the research findings for interventions and policies aimed at sustainable land management and improved food production are discussed.

  2. 43 CFR 5424.0-6 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...construction, logging methods, silvicultural practices, reforestation, snag felling, slash disposal, fire prevention, fire control, and the protection of improvements, watersheds, recreational values, and the prevention of pollution...

  3. Positive criminology in practice.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. PMID:23782705

  4. Practical Quantum Metrology

    E-print Network

    Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Xiao-Qi Zhou; Hugo Cable; Peter J. Shadbolt; Dylan J. Saunders; Gabriel A. Durkin; Geoff J. Pryde; Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2013-07-18

    Quantum metrology research promises approaches to build new sensors that achieve the ultimate level of precision measurement and perform fundamentally better than modern sensors. Practical schemes that tolerate realistic fabrication imperfections and environmental noise are required in order to realise quantum-enhanced sensors and to enable their real-world application. We have demonstrated the key enabling principles of a practical, loss-tolerant approach to photonic quantum metrology designed to harness all multi-photon components in spontaneous parametric downconversion---a method for generating multiple photons that we show requires no further fundamental state engineering for use in practical quantum metrology. We observe a quantum advantage of 28% in precision measurement of optical phase using the four-photon detection component of this scheme, despite 83% system loss. This opens the way to new quantum sensors based on current quantum-optical capabilities.

  5. Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ammouri, Ali A.; Raddaha, Ahmad A.; Dsouza, Preethy; Geethakrishnan, Renu; Noronha, Judith A.; Obeidat, Arwa A.; Shakman, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP) in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on a one to seven rating scale. Barriers to EBP were measured on a five-point Likert scale using two subscales. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 414 nurses were included in the study. The greatest barriers to developing EBP among nurses were insufficient time for research (3.51 ± 0.97) and insufficient resources to change practices (3.64 ± 0.99). Nurses with more years of experience reported increased use of EBP (P <0.01), more positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and fewer barriers to research (P <0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between years of experience and practice (r = 0.16) and attitudes (r = 0.20). Nurses with a baccalaureate degree reported fewer barriers to research than those qualified at a diploma level (P <0.001). Nurses who perceived more barriers to research reported less use of EBP (P <0.001), less positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and limited EBP knowledge/skills (P <0.001). Conclusion: These findings provide a basis for enhancing nursing practices, knowledge and skills. Continuing education for nurses and minimising barriers is crucial to increasing the use of EBP in Oman. PMID:25364558

  6. DMV Practice Tests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brought to you by DMV.org, these tests help new drivers and those studying to get their commercial drivers' license practice for the real thing. Simply click on your state of residence and select the kind of test you'd like to practice: Drivers' License, Motorcycle License, or Commercial Drivers' License. Each test has twenty-five multiple-choice questions on the traffic rules and general safety guidelines for each state. This site is also helpful for students and teachers in commercial vehicle training programs as each state's commercial driver's guide is linked as a PDF document. Some states have special handbooks of guidelines for school bus drivers as well.

  7. Research and practice.

    PubMed

    2015-04-29

    A new programme offers research opportunities for healthcare professionals at all levels who want a career that combines clinical research and research leadership with practice and clinical development. Funded by Health Education England and managed by the NHS National Institute for Health Research, the Integrated Clinical Academic Programme offers the chance to undertake fully funded clinical research, research training and professional development while maintaining clinical practice. It includes five awards: internships, master's degree in clinical research studentships, clinical doctoral research fellowships, clinical lectureships and senior clinical lectureships. The latter three awards are now open for applications until May 28. PMID:25921903

  8. Teaching Problem Solving in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byo, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…

  9. Differentiated Staffing and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The development of the positions of nurse practitioner and physician assistant is a good example of differentiating staffing and practice to meet individual needs in an effective and cost-efficient way. This type of differentiation has been confined to the healthcare industry, principally to health maintenance organizations, but perhaps those in…

  10. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

  11. Turning Ideas into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

  12. Applying Transfer in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Karen; Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the chapters in this issue, the authors have cited various definitions for learning transfer. For educators, in its simplest form, transfer of learning occurs when students put to practical use the knowledge and skills they gained in the classroom (near transfer). Chapter 1 defines near transfer and then goes into detail on the levels…

  13. Best Environmental Management Practices

    E-print Network

    Best Environmental Management Practices Farm Animal Production Feeding Strategies to Lower Nitrogen attention because of the potential for manure to affect water and air quality. Proper ration management and feeding management, and potential adjustments, to minimize nutrient excretion. The guidelines presented

  14. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  15. Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine in the Line of Fire #12; UTHealthScienceCenter University of tennessee HealtH science center Medicine Magazine Winter 2007 CommunicationsTeam Writing,Editing Sh ................................................................................................ DirectorofDevelopment VaCanT DirectorofplannedgivingVaCanT University of Tennessee Medicine Magazine

  16. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

  17. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

  18. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  19. NCI Best Practices

    Cancer.gov

    This informational publication issued by the NCI OBBR is designed to increase awareness and understanding among advocates and the interested public of the importance and role of biospecimens in cancer research. It outlines the need for and purpose of best practices for biospecimen resources.

  20. Best Environmental Management Practices

    E-print Network

    be contaminated by poor farm practices. A soluble form of nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, can leach down through the soil to unprotected aquifers. At 10 ppm or more, nitrate in the drinking water of infants and elderly junk out of view. Keep buildings painted and in good repair. Use fences or vegetative screening

  1. Translating and Practice

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Wisconsin Population Health Service Fellowship 11 Community Engagement 12 Evidence Based Practice 13, Publications, Programs 17 Capitol Briefings by the Evidence-Based Health Policy Project 18 Publications 18 Rankings and Roadmaps, the Evidence Based Health Policy Project, and the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership

  2. Discretionary Assessment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogotch, Ira E.; Taylor, Dianne L.

    Descriptive statements of evaluation practices by principals were studied concerning normative expectations and J. Dewey's general logic of experience. Focus was on describing what principals think and do in terms of evaluation as a step toward bringing evaluation specialists and educational practitioners into a closer working relationship. Four…

  3. Educational Researchers and Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velzen, Joke H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an attempt to identify further directions in research designs that researchers can use to contribute to the relevance of educational research findings, by including teachers' practicality issues, is presented. Sixty experienced teachers in secondary education read the reporting of modified experimental research findings about…

  4. Management accounting as practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Ahrens; Christopher S. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we outline a distinctive practice theory approach to considering the role of management accounting in the constitution of organizations. Building on (Schatzki, T.R. (2002). The site of the social: a philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press) notion of arrays of activity we emphasise the ways in

  5. Best Environmental Management Practices

    E-print Network

    management practices to avoid polluting surface or groundwater. 1. Public and private water wells Public only for a short time period after storms, are vulnerable if manure is applied too close. Both can the land surface to groundwater. Manure applied near them can quickly pollute groundwater. 4. Surface

  6. Good Laboratory Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjicostas, Evsevios

    The principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) in conjunction with the principles of Total Quality Management (see chapter 6) ensure the quality and reliability of the laboratory results, which in turn help to ensure the protection of the environment and human health and safety. A step further is the accreditation of laboratories to ISO 17025 (see chapter 2) to perform specified activities.

  7. CURSIVE TIPS AND PRACTICE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-02-28

    DESK Standard: Produce legible documents with cursive handwriting. . DATES: You can begin this activity on February 26. You should complete it by March 2. OBJECTIVE: We have learned how to write every lowercase and uppercase cursive letter. This activity is a chance to practice what you have learned. You will see an animation that ...

  8. GOOD MEDICAL PRACTICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry J Breen; MB BS; Stephen M Cordner; Dip Crim

    Good Medical Practice: Professionalism, Ethics and Law brings together the infor- mation central to the professional, ethical and legal requirements of being a doctor. It covers a core curriculum for medical students, doctors in training and international medical graduates preparing for the Australian Medical Council examinations. It will also be useful for busy doctors looking for answers to issues that

  9. Sulfamethazine transport in agroforestry and cropland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of veterinary antibiotic transport and persistence is critical to understanding environmental risks associated with these potential contaminants. To understand mobility of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sorption processes involved during SMZ transport in soil, column leaching experiments were p...

  10. Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Albrecht; Serigne T Kandji

    2003-01-01

    Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the

  11. Agroforestry in Palau1 Ebals Sadang2

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , and compost has been and is still common in cassava gardens and taro patches. The agroforest in Palau seems the vegetable farms, cash crop farms of cassava, Colocasia taro, and a limited amount of sweet potato

  12. Training environment in General Practice and preparedness for practice 

    E-print Network

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Ogilvie, Sharon Wiener

    2014-07-04

    This thesis explores the way General Practice trainees and early career General Practitioners describe their training environment in General Practice, the meaning they attach to the notion of preparedness and their ...

  13. Practically Frameless Rendering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias M. Wloka; Robert C. Zeleznik; Timothy Miller

    We describe practically frameless rendering: a new techniq ue that applies wherever a frame-buffer is in use, for example, to 3D - buffered rendering or to 2D user interfaces. Its advantages include higher frame-rate (our software implementation almost doubles the frame-rate and future hardware implementations potentially quadru- ple it), less lag, and generation of motion blur without addi tional overhead.

  14. SME marketing in practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey Gilmore; David Carson; Ken Grant

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges that SMEs (small to medium-sized enterprises) cannot do conventional marketing because of the limitations of resources which are inherent to all SMEs and also because SME owner\\/managers behave and think differently from conventional marketing decision-making practices in large companies. In this context the discussion focuses on SME characteristics and how these impact upon marketing characteristics within SMEs. In a

  15. [Interdisciplinary, an undisciplined practice?].

    PubMed

    Baud, I Rinaldi; Hanson, H Rey

    2005-09-28

    This article aims at better grasping the stakes of interdisciplinary work. The interdisciplinary and integrative clinical approach used at the "Consultation interdisciplinaire de médecine et de prévention de la violence") (CIMPV) to address issues of violence is based on the theories of complexity and built upon the confrontation of personal, professional, intra- and inter-institutional logics. It offers a process that is original in terms of assumptions, objectives and practical implications. PMID:16248259

  16. Practice with Similarity Proofs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Roberts

    2000-01-01

    In this worksheet of eight questions, students practice their knowledge of similarity proofs. In the first four questions, students determine which postulate or theorem works to prove triangle similarity - AA, SAS, or SSS. In the last four questions, students are asked to work through the proof of various problems. The answers are embedded in the page, and this is a helpful resource for students to work with similarity proofs.

  17. Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice

    E-print Network

    Zuna, Nina

    2005-05-05

    Government Performance and Results Act (1993) APR Program goal: Enhance the development of infants and toddlers (0-3) with disabilities and support their families in meeting their special needs 1 Family Indicator: The percentage of families participating... Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...

  18. Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

    2010-01-01

    This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

  19. Sintering Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Randall M.

    1996-01-01

    Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal process all around us--in manufactured objects from metals, ceramics, polymers, and many compounds. From a vast professional literature, Sintering Theory and Practice emerges as the only comprehensive, systematic, and self-contained volume on the subject. Covering all aspects of sintering as a processing topic, including materials, processes, theories, and the overall state of the art, the book Offers numerous examples, illustrations, and tables that detail actual processing cycles, and that stress existing knowledge in the field Uses the specifics of various consolidation cycles to illustrate the basics Leads the reader from the fundamentals to advanced topics, without getting bogged down in various mathematical disputes over treatments and measurements Supports the discussion with critically selected references from thousands of sources Examines the sintering behavior of a wide variety of engineered materials--metals, alloys, oxide ceramics, composites, carbides, intermetallics, glasses, and polymers Guides the reader through the sintering processes for several important industrial materials and demonstrates how to control these processes effectively and improve present techniques Provides a helpful reference for specific information on materials, processing problems, and concepts For practitioners and researchers in ceramics, powder metallurgy, and other areas, and for students and faculty in materials science and engineering, this book provides the know-how and understanding crucial to many industrial operations, offers many ideas for further research, and suggests future applications of this important technology. This book offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore sintering in both practical and theoretical terms, whether at the lab or in real-world applications, and to acquire a broad, yet thorough, understanding of this important technology.

  20. Advances in grazing distribution practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing distribution management practices are intended to improve livestock production efficiency while conserving or enhancing environmental conditions, and sustaining or promoting other ecosystem services on grazed lands. Ancient practices such as herding, fencing, vegetation treatment (e.g., fi...

  1. Good Practices for Hood Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikell, William G.; Drinkard, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes safety practices for laboratory fume hoods based on certain assumptions of hood design and performance. Also discusses the procedures in preparing to work at a hood. A checklist of good hood practices is included. (JM)

  2. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Challenging Mathematics: Classroom Practices

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Bharath

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Chapter 7 Challenging Mathematics: Classroom Practices Gloria Stillman, Kwok classroom practice issues related to teachers provid- ing mathematical challenges in their everyday classrooms. We examine how challenging mathematics can become the essence of mathematics classrooms, how

  3. Todo K-2 Math Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LocoMotive Labs, Inc

    2013-08-15

    This iOS app provides students in grades K-2 with practice counting, writing numerals, addition and subtraction. The user can select the grade level and adjust the time of practice; the app then generates a selection of activities from the base six activities of the app. At the end of the practice the app asks for feedback on the level of difficulty in order to make adjustments for the next practice session.

  4. Health Practices of School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petch-Levine, Deborah; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl; Murray, Meg

    2003-01-01

    The health practices of school nurses affect our role as advocates and educators to promote the health of youth. This study describes the health practices of a convenience sample of 388 school nurses who attended the business meeting at an annual school nurse conference. A self-administered, 40-item questionnaire identified health practices of…

  5. Does mental practice enhance performance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Driskell; Carolyn Copper; Aidan Moran

    1994-01-01

    Mental practice is the cognitive rehearsal of a task prior to performance. Although most researchers contend that mental practice is an effective means of enhancing performance, a clear consensus is precluded because (a) mental practice is often denned so loosely as to include almost any type of mental preparation and (b) empirical results are inconclusive. A meta-analysis of the literature

  6. Education Policy, Practice, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article, drawing especially but not exclusively on Bourdieu's work on practice and its relationships with habitus, capital, and field, argues for a perspective on policy, as informed by and as practice, and applies it across all elements of the policy cycle. It is argued that a practice perspective captures well the economies of power in…

  7. and Practices HEALTH INFORMATION ACT

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Guidelines and Practices Manual HEALTH INFORMATION ACT March 2011 #12;This publication is a practical reference tool for the application of Alberta's Health Information Act (HIA). It is designed-2011 Government of Alberta 1Health and Wellness Health Information Act GUIDELINES AND PRACTICES MANUAL TABLE

  8. Practice development: a concept analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hanrahan

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of the term `practice development' is required for the discipline of infection control nursing. Improved understanding of the term would allow practitioners to approach practice development in a more constructive and measurable fashion. A concept analysis based on the model of Walker and Avant is therefore presented. The analysis includes the definition of the term `practice development' and discussion

  9. Practical sedimentology, Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. (Southern Cross Univ., New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    This book is for technical professionals in mineral exploration, environmental management, agriculture or forestry, this new edition takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a lively and detailed overview of practical sedimentology. Emphasizing application over theory, the text is streamlined for comprehension, and it features many summary tables and graphs. The ideal companion to Analytical Sedimentology, this volume updates both methodology and applications, incorporates software information and extensively covers new technical developments. Specifically designed for students and cross-functional practitioners, it requires minimal geological background.

  10. Expanding options for reforestation of the Cumberland Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Stems of d.b.h. 4 inches or greater in a low quality stand in Tennessee dominated by white and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) were sheared in September-November 1976, chipped, and removed. Sawtimber quality trees (30) in the 37-acre area were felled separately by conventional methods. Residual trees (2-3 inches d.b.h., ht. over 4.5 ft) in some areas were injected with herbicide. One-acre plots were planted with 1+0 loblolly pine, 2+0 white pine (Pinus strobus), or 1+0 yellow poplar, or left to regenerate naturally. After 2 years, survival of all trees was good (83% or over) and average height of loblolly pine, yellow poplar and desirable natural stems (white, scarlet or black oak, Quercus velutina) was 3.3 ft, significantly different from that of white pine (1.5 ft). It is concluded that poor quality stands can be cheaply improved by this method, although release from competing vegetation may be necessary, especially in the case of white pine.

  11. Analytical conceptual plan to reforest central Himalaya for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surendra P.; Singh, Jamuna S.

    1991-05-01

    The Central Himalayan region is suffering from severe ecological problems as a consequence of deforestation and that threatens the subsistence population of the region. We analyze this problem and propose a plan for ecologically sustainable development for the region based on an analysis of the interrelationships of various ecosystems, particularly cropland and forest ecosystems, around which most human activities are concentrated. Each energy unit of agronomic yield leads to expenditure of about 12 energy units of forest/grazing land energy. Because with rapidly declining forest area, this form of agriculture is no longer sustainable and cannot be converted into a fossil fuel-based agriculture, we propose that agriculture in the mountain region has to be largely replaced with farm forests to revitalize the environment and to generate the basic needs of the subsistence economy of the hill population whose food grain needs can be met from the plains. We conclude by describing the advantages that are likely to accrue to the people for their long-term future. In terms of both energy and money, the value of resources collected from the forest to support agriculture in the present systems far exceeds the value of food grain that would be required to enable the proposed farm forest-based systems to function. At regional level, the proposed system would generate more energy than the existing systems, not only because the productivity of forest is about tenfold greater than that of cropland, but also because the proposed plan promotes recovery of various ecosystems.

  12. Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

  13. REFORESTATION TECHNIQUES IN COGONGRASS (IMPERATA CYLINDRICA) INFESTED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is a non-native, invasive weed that is disrupting economically and ecologically important plant communities in the southeastern United States. Cogongrass is invading forest lands, especially those growing loblolly pine (Pinus teada L.) plantations. Thes...

  14. Thermography in Neurologic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Vilaça-Alves, José; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado

    2015-01-01

    One kind of medical images that has been developed in the last decades is thermal images. These images are assessed by infrared cameras and have shown an exponential development in recent years. In this sense, the aim of this study was to describe possibilities of thermography usage in the neurologic practice. It was performed a systematic review in Web of Knowledge (Thompson Reuters), set in all databases which used two combination of keywords as “topic”: “thermography” and “neurology”; and “thermography” and “neurologic”. The chronological period was defined from 2000 to 2014 (the least 15 years). Among the studies included in this review, only seven were with experimental design. It is few to bring thermography as a daily tool in clinical practice. However, these studies have suggested good results. The studies of review and an analyzed patent showed that the authors consider the thermography as a diagnostic tool and they recommend its usage. It can be concluded that thermography is already used as a diagnostic and monitoring tool of patients with neuropathies, particularly in complex regional pain syndrome, and stroke. And yet, this tool has great potential for future research about its application in diagnosis of other diseases of neurological origin.

  15. Thiamin in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Frank, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    Thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B1. Its biologically active form, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), is a cofactor in macronutrient metabolism. In addition to its coenzyme roles, TPP plays a role in nerve structure and function as well as brain metabolism. Signs and symptoms of thiamin deficiency (TD) include lactic acidosis, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, and ocular changes (eg, nystagmus). More advanced symptoms include confabulation and memory loss and/or psychosis, resulting in Wernicke's encephalopathy and/or Wernicke's Korsakoff syndrome, respectively. The nutrition support clinician should be aware of patients who may be at risk for TD. Risk factors include those patients with malnutrition due to 1 or more nutrition-related etiologies: decreased nutrient intake, increased nutrient losses, or impaired nutrient absorption. Clinical scenarios such as unexplained heart failure or lactic acidosis, renal failure with dialysis, alcoholism, starvation, hyperemesis gravidarum, or bariatric surgery may increase the risk for TD. Patients who are critically ill and require nutrition support may also be at risk for TD, especially those who are given intravenous dextrose void of thiamin repletion. Furthermore, understanding thiamin's role as a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes, some inborn errors of metabolism, and neurodegenerative diseases warrants further research. This tutorial describes the absorption, digestion, and metabolism of thiamin. Issues pertaining to thiamin in clinical practice will be described, and evidence-based practice suggestions for the prevention and treatment of TD will be discussed. PMID:25564426

  16. 42 CFR 54a.6 - Employment practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Employment practices. 54a.6 Section...GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS...6 Employment practices. (a) The participation of a religious organization...regarding employment practices. (b)...

  17. Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

    2006-01-01

    Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

  18. Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

  19. Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits, is the ninth chapter in Volume III â??Semiconductors. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: ElectroStatic Discharge; Computational circuits; and Oscillator circuits. As of June 2009, a few of the subjects in this chapter were still incomplete, but the site is updated regularly and this chapter should soon be complete. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  20. Practicing the Protocols

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lab-based activity, students learn how to use scientific instruments used to take hydrological data. Students will rotate among measurement stations for each of the hydrology protocols that will be done by the class. They will practice using the field guide with the instrument or kit for that particular measurement, exploring sources of variation and error. The resource includes eight student activity sheets and an authentic assessment, and is part of the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. The activity is supported by the GLOBE hydrology protocols. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  1. TQM in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Harr, R

    2001-01-01

    Society now expects more from its doctors and dentists, and these increasing demands can be summed up in one relatively new term for the medical profession: "quality management" (QM). Doctors and dentists formerly took the view that their performance could be assessed solely on the basis of their technical skills, ethics and expertise, but are now confronted with a new social imperative, from outside the profession--quality management. The author, prize-winner of the European Quality Award 2000 describes his approach to introduce the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model in his dental practice. He shows that the EFQM model is well suited as a basis for a quality management system in healthcare. PMID:11436753

  2. Practical quantum coin flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Anna; Chailloux, André; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2011-11-01

    We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.

  3. Are family practice trainers and their host practices any better? comparing practice trainers and non-trainers and their practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Family Physician (FP) trainees are expected to be provided with high quality training in well organized practice settings. This study examines differences between FP trainers and non-trainers and their practices to see whether there are differences in trainers and non-trainers and in how their practices are organized and their services are delivered. Method 203 practices (88 non-training and 115 training) with 512 FPs (335 non-trainers and 177 trainers) were assessed using the “Visit Instrument Practice organization (VIP)” on 369 items (142 FP-level; 227 Practice level). Analyses (ANOVA, ANCOVA) were conducted for each level by calculating differences between FP trainees and non-trainees and their host practices. Results Trainers scored higher on all but one of the items, and significantly higher on 47 items, of which 13 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Training practices scored higher on all items and significantly higher on 61 items, of which 23 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Trainers (and training practices) provided more diagnostic and therapeutic services, made better use of team skills and scored higher on practice organization, chronic care services and quality management than non-training practices. Trainers reported more job satisfaction and commitment and less job stress than non-trainers. Discussion There are positive differences between FP trainers and non-trainers in both the level and the quality of services provided by their host practices. Training institutions can use this information to promote the advantages of becoming a FP trainer and training practice as well as to improve the quality of training settings for FPs. PMID:23433175

  4. Transfusion practices in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

    2014-01-01

    Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

  5. Clinical practice guidelines. New-to-practice family physicians' attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, B. M.; Woodward, C. A.; Cohen, M.; Williams, A. P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the attitudes toward clinical practice guidelines of a group of family physicians who had recently entered practice in Ontario, and to compare them with the attitudes of a group of internists from the United States. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire survey of all members of a defined cohort. SETTING: Ontario family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who received certification in 1989, 1990, and 1991 and who were practising in Ontario. Of 564-cohort members, 395 (70%) responded. Men (184) and women (211) responded at the same rate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of agreement with 10 descriptive statements about practice guidelines and analyses of variance of these responses for several physician characteristics. RESULTS: Of respondents in independent practice, 80% were in group practice. Women were more likely to have chosen group practice, in which they were more likely to use practice guidelines than men. Generally favourable attitudes toward guidelines were observed. Physician characteristics occasionally influenced agreement with the descriptors. The pattern of agreement was similar to that noted in the study of American internists, but, in general, Ontario physicians were more supportive. CONCLUSIONS: This group of relatively new-to-practice Ontario family physicians shows little resistance to guidelines and appears to read less threat of external control in them than does the US group. PMID:8616286

  6. 29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  7. 29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  8. 29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  9. 29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  10. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 ?m) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

  11. Pruning effects on root distribution and nutrient dynamics in an acacia hedgerow planting in northern Kenya

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    of simultaneous agroforestry systems is the competition between annual and perennial crops (Sanchez, 1995.lehmann@uni-bayreuth.de) Key words: below-ground competition, carbohydrates, nitrogen, nutrient leaching, resin cores Abstract. Tree pruning is a common management practice in agroforestry for mulching and reducing competition

  12. Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium Amir Kamil, Jimmy Su, and Katherine Yelick, y , Titanium Group http://titanium.cs.berkeley.edu U.C. Berkeley November 15 2005November by another threadthread · Titanium, Java, UPC, and many other languages do not provide sequentiallanguages do

  13. Attitudes toward Testing Practices as Cheating and Teachers' Testing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsaas, Judith A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate whether teachers' attitudes toward specific test preparation, whether they saw administration practices such as cheating, and the amount of pressure they felt to increase standardized test scores predicted teachers' test preparation and administration practices. Using the theory of personal action of…

  14. Incorporating Evidence-Based Practice into the Macro Practice Curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon M. Salcido

    2008-01-01

    Considerable attention has been directed in preparing social work students to understand the paradigm of evidence-based practice (EBP). The infusion of EBP through training, course instruction, and assignments has the potential to enhance EBP knowledge acquisition in the macro practice curriculum. This article examines an approach to integrating EBP into the curriculum through a training model that is linked with

  15. Education for Sustainability (EfS): Practice and Practice Architectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmis, Stephen; Mutton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…

  16. How Experts Practice: A Novel Test of Deliberate Practice Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan, Edward K.; Williams, A. Mark; McRobert, Allistair P.; Ford, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Performance improvement is thought to occur through engagement in deliberate practice. Deliberate practice is predicted to be challenging, effortful, and not inherently enjoyable. Expert and intermediate level Gaelic football players executed two types of kicks during an acquisition phase and pre-, post-, and retention tests. During acquisition,…

  17. Physician Communities of Practice: Where Learning and Practice Are Inseparable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parboosingh, John T.

    2002-01-01

    Communities of practice (COPs) are effective environments for improving physicians' learning and practice. Continuing education providers can meet the learning needs of multidisciplinary COPs with the assistance of information/communications technologies that enhance physicians' information-seeking behavior. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  18. Clinical practice guideline use by oncology advanced practice nurses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina S. Cunningham

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are utilized and the effects of their implementation on outcomes is an important goal. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if oncology advanced practice nurse (APN) interventions provided to men with prostate cancer were consistent with Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research CPGs regarding pain [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Practice Makes Perfect?: Effective Practice Instruction in Large Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Helping young musicians learn how to practice effectively is a challenge faced by all music educators. This article presents a system of individual music practice instruction that can be seamlessly integrated within large-ensemble rehearsals. Using a step-by-step approach, large-ensemble conductors can teach students to identify and isolate…

  20. [Chronobiology and practical medicine].

    PubMed

    Svorc, P; Bracoková, I; Bacová, I; Svorcová, E

    2008-01-01

    In present time, to classify the healthy as potencional possibility of the organism to accept variable environment influences without the break of the biological important functions is not satisfactory. Examples from the different field of the clinical medicine refer to importance of the knowledge's of the circadian rhythmicity concerning many diseases, symptoms or significant remissions. Therefore, clinical trials considering the biological variability differ from the convectional studies by assumption that biology of patient is dynamic, that time of the diagnostic test running is significant and that drugs can influence safety and therapeutic effect in the dependence on the day-time. In paper, it is showed on some examples from the clinical practice that respection of the chronobiological principles may play the important role in the medical diagnostics as well as in therapy and may improve accuracy of the whatever functional examination. For terms, which are often used in the chronobiological texts, no suitable terms were available and therefore it was necessary to introduce the descriptive phrases, which would be accepted by specialists in the field. Many of the introduced terms are still unknown to many investigators and physicians who might benefit from the application of chronobiologic principles to their work. PMID:18630138

  1. Home accountants: exploring their practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deryl Northcott; Bill Doolin

    2000-01-01

    Little is known of how accounting is used in the home, or about the potential relevance of business-like techniques in this domain. This paper reports findings from an exploratory study into the practices of home accountants. Ten cases based on interviews with both accountants and lay people were used to investigate four broad areas of accounting practice: budgeting, record-keeping, decision

  2. Artful surfaces in design practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhaval Vyas

    2009-01-01

    A largely overlooked aspect of innovative design practices is how workplace surfaces play a role in supporting designers' everyday work. In this paper we introduce the idea of artful surfaces. Artful surfaces (Figure 1) are full of informative, inspirational and creative artefacts that help designers accomplish their everyday design practices. The way these surfaces are created and used could provide

  3. Education Private Practice. Fastback 451.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuelke, Dennis C.

    This fastback document examines small education businesses that provide direct and personal instructional service to clients. Although education private-practice enterprises have not received the attention that high-profile companies have commanded, there are thousands of such one- and two-person enterprises. These practices work with and support…

  4. ERP Software Implementation Best Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Pollyanne S.; Southerland, Arthur R.; Johnson, James T.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the perceptions of chief financial and information officers of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software implementation best practices. Usable responses from 159 respondents show consensus for the most part between the perceptions of the two groups and describe some best practices that represent common ground. (SLD)

  5. Chapter Seven: Prospects for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter suggests further ways that Practice Theory can be applied to understanding language teaching and learning. In particular, the author contends that more work is needed to describe the configuration of discursive resources in practices in foreign language communities in order to design effective pedagogies and assessments. In addition,…

  6. How To Make Innovations Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter; van Driel, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: A fundamental tension has long existed between school reform proposals and actual teaching practice. Despite a large literature on teacher change, the discontinuity between innovation and practice continues and many attempts to reform teaching fail to be enacted in most classrooms. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…

  7. Numeracy Practices of Young Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevenbergen, Robyn; Zevenbergen, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first two years of a large research project investigating the numeracy practices of young people across a range of industries. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, the project aims to identify the ways in which numeracy practices are perceived and enacted by young people (students in part-time…

  8. Project Juno Code of Practice

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    Project Juno Code of Practice Institute of Physics Advancing women's careers in physics higher and retain women is needed. ·Based on best practice identified from the Institute's Women in University for actions that departments can take to address the under-representation of women in university physics

  9. PRACTICAL COURSE HANDBOOK Psychology 2

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Course is an independent component from the Psychology 2 Lecture Course. The Practical Course is designed psychological theories are developed from experimental research Understand how psychologists design1 PRACTICAL COURSE HANDBOOK PSYL08002 Psychology 2 2012-2013 Course Organiser Semester 1 Dr Antje

  10. Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Carola

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

  11. Advanced practice in neonatal nursing.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    The advanced practice neonatal nurse's participation in newborn care continues to be accepted and supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Recognized categories of advanced practice neonatal nurse are the neonatal clinical nurse specialist and the neonatal nurse practitioner. Training and credentialing requirements have been updated recently and are endorsed in this revised statement. PMID:12777571

  12. CLOUD SERVICES CODE OF PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    of this document, cloud storage can be defined as any storage solution which stores University information assetsCLOUD SERVICES RHUL CODE OF PRACTICE Document Id Cloud Services RHUL Code of Practice Sponsor Laura draft for review Document Approval Name Approval Signature Approval Date ITUAG #12;Cloud Services ­ RHUL

  13. Best Practices, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

    This report contains descriptions of 34 best practices of North Carolina high school/community college Tech Prep (TP) consortia from a 2000 review. All consortia were allowed to choose their best effort or accomplishment completed or in operation at the end of 1999-2000. Among the practices described were: a comprehensive career development…

  14. Curriculum: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    "Curriculum: From Theory to Practice" introduces readers to curriculum theory and how it relates to classroom practice. Wesley Null provides a unique organization of the curriculum field into five traditions: systematic, existential, radical, pragmatic, and deliberative. He discusses the philosophical foundations of curriculum as well as…

  15. Discourse ethics in practical medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Keller; G Allert; H Baitsch; G Sponholz

    2006-01-01

    Problems emerge in practical medicine because the binary ethics of the classic patient\\/doctor relationship has been replaced by multiagent interaction between those engaged in the process of diagnosis and treatment. New methods are required to deal with complex problems in every patient. Where and why the current practice can fail is illustrated with an example of an unspectacular routine case

  16. Colorado Forestry Best Management Practices

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Colorado Forestry Best Management Practices Forest Stewardship Guidelines for Water Quality Management Practices (BMPs) for forestry activities. BMPs are a set of water-quality protection measures-harvest sites in southwest Colorado to assess Colorado forestry BMP application and effectiveness. Sites were

  17. Hippocrates on Ethical Practice Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Morgan

    In today's society, it seems that there is a tension between successful practice management and ethical practice behavior. The doctor-patient relationship that is based on trust should be esteemed and preserved in our society. We should consider dedicating ourselves to the preservation of a trusted doctor-patient relationship. (J Chiropr Humanit 2004;11:44-48)

  18. Holism in Mental Health Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Hemphill-Pearson; Margaret Hunter

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade, holistic medicine has rapidly emerged as a visible and controversial force in American medicine. Because the practice of medicine is influenced by technology and its imperatives toward specialization, it has become fertile ground for holistic practice. Many professionals, including occupational therapists, claim to be practitioners of holistic health. There is evidence in the literature of the

  19. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  20. Best Practice Guidelines IT DIVISION

    E-print Network

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    processes are preserved and improved rather than replaced. Good process and documentation practices helpi Web Mail Best Practice Guidelines IT DIVISION Council of Scientific & Industrial Research Rafi Marg, New Delhi - 110001 #12;ii PREFACE This document is a do-it-yourself software quality consultancy

  1. Behavioural science in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Wood, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Dr Peter Sowerby has written an important criticism of Michael Balint's work based on his understanding of Karl Popper's writings. I dispute Sowerby's interpretation of Popper and disagree with his conclusions, which I suggest would lead general practice into a retreat. I believe Balint made a major contribution to general practice and has helped us towards practising whole-person medicine. PMID:536971

  2. Environmental Education: Practice and Possibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian, Ed.

    This collection of essays describes practices in environmental education and points to possibilities in the field. The intention is to appraise selected practices in order to prepare the ground for a consideration of alternative images of environmental education that may shape future action. The following articles are included: (1) "A Political…

  3. Are Practical Prayers Pagan Prayers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Crump

    2009-01-01

    Despite the Apostle Paul's encouragement to `present your requests to God,' the NT contains few examples of petitionary prayer for the mundane concerns of daily life. The Jewish, Greco-Roman and magical practices of petitionary prayer are examined in order to explain the apparent incongruity between NT practice and teaching.

  4. Managing quality in hospital practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NORMAN S. WEINBERG; WILLIAM B. STASON

    1998-01-01

    Background. While routine clinical decision-making has a substantial effect on quality, most practising physicians do not routinely examine their outcomes. Objectives. To set up a practical process for identifying problems in hospital practices of primary care physicians, examine their causes, and develop a quality improvement process that intimately involves practising physicians in problem-solving. Design. All hospital admissions to the Primary

  5. DAPcentrism: Challenging Developmentally Appropriate Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn, Ed.

    This book examines the implications of existing learning theories for early childhood education, with a special emphasis on Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP). Chapter 1, "Challenging Developmentally Appropriate Practice: An Introduction (Marilyn Fleer), presents the debate and summarizes the remaining chapters. Chapter 2, "Does Cognition…

  6. Software ``Best'' Practices: Agile Deconstructed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven

    Software “best” practices depend entirely on context - in terms of the problem domain, the system constructed, the software designers, and the “customers” ultimately deriving value from the system. Agile practices no longer have the luxury of “choosing” small non-mission critical projects with co-located teams. Project stakeholders are selecting and adapting practices based on a combina tion of interest, need and staffing. For example, growing product portfolios through a merger or the acquisition of a company exposes legacy systems to new staff, new software integration challenges, and new ideas. Innovation in communications (tools and processes) to span the growth and contraction of both information and organizations, while managing the adoption of changing software practices, is imperative for success. Traditional web-based tools such as web pages, document libraries, and forums are not suf ficient. A blend of tweeting, blogs, wikis, instant messaging, web-based confer encing, and telepresence creates a new dimension of communication “best” practices.

  7. Physicians in Retainer (“Concierge”) Practice

    PubMed Central

    Caleb Alexander, G; Kurlander, Jacob; Wynia, Matthew K

    2005-01-01

    Background Retainer practices represent a new model of care whereby physicians charge an up-front fee for services that may not be covered by health insurance. The characteristics of these practices are largely unknown. Design, Setting, and Participants We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey of 144 retainer physicians (58% response rate) and a national random sample of 463 nonretainer physicians (50% response rate) to compare retainer and nonretainer practices. Outcomes of interest included physician demographics, size and case-mix of patient panel, services offered and, for retainer practices, characteristics of practice development. Results Retainer physicians have much smaller patient panels (mean 898 vs 2303 patients, P<.0001) than their nonretainer counterparts, and care for fewer African-American (mean 7% vs 16%, P<.002), Hispanic (4% vs 14%, P<.001), or Medicaid (5% vs 15%, P<.001) patients. Physicians in retainer practices are more likely to offer accompanied specialist visits (30% vs 1%), house calls (63% vs 26%), 24-hour direct physician access (91% vs 40%), and several other services (all P values <.05). Most retainer physicians (85%) converted from nonretainer practices but kept few of their former patients (mean 12%). Most retainer physicians (84%) provide charity care and many continue to see some patients (mean 17%) who do not pay retainer fees. Conclusions Despite differences between retainer and nonretainer practices, there is also substantial overlap in services provided. These findings, in conjunction with the scope of patient discontinuity when physicians transition to retainer practice, suggest that ethical and legal debates about the standing of these practices will endure. PMID:16423094

  8. Assessment in Youth Sport: Practical Issues and Best Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Brandonn S.; Blom, Lindsey C.; Visek, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is an important element to the present and future of sport psychology (McCann et al., 2002), both in science and in practice. Yet, there exist few resources addressing the unique developmental parameters facing sport scientists and sport practitioners when it comes to conducting sound assessment across the athletic lifespan. Indeed, this aspect of the literature remains particularly sparse with respect to youth sport assessment (Noble, 2011). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the practical issues and best practice guidelines pertaining to assessment during the provision of sport psychology services to children and adolescent athletes. PMID:24523567

  9. Cannabinoids in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E M; Evans, F J

    2000-12-01

    Cannabis has a potential for clinical use often obscured by unreliable and purely anecdotal reports. The most important natural cannabinoid is the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC); others include cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG). Not all the observed effects can be ascribed to THC, and the other constituents may also modulate its action; for example CBD reduces anxiety induced by THC. A standardised extract of the herb may be therefore be more beneficial in practice and clinical trial protocols have been drawn up to assess this. The mechanism of action is still not fully understood, although cannabinoid receptors have been cloned and natural ligands identified. Cannabis is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for muscle spasm and pain, and in an experimental model of MS low doses of cannabinoids alleviated tremor. Most of the controlled studies have been carried out with THC rather than cannabis herb and so do not mimic the usual clincal situation. Small clinical studies have confirmed the usefulness of THC as an analgesic; CBD and CBG also have analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, indicating that there is scope for developing drugs which do not have the psychoactive properties of THC. Patients taking the synthetic derivative nabilone for neurogenic pain actually preferred cannabis herb and reported that it relieved not only pain but the associated depression and anxiety. Cannabinoids are effective in chemotherapy-induced emesis and nabilone has been licensed for this use for several years. Currently, the synthetic cannabinoid HU211 is undergoing trials as a protective agent after brain trauma. Anecdotal reports of cannabis use include case studies in migraine and Tourette's syndrome, and as a treatment for asthma and glaucoma. Apart from the smoking aspect, the safety profile of cannabis is fairly good. However, adverse reactions include panic or anxiety attacks, which are worse in the elderly and in women, and less likely in children. Although psychosis has been cited as a consequence of cannabis use, an examination of psychiatric hospital admissions found no evidence of this, however, it may exacerbate existing symptoms. The relatively slow elimination from the body of the cannabinoids has safety implications for cognitive tasks, especially driving and operating machinery; although driving impairment with cannabis is only moderate, there is a significant interaction with alcohol. Natural materials are highly variable and multiple components need to be standardised to ensure reproducible effects. Pure natural and synthetic compounds do not have these disadvantages but may not have the overall therapeutic effect of the herb. PMID:11152013

  10. Practical Aspects of Faculty Practice: A Model for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Leanne C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In the nurse practitioner-managed primary health care clinic at Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, flexible faculty workloads have been established to facilitate faculty practice at the clinic. (Author/JOW)

  11. Clinical practice guidelines to inform evidence-based clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stuart Wolf; Heddy Hubbard; Martha M. Faraday; John B. Forrest

    2011-01-01

    Background  With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to\\u000a determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best\\u000a practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines\\u000a (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they

  12. Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

  13. Implementation of Boiler Best Practices

    E-print Network

    Blake, N. R.

    of the chosen treatment, monitoring, and instrumentation. Best practices provide energy savings, profitability improvement, reduction in total cost of operations, project management, optimized treatment choices, enhanced safety, system assessment processes...

  14. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Guide© 

    E-print Network

    Rouse, S.

    2001-01-01

    from 1994 to 2000; and • A variety of sources including other companies that demonstrate EE best practices. The criteria are sufficiently generic to apply across business units and are applicable to most situations. The Guide must continually evolve...

  15. Building Blueprints: Room To Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents Millikin University's (Decatur, IL) renovated School of Music facility that includes additional practice rooms and faculty studios, a computer-assisted instruction classroom, and a recording studio. Before-and-after photos are included. (GR)

  16. House Calls in Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Ronaele

    1985-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

  17. Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Updates by E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice Search the Consumer Updates ... Pharmacists Association. This includes skipping doses and splitting tablets in an effort to save money. Regarding the ...

  18. [The Christian virtues medical practice].

    PubMed

    de Santiago, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The return to an ethic of virtues in dialogue with the moral tradition of Medicine and biomedical ethics is the backbone of Pellegrino's proposed reform of medical ethics. The question why this author proposes this reform is answered in this paper that summarizes his book "The Christian Virtues in Medical Practice". Perceiving the changes in the practice of medicine in their country, Pellegrino and Thomasma, men of deep faith, concerned about the darkening of medical conscience and the intuition of danger to the Christian faith, they address the commitment of Christian physicians and those who join them in the mode and form of practicing medicine. Deeply loyal to the Gospel message, the book represents a wake-up call to the conscience of believing professionals, leading to a demanding, enriching and committed vision of the practice of medicine. PMID:24836038

  19. Online Active Learning in Practice

    E-print Network

    Monteleoni, Claire

    2007-01-23

    We compare the practical performance of several recently proposed algorithms for active learning in the online setting. We consider two algorithms (and their combined variants) that are strongly online, in that they do ...

  20. Advanced Policy Practice Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    policies within the frameworks of evidence-based practice and critical thinking course that focuses on the theory and evidence-based skill sets of policy actions to accomplish evidence-based policy outcomes. V. Course Rationale

  1. Negotiation Theory & Practice Michael Alvarez

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    · Communication Key!! (95%) non-verbal, temporal, thoughtful, attentive listening · Commitment (giveNegotiation Theory & Practice Michael Alvarez Stanford School of Medicine Career Center Julie reserved February 16, 2006 #12;Definition American Heritage Dictionary · Negotiation (v.) To confer

  2. Implementation of Boiler Best Practices 

    E-print Network

    Blake, N. R.

    2000-01-01

    Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient, economical operation can significantly affect the reliability and profitability of the entire plant. Best Practices for Boilers include tools to determine where a plant...

  3. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge. PMID:24679179

  4. [Common obstetric practices in Niger].

    PubMed

    Vangeenderhuysen, C; Olivier de Sardan, J P; Moumouni, A; Souley, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe common practices and representations concerning pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care in Niger. We interviewed everyone involved in antenatal care and delivery in 12 villages. We describe here common practices for diagnosis of pregnancy, antenatal care, normal and problem deliveries and postnatal care. Our findings raise questions about maternal health policies in developing countries, which do not always fully take into account the requirements of the population. PMID:9794036

  5. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team. PMID:26062328

  6. 29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...attend because of his or her religious practices, the user of the test...accommodate the applicant's religious practices without undue hardship...opportunities of persons with certain religious practices. The use of such...

  7. 42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

  8. 42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

  9. 42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

  10. 42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

  11. 42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

  12. Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

  13. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture ...the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically clean means that, from the viewpoint of general...

  14. Best practice techniques for environmental radiological monitoring

    E-print Network

    Best practice techniques for environmental radiological monitoring Science Report ­ SC030308/SR SCHO0407BMNL-E-P #12;ii Science Report Best Practice Techniques for Environmental Radiological. S Dissemination Status: Publicly available Keywords: Radiological monitoring, Best Practice, Standards, Guidelines

  15. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20...equitable opportunity to observe their religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget...

  16. Teaching reflective practice in practice settings: students' perceptions of their clinical educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franziska Trede; Megan Smith

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice potential not being realised. This study explored final year physiotherapy students' perceptions of clinical educators as

  17. Teaching Reflective Practice in Practice Settings: Students' Perceptions of Their Clinical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice

  18. Enhancing reflective practice through online learning: impact on clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Sim, J; Radloff, A

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Traditionally, radiographers and radiation therapists function in a workplace environment that is protocol-driven with limited functional autonomy. The workplace promotes a culture of conformity and discourages practitioners from reflective and critical thinking, essential attributes for continuing learning and advancing workplace practices. As part of the first author’s doctoral study, a continuing professional development (CPD) educational framework was used to design and implement an online module for radiation therapists’ CPD activities. The study aimed to determine if it is possible to enhance healthcare practitioners’ reflective practice via online learning and to establish the impact of reflective learning on clinical practice. Materials and methods The objectives of the online module were to increase radiation therapists’ knowledge in planning for radiation therapy for the breast by assisting them engage in reflective practice. The cyclical process of action research was used to pilot the module twice with two groups of volunteer radiation therapists (twenty-six participants) from Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Results The online module was evaluated using Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. Evidence indicated that participants were empowered as a result of participation in the module. They began reflecting in the workplace while assuming a more proactive role and increased clinical responsibilities, engaged colleagues in collaborative reflections and adopted evidence-based approaches in advancing clinical practices. Conclusion The study shows that it is possible to assist practitioners engage in reflective practice using an online CPD educational framework. Participants were able to apply the reflective learning they had developed in their workplace. As a result of their learning, they felt empowered to continue to effect changes in their workplace beyond the cessation of the online module. PMID:21614319

  19. [Websites of dental practices evaluated].

    PubMed

    Poorterman, J H G; Tjiook, S P; Moeijes, S F S; Brand, H S

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, a dental practice without a website is almost unthinkable. Using a sample of309 dentists drawn from the list of members of the Dutch Dental Association in 2012, a study was carried out to find out whether the dental practice of the general dental practitioner had a website. The content of each website was subsequently inventoried using a questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent of the dental practices had a website. The content of the websites, however, varied enormously. An element such as the professional registration number with a reference to the professional register were absent in 73% of the websites and the date of the most recent update of the website was mentioned only once. The name of the dentist, his or her professional qualification and an email address were missing on respectively 9%, 20% and 9% of the websites. Contracts of the practice with insurance companies were rarely clearly indicated. The websites of many practices would benefit considerably from a significant improvement. PMID:24881254

  20. Mycorrhizal fungi + trees -- practical beneficial tools for mineland reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Cordell, C.E.; Marx, D.H.; Jenkins, B.

    1996-12-31

    Successful consistent revegetation of drastically disturbed sites (i.e., acid coal spoils and mineral waste dumps) throughout the US and several foreign countries has been achieved by using the biological {open_quotes}tools{close_quotes} -- Mycor Tree {trademark} seedlings and native shrub and grass species. These unique plants are custom-grown in bareroot and container nurseries with selected mycorrhizal fungi. On disturbed sites, specific mycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus tinctorius (PT) or VAM provide significant benefits to the plant symbionts through increased water and nutrient absorption, decreased toxic materials absorption, and overall plant stress reduction. During the past 15 years, the Ohio Division of Reclamation--Abandoned Minelands Project (AML) has utilized the combination of the PT fungus and reforestation to significantly improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of AML projects. Since 1981, over 3.5 million PT-inoculated pine and oak seedlings have been planted on approximately 2,500 acres of unreclaimed AML sites. Tree survival has averaged over 85 percent in the PT-inoculated tree plantings with few failures as compared with less than 50% survival and over 75% failures in previous plantings with the same noninoculated tree species. From 1981 to 1995, the 2,348 acres reclaimed in Ohio have cost approximately $832,000.00. Traditional reclamation would have cost approximately $14 million and represents a 94% cost reduction. The total PT reforestation cost in 1995 was $354.00 per acre and the added cost of the PT-inoculated seedlings is approximately 13% ($45.00/acre) or $.03 per seedling. This is a minute expense when compared to conventional AML reclamation costs ($6,000/acre). Interest in the application of this natural environmentally-friendly technology to mineland reclamation programs throughout the US and abroad is expanding.

  1. What makes distributed practice effective?

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The advantages provided to memory by the distribution of multiple practice or study opportunities are among the most powerful effects in memory research. In this paper, we critically review the class of theories that presume contextual or encoding variability as the sole basis for the advantages of distributed practice, and recommend an alternative approach based on the idea that some study events remind learners of other study events. Encoding variability theory encounters serious challenges in two important phenomena that we review here: superadditivity and nonmonotonicity. The bottleneck in such theories lies in the assumption that mnemonic benefits arise from the increasing independence, rather than interdependence, of study opportunities. The reminding model accounts for many basic results in the literature on distributed practice, readily handles data that are problematic for encoding variability theories, including superadditivity and nonmonotonicity, and provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding the effects of repetition and the effects of associative relationships on memory. PMID:20580350

  2. Autism: From Research to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Autism is the most commonly studied of a spectrum of developmental disorders that are believed to be neurobiologically based but which, at this point, for lack of good biomarkers, are defined purely by behavior. In the last 20 years, the definition of autism has shifted in emphasis from extreme aloofness and positive signs of abnormality in repetitive and sensori-motor behaviors to a greater awareness of the importance of more subtle reciprocal social-communication deficits as core features. Standard diagnostic instruments were developed for research purposes to acquire information both through caregiver interviews and direct clinical observation. Use of these instruments in clinical practice resulted in major improvements which in turn affected research results. These results yielded further improvements that led to changes in clinical practice over time. The synergism between research and clinical practice in the understanding of autism is discussed. PMID:21058793

  3. Moral competence in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Jormsri, Pantip; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Ketefian, Shaké; Chaowalit, Aranya

    2005-11-01

    This article presents the derivation of moral competence in nursing practice by identifying its attributes founded on Thai culture. In this process moral competence is formed and based on the Thai nursing value system, including personal, social and professional values. It is then defined and its three dimensions (moral perception, judgment and behavior) are also identified. Additionally, eight attributes as indicators of moral competence are identified and selected from three basic values. The eight attributes are loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, equanimity, responsibility, discipline, honesty, and respect for human values, dignity and rights. All attributes are discussed by addressing the three moral dimensions in order to present how to deal with ethical issues in nursing practice. As a summary, a model of moral competence is presented to demonstrate moral competence in nursing practice in Thailand. PMID:16312087

  4. MEDICAL GROUP PRACTICE IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Weinerman, E. Richard

    1952-01-01

    A 1950 study of group practice in California reveals 52 “true general medical groups” among 123 medical organizations surveyed, involving 634 full-time and 215 part-time physicians. The groups, in contrast to the national patterns, tend to be larger, younger and more urban. There is also a greater tendency toward unit hospital affiliation (30 groups) and operation of group prepayment plans (10 groups). In general similarity to the national scene, California groups are most frequently organized as private partnerships with a salary method of remuneration sometimes augmented by a share of net earnings. The range of medical and technical services offered varies widely with the size of the group. The combination of group prepayment, medical group practice, and coordinated medical-hospital centers seems to offer special opportunities for satisfactory practice and adequate medical care. PMID:18731820

  5. Medical practice and related insurance.

    PubMed

    Chormunge, Vijay; Pawar, Vasantrao; Patil, Ajay

    2012-03-01

    The liability of a doctor as regards medical negligence is now a well accepted eventuality. However still many doctors and hospitals are unaware of their liability on account of negligence on the part of their junior doctors and hospital staff. Indemnity insurance specifically protects you against your liability to pay compensation including legal costs, fees or expenses. If court orders to pay compensation for negligence of patient and you have a valid insurance cover, the insurance company is supposed to pay the money. In the present text we are highlighting the medical practice related insurance such as personal indemnity insurance, error and omission policy for hospital and nursing homes and insurance policy related to damage to hospital building, damage to electrical and electronics appliances and also insurance for doctor's kit, signboard, burglary, fidelity guarantee and loss of money in transit. All this medical practice related insurance is explained with its present charges, terms and conditions and its importance in today's practice. PMID:23029950

  6. Roots of Art Education Practice. Art Education in Practice Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, Mary Ann

    This book is a thematic history that puts art instruction during the 19th and early 20th centuries into educational, artistic, and social contexts. The book states that the stage on which many art teachers perform is the public school classroom. It explains that art education developed its professional practices in tandem with the development of…

  7. Family practice clinics. Survey of family practice residents' attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, H.; Levitt, C.

    1993-01-01

    All residents of McGill University's Department of Family Medicine were surveyed by mail about their family practice clinic experience. Residents were generally satisfied with their training site and their supervision, but noted problems with volume and diversity of patients, learning certain procedures, and knowledge of community resources. They did not want more family medicine clinic time. PMID:8219838

  8. HEALTH POLICY AND SYSTEMS Nurses' Practice Environments, Error Interception Practices,

    E-print Network

    Xie, Minge

    , & Leape, 2001; Rothschild et al., 2005). Yet, despite studies illuminating the critical role of nurses hospitals. Registered nurses (RNs) on the 82 units were surveyed, producing a sample of 686 staff nurses. Importantly, nurses' interception practices were inversely associated with medication error rates. Conclusions

  9. Optimizing Distributed Practice: Theoretical Analysis and Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Mozer, Michael C,; Pashler, Harold

    2009-01-01

    More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary,…

  10. The Challenge of Establishing a Professional Practice within Practical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hřjbjerg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    "Clinical teachers" in the discipline of nursing in Denmark undergo additional education in addition to their registered nursing education to establish their teaching skill qualifications practicum. This ethnographic study examines some of the pedagogical initiatives clinical teachers are practicing as working professionals attempting to…

  11. Private Practice: Exploring the Missing Social Dimension in "Reflective Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2012-01-01

    In professional education today, Schon's concept of "reflective practice" underpins much thinking about learning at work. This approach--with its emphasis on the inner life of the professional and on her own interpretations of her learning experiences--is increasingly being challenged: often cited objections are that the model ignores factors like…

  12. Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

  13. Diabetes-Related Goals, Practices, and Beliefs of Practicing Pediatricians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Rodney A.; Pichert, James W.

    1982-01-01

    Practicing pediatricians were surveyed to assess their need for diabetes education programs. Pediatricians generally have fewer than five diabetic patients, see them less than every four months, prescribe single daily insulin injections, and do not include diatetic services in the treatment program. No adequate rationale for continuing education…

  14. Task Analysis Strategies and Practices. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Worker-oriented, job-oriented, and cognitive task analyses have all been used as tools for closing the gap between what curriculum teaches and what workers do. Although they share a commonality of purpose, the focus, cost, and practicality of task analysis techniques vary. Worker-oriented task analysis focuses on general human behaviors required…

  15. Schools as Clinics: Learning about Practice in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Robin; Rong, Yuhang

    2014-01-01

    The Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut is committed to the intentionality of interweaving course work and practice in its 5-year teacher preparation program, the Integrated Bachelor's and Master's program. It offers a wide range of field experiences to teacher candidates. Teacher candidates enter the program at the…

  16. Performance management in small practices.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan P

    2005-01-01

    Performance management, variably referred to as corporate, business, or enterprise performance management, has traditionally been viewed as a strategy to achieve an optimum mix of solvency, quality, safety, and patient satisfaction in large healthcare organizations. Now, however, with the readily available data from government and nonprofit organizations promoting quality health care and affordable business intelligence tools, small practices can adopt management strategies, tools, and techniques once limited to corporate executives. With a modest investment in self-assessment and affordable analysis tools, a small practice can benefit from a scaled-down version of the performance management initiatives in place at the leading health-care organizations. PMID:15921133

  17. Making acquired physician practices profitable.

    PubMed

    Bolinger, J E; Hough, D E

    1997-02-01

    Many healthcare organizations that acquire physician practices do not realize a return on their investments. Instead, acquisitions often create excess capacity, drive up costs, and reduce an organization's ability to attract managed care contracts. Healthcare systems that acquire physician practices can help ensure that the acquisitions will be profitable by recognizing the benefits and eliminating the barriers to integration, developing a shared strategic vision, developing a progressive governance policy, implementing sound financial management, and achieving critical mass over which to spread fixed costs. PMID:10164880

  18. AHDS Guides to Good Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eiteljorg, Harrison.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service Project, this Guide to Good Practice covers computer-aided design (CAD). It is a free online handbook "for individuals and organisations involved in the creation, maintenance, use, and long-term preservation of CAD-based digital resources in the humanities." Rather than focusing on a specific software application and situation, the guide discusses a wide range of CAD tools and practices, offering an introduction upon which CAD users can build. The seven chapters describe hardware and software choices, data capturing and documentation, and archiving processes.

  19. Software ``Best'' Practices: Agile Deconstructed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven

    This workshop will explore the intersection of agility and software development in a world of legacy code-bases and large teams. Organizations with hundreds of developers and code-bases exceeding a million or tens of millions of lines of code are seeking new ways to expedite development while retaining and attracting staff who desire to apply “agile” methods. This is a situation where specific agile practices may be embraced outside of their usual zone of applicability. Here is where practitioners must understand both what “best practices” already exist in the organization - and how they might be improved or modified by applying “agile” approaches.

  20. Postinfectious Arthritis in Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    PLESCA, Doina Anca; LUMINOS, Monica; SPATARIU, Luminita; STEFANESCU, Mihaela; CINTEZA, Eliza; BALGRADEAN, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Postinfectious arthritis is a relatively often encountered in pediatric practice. The authors present the most important data concerneing this pathology, with up to date informations exemplifying with case presentations. Clinical cases bring to attention the most common forms of postinfectious arthritis (reactive arthritis, postinfectious arthritis bacterial, viral, spirochete, and so on). Although highly studied and commonly found in current pediatric practice, arthritis occurring after infections remains controversial entities, especially regarding terminology. While, according to some authors, postinfectious arthritis belongs to the large group of reactive arthritis, by other authors, these joint events are independent entities. PMID:24371480

  1. Practice Theory: Viewing Leadership as Leading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jane; Kemmis, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Theodore Schatzki's "societist" approach--in which he advocates a notion of "site ontologies"--in this article, we outline our theory of practice architectures (a theory about what practices are composed of) and ecologies of practices (how practices relate to one another). Drawing on case studies of four Australian…

  2. Decision support in practice Bojan Cestnik 1

    E-print Network

    Bohanec, Marko

    1 Decision support in practice Bojan Cestnik 1 Decision support in practice: two case studies.cestnik@temida.si Decision support in practice Bojan Cestnik 2 Contents · Case 1: Supporting a housing loan tender ­ Results · Some additional cases Decision support in practice Bojan Cestnik 3 Good decision-making skills

  3. Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification KEY FACTS Module Code: RCM005 Department: Evidence Based Practice Summary Description Evidence based practice is an approach to clinical problem solving and health care provision based on "good evidence". The purpose of evidence based practice

  4. Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

  5. Positive Health Practices of Urban Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, MaryAnn; Whalen, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors related to health practices of urban minority adolescents. Participant surveys highlighted positive correlations between social support and positive health practices and hope and positive health practices. There was no significant relationship between self-esteem and positive health practices. Implications for school nursing…

  6. WAIS practice effects in clinical neuropsychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Shatz

    1981-01-01

    A recent review (Matarazzo, Carmody, & Jacobs, 1980) has focused attention on the issue of WAIS practice effects in clinical practice. Available literature suggests that WAIS practice effects in many samples of patients with neuropsychological dysfunction are minimal. Data relevant to this hypothesis are reviewed. Practical guidelines for the interpretation of test-retest changes on the WAIS in neuropsychological assessment are

  7. Organising Communities-of-Practice: Facilitating Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne; Petter, Christian; de Laat, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The notion of communities of practice (CoP) has received great attention in educational and organisational practice and research. Although the concept originally refers to collaborative practices that emerge naturally, educational and HRD practitioners are increasingly searching for ways to create these practices intentionally in order to…

  8. Contemplative Practices in Human Services Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jacqueline M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the correlation between human services practice and stress and examines the use of contemplative practices in the classroom as a way to teach self-care. The chapter also discusses ways in which contemplative practices can be incorporated as a critical component of human services education. Examples include stillness practices

  9. The efficient, enjoyable, and profitable orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Bert, Jack M

    2002-04-01

    For the practicing orthopedist to achieve his personal practice goals of developing an efficient, enjoyable, profitable orthopedic practice, he must commit himself to restructuring his practice environment. This restructuring involves bringing in-house as many ancillary services as the practice can support, creating efficiencies in the clinic and surgical practice, and increasing the size of the group to attempt to exert some control of the payers in the marketplace. By doing so, the orthopedist will improve the quality of his practice, increase his income, and dramatically improve the quality of his life. PMID:12122842

  10. Optimizing Java Theory and Practice

    E-print Network

    Budimliæ, Zoran

    Optimizing Java Theory and Practice Zoran Budimlic Ken Kennedy Rice University Computer Science popularity of the Internet has made an instant star of the Java programming language. Java's portability Java implementation, even with just­in­time compilation technology, is far behind the most popular

  11. Cortical Thickness: Practicalities and Comparisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Perlman

    2007-01-01

    In Part I, some practical aspects of cortical thickness analysis are examined, using the software package Freesurfer. Repeatability of surface measurements and intra-subject surface alignment are tested, and optimization is discussed. In Part II, the thickness measurements gen- erated by Freesurfer are compared with the thickness measurements generated by solving Laplace's Equation in the cortical ribbon.

  12. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  13. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  14. Ethical Practices for College Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    A policy statement on ethical practices for college presidents developed by the Committee on Governance of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) is presented. Presidents of AASCU member institutions recognize the special responsibilities that pertain to them by virtue of the public trust they hold. To fulfill that…

  15. A Conservation Practices for Conserving

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    A Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Conservation Catalog is a cooperative effort of the Pennsylvania Conservation Partnership which

  16. Management Practices in Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Five articles on management practices in dental schools include: "Overview" (Robert W. Comer et al.); "Patient Support Services" (Betsy A. Hagan et al.); "Health and Financial Records" (Robert W. Comer et al.); "Support Services and Staff Responsibilities" (Wayne William Herman et al.) and "Implications and Future Challenges" (Robert W. Comer et…

  17. Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as

  18. Adolescent Literacy Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jetton, Tamara L., Ed.; Dole, Janice A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book addresses the role of literacy instruction in enhancing content area learning and fostering student motivation and success well beyond the primary grades. The unique literacy needs of middle school and secondary students are thoroughly examined and effective practices and interventions identified. Reviewing the breadth of current…

  19. Narrative Inquiry: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi; Van Niekerk, Lana

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the method of narrative inquiry and explores competing trends in the use of the approach. It not only examines the theories relating to the method but also offers practical guidance on using narrative inquiry, including an exploration of what might count as a narrative and ways of analysing narrative data. The…

  20. Best Practices in ELL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guofang, Ed.; Edwards, Patricia A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, prominent authorities review the latest research on all aspects of ELL instruction (K-12) and identify what works for today's students and schools. Provided are best-practice guidelines for targeting reading, writing, oral language, vocabulary, content-domain literacies, and other core skill areas; assessing culturally and…

  1. [Rediscovering practical knowledge in nursing].

    PubMed

    Medina Moya, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    The author demythologizes some arguments which blamed the victim and he works on the path to rediscover practical knowledge in nursing in the sense that a nurse becomes a "constructor" or a "maker" of knowledge and not a mere applicator of knowledge. PMID:16130684

  2. Exemplary Practices in Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwhistle, Amy; Lefkovitz, Bina; Meehan, Dorothy; Needham, Heather; Paul, Andy

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Sierra Health Foundation's Board of Directors selected school-aged youth as the target for its next focused grantmaking effort. As part of the program research and development phase, staff and consultants examined evidenced-based practices that appear promising in positively affecting adolescent health and development for young people…

  3. Reflections on Practice: Classroom Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Bataineh, Adel; David, Laura; Hamann, Steven; Wiegel, Laura

    Student disengagement and overuse of direct instruction can result in lack of student motivation. This paper reflects on the practice of 4th and 5th grade teachers at a suburban elementary school that includes diverse, mainly low- and middle-income students. Because of the diversity, motivation has been very important to the school. The paper…

  4. The Professional Practice of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwille, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring of novice teachers has become a prevalent component of programs that help beginning teachers. A conceptualization of mentoring practice that rests on a shared vision of good mentoring, however, needs to be developed so that novice teachers receive more than emotional support or professional socialization. Knowing how to be a good mentor…

  5. Practical bit loading for DMT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Campello

    1999-01-01

    In a previous work by Campello (see International Symposium on Information Theory, p.193, p.12-16, 1998), necessary and sufficient conditions for a discrete bit assignment to be the solution to the discrete bit loading problems were derived. In the present work, we make use of these results to derive fast algorithms that can be efficiently implemented in practice

  6. NETWORK SCIENCE Theory and Practice

    E-print Network

    Chen, Guanrong "Ron"

    NETWORK SCIENCE Theory and Practice TED G. LEWIS Professor of Computer Science Naval Postgraduate of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Lewis, T. G. (Theodore Gyle), 1941- Network science : theory Bristor, Ryan "Buying networks" Ľ application of network science to model economic system 1990 Guare

  7. Practice Exercises for Algebra Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exercises posted on this web site offer an opportunity for students to evaluate how much they have retained in various subjects of Algebra. Topics covered include geometry, functions, vectors, and statistics. There are corresponding lessons and solutions to each practice exercise. Also, the site contains useful tools such as graphs and spreadsheet modeling exercises to help students better visualize and understanding algebra concepts.

  8. Mentoring Program Practices and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Amy W.; Sullivan, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Philadelphia's Sponsor-a-Scholar program pairs high school students with adults who guide them in preparing for the future. The program shows that there is little certainty about what constitutes best practice; that the complex task of mentoring requires a gamut of skills; and that support services for both mentors and proteges are essential. (SK)

  9. Chinese Business Practices and Culture

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    and culture, interact with Chinese students and businesses followed by a 5 day business visit to internationalMGMT228 Chinese Business Practices and Culture School of Business and Economics 2014business Costs information on the course, or to apply: email: jeremy.orourke@canterbury.ac.nz web: www.bsec.canterbury.ac.nz/international-business

  10. Art Practice as Prosthetic Visuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoian, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture I explore and conceptualize the anomalous spaces of perception and memory in art practice and research where experimental and alternative discourses and pedagogies can emerge. I argue that the instabilities and slippages between what is visible and invisible, known and unknown, in these spaces enable insightful and multivalent ways…

  11. Queering evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien W. Riggs

    2011-01-01

    That which is currently understood as evidence-based practice within the discipline of psychology primarily relies upon a positivist interpretation of the world around us. Although such an interpretation may be argued by some to be useful, others argue that it fails to recognise the impact of social contexts and the role they play in producing particular negative mental health outcomes

  12. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  13. Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodheart, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

  14. Evaluating Screening Performance in Practice

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) is an ongoing effort to improve understanding of breast cancer screening practices in the United States and their relation to changes in stage at diagnosis, survival, or breast cancer mortality. The BCSC is funded and coordinated by the Applied Research Program of the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences.

  15. PREPARING STUDENTS FOR FAMILY PRACTICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris Kissman; Kathleen Tunney

    2001-01-01

    This paper highlights the content of a course designed to prepare students for family practice, with emphasis on mothers as primary caregivers. A model is presented of relatively healthy family interactions characterized by co-parenting and equitable division of labor in the home. The strengths perspective is applied to family prac- tice with mother-headed families where noncustodial fathers share responsibilities for

  16. Good Practice in Blackboard Design

    E-print Network

    11 Good Practice in Blackboard Design A new Blackboard module template was launched in 2013. Áine Galvin is the Director of UCD Teaching and Learning and her role in the redesign of the Blackboard module or find teaching material in Blackboard. Lecturers had different methods for managing the online content

  17. Enhancing practice Quality Enhancement Themes

    E-print Network

    Azzopardi, Leif

    Enhancing practice Quality Enhancement Themes: The First Year Experience Transforming assessment and feedback: enhancing integration and empowerment in the first year #12;© The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education 2009 ISBN 978 1 84482 901 9 All Enhancement Themes publications are also available

  18. Mindfulness Meditation in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra; Weissbecker, Inka; Hoover, Katherine; Ulmer, Christi; Studts, Jamie L.

    2004-01-01

    The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…

  19. Faculty Research and Publication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Kate; Hines, Samantha; Keenan, Teressa; Samson, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Understanding faculty work practices can translate into improved library services. This study documents how education and behavioral science faculty locate, retrieve, and use information resources for research and writing and how they publish and store their research materials. The authors interviewed twelve professors using a structured interview…

  20. The Social Work Practice Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartocollis, Lina; Cnaan, Ram A.; Ledwith, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a systematic review of the emerging practice doctorate in social work. Based on the experience of the first such Doctor of Social Work (DSW) program, we provide information regarding the program origins and rationale, development, current structure, and future direction. Such information will enrich the discussion on the role…

  1. Educational Management: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the…

  2. Parent Involvement as Ritualized Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual…

  3. Progressions and Sums Putnam Practice

    E-print Network

    Albert, John

    Progressions and Sums Putnam Practice October 6, 2004 An arithmetic progression is a sequence progression. 6. Show that if a, b, c are positive numbers such that a2, b2, c2 are in arithmetic progression, then 1 b + c , 1 c + a , 1 a + b are in arithmetic progression. 2 #12;

  4. Survey of Test Security Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrens, William A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The test security policies and practices of state departments of education were investigated in a survey responded to by 46 states for 1989-90. The most detailed test security procedures have been implemented when test stakes are highest. Complex procedures are only considered cost effective in large-scale programs. (SLD)

  5. Mr. Martini's Classroom - Math Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Martini's Classroom is designed to give elementary-school students the opportunity to practice and reinforce math skills online. The whole spectrum of K-8 math topics is covered - multiplication, division, fractions, decimals, geometry, pre-algebra, and kids math facts. Online tools include math flash cards and self-correcting quick quizzes. There are also printable math worksheets.

  6. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  7. Stories, cases, and practical wisdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Gillespie

    1996-01-01

    We discuss in this journal what we hope will engage readers in a range of questions about the potential uses of cases and stories in initiating and maintaining reflections about teaching practice. By beginning with an event description and then watching as it is transformed into a story with commentary and then again into a case with commentary we attempt

  8. Practical Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Geyer

    1992-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a general method for the simulation of stochastic processes having probability densities known up to a constant of proportionality. Despite recent advances in its theory, the practice has remained controversial. This article makes the case for basing all inference on one long run of the Markov chain and estimating the Monte

  9. Paradigm Shifts: Considerations for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fred B.; Caple, Richard B. (Eds.)

    1985-01-01

    In part one, changes in counseling theory from the perspectives of the self-organization paradigm, quantum theory, and sex-role development are discussed. In part two, the change structure of counseling practice is discussed, including articles on uses of imagery, dream therapy, metaphors, learning style, voluntary self-regulation, and…

  10. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  11. Add grace to psychiatric practice

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Shobha V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The uniqueness of mindset of an individual makes psychiatric practice interesting, sensitive, and at times subjective. The practice in setup of an organization makes the situation more complex in view of administrative regulations, existing work culture, and issues like confidentiality, etc., Dilemmas are often faced while balancing loyalty between an organization and the patients, values of the therapist and the patient, and different dimension of justice coming from different cultural backgrounds of the patients and the treating doctors. A lot of mental work needs to be put in by the practitioner to consistently adhere to medical ethics and professional approach for taking key decisions despite of contradictory external forces from within and without. Aims: I thought of sharing my experiences especially in setup of an organization with my colleagues so that the decision-taking process becomes somewhat easy and balancing for them. Settings and Design: I have to try to interpret my clinical experiences gathered while working with my patients from the Department of Atomic Energy as well as from my private practice. Conclusion: The need of psycho education to self and others from time to time never ceases simply to make the practice more objective, justified, and graceful. PMID:23825861

  12. Implementation of Job Development Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Alberto; Butterworth, John; Nord, Derek; Cox, Monica; Gelb, Amy

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which employment consultants implemented job development practices recommended in the literature when assisting job seekers with intellectual or developmental disabilities. We contacted 83 employment consultants from 25 employment programs in Minnesota and Connecticut. Fifty-nine participants were eligible and…

  13. Best Practice in Preschool Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Wanska, Susan K.

    This brief guide outlines best practices in preschool screening for the presence of possible disabilities. It covers: a definition of screening, its history, the rationale for screening, requirements for effective screening measures (reliability, validity, fairness, utility), models for preschool screening, evaluation of screening procedures, and…

  14. Distributed Cognition and Educational Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasavvidis, Ilias

    2002-01-01

    Presents a historical overview of ideas related to distributed cognition. Highlights include distributed cognition in cognitive science and in educational psychology; the influence of cultural-historical psychology; and implications for educational practice, including curriculum revision, social dimensions, and learning processes. (Author/LRW)

  15. Chinese Business Practices and Culture

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    · No language requirement, although you will have a great opportunity to practice your Mandarin skills during 15 students; max 30 Basic info #12;· China is currently the world's 2nd largest economy · Economic businesses engage Chinese consumers ­ Increase your cultural awareness ­ Learn basic customs and a little bit

  16. Promising Practices in Community Colleges

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    ESL program at City College of San Francisco (CCSF)  79 Accelerated Careers in Technology (ESL faculty and staff.   Vocational Program   Accelerated Careers in Technology (ESL program at CCSF where  program practices help close the achievement  gap.     Accelerated Careers in  Technology (

  17. Participatory Practices in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

    Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

  18. Interleaved Practice Improves Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Dedrick, Robert F.; Stershic, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A typical mathematics assignment consists primarily of practice problems requiring the strategy introduced in the immediately preceding lesson (e.g., a dozen problems that are solved by using the Pythagorean Theorem). This means that students know which strategy is needed to solve each problem before they read the problem. In an alternative…

  19. Practical Fast Searching in Strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nigel Horspool

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The problem of searching through text to find a specified substring is considered in a practical setting. It is discovered that a method developed by Boyer and Moore can outperform even special-purpose search instructions that may be built into the, computer hardware. For very short substrings however, these special purpose instructions are fastest-provided that they are used in an

  20. Practice acquisition: a due diligence checklist. HFMA Principles and Practices Board.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    As healthcare executives act to form integrated healthcare systems that encompass entities such as physician-hospital organizations and medical group practices, they often discover that practical guidance on acquiring physician practices is scarce. To address the need for authoritative guidance on practice acquisition, HFMA's Principles and Practices Board has developed a detailed analysis of physician practices acquisition issues, Issues Analysis 95-1: Acquisition of Physician Practices. This analysis includes a detailed due diligence checklist developed to assist both healthcare financial managers involved in acquiring physician practices and physician owners interested in selling their practices. PMID:10152893

  1. How Do Teachers Reason about Their Practice? Representing the Epistemic Nature of Teachers' Practical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholami, Khalil; Husu, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the epistemology of teachers' practical knowledge by addressing the following research question: how do teachers attempt to reason about their practices and their practical knowledge? The results indicated that teachers supported their practical knowledge claims using the "practical argument". Within this conceptual…

  2. Legislating Clinical Practice: Counselor Responses to an Evidence-Based Practice Mandate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci Rieckmann; Luke Bergmann; Caitlin Rasplica

    2011-01-01

    The demand to connect research findings with clinical practice for patients with substance use disorders has accelerated state and federal efforts focused on implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). One unique state driven strategy is Oregon's Evidence-Based Practice mandate, which ties state funds to specific treatment practices. Clinicians play an essential role in implementation of shifts in practice patterns and use

  3. Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire: Validation of a New Measure of Parental Feeding Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dara Musher-Eizenman; Shayla Holub

    2007-01-01

    Objective Measures of parents' feeding practices have focused primarily on parental control of feeding and have not sufficiently measured other potentially important practices. The current study validates a new measure of feeding practices, the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Method The first study validated a 9-factor feeding practice scale for mothers and fathers. In the second study, open-ended questions solicited

  4. Master of Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice Degrees in Advanced Practice Nursing & Health

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Master of Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice Degrees in Advanced Practice Nursing & Health Systems and Organizational Leadership For the love of practice #12;An advanced practice registered nurse nurses is that a significant component of the education and practice focuses on direct care

  5. Concordance with clinical practice guidelines for dementia in general practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Wilcock; Steve Iliffe; Stephen Turner; Michelle Bryans; Ronan O’Carroll; John Keady; Enid Levin; Murna Downs

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dementia is said to be under-recognized and sub-optimally managed in primary care, but there is little information about actual processes of diagnosis and clinical care.Aim: To determine general practitioners’ concordance with clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and management of patients with dementia.Design: Unblinded, cluster randomized pre-test–post-test controlled trial involving 35 practices in the UK.Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of

  6. Sustainable Land Management

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Crop-Livestock Management - Pastoralism and Rangeland Management - Sustainable Planted Forest;Best practices ­ 13 groups - Integrated Soil Fertility Management - Conservation Agriculture - Rainwater Harvesting - Smallholder Irrigation Management - Cross-Slope Barriers - Agroforestry - Integrated

  7. Implementing and practicing reliability engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P. [Process Machinery Consulting, Montgomery, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Few, if any, of the many re-organization and re-engineering efforts are guided by a thorough understanding of the key ingredients of Best-of-Class reliability organizations. To these Best-of-Class performers, reliability improvement is not an afterthought; instead, it`s their going-in position. They know to what extent, in which degree of detail, and at what levels of the organization their operators, mechanical-technical and project-technical work force members must communicate, plan, act, challenge or implement reliability concepts in sometimes proactive and, at other times, reactive fashion. Best-of-Class maintenance and reliability organizations will inevitably display a number of attributes which are often lacking in the less profitable, or less efficiently run companies. Listed here are highlights of the reliability engineering concepts, work practices and functional interfaces pursued, practiced and implemented by the leaders of the pack.

  8. Physical activity: practice this idea.

    PubMed

    Guimarăes, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  9. Surrogacy in modern obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Celia; Edozien, Leroy C

    2014-10-01

    Surrogacy is rising in profile and prevalence, which means that perinatal care providers face an increasing likelihood of encountering a case in their clinical practice. Rapidly expanding scientific knowledge (for example, fetal programming) and technological advances (for example, prenatal screening and diagnosis) pose challenges in the management of the surrogate mother; in particular, they could exacerbate conflict between the interests of the baby, the surrogate mother, and the intending parent(s). Navigating these often-tranquil-but-sometimes-stormy waters is facilitated if perinatal care providers are aware of the relevant ethical, legal, and service delivery issues. This paper describes the ethical and legal context of surrogacy, and outlines key clinical practice issues in management of the surrogate mother. PMID:25175320

  10. Reflections in the clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. PMID:24468001

  11. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Pancotti, Anthony; Haag, Thomas; King, Scott; Walker, Mitchell; Blakely, Joseph; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, direct measurement of thrust or impulse is one of the most critical elements of electric thruster characterization, and one of the most difficult measurements to make. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has started an initiative to develop standards for many important measurement processes in electric propulsion, including thrust measurements. This paper summarizes recommended practices for the design, calibration, and operation of pendulum thrust stands, which are widely recognized as the best approach for measuring micro N- to mN-level thrust and micro Ns-level impulse bits. The fundamentals of pendulum thrust stand operation are reviewed, along with its implementation in hanging pendulum, inverted pendulum, and torsional balance configurations. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Sources of error are identified and methods for data processing and uncertainty analysis are discussed. This review is intended to be the first step toward a recommended practices document to help the community produce high quality thrust measurements.

  12. Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.R. (ed.)

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

  13. Combining accounting approaches to practice valuation.

    PubMed

    Schwartzben, D; Finkler, S A

    1998-06-01

    Healthcare organizations that wish to acquire physician or ambulatory care practices can choose from a variety of practice valuation approaches. Basic accounting methods assess the value of a physician practice on the basis of a historical, balance-sheet description of tangible assets. Yet these methods alone are inadequate to determine the true financial value of a practice. By using a combination of accounting approaches to practice valuation that consider factors such as fair market value, opportunity cost, and discounted cash flow over a defined time period, organizations can more accurately assess a practice's actual value. PMID:10179975

  14. Intelligent agents: theory and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Woolridge; N. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The concept of an agent has become,important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream,computer,science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues as sociated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as the

  15. Telemedicine in neurosurgical daily practice.

    PubMed

    Schulmeyer, F J; Brawanski, A

    1999-01-01

    Telemedicine has been in daily practice at our neurosurgical department for five years. In our experience the standard personal computer-based telemedicine systems Medicom and especially RADO Look are reliable, easy to use, and of high quality performance. Telemedicine makes possible better patient management at regional hospitals and the avoidance of patient transports. Therefore treatment costs in neurosurgical patients can be highly reduced. PMID:10747528

  16. Chinese adoption: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lihua, H

    2001-01-01

    The majority of children in China who are the subject of protective services are either abandoned or disabled. Recent reform efforts in China's child welfare practices have focused on the importance of providing safe, permanent families for children in lieu of long-term institutional care. Although challenges still exist, adoption and foster care are increasingly being seen as viable alternatives for these children. PMID:11678411

  17. Digital Imaging: theory joins practice

    E-print Network

    Patzke, Karin; Thiel, Sarah Goodwin

    2009-07-01

    Digital Imaging: theory joins practice. • Karin Patzke, Rapid Imaging Project Coordinator, Art Institute of Chicago (AIC) • Sarah Goodwin Thiel, Digital Services Librarian, University of Kansas Libraries and Chair, 2007/2008 Digital... the Canon Mark Series have allowed the capture large image files (approximately 25 megabytes) and the purchase of copy stands, tables, computers have created stations that are relatively mobile and simple to use (Figure 1 illustrates the Asian and...

  18. Retrieval practice in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Arnaud; Panzer, Stefan; Blandin, Yannick

    2013-12-01

    In this study we sought to determine whether testing promotes the generalization of motor skills during the process of encoding and/or consolidation. We used a dynamic arm movement task that required participants to reproduce a spatial-temporal pattern of elbow extensions and flexions with their dominant right arm. Generalization of motor learning was tested by the ability to transfer the original pattern (extrinsic transformation) or the mirrored pattern (intrinsic transformation) to the unpractised left arm. To investigate the testing effects during both encoding and consolidation processing, participants were administered an initial testing session during early practice before being evaluated on a post-practice testing session administered either 10min (Testing-Encoding group) or 24hr apart (Testing-Consolidation group), respectively. Control groups were required to perform a post-practice testing session administered after either a 10-min (Control-Encoding group) or 24-hr delay (Control-Consolidation group). The findings revealed that testing produced rapid, within-practice skill improvements, yielding better effector transfer at the 10-min testing for the Testing-Encoding group on both extrinsic and intrinsic transformation tests when compared with the Control-Encoding group. Furthermore, we found better performance for the Testing-Consolidation group at the 24-hr testing for extrinsic and intrinsic transformations of the movement pattern when compared with the Control-Consolidation group. However, our results did not indicate any significant testing advantage on the latent, between-session development of the motor skill representation (i.e., from the 10-min to the 24-hr testing). The testing benefits expressed at the 10-min testing were stabilised but did not extend during the period of consolidation. This indicates that testing contributes to the generalisation of motor skills during encoding but not consolidation. PMID:24060222

  19. Practical applications of Boolean Satisfiability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joao Marques-Silva

    2008-01-01

    Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers have been the subject of remarkable improvements since the mid 90s. One of the main reasons for these improvements has been the wide range of practical applications of SAT. Indeed, examples of modern applications of SAT range from termination analysis in term-rewrite systems to circuit-level prediction of crosstalk noise. The success of SAT solvers motivated many

  20. Canadian practice patterns for pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, David P.; Truong, Jessica L.; Lam-McCulloch, Jenny; Cleary, Sean P.; Karanicolas, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Discordant practice patterns may be a consequence of evidence–practice gaps or deficiencies in knowledge translation. We examined the current strategies used by hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) surgeons in Canada for the perioperative management of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Methods We generated a web-based survey that focused on the perioperative measures surrounding PD. The survey was distributed to all members of the Canadian Hepato-Pancreatico-Biliary Association. Results The survey was distributed to 74 surgeons and received a response rate of 50%. Many similarities in surgical techniques were reported; for example, most surgeons (86.5%) reconstruct the pancreas with pancreaticojejunostomy rather than pancreaticogastrostomy. In contrast, variable techniques regarding the use of peritoneal drainage tubes, anastomotic stents, octreotide and other intraoperative modalities were reported. Most surgeons (75.7%) reported that their patients frequently required preoperative biliary drainage, yet there was minimal agreement with the designated criteria. There was variability in postoperative care, including the use of epidural analgesia and timing of postoperative oral nutrition. Conclusion We identified heterogeneity among Canadian HPB surgeons, suggesting a number of evidence–practice gaps within specific domains of pancreatic resections. Focused research in these areas may facilitate technical agreement and improve patient outcomes following PD. PMID:25799248