Carbon sequestration in forest sinks is an important strategy to remove greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change; however its implementation has been limited under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol which has not created the incentives for widespread implementation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sequestration costs of agroforestry afforestation and reforestation projects (ARPs)
Arturo Balderas Torres; Rob Marchant; Jon C. Lovett; James C. R. Smart; Richard Tipper
The coast of the Gulf of Mexico is characterized by dry regions with high variation in climatic conditions. This area is rich\\u000a in drought-tolerant or subhumid species. The species that are potentially useful for reforestation, regreening, agroforestry\\u000a activities and the production of timber, fodder, fuelwood and human food have been overexploited, resulting in the gradual\\u000a decrease and degradation of their
F. Foroughbakhch; L. A. Háuad; A. E. Cespedes; E. E. Ponce; N. González
Traditional agroforestry systems in the communal areas of Zimbabwe are described. There are systems centered on main fields, on home gardens, on homesites and on grazing areas. In the main fields, the major tree-related management practice is the conservation of preferred indigenous fruit trees. Fruit trees are also the focus of forestry activities around the gardens and the homesite; but
\\u000a Agroforestry, an ecologically and environmentally sustainable land use, offers great promise to sequester carbon (C). The\\u000a objectives of this chapter are to (1) provide a review of C sequestration opportunities available under various agroforestry\\u000a practices in temperate North America, and (2) estimate C sequestration potential by agroforestry in the US. Since accurate\\u000a land area under agroforestry was not available, the
Technologies in forest molecular biology and tissue culture could play an increasing role in the choice of genotypes for successful establishment of agroforestrypractices. Research areas such as micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, genetic engineering, marker-aided selection, and molecular diagnostics are merging with traditional forest biological studies to help identify and produce better-suited trees for agroforestry plantings. A combination of classical and
Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestrypractices can\\u000a make them effective carbon
Agroforestry concepts are applicable to both small-scale (family farm) and microscale (e.g., home garden) cultivation. However, there is little research on the relevance of gardening practices in temperate zones to agroforestry and vice versa. In Russia, microscale ecofarming is an extremely widespread, time-tested practice. Despite the minuscule size (600 m2) of individual plots and absence of machinery, cultivators have demonstrated
but vegetative filter strips have distinct advantages over other erosion control technologies (Robinson et al., A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus 1996). Normally, interest in the use of agroforestry prac- grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) tices and contour grass strips for various
Ranjith P. Udawatta; J. John Krstansky; Gray S. Henderson; Harold E. Garrett
Land tenure has long been considered a critical factor in determining the adoption and long-term maintenance of agroforestry\\u000a practices. Empirical evidence from non-US settings has consistently shown that secure land tenure is positively associated\\u000a with agroforestry adoption. In the US, over 40% of private agricultural land is farmed by someone other than the owner. Given\\u000a the importance of land tenure
J. Gordon Arbuckle; Corinne Valdivia; Andrew Raedeke; John Green; J. Sanford Rikoon
Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestrypractices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices. PMID:21461959
Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V
Evolving agricultural policies have influenced management practices within agroecosystems, impacting available habitats for\\u000a many species of wildlife. Enhancing wildlife habitat has become an explicit objective of existing agricultural policy. Thus,\\u000a there is renewed focus on field borders and the use of shelterbelt agroforestry systems to achieve conservation goals in the\\u000a Midwest. Two Representative Farms – a 283-ha dryland and 510-ha
Successful establishment and growth of tree seedlings in an agroforestrypractice is dependent on the control of competing\\u000a herbaceous vegetation. Conventional weed control methods (i.e., chemical, mechanical, and physical suppression) are effective\\u000a but can be costly in terms of time, damage to non-target vegetation, or increased soil erosion. Alternatively, some living\\u000a mulches can exclude undesirable vegetation, protect the soil, compete
J. L. Alley; H. E. Garrett; R. L. McGraw; J. P. Dwyer; C. A. Blanche
Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.
Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestrypractices and to assess their potential to store ca...
Implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) has discouraged reforestation in some situations where reforestation would be desirable. OSM is engaged in an initiative to increase the amount of mined land reclaimed to forest where appropriate. The authors are seeking to determine those elements of the Federal/State regulator programs that discourage reforestation and find ways to offset these impacts. Potential factors militating against reforestation are identified and possible solutions are discussed.
Current conditions in Bulgaria are favorable for the development of agroforestry due to socio-economic incentives and environmental necessities. As a scientific theory and practice, agroforestry is less familiar than other farming systems in Bulgaria. Hence, to ensure successful agroforestry development in Bulgaria, four necessary movements (or collective national ‘moments’) are described here: (1) wide-scale popularization of agroforesty's fundamental tenets, including
Jordanka Stancheva; Sonja Bencheva; Krasimira Petkova; Vladimir Piralkov
Development of agroforestry education is following the pattern of evolution of some other areas of study such as plant pathology,\\u000a genetics, and statistics. At universities these three areas began within another department or departments, and after being\\u000a moved into their own departments began to flourish and develop their own identity. However, the main question is what can\\u000a or should be
This field study started in July 1982 on a typical alkali soil (Aquic Natrustalf, ESP 99.7) examined the growth responses to some management practices in a unified system planned to establish agroforestry. The planting of 3 salt tolerant tree species with two methods: on flat natural surface (FSPB) without rainwater conservation and on ridges (0.6 m high, 1.5 m at
Soils around the world are degraded due to inappropriate management practices. There is thus the necessity to find more conservationist\\u000a agricultural systems. Agroforestry system is an alternative system that helps prevent land degradation while allowing continuing\\u000a use of land to produce crops and livestock on a sustainable basis. Agroforestry system is a form of sustainable land use that\\u000a combines trees
Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araujo; Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite; Bruna de Freitas Iwata; Mario de Andrade Lira; Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier; Márcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo
\\u000a Agroforestry can raise carbon (C) stocks of agricultural systems, and such increases can potentially be sold as CO2 emission offsets. We assembled information on the biophysical, technical, economic, and practical potential of agroforestry\\u000a to sequester C for the West African Sahel, East Africa, and Southern Africa. Agroforestry systems (AFS) such as parklands,\\u000a live fences, and homegardens had substantial C stocks,
Eike Luedeling; Gudeta Sileshi; Tracy Beedy; Johannes Dietz
This article explores evidence of deforestation and forest management practices in the Maya lowlands during the pre-Columbian period. In the early twentieth century, scholars first began to examine the role of the environment in the rise and collapse of the great southern Maya polities of the Classic period, proposing that deforestation was an important factor in their political fragmentation and
Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073
Agroforestry research and design has heavily favored intergrated production of annuals and perennials, that is production of tree crops on the same parcel of land and at the same time as production of food crop annuals. For areas having high population densities and intensive modes of agricultural production, integral agroforestry may be appropriate, but for areas of sparse population where
Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) is considered the most important competitive threat to commercially valuable conifers in the highly productive interior cedar–hemlock forests of British Columbia. It is routinely removed from conifer plantations at high cost to increase conifer growth rates and meet reforestation policy regulations. Competitive effects of paper birch and other neighbours on conifer growth were measured in
Suzanne W Simard; Donald L Sachs; Alan Vyse; Leandra L Blevins
Agroforestrypractices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn
Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett
This review encompasses results of fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems—alley cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens—in which fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the overriding factor in
Impacts of Afforestation, Deforestation, and Reforestation on Forest Cover in China from 1949 in the terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: afforestation, deforestation, reforestation, forest cover F orests play on forest cover in China from 1949 to 2003. Data Data for afforestation, deforestation, and reforestation
Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.
Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC`s and environmental concerns are described.
The agroforestry garden system in Maninjau in West Sumatra is characterized by an intensive integration of forest species and commercial crops, forming a forest-like system. The intimate association of different species provides both subsistence and commercial products which supplement rice production. This complex agroforest is managed by the combination between cultural practices and respect of natural processes of vegetation production
Successful design of agroforestrypractices hinges on the ability to pull together very diverse and sometimes large sets of\\u000a information (i.e., biophysical, economic and social factors), and then implementing the synthesis of this information across\\u000a several spatial scales from site to landscape. Agroforestry, by its very nature, creates complex systems with impacts ranging\\u000a from the site or practice level up
Before prioritising regional agroforestry training and extension content, it is necessary to discover which practices are\\u000a common, what benefits are perceived, which barriers prevent use, and how people feel about practices. Agroforestry taps both\\u000a agriculture and forestry agencies to increase the possible set of educators for landowners and managers. Interdisciplinary\\u000a activities also present barriers to professionals unfamiliar with some topics
Evaluating environmentally sustainable and culturally sensitive approaches to natural resource management issues is a necessary\\u000a step towards improving livelihoods in rural South Africa. This study assessed the applicability of various agroforestrypractices\\u000a to natural resource management issues in the village of GaMothiba located in the northwestern region of South Africa. Agroforestry\\u000a assessments were carried out using a community based approach
Pessimistic forecasts often suggest that widely spaced trees enjoying free growth (no competition with other trees) will fail\\u000a to provide high quality timber. This challenges the temperate agroforestrypractice of planting widely spaced trees to produce\\u000a high quality timber. We analyse tree growth data from recent temperate agroforestry plantations aged three to eight years,\\u000a featuring low tree plantation densities (50
Cultivating dinitrogen-fixing legume trees with crops in agroforestry is a relatively common N management practice in the\\u000a Neotropics. The objective of this study was to assess the N2 fixation potential of three important Neotropical agroforestry tree species, Erythrina poeppigiana, Erythrina fusca, and Inga edulis, under semi-controlled field conditions. The study was conducted in the humid tropical climate of the Caribbean
Humberto A. Leblanc; Robert L. McGraw; Pekka Nygren
. Your efforts will provide the groundwork for a successful and satisfying tree planting projectwww.ForestConnect.com Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation 1 Northeastern Tree Planting;2 Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation www.ForestConnect.com TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Â Recommended
This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.
We execute tree ‘domestication’ as a farmer-driven and market-led process, which matches the intraspecific diversity of locally\\u000a important trees to the needs of subsistence farmers, product markets, and agricultural environments. We propose that the products\\u000a of such domesticated trees are called Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs) to distinguish them from the extractive tree resources\\u000a commonly referred to as non-timber forest products
Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades-albeit modest-have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early research focused mostly on farm or local levels, broader-level ecosystem services of agroforestry systems (AFS) have raised high expectations in recent years. The nine papers included in this special collection deal with three of such environmental benefits of AFS: water-quality enhancement, carbon sequestration, and soil improvement. These benefits are based on the perceived ability of (i) vegetative buffer strips (VBS) to reduce surface transport of agrochemical pollutants, (ii) large volumes of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees to store high amounts of C deeper in the soil profile, and (iii) trees to enhance soil productivity through biological nitrogen fixation, efficient nutrient cycling, and deep capture of nutrients. The papers included have, in general, substantiated these premises and provided new insights. For example, the riparian VBS are reported to increase the reservoir life, in addition to reducing transport of agrochemicals; the variations in C storage in different soil-fraction sizes suggest that microaggregate (250-53 ?m) dynamics in the soil could be a good indicator of its C-storage potential; and the use of vector analysis technique is recommended in AFS to avoid consequences of inaccurate and overuse of fertilizers. The papers also identified significant knowledge gaps in these areas. A common theme across all three environmental quality issues covered is that more and varied research datasets across a broad spectrum of conditions need to be generated and integrated with powerful statistical tools to ensure wide applicability of the results. Furthermore, appropriate management practices that are acceptable to the targeted land users and agroforestry practitioners need to be designed to exploit these environmental benefits. The relative newness of research in environmental quality of AFS will pose some additional challenges as well. These include the lack of allometric equations for tree-biomass determination, absence of standardized norms on soil sampling depth, and limitations of fixed-effect models arising from issues such as pseudo-replication and repeated measures that are common in studies on preexisting field plots. Overall, this special collection is a timely effort in highlighting the promise of AFS in addressing some of the environmental quality issues, and the challenges in realizing that potential. PMID:21546663
Historical development of a permanent agriculture system based on the use of agroforestry in the temperate zone is traced. In general, reasons for a renewed interest in agroforestry include the end of cheap, subsidized fossil fuels; increased concern about soil erosion and marginal land use; an international awakening as to the dangers of indiscriminate use of pesticides, herbicides and other
As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.
In recent years, forestry has been strongly promoted by the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam through large-scale projects to rehabilitate and reforest millions of hectares of land. One project to reforest 5 million hectares has received hundreds of millions of US dollars for implementation. Yet based on a case study in one area of northern Vietnam, this project appears to have had a number of unforeseen consequences. Large areas of land classified as "bare hills" have been targeted for reforestation, despite the fact that these lands already harbor a number of species that were used by local communities. The bare hills were especially economically important to poor households and to women who collected a variety of nontimber forest products there. Because the reforestation project focused most efforts on establishing new plantations rather than supporting natural regeneration, diverse sources of non-timber forest products were being replaced with monocrop exotic tree plantations. A strong inequity in the allocation of private lands for reforestation has characterized the regreening projects to date, and this may have continuing unwelcome social, environmental, and economic impacts into the future, particularly for the poor. PMID:19860156
Experiences from not only ‘success stories’ but also ‘failed’ agroforestry projects provide potentially useful lessons for\\u000a future agroforestry-project designers. Experimental one-hectare agroforestry plots were established on 50 small-scale farms\\u000a in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondonia from 1993 to 1995. Drawing from a menu of 25 different species (10 tropical\\u000a hardwoods and softwoods and 15 fruits and palms), this
Keywords:<\\/strong> Ecosystem, Agroforestry, Imperata cylindrica , pioneer, mycorrhizae, inter-cropping, tree architecture, biomass, functional branching analysisConversion of an Imperata cylindrica ecosystem into an agroforestry ecosystem is a complex process. Integrated control of the I . cylindrica grass is needed in combination with planting deep-rooted pioneer tree species, a legume cover crop and annual food crops. I . cylindrica grasslands are generally
The potential effects of agroforestry systems on conservation and development have been well documented. Panama has seen a\\u000a substantial rise in the number of projects with an agroforestry component in the 1990s. There has been insufficient research\\u000a on the actual impacts of these projects on smallholders and of farmers' attitudes towards these systems. This study explores\\u000a the perceived socioeconomic and
\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to
We used a highly replicated study to examine vegetation characteristics between patches of intervened forest, abandoned agroforestry systems with coffee and actively managed agroforestry systems with coffee in a tropical landscape. In all habitats, plant structural characteristics, individual abundance, species richness and composition were recorded for the three plant size classes: adult trees, saplings and seedlings. Furthermore, bird species richness
Tannya Lozada; G. H. J. de Koning; Raphael Marché; Alexandra-Maria Klein; Teja Tscharntke
This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which unsustainable beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agroforestry tree species in bee endemic parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), community fora, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and semi-structured interview schedules) were used
LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.
Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.
The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.
Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.
The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the\\u000a tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based\\u000a development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental understanding of how\\u000a and why farmers
Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.
In the semi-arid to sub-humid north-east of Mexico, no definite agroforestrypractices were in use before the Spanish conquest, but present systems and practices offer a good basis for conversion to ecologically sustainable and productive multicrop systems which incorporate trees. In the mountains and on the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, sub-humid tropical tree crops are found in
Mechanized methods of planting trees for reforestation are investigated and the system studied from the nursery through field planting operations. Concepts for planting machines are presented and compared using a mathematical model and a computer program ...
The rate and extent to which biophysical resources are captured and utilized by the components of an agroforestry system are determined by the nature and intensity of interac- tions between the components. The net effect of these interactions is often determined by the influence of the tree component on the other component(s) and\\/or on the overall system, and is expressed
Forestry is faced with the challenge of meeting an increasing demand for goods, as well as for an expanding array of services, like clean water, soil conservation, and wildlife habitat, from a fixed or shrinking land base. Solutions that balance forestry with the sustainability of other sectors, like agriculture and communities, are needed. Agroforestry, the deliberate cultivation of trees or
The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...
Tropical forest habitat continues to decline globally, with serious negative consequences for environmental sustainability. The small mountain country of Nepal provides an excellent context in which to examine trajectories of forest-cover change. Despite having experienced large-scale forest clearing in the past, significant reforestation has taken place in recent years. The range of biophysical and ecological environments and diversity of tenure arrangements provide us with a context with sufficient variation to be able to derive insight into the impact of a range of hypothesized drivers of forest change. This article draws on a dataset of 55 forests from the middle hills and Terai plains of Nepal to examine the factors associated with forest clearing or regeneration. Results affirm the central importance of tenure regimes and local monitoring for forest regrowth. In addition, user group size per unit of forest area is an important, independent explanator of forest change. These variables also can be associated with specific practices that further influence forest change such as the management of social conflict, adoption of new technologies to reduce pressure on the forest, and involvement of users in forest maintenance activities. Such large-N, comparative studies are essential if we are to derive more complex, nuanced, yet actionable frameworks that help us to plan better policies for the management of natural resources. PMID:17881576
Agroforestry systems are believed to provide a number of ecosystem services; however, until recently evidence in the agroforestry\\u000a literature supporting these perceived benefits has been lacking. This special issue brings together a series of papers from\\u000a around the globe to address recent findings on the ecosystem services and environmental benefits provided by agroforestry.\\u000a As prelude to the special issue, this
The importance of agroforestry systems as carbon sinks has recently been recognized due to the need of climate change mitigation.\\u000a The objective of this study was to compare the carbon content in living biomass, soil (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 cm in depth), dead\\u000a organic matter between a set of non-agroforestry and agroforestry prototypes in Chiapas, Mexico where the carbon sequestration\\u000a programme called
Lorena Soto-Pinto; Manuel Anzueto; Jorge Mendoza; Guillermo Jimenez Ferrer; Ben de Jong
When establishing an agroforestrypractice, the number of trees planted will often exceed the densities needed to achieve a final spacing or configuration. While tight spacings may facilitate certain growth parameters, such as height development, timely thinnings of plantings are required in order to maintain desirable growth rates. In managed plantations especially, the stump sprouts that often result from thinnings
As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.
Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.
Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.
Repeated measurements of two small streams in northeastern Vermont document change in channel width and suggest variable rates of widening because of passive reforestation over four decades. Historic data on channel width are available for several tributaries to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA from the 1960s. In 2004 and 2008, we re-measured channel dimensions in two of these tributaries, in two reaches of upper Pope Brook and along seven reaches of an unnamed tributary (W12). Four reaches had reforested since 1966; two reaches remained nonforested. The other three reaches have been forested since at least the 1940s. Comparisons between 1966 and 2004 showed that reforested reaches widened significantly, and comparisons between 2004 and 2008 showed continued widening, but at a greater rate. Between 1966 and 2004, reforested reaches widened at an average rate of 4.1 cm/year, while the rate more than doubled for the last four years (8.7 cm/year). Additionally, turbulence data collected during five peak flows in the spring of 2005 showed significantly greater turbulent kinetic energy ( TKE) in the reforested reach than in either the forested or nonforested reach. Our data add supporting information to the conceptual model of stream W12 that describes a process of incision, widening, and recovery of a stream reach transitioning from nonforested to forested riparian vegetation.
McBride, Maeve; Hession, W. Cully; Rizzo, Donna M.
This study presents a prototype of decision support system for planning the reforestation at abandoned coal mines. The characteristics of deforested zone due to mine development were analyzed and categorized to define the schema of GIS database. Multiple criteria (i.e. forest-climate zone, mining method, visibility, managerial condition, slope gradient, reforestation purpose) were considered to classify the deforested zone and to assign unique IDs to the key index fields in tables. ArcMap, ArcObjects and Visual Basic.NET were used to implement the system. The application to the Samcheok coal block in Korea shows that the system could present a rational solution to select suitable trees for the reforestation and can also provide cost evaluation tools to support the environmental planning work.
Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV) is one of the most disturbed by human activities among the world largest coastal and river basins. This study estimated the impacts of reforestation on water outflow attenuation (i.e., water flow out of the watershed outlet) and sediment load reduction in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed (LYRW) within the LMRAV using the US-EPA's BASINS-HSPF model. The model was calibrated and validated with available experimental data prior to its application. Two simulation scenarios were then performed: one was chosen to predict the water outflow and sediment load without reforestation and the other was selected to project the potential impacts of reforestation upon water outflow attenuation and sediment load reduction following the conversion of 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the agricultural lands with most lands near or in the batture of the streams. Comparison of the two simulation scenarios (i.e., with and without reforestation) showed that a conversion of agricultural land into forests attenuated water outflow and reduced sediment load. In general, a two-fold increase in forest land area resulted in approximately a two-fold reduction in annual water outflow volume and sediment load mass, which occurred because forests absorb water and reduce surface water runoff and prevent soil erosion. On average, over a 10-year simulation, the specific water outflow attenuation and sediment load reduction were, respectively, 250m3/ha/y and 4.02 metric ton/ha/y. Seasonal variations of water outflow attenuation and sediment load reduction occurred with the maximum attenuation/reduction in winter and the minimum attenuation/reduction in summer. Our load duration curve analysis further confirmed that an increase in forest land area reduced the likelihood of a given sediment load out of the watershed outlet. This study suggests that reforestation in or around the batture of streams is a useful practice for water outflow attenuation and sediment load reduction.
In July 1992 the Rondonia Agroforestry Pilot Project (RAPP) was launched in two agricultural munici- palities (Nova Uniao and Alto Paraiso) in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondonia. The purpose of the RAPP was to assess the conditions under which colonist farmers in the western Amazon would integrate agroforestry plantings into their small-scale farming systems and to assess the
John O. Browder; Randolph H. Wynne; Marcos A. Pedlowski
The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a broad- based citizen\\/industry\\/government program working to encourage the planting of productive trees on active and abandoned coal mine lands. Using a combination of private and governmental resources, the program facilitates and coordinates citizen groups, university researchers, the coal industry, corporations, the environmental community, and local, state, and federal government agencies that have
Reflections on the past two decades of organized research in tropical agroforestry raise several issues. Research efforts\\u000a started with an inductive and experiential approach but have subsequently followed a deductive and experimental approach that\\u000a includes hypothesis testing and the development of predictive capability; agroforestry research is thus being transformed\\u000a into a rigorous scientific activity. The research agenda, so far, has
Understanding the historical development of indigenous systems will provide valuable information for the design of ecologically\\u000a desirable agroforestry production systems. Such studies have been relatively few, especially in Amazonia. The agroforestry\\u000a systems in Amazonia follow a trail that begins with the arrival of the first hunter-gatherers in prehistoric times, followed\\u000a by the domestication of plants for agriculture, the development of
In many developing countries, especially in Africa, farmers have been introduced to agroforestry with little consideration\\u000a for the markets for trees and tree products aside from potential productivity gains to food crops. It is now being recognized\\u000a that expanding market opportunities for smallholders particularly in niche markets and high value products is critical to\\u000a the success of agroforestry innovations. Some
This literature review presents information about the role of tree root systems for the functioning of agroforestry associations and rotations and attempts to identify root-related criteria for the selection of agroforestry tree species and the design of agroforestry systems. Tree roots are expected to enrich soil with organic matter, feed soil biomass, reduce nutrient leaching, recycle nutrients from the subsoil
Among the many salutary effects ascribed to reforestation is the 'sponge effect', the improvement of a soil's macroporosity thanks to replacing whatever land cover with forest. The purported benefits of this improvement include less overland flow and hence less erosion and less variability in stream flow. This view tacitly assumes that some soil traits, such as macroporosity, can only be acquired from the prevailing land cover when, in fact, they can also be inherited from the parent material from which soils form; they can also derive from long-term soil development. In view of this dual aspect of hydrologically relevant soil properties - acquired versus inherited, the notion of a 'sponge effect' that is uniformly beneficial across all soilscapes appears untenable. The 'intermediate-peak hypothesis' for the sponge effect postulates that there exist a set of circumstances under which the 'sponge effect', and hence the effect of reforestation, is optimal, because parent material and soil genesis are less influential than forest cover. Away from this intermediate peak, the former swamp the latter, and the 'sponge effect' is minimal or nonexistent, either because the inherited macroporosity is too large to be significantly affected by land cover, or because inherited soil traits severely limit the effect of land cover. I illustrate this hypothesis with examples from diverse ecoregions and present a simple metric for the 'sponge effect'.
We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.
Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001Â2010) T. Mitchell Aide1 have documented extensive deforestation, but there are also many local studies reporting forest evaluated deforestation and reforestation from the municipal to continental scale, we lack a comprehensive
Reforestation against the rapid rate of deforestation and forest degradation is common in most tropical developing countries. The main objective of reforestation programs is to restore and/or enhance the degraded landscapes depreciated in environmental value. However due to changing socio-political contexts and increasing awareness on sustainable development and environmental issues such programs are becoming more challenging, particularly in the developing tropics. Like most tropical developing countries substantial deforestation has occurred in the Philippines followed by massive logging and slash-and-burn agriculture, resulting in severe social and environmental problems. The country is also one of the pioneer countries that introduces reforestation program to restore its degraded forests. Most recently the government of the Philippines has launched the National Greening Program (NGP), one of the largest reforestation projects so far, with an aim to reforest 1.5 million hectares of degraded forest in critical watersheds over a five year time period. This paper highlights the key challenges that might hinder the success of the reforestation program through National Greening Program. We found that it is unlikely to achieve the desired project goals if rural communities dependent on upland landscapes are excluded from the reforestation program through plantation establishment. Bringing larger amount of areas and greater number of people under community based forest management (CBFM) initiatives for reforestation programs, with clearly defined rights and responsibilities, as well as securing timely access to timber harvesting permits to the communities involved in maintaining the plantations could enhance the long term reforestation success in the country. The paper also tries to provide a critical review of the past reforestation efforts in the Philippines, and direction of possible research and development in order to achieve a win-win situation that will benefits both the local livelihoods and the environment, not only in the Philippines but in other tropical developing countries with similar socio-political context.
In semiarid Laikipia (Kenya) severe crop damage and loss of mulch material may be caused by south to south-easterly winds from June to September. Demonstration agroforestry systems which surround farms with live fences had some success in protecting crops, mulch and soil, but great care must be taken, because air may be channelled through or over them. For demonstration purposes,
S. B. B. Oteng'i; C. J. Stigter; J. K. Ng'ang'a; D. N. Mungai
As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less
An agroforestry project was funded by the US Agency for International Development and implemented by the Pan American Development Foundation in Haiti from 1981 to 1991. This project is considered by many to be one of the most successful projects of its kind in Haiti, and in the tropics as a whole. Over the ten years of its implementation, the
Reforestation of degraded land in the tropics is promoted for a wide range of expected benefits, including carbon sequestration and streamflow regulation. However, how reforestation of degraded land affects runoff generation mechanisms and catchment water yield is still poorly understood as most experimental work pertains to non-degraded terrain. We set out to study the differences in hydrological functioning of a small degraded grassland catchment and a similar catchment that was reforested 15 years ago. Both catchments are located near Tacloban, Leyte, the Philippines. Stream stage, EC and temperature are measured continuously since June 2013. Precipitation, soil moisture content, and groundwater levels are monitored as well. Samples are taken from streamflow, precipitation, groundwater, and soil water prior to and during rainfall events for geochemical and stable isotope analysis to elucidate source contributions to storm runoff. Streamflow and event water contributions increase rapidly during almost every rainfall event in the grassland. In the reforested catchment, event water contributions to streamflow are much smaller and only increase during large events. These tracer results suggest that overland flow occurs much less frequently and is much less widespread in the reforested catchment compared to the grassland catchment. Our results thus indicate that the dominant flow pathways have changed as a result of reforestation and suggest that reforestation can largely restore the hydrological functioning of degraded sites if the forest is allowed to develop over a sufficiently long period without subsequent disturbance.
van Meerveld, Ilja; Zhang, Jun; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno
Although an increasing number of studies have shown that diverse, multi-strata agroforestry systems can contribute to the\\u000a conservation of tropical biodiversity, there is still debate about how the biodiversity within agroforestry systems compares\\u000a to that of intact forest and alternative land uses. In order to assess the relative importance of agroforestry systems for\\u000a biodiversity conservation, we characterized bat and bird
Agroforestry is a key land use in the development of ecological corridors in tropical rainforests biomes. This research tested\\u000a the social dimensions of agroforestry adoption and maintenance in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Bahia, Brazil. A quasi-experiment\\u000a research design compared a group of farmers who participated in an agroforestry development program with a group of similar\\u000a farmers who were not
Meghan M. McGinty; Mickie E. Swisher; Janaki Alavalapati
In the United States, agroforestry adoption has lagged behind progress in agroforestry systems research. This study sought\\u000a to facilitate the communication of landowner land management objectives, values, knowledge and perceptions of the barriers\\u000a and benefits to agroforestry through applied social marketing research methods and market segmentation analysis. A mail survey\\u000a instrument was sent to 250 members of the Pennsylvania Association
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe.Design\\/Methodology\\/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations.Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional agroforestry was common in the study area. There were no cases of innovative agroforestry other than dwindling remnants from
Sediment physicochemical properties most likely control the reforestation success on degraded mangrove sites. Our objectives\\u000a were (1) to determine the nutritional status of reforested mangrove stands; (2) to investigate the effects of the redox potential\\u000a (Eh) and pH on phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) cycling; and (3) to assess the effect of pH on P speciation. Five transects\\u000a were studied
J. F. Oxmann; Q. H. Pham; L. Schwendenmann; J. M. Stellman; R. J. Lara
In 19th-century France, concepts of alpine degradation formed the basis of ambitious state policies to reforest the Alps, Pyrenees, and Massif Central. Responding to the reality of large-scale flooding and to assumptions about the destructiveness of agro-pastoralism, both the Second-Empire and early Third-Republic regimes formulated legislation allowing for both voluntary and mandatory alpine reforestation projects. The latter regime's law of
Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940–2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr?1 in 1977–1991 versus 2.17% yr?1 in 1991–2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land planning to reduce future fragmentation. PMID:25409016
Nepal's Middle Hill regions have been excessively deforested. The government has launched a community-based reforestation project with help of international donors. However, results have been far from satisfactory. Plantation targets have not been met and survival rates of the planted trees are poor averaging around 60%. Social factors are given more blame than technical ones for these failures. However, an analysis of the available information indicates, rather, that about two-thirds of the failures were due to technical and administrative reasons. Only about 13% of the failures could be attributed to social causes. Poor quality seeds are used to raise undersized seedlings which are planted improperly during the wrong time of the year. Species selected are not appropriate for the site or the people for whom the plantations are being created; rather they are selected for the ease of planting and to meet administrative targets. The overall trend has been to plant conifers (mainly pinus roxburghii) and to plant on relatively easy sites. The result has been the creation of forest plantations which often do not have any management plant, while the few which often do not have any management plan, while the few which do are without any committed managers. There is a tremendous lack of information regarding user demand, growth, yield, and harvesting and utilization techniques. This paper stresses that research to improve practical methods in plantation establishment and training to produce competent, and dedicated resource managers be immediately initiated.
Karki, M.B.; Dickmann, D.I. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))
Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers
Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm
High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970
Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice
High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970
Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice
Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accu- mulated in the agricultural landscape of southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the interactions between trees, crops and their below
Agroforestry (the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs in rural lands) is being promoted in the United States as an alternative resource management system that can bring landowners economic benefits and provide environmental services such as reduced soil erosion, improved water quality and wildlife habitat. Landowners, farmers and extension agents need to be better informed about different agroforestry opportunities and
E. A. Ellis; P. K. R. Nair; P. E. Linehan; H. W. Beck; C. A. Blanche
Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as
A Review of Traditional Agroforestry in Micronesia1 Harley I. Manner2 Abstract: For the many of the traditional subsistence system which provided the people with many of the necessities of life. Given if not all of the traditional agricultural systems of Micronesia are, indeed, agroforestry systems
Increasing carbon (C) storage in soils of degraded lands, such as surface coal mines, is of interest because of its potential role in mitigating increases in atmospheric CO2. While it has been shown that reforesting degraded lands can significantly increase C storage in soils, there are limited studies addressing what processes control soil C in these systems. A study was initiated with the following objectives: 1) quantify the amount of soil C accumulating on reforested mine lands; and 2) examine several biological processes that govern the amount of C sequestered into soil (decomposition, soil respiration and microbial dynamics). A chronosequence approach was used to examine C changes with time in reforested mine lands (years 1, 3, and 8) and unmined regenerating clear-cuts (years 4, 12 and 20). From a C perspective, our results indicated that the young reforested mines (ages 1 and 3) differed significantly from the older mines (age 8) and all regenerating clear-cuts for all parameters examined. However, after 8 years litterfall, microbial biomass C and nitrogen (N), microbial activity, litter decomposition and CO2 efflux were similar on the mine as that found on the 12-year-old naturally regenerating clear-cut. Although soil organic C (SOC) content was lower on the reforested mines than the regenerating forests, rates of SOC accumulation were greater on the mine sites, likely because the young mine lands were initially devoid of SOC and conditions were suitable for rapid sequestration. PMID:23332715
Littlefield, Tara; Barton, Chris; Arthur, Mary; Coyne, Mark
In July 1992 the Rondnia Agroforestry Pilot Project (RAPP) was launched in two agricultural municipalities (Nova Unio and\\u000a Alto Paraiso) in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondnia. The purpose of the RAPP was to assess the conditions under\\u000a which colonist farmers in the western Amazon would integrate agroforestry plantings into their small-scale farming systems\\u000a and to assess the performance
John O. Browder; Randolph H. Wynne; Marcos A. Pedlowski
.3 & 3.4 IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF 4.51 4.2.5 Afforestation and Reforestation This section these temporary losses of forest cover are not considered deforestation. Harvest followed by regeneration have started in different years. It is good practice to group afforestation and reforestation units
The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.
Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant
In this paper we discuss various aspects of global climate change as related to forests: the rate of deforestation; CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from deforestation; and reforestation as a means to control atmospheric CO/sub 2/. We also include for perspective a discussion of current policy considerations related to methods for reducing deforestation or promoting reforestation. 68 refs.
Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland, and weeds are strong competitors for resources, particularly water. We conducted a 3-year experiment of full-light versus artificial shading and weed presence versus weed mowing. We measured seedling
REFORESTATION AND THE NURSERY Planting stock of high survival and growth potential is of paramount in very large or small quantities, planting stock of high survival and growth potential is needed for up Oregon, planted seedlings must extend new roots rapidly to survive summer drought the first year
Although agriculture generates 16% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, it also has the potential to sequester large quantities\\u000a of emissions through land use management options such as agroforestry. Whilst there is an extensive amount of agroforestry\\u000a literature, little has been written on the economic consequences of adopting silvopastoral systems in northern Australia.\\u000a This paper reports the financial viability of adopting
Peter Donaghy; Steven Bray; Rebecca Gowen; John Rolfe; Michael Stephens; Madonna Hoffmann; Anne Stunzer
Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accumulated in the agricultural landscape of\\u000a southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry\\u000a systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the\\u000a interactions between trees, crops and their below ground
Computer-based Expert Systems that use knowledge, facts, and reasoning techniques to solve problems, normally requiring the abilities of human experts, are increasingly being used in many activities. The United Nations University (UNU) Agroforestry Expert System (AES) is a first attempt to apply this technique to agroforestry. UNU-AES is a prototype Knowledge-Based Expert System (KBES) designed to support land-use (agricultural, forestry,
Merrill E. Warkentin; P. K. R. Nair; Stephen R. Ruth; Kristopher Sprague
Stream and land salinisation brought about by rising groundwater levels due to the clearing of native forest for agricultural\\u000a development is a major environmental and resource problem in Western Australia and several other semi-arid regions of the\\u000a world. One potential approach to reclamation with simultaneous economic benefits is agroforestry. To determine the effects\\u000a of agroforestry on groundwater level and salinity,
In agroforestry, marketing is unique for several reasons: many products typically lack established marketing institutions,\\u000a market information, and grade or quality standards. All that is known about the market for many agroforestry specialty products\\u000a is that someone is growing the product and consumers are buying it. What happens to the product as it moves through the value\\u000a chain from producer
fewer opportunities for exploitation. Most current land-use systems established after deforestation have proven to be unsustainable, as has been shown for cattle ranching in the Amazon (Hecht, 1983; Fearnside, 1989). Agroforestry systems... fewer opportunities for exploitation. Most current land-use systems established after deforestation have proven to be unsustainable, as has been shown for cattle ranching in the Amazon (Hecht, 1983; Fearnside, 1989). Agroforestry systems...
Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination. PMID:21546672
2008 Keywords: Riparian reforestation Stream widening Channel morphology Large woody debris Conceptual remeasured bed widths and surveyed large woody debris (LWD) in two of these tributaries, along 500 m of upper
ABSTRACT Mapping Kyoto protocol specific Afforestation, Reforestation and Deforestation processes with Earth observation and remote sensing is challenging,because underlying causes of changes cannot be classified in most,cases. Integrated data analysis techniques have to be developed that combine,GIS techniques with image processing. In this work the potential of an,object oriented image analysis toolbox is tested with the aim to derive,classes that
Natural reforestation of European mountain landscapes raises major environmental and societal issues. With local stakeholders\\u000a in the Pyrenees National Park area (France), we studied agricultural landscape colonisation by ash (Fraxinus excelsior) to enlighten its impacts on biodiversity and other landscape functions of importance for the valley socio-economics. The\\u000a study comprised an integrated assessment of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) since
Annick Gibon; David Sheeren; Claude Monteil; Sylvie Ladet; Gérard Balent
Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry Publications on Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 2008 Â 2011 (Contact: email@example.com) #12;cacao
The study explores the indigenous initiatives in agro-forestry for the purpose of intensifying cultivation, increasing productivity and reducing dependence on forest in settlements around the Cross River National Park, Nigeria. The study identified the most significant indigenous trees and plant species of present value to local farming systems; as well as determining the Agro-forestry skills and capabilities of farmers, through
Francis E. Bisong; Elizabeth E. Andrew-Essien; Adebayo I. Animashaun; Pius B. Utang
Abstract: Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Parana State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8 ha) and in a reforested area (11.8 ha) between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours,during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n = 328, 65.3%), followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n = 44, 8.8%) and Artibeus jamaicensis (n = 30, 6.0%). Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus aurintus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S = 14) and diversity (H' = 1.4802) in comparison to the reforested area (S = 6, H '= 0.57015). The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t = 7.1075). Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may prevent drastic changes in the microclimate of neighboring areas within the forest fragment, and could allow the occupation of available niches in the area, by opportunistic and generalist species. PMID:21246993
Gallo, Patricia Helena; dos Reis, Nelio Roberto; Andrade, Fabio Rodrigo; de Almeida, Inaê Guion
Measurements of two small streams in northeastern Vermont, collected in 1966 and 2004-2005, document considerable change in channel width following a period of passive reforestation. Channel widths of several tributaries to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA, were previously measured in 1966 when the area had a diverse patchwork of forested and nonforested riparian vegetation. Nearly 40 years later, we remeasured bed widths and surveyed large woody debris (LWD) in two of these tributaries, along 500 m of upper Pope Brook and along nearly the entire length (3 km) of an unnamed tributary (W12). Following the longitudinal survey, we collected detailed channel and riparian information for nine reaches along the same two streams. Four reaches had reforested since 1966; two reaches remained nonforested. The other three reaches have been forested since at least the 1940s. Results show that reforested reaches were significantly wider than as measured in 1966, and they are more incised than all other forested and nonforested reaches. Visual observations, cross-sectional surveys, and LWD characteristics indicate that reforested reaches continue to change in response to riparian reforestation. The three reaches with the oldest forest were widest for a given drainage area, and the nonforested reaches were substantially narrower. Our observations culminated in a conceptual model that describes a multiphase process of incision, widening, and recovery following riparian reforestation of nonforested areas. Results from this case study may help inform stream restoration efforts by providing insight into potentially unanticipated changes in channel size associated with the replanting of forested riparian buffers adjacent to small streams.
McBride, Maeve; Hession, W. Cully; Rizzo, Donna M.
Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),
Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke
Tree species in agroforestry systems contribute to soil improvement through the litter produced on the soil surface and below-ground modification of soil structure by tree roots. Therefore, litter production and soil characteristics under 11 tree species were evaluated in the derived savanna (Ibadan) and humid tropical forest (Onne) zones of southern Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 in 7-year old arboreta.
, and yields of major products. Often, related information on farmer and farm family demographics, land use an. This paper outlines various methodologies (including sampling methods, data to be collected of data from indigenous agroforestry systems is further complicated due to the lack of existing data
Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment K for correspondence: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) Key words: Acacia saligna, complementarity, cowpea, intercropping, resource capture, sorghum Abstract. Water is the most limiting factor for plant production
Improving soil fertility is a key entry point for achieving food security, reducing poverty and preserving the environment for smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the high cost of inorganic fertiliz- ers, an integrated approach that combines promising agroforestry technologies - particularly improved fallows and biomass transfer - with locally available and reactive phosphate rock - such as the Min-
Because of fire, introduced ungulates, and landscape-level invasion of non-native grasses, less than 10% of original dry forest still exists on leeward Haleakal?, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Native dry forest restoration at Auwahi has demonstrated the potential for dramatic revegetation, allowing experimental comparison of hydrologic function between tracts of restored forest and adjacent grasslands. We hypothesized that even relatively recent forest restoration can assist in the recovery of impaired hydrologic function, potentially increasing aquifer recharge. To simulate an intense storm event, we experimentally irrigated and measured soil moisture and temperature with subsurface instrumentation at 4 locations within the reforested area and 4 within the grassland, each a 2.5 by 2.5 m plot. Compared to grassland areas, water in reforested sites moved to depth faster with larger magnitude changes in water content. The median first arrival velocity of water was greater by a factor of about 13 in the forested sites compared to the grassland sites. Instruments remained in place for more than 1 year and natural storms showed similar responses. This rapid transport of water to depths of 1 m or greater suggests increased potential aquifer recharge. Improved characterization of how vegetation and soils influence recharge is crucial for understanding the long-term impacts of forest restoration on aquifer recharge and water resources, especially in moisture-limited regions.
Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A.; Szutu, D.; von Allmen, E.
With the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), some very stringent requirements for the successful establishment of trees and shrubs have come into effect. In response to these requirements, AMAX Coal Company is developing a reforestation program for seven surface mines in Indiana and Illinois using the best technology currently available. The program emphasizes obtaining good quality stock, the proper care and handling of stock, the proper planting of the stock, and an effective weed control program. The value of weed control for the establishment and growth of hardwoods has long been recognized in the forest industry, but has not been used extensively in the reforestation of surface mined lands. The improved survival of tree seedlings with the use of weed control justifies the additional cost. Weed control also enhances the growth of tree seedlings. However, the long term growth of seedlings is questionable due to the compaction resulting from the extensive grading required to achieve approximate original contour. To minimize compaction, a forest area in Illinois is being minimally graded only to the extent necessary for environmental stability. Minimal grading is designed to reduce compaction which in turn will promote the development of a more productive forest resource.
There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are
-time faculty specializing in areas that include agroforestry, aquaculture, aquatic animal health, biological from Orlando, Tallahassee, Jacksonville and Tampa. The Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean
degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance hydrological conditions but heavy usage of reforested land in the region has been shown to hamper full recovery of soil hydraulic properties. This paper investigates the effect of reforestation and forest usage on field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivities (Kfs) near Dhulikhel, Central Nepal, by comparing degraded pasture, a footpath within the pasture, a 25 year old pine reforestation, and little disturbed natural forest. The hillslope hydrological implications of changes in Kfs with land-cover change were assessed via comparisons with measured rainfall intensities over different durations. High surface and near-surface Kfs in natural forest (82-232 mm h-1) rule out overland flow occurrence and favor vertical percolation. Conversely, corresponding Kfs for degraded pasture (18-39 mm h-1) and footpath (12-26 mm h-1) were conducive to overland flow generation during medium- to high-intensity storms and thus to local flash flooding. Pertinently, surface and near-surface Kfs in the heavily used pine forest remained similar to those for degraded pasture. Estimated monsoonal overland flow totals for degraded pasture, pine forest, and natural forest were 21.3%, 15.5%, and 2.5% of incident rainfall, respectively, reflecting the relative ranking of surface Kfs. Along with high water use by the pines, this lack of recovery of soil hydraulic properties under pine reforestation is shown to be a critical factor in the regionally observed decline in base flows following large-scale planting of pines and has important implications for regional forest management.
Ghimire, Chandra Prasad; Bonell, Mike; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.
The effects of five agroforestry woody species (Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Senna siamea andTreculia africana) on the surface aasting activity ofHyperiodrilus africanus were studied in an Alfisol (Oxic Paleustalf) in southwestern Nigeria. Casting activity under the woody species decreased in the following order:Dactyladenia sp. (26.4 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Gliricidia sp. (24.4 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Treculia sp. (22.9 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Leucaena
In agroforestry systems, the distribution of light transmitted under tree canopies can be a limiting factor for the development\\u000a of intercrops. The light available for intercrops depends on the quantity of light intercepted by tree canopies and, consequently,\\u000a on the architecture of the tree species present. The influence of tree architecture on light transmission was analysed using\\u000a dynamic 3D architectural
Céline Leroy; Sylvie Sabatier; Novi Sari Wahyuni; Jean-François Barczi; Jean Dauzat; Marilyne Laurans; Daniel Auclair
Institutional innovation in providing inputs and services is a central element for smallholder development. Agroforestry is\\u000a an important income generating activity for millions of smallholders in the tropics, yet access to quality planting material—germplasm—of\\u000a valuable tree species remains a major hurdle for improving farm productivity. We discuss requirements and possibilities for\\u000a institutional innovation in developing more efficient delivery systems for
J. B. L. Lillesø; L. Graudal; S. Moestrup; E. D. Kjær; R. Kindt; A. Mbora; I. Dawson; J. Muriuki; A. Ræbild; R. Jamnadass
Tracing sources of water utilised by plants is important to understand species interactions in intercropping\\/agroforestry systems, particularly where species vary greatly in life-form. Isotopic techniques are an increasingly common means to trace water sources. The distribution of stable isotopes of water within the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum is indicative of a range of hydrologic processes and plant functions. Before we can infer
Stephen S. O. Burgess; Mark A. Adams; Neil C. Turner; Brett Ward
Both second-growth and agroforestry systems (AFs) have the potential for recovering thousands of abandoned pasturelands in\\u000a Amazon. The AFs may do it faster and, at the same time, produce direct economic benefits for farmers. Improved nutrient recycling\\u000a may be expected due to distinctive litter production in AFs, but lacks experimental data yet. The stocks of carbon and nutrients\\u000a of the
Sandra C. Tapia-Coral; Flávio J. Luizão; Elisa Wandelli; Erick C. M. Fernandes
Farming Systems developed in Humid Tropical Zones are frequently characterized by a combination of perennial and annual plants,\\u000a intermixed in complex tree-crop associations. The productive functioning, the agronomic and economic performances, and the\\u000a sustainability of these crop associations remain poorly understood. To improve the management capacity of these complex agroforestry\\u000a systems, adequate indicators must be developed and integrated in assessment
Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues; Inacio de Barros; Eugène Ejolle Ehabe; Patrick Sama Lang; Frank Enjalric
During the 1980s, land- and labor-intensive simultaneous agroforestry systems (SAFS) were promoted in the tropics, based on\\u000a the optimism on tree-crop niche differentiation and its potential for designing tree-crop mixtures using high tree-densities.\\u000a In the 1990s it became clearer that although trees would yield crucial products and facilitate simultaneous growing of crops,\\u000a they would also exert strong competitive effects on
Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taedaL.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha in rectangular and multi-row configurations. Wider tree spacing or lower stand density of 7-year-old
Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value
In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect
Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe
Over the past two decades, various organizations have promoted cacao agroforestry systems as a tool for biodiversity conservation\\u000a in the Bribri-Cabécar indigenous territories of Talamanca, Costa Rica. Despite these efforts, cacao production is declining\\u000a and is being replaced by less diverse systems that have lower biodiversity value. Understanding the factors that influence\\u000a household land use is essential in order to
R. M. Dahlquist; M. P. Whelan; L. Winowiecki; B. Polidoro; S. Candela; C. A. Harvey; J. D. Wulfhorst; P. A. McDaniel; N. A. Bosque-Pérez
This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.
\\u000a Increasingly, constructed wetland systems are being utilized for treatment and buffering of effluent and runoff water, functioning\\u000a in nutrient removal, disinfection and also as transitional environments in recycling applications. Agriculture and agroforestry\\u000a opportunities are abundant for water treated by wetland systems. Progressively, wetland use as a component in potable recycling\\u000a may be more acceptable in areas as changing flow regimes
Existing approaches to modelling the impacts of reforestation on tropical hydrology only simulate one or two changes, thereby limiting our ability to quantify the balance between complex positive and negative changes, even for a single micro-basin. To initiate a more holistic and multi-scale approach, we develop a new simulation model structure within the Matlab-Simulink systems environment that firstly, illustrates quantifiable
The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.
Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.
Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.
With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened for use on landfills, these ecological potentials have not yet been investigated. We examined a 14-yr-old landfill plantation in New Jersey, USA, established to test tolerance of 19 species of trees and shrubs to landfill environments. We measured survivorship, reproduction, and recruitment within and around the experimental installation. Half of the original 190 plants were present, although survival and growth rates varied widely among species. An additional 752 trees and shrubs had colonized the plantation and its perimeter, as well as 2955 stems of vines. However, the great majority (>95%) of woody plants that had colonized were not progeny of the planted cohort, but instead belonged to 18 invading species, mostly native, bird-dispersed, and associated with intermediate stages of secondary plant succession. Based on this evidence, we recommend that several ecological criteria be applied to choices of woody species for the restoration of municipal landfills and similar degraded sites, in order to maximize rapid and economical establishment of diverse, productive woodlands.
Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.; Schmalhofer, Victoria R.
The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.
Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950-53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982-2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r?=?0.54) and spatially (r?=?0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade(-1), perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development. PMID:23520541
2011 inappropriate management practices. There is thus the necessity to find more conservationist that increase and diversify farm and forest production while also conserving natural resources. This system, Agricultural Science Center, Federal University of PiauÃ, Teresina, PI, Brazil e-mail: email@example.com L
A field experiment was conducted in a randomized block design at the National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi (UP) during two consecutive years (2000 - 01 and 2001 - 02). The experiment comprised eight treatments: T1 - trees allowed to grow normally + crop, T2 - pruning of trees up to 70% plant height + crop, T3 - trees allowed
RAM NEWAJ; M. K. BHARGAVA; A. K. SHANKER; R. S. YADAV; P. RAI
The article presents a critical evaluation of agroforestry systems as regards their potential to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. The suggestion that trees would always and everywhere be profitable for the region will be counterproductive, the basis for disappointments and a waste of money. One has to consider carefully which properties of woody
Agroforestry in Australia and New Zealand is dominated by silvopastoralism. Farmers may employ combinations of shelterbelts, shade trees, widely spaced trees over pasture, or more densely planted woodlots. In addition to wood production and shelter, erosion control, amenity and landscape planting, and conservation of natural forest are often important. Many farm forestry people show considerable innovation.In temperate wetter areas of
Biodiversity in Eastern Madagascar is threatened by slash and burn agriculture, which is resulting in species extinction, land and soil degradation and rural impoverishment. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken to determine the domestication potential of indigenous fruit tree species as components of agroforestry systems. Four major selection criteria were used: nutritional and income needs of the population, diversification of the
Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO 2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable
Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable productivity.
Establishing trees in pastures can have production and conservation benefits, but is complicated by the presence of livestock.\\u000a The need to protect seedlings from livestock increases tree establishment costs, which in turn, can deter landowners from\\u000a planting trees. Living fences are a ubiquitous feature of pasture landscapes in the tropics that could help protect newly\\u000a planted trees by preventing livestock
which are critical for a vibrant and diversified agriculture that addresses both ecological systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer
The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.
Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.
Habitats of the multipurpose tree, Acacia nilotica, were identified along the coastline of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, south of Iran. Four sites were randomly chosen and in each one, vegetation as well as climatic and soil characteristics were studied. Likewise, biometry of Acacia trees was conducted and compared in the sites. The fodder values in leaf and fruit of Acacia were determined and compared with those of in foliage of Medicago sativa being managed under an agro-forestry system. By analyzing data it was revealed that the biggest trees were found in Dashteyari region and the smallest in Bamani region (both in the Oman Sea coast). Values in most of nutritional elements were higher in foliage of Medicago than in leaf and fruit of Acacia, respectively. From this investigation it is concluded that in south of Iran where the site is favorable for Acacia plantation, cultivation of Medicago or other adaptable crops together with Acacia can be developed as agroforestry systems (such as undercropping and intercropping) if water is available. PMID:19086523
Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively. PMID:17626473
Dew harvesting, believed to be an ancient technique, has recently re-emerged as a viable and sustainable water resource. Nightly yields are relatively low, yet non-negligible, and dew events occur more frequently than rainfall promoting its effectiveness, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate how dew can be harvested and subsequently used for small-scale irrigation to meet agricultural and reforestation water demand. Polyethylene dew harvesting systems were constructed and placed in the field. Dew was harvested as a result of the radiative cooling during the night, thus allowing dew formation under conditions of high humidity. Condensed dew formed upon the planar surface was collected by gravity. Water demand for selected crops and trees within a pilot study area (Lebanon) was estimated using a deficit irrigation model. Simulations of water demand requirements of various plants and surfaces were performed and compared to dew volumes to assess the ability of the system to meet all or in part the plant water demands across seasons. Data from the polyethylene low-cost dew condensers have shown that within the pilot study, average nightly dew yields were 0.1 L m-2 of condensing surface with a maximum yield of 0.4 L m-2. Dew events occurred generally more frequently than precipitation events, with an estimated 40% of nights producing dew condensate. This translates to 50 mm of equivalent rainfall on average (during dew nights), with a maximum of 200 mm in one night, if one assumes using drip irrigation over a seedling within a 20 cm2 area. Using a simple deficit irrigation model, it was demonstrated that crops such as the tomato plant, which typically has a growing season during the dry summer, can potentially be irrigated solely by dew, thus eliminating the need for traditional irrigation sources. Similarly, young tree seedlings, such as the cedar tree, can depend upon dew as a primary water resource. Moreover, based on similar deficit irrigation strategies, dew was found to be a suitable irrigation option with minimal adverse impact to crop yield or growth rates within our pilot area.
Tomaszkiewicz, Marlene; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El Fadel, Mutasem
In order to understand the effects of landscape heterogeneity induced by habitat restoration and landform change on the biodiversity in degraded landscapes, an investigation by using light trap was conducted on the geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) diversity in the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats in three villages at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau in 2006 and 2007. There existed significant differences in the species richness and individual number of geometrid moth between cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats and in the species richness of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes, but no significant differences in the individual number of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes and in the standardized sparseness index and Fisher' s alpha index between the villages and between the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats within each village. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) indicated that the community structure of geometrid moth in different habitats and at different altitudes differed significantly. This study indicated that the landscape heterogeneity induced by land-form change had significant effects on the community structure and diversity of geometrid moth on Bashang Plateau, and, both cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats were the important habits for geometrid moth. It was suggested that to protect the landscape mosaics containing cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats across the varied landform of Bashang Plateau would have significances in the conservation of high gamma-diversity of geometrid moth, but whether the reforestation and creation of semi-natural habitats could improve the biodiversity of geometrid moth should be monitored in long term. PMID:22720626
Fresh tree root decomposition induced by tillage is an important source of soil nutrients in agroforestry systems. Here we\\u000a examined the effects of tree species, root size and soil N enrichment on fresh root decomposition under laboratory conditions.\\u000a Fresh roots with two diameters (Populus euramericana cv. ‘N3016’ (poplar) and Pinus tabulaeformis (pine) collected from agroforestry systems in Northeast China were
Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670
Reforestation of woodlands with native species in the Erzgebirge, where large-scale deforestation has been caused by severe air pollution, was investigated. In an experiment, three tree species (Norway spruce, rowanberry, and birch) were studied with regard to fencing (no protection versus protection against game browsing) and site preparation techniques with eight levels: a control and seven amelioration techniques (soil cultivation,
Hany El Kateb; Benabdellah Benabdellah; Christian Ammer; Reinhard Mosandl
The process of iterative diagnosis and design with the active participation of farmers and extension agents was found effective\\u000a in identifying appropriate agroforestry systems for farmers in the Bugesera and Gisaka-Migongo (BGM) regions of Rwanda. Periodic\\u000a re-evaluation of research assumptions and technology designs was based on feedback from farmers and extentionists through\\u000a regular visits to station trials, early initiation of
The aim of this work was to assess whether agroforestry species have the ability to acquire P from pools unavailable to maize. Tithonia diversifolia(Hemsley) A. Gray, Tephrosia vogelii Hook f., Zea mays and Lupinus albusL. were grown in rhizopots and pH change and depletion of inorganic and organic P pools measured in the rhizosphere. Plants were harvested at the same
T. S. George; P. J. Gregory; J. S. Robinson; R. J. Buresh
Agroforestry systems have been re-evaluated with a renewed scientific interest as appropriate models for achieving sustainable\\u000a production while maintaining planned and associated biodiversity and agroecosystem functioning. Traditional bamboo-tree gardens\\u000a in West Java are known to play substantial ecological and socioeconomic roles. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the\\u000a relationship between income generation and biodiversity by studying 83 bamboo-tree gardens
Satoru Okubo; Parikesit; Koji Harashina; Dendi Muhamad; Oekan S. Abdoellah; Kazuhiko Takeuchi
Biodiversity in Eastern Madagascar is threatened by slash and burn agriculture, which is resulting in species extinction,\\u000a land and soil degradation and rural impoverishment. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken to determine the domestication\\u000a potential of indigenous fruit tree species as components of agroforestry systems. Four major selection criteria were used:\\u000a nutritional and income needs of the population, diversification of the
E. Styger; J. E. M. Rakotoarimanana; R. Rabevohitra; E. C. M. Fernandes
This paper presents a systems modelling approach to evaluating the success of an agroforestry extension program in Leyte,\\u000a the Philippines. During the program, variables which are intrinsic to farmers’ socio-economic and farming systems were found\\u000a to have influenced the uptake and acceptance of extension advice. Evaluation of the program therefore depended on identifying\\u000a the variables and their interdependencies and assessing
Jack Baynes; John Herbohn; Iean Russell; Carl Smith
SummaryA major hydrologic consequence of reforestation is an increase in canopy interception (Ic), with consequent effects on such processes as soil and groundwater recharge. This study examines the change in rainfall partitioning between throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and Ic in red pine plantations of different ages and in mature mixed hardwood forest stands in the Ganaraska Forest on the crest of the Oak Ridges Moraine in southern Ontario. It also tests the ability of the Liu interception model to predict Ic in these stands. Forest characteristics, TF, SF and Ic were either measured or estimated during the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons for three red pine stands 36-41 years old (as of 2009), three red pine stands 57-62 years old, and three mixed hardwood stands 74-107 years old. Despite considerable variability in total Ic in a given stand type in both years, there was a general increase in Ic as a fraction of above-canopy precipitation (Pg) from younger to older red pine stands and to mixed hardwood stands. This was accompanied by a decrease in SF depth as a fraction of Pg from younger to older red pine stands, followed by an increase in SF/Pg in mixed hardwoods. The Liu model provided good predictions of Ic in 2009 for eight of nine stands with canopy storage capacities optimized using the 2009 data. Model performance was almost as good when tested against the 2010 data using the 2009 model parameters. Adjustment of the parameter representing the ratio of mean evaporation rate to mean rainfall rate to account for greater evaporative demand in 2010 led to a modest improvement in model performance. The increase in growing season Ic/Pg ratios as red pine plantations in the Ganaraska Forest mature and undergo a managed transition to mature mixed hardwoods may have important implications for soil water and groundwater recharge that require further study. The Liu model is a promising means of estimating Ic in forest stands of differing age and type, which in turn will assist in understanding the hydrologic consequences of reforestation in this landscape.
Increasing nut production through cultural practices is important to landowners for maximizing economic gain from agroforestry\\u000a plantings. This project studied the effects of applying low rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer during either the spring or late\\u000a summer, on pistillate flowers formed, fruits retained, and fruit quality (percentage kernel) in black walnut (Juglans nigra\\u000a L.) grown under alley cropping management. Treatments
Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.
Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682
Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo
Vegetation is critical to stabilize and remediate mine tailing sites, but plant growth is often poor due to toxicity from heavy metal(loid)s (HMs). A non-symbiotic endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7, isolated from Pb-contaminated mine tailing soil, exhibited both high tolerance to HMs and desirable plant growth-promoting characteristics. PDR1-7 promoted HM solubilization in mine tailing soil and removed significant amounts of Pb and other HMs from liquid media containing single and multiple metals. Pb removal efficiency increased with initial pH from 4 to 6 and with Pb concentration from 100 to 125 mg L(-1). Inoculating soil with PDR1-7 significantly increased nutrient availability and seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein contents, as well as antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase) activity. A decrease in malondialdehyde indicated less oxidative stress. HM concentrations were much higher in Pinus sylvestris roots when PDR1-7 was present. These observations suggest the utility of Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 for pine reforestation and phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated mine soil. PMID:24496029
Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine
Foreign and Dutch walnut cultivars have been evaluated in experiments at the Research Station for Fruit Growing located in the Southwest. The cultivars that performed best in these trials originated from British Columbia (`Broadview¿) and The Netherlands (`Buccaneer¿). In an agroforestry project in the East, 8 farms planted 10 ha of walnut (`Broadview¿, `Buccaneer¿), cherry and sweet chestnut at a
Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. Nitrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bac...
Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929
A new reconstruction of the Late Holocene biomass burning history of the tropical Americas is consistent with expanding fire use by Mesoamerican and Amazonian agriculturalists from 2000-500 BP and a subsequent period of fire reduction due to indigenous demographic collapse. Our reconstruction synthesizes published data from 50 charcoal accumulation records obtained from stratified lacustrine sediments and from soils, including soil charcoal records recovered from archeological sites. Synthesis of stratigraphic charcoal records yields indexes of the mean rate of regional charcoal accumulation and of variability in charcoal accumulation among sites during 500-year increments since 3500 BP. The age distribution of dated soil charcoal particles from non-archeological sites provides an independent measure of variation in regional charcoal accumulation; whereas age distribution of soil charcoal dates from archeological sites records variation in charcoal accumulation related to anthropogenic biomass burning. We observe that the charcoal accumulation indexes derived from stratigraphic records begin to increase at 2000 BP, remain high until 500 BP, and then decline to near-minimum values during the 500-year period subsequent to European contact. Similarly, the age distributions of soil charcoal dated from both non-archeological and archeological sites indicate increases in charcoal accumulation from 2000 to 500 BP followed by decline. An index of the inter- site variability in charcoal accumulation obtained from the stratigraphic records attains a maximum during the time period between 1000 and 500 BP and a near-minimum value afterward. We interpret the covariation between measures of charcoal accumulation derived from archeological and non-archeological sites as a consequence of the expansive influence of anthropogenic activity on the regional fire regime. Increases in regional charcoal accumulation apparent in both the stratigraphic and soil charcoal records beginning at 2000 BP correlate with expanding indigenous population, agriculture, and fire use in the tropical Americas. The rise in inter-site variability in charcoal accumulation after 2000 BP is consistent with a demographic shift toward sedentary agrarian communities and localized increases in charcoal accumulation in densely populated centers. Declines in regional charcoal accumulation and inter-site variability after 500 BP suggest a correlative cause related to reduction in anthropogenic biomass burning resulting from pandemic-driven population collapse. Published reconstructions of Pre-Columbian demography indicate that during European conquest, pandemics killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~60 million), estimated to represent ~20% of the 16th century global population. Our predictive calculations suggest that fire reduction in the tropical Americas is associated with massive forest regeneration on ~5 x 105 km2 of land and sequestration of 5-10 Gt C into the terrestrial biosphere, which can account for 13- 50% of the ~2% global reduction in atmospheric CO2 levels and the 0.1‰ increase in ?13C of atmospheric CO2 from 1500 to 1700 CE recorded in Antarctic ice cores and tropical sponges. New archeological discoveries revealing extensive networks of geoglyphs and urban polities in Pre-Columbian Amazonia suggest that our estimates of reforestation, and consequent effects on atmospheric CO2, may be conservative.
SummaryThe effects of forest degradation and use and establishment of tree-plantations on degraded or modified forest ecosystems at multi-decadal time-scales using tree-plantations on the streamflow response are less studied in the humid tropics when compared to deforestation and forest conversion to agriculture. In the Western Ghats of India (Uttar Kannada, Karnataka State), a previous soil hydraulic conductivity survey linked with rain IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) had suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess overland within the degraded forest and reforested areas and thus potentially higher streamflow (Bonell et al., 2010). We further tested these predictions in Uttar Kannada by establishing experimental basins ranging from 7 to 23 ha across three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen Forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest (DF) and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. In total, 11 basins were instrumented (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF) in two geomorphological zones, i.e., Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad) and at three sites (one Coastal, two Up-Ghat). The rainfall-streamflow observations collected (at daily and also at a 36 min time resolutions in the Coastal basins) over a 2-3 year period (2003-2005) were analysed. In both the Coastal and Up-Ghat basins, the double mass curves showed during the rainy season a consistent trend in favour of more proportion of streamflow in the rank order DF > AC > NF. These double mass curves provide strong evidence that overland flow is progressively becomes a more dominant stormflow pathway. Across all sites, NF converted 28.4 ± 6.41stdev% of rainfall into total streamflow in comparison to 32.7 ± 6.97stdev% in AC and 45.3 ± 9.61stdev% in DF. Further support for the above trends emerges from the quickflow ratio QF/Q for the Coastal basins. There are much higher values for both the DF and AC land covers, and their rank order DF > AC > NF. The quickflow response ratio QF/P is also the highest for the DF basin, and along with the QF/Q ratio, can exceed 90%. The corresponding delayed flow response ratios, QD/P clearly show the largest QD yields as a proportion of event precipitation from the Forest (NF1). The application of linear model supported these differences (e.g. 10-36% difference between NF and DF, p < 0.001) in the storm hydrologic response of the Coastal basins. The exception was QF/P where there was a higher uncertainty connected with inter-basin mean differences. Cross-correlation plots for rain-streamflow and corresponding lag regression models for three storm events in the Coastal basins suggested the existence of alternative stormflow pathways with multiple lags with peaks between ˜12 and 24 h in NF, compared to respective bimodal peaks at ˜1 and 16 h in AC and ˜1 and 12 h in DF. The long time lags for NF are suggestive of deep subsurface stormflow and groundwater as the contributing sources to the storm hydrograph. The short time lags in DF and AC are indicative of overland flow and so 'memory' of the previous degraded land cover is retained in AC as supported by previous hydraulic conductivity data. As potential and actual evapotranspiration is likely to be depressed during the monsoon, differences in streamflow and run-off responses between land-cover types is largely attributed to differences in soil infiltration and hydrologic pathways. Enhancing infiltration and reducing run-off in managed ecosystems should be explored in the terms of the context of other ecosystem services and biodiversity.
Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas; Rakesh, K. N.
1.Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) is the cultivation of trees and arable crops on the same parcel of land. SAF may contribute to modern diversified land use objectives in Europe, such as enhanced biodiversity and productivity, reduced leaching of nitrogen, protection against flooding and erosion, and attractiveness of the landscape. Long-term yield predictions are needed to assess long-term economic profitability of SAF.2.A
Wopke van der Werf; Karel Keesman; Paul Burgess; Anil Graves; David Pilbeam; L. D. Incoll; Klaas Metselaar; Martina Mayus; Roel Stappers; Herman van Keulen; João Palma; Christian Dupraz
Tree root systems may improve soil fertility through carbon inputs, uptake of leachable nutrients and maintenance of soil\\u000a biomass, but can at the same time reduce crop yields by competition for water and nutrients. Quantitative information about\\u000a the positive and negative effects of tree roots and their changes in space and time are necessary for the optimization of\\u000a agroforestry associations.
Kodagu district produces 2% of the world’s coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district\\u000a harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are\\u000a the cause of human–elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation
P. Bal; C. D. Nath; K. M. Nanaya; C. G. Kushalappa; C. Garcia
Kodagu district produces 2% of the world’s coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district\\u000a harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are\\u000a the cause of human–elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation
P. Bal; C. D. Nath; K. M. Nanaya; C. G. Kushalappa; C. Garcia
Agroforestry in the Western Ghats (WG) of peninsular India and satoyama in rural Japan are traditional land-use systems with\\u000a similar evolutionary trajectories. Some of their relevance was lost by the middle of the twentieth century, when modern agricultural\\u000a technologies and urbanisation engineered shifts in emphasis towards maximising crop production. There has been, however, a\\u000a resurgence of interest in traditional land-use
The spatio-temporal patterns of soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in a multi-strata agroforestry system with perennial\\u000a crops were analysed as indicators for the effects of crop species and management measures on soil conditions under permanent\\u000a agriculture in central Amazonia. The study was carried out in a plantation with locally important tree crop species and a\\u000a leguminous cover crop at
Götz Schroth; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Rosangela Seixas; Luciana Ferreira da Silva; Michaela Schaller; Jeferson L. V. Macêdo; Wolfgang Zech
The subject of global warming due to the human addition of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere has been the subject of considerable attention and research in the last two decades. The principal GHG of concern related to human influence is carbon dioxide (CO2). Emissions of this gas have grown rapidly since the industrial revolution in response to the energy and agricultural demands of an increasing world population. Concern exists that the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs may rise sufficiently high so as to impose dangerous interference with the climate system. Numerous methods and measures for the sequestration and avoidance of GHGs have been proposed with the object of decreasing the growth and ultimately stabilizing atmospheric GHG concentrations. The purpose of this work is to examine the effectiveness of one such measure-that of the feasibiltiy of large-scale reforestation/afforestation efforts to mitigate projected global warming. An energy balance global climate model was selected to conduct this work. The model is based on previous work of Pease (1987) in the Annals of the AAG, (77), 450-461, which has been expanded to include dimensions of time and space. The assumed reforestation/afforestation activities are based on a World Resources Institute study by Trexler and Haugen (1995) entitled Keeping it Green Tropical Forest Opportunities for Mitigating Climate Change. The forestry activities are assumed to take place in the tropics where a year-round growing season, plentiful rainfall, and relatively low land development costs should provide the most economically favorable conditions for instituting such a program. The climate model simulations examine the effect of carbon absorption and sequestration in isolation, and then in a subsequent step, examine the combined effect of carbon absorption/sequestration and albedo changes attendant with increased forest cover. Results of the modeling show only small temperature benefits (an approximate 0.1 degree C cooling) associated with implementation of this large-scale reforestation program versus a CO2 doubling case with no forestry programs. Of the approximate 0.1 degree C temperature change, the largest effect was due to CO2 sequestration with the surface albedo effect being negligible (less than 0.01 degree C).
The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.
Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.
Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes. PMID:19086397
Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko
An evaluation of soil components was carried out in two pilot areas of 1.5 ha each, located in Piedra Azul and La Ciénaga sectors, pertaining to the Motatán River watershed, State of Trujillo, Venezuela. The purpose of the study was to determine the adaptability of some fruit and forestry species, sorted out by agro-forestry land use types (LUT). In order
This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945
This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface- and sub-soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed natural broad-leaved forest; (ii) a mature, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broad-leaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 m year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.
Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.
In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the ?13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.
Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.
Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy
Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21359868
Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C
Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21751010
Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C
The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms
his paper describes the emerging field of practice theory as it is practiced in relation to organizational phenomena. We identify three approaches—empirical, theoretical, and philosophical—that relate to the what, the how, ...
The practicing orthopaedic traumatologist must have a sound knowledge of business fundamentals to be successful in the changing healthcare environment. Practice management encompasses multiple topics including governance, the financial aspects of billing and coding, physician extender management, ancillary service development, information technology, transcription utilization, and marketing. Some of these are universal, but several of these areas may be most applicable to the private practice of medicine. Attention to each component is vital to develop an understanding of the intricacies of practice management. PMID:24918826
Founded over 40 years ago by an economist, Practical Action's aim is to help impoverished people "use technology to challenge poverty", to gain "access to technical options and knowledge", and "influence the social, economic and institutional systems for innovation and use of technology." The "Downloads" tab has a link to "Practical Answers" that cover almost two dozen themes and lets users browse the extensive library, submit technical questions to expert, and it also provides users with a section entitled "Share" which documents peoples' experience with Practical Action. Visitors will also find the "Featured Articles" section of the Downloads useful and full of such practical information as "Build Your Own Tippy Tap", for hand washing after toileting and a "Solar Voltaic System Design Info Sheet" that covers electrical design issues. Back on the homepage, visitors will find links to their social networking, e-newsletter, and the latest from their series of blogs.
\\u000a In educational research, learning theories represent alternative conceptualizations of what we take learning to be. This volume\\u000a examines three contemporary theories of learning with particular relevance to the study of practice, namely, situated learning,\\u000a dialogic theory (or dialogism), and Deweyan transactionism. The chapter authors address themselves to two basic questions:\\u000a How might we go about studying instructional practice in a
This study examines conceptions of leadership and leadership enactment by teachers to develop a conceptual foundation for teacher leadership. The research question driving this study was: How do elementary school teacher leaders within a curricular and instructional reform effort describe their conceptions and enactment of leadership within their school and district contexts? Two program sites for elementary school science reform were selected, and six teachers from each program were invited to participate in the study. First-hand reports of conceptions of leadership and stories of enactment, collected through individual and focus group interviews with the teachers, served as the primary data for the study. A case for each of the twelve teachers is presented and analyzed. The outcome of the study is a theory of practical leadership. This conception draws upon the intellectual tradition of practical reasoning, which emphasizes deliberation and action of the individual when faced with a decision or a problematic situation. Practical leadership draws primarily from three dimensions: the self of the leader; the contexts in which the leader is acting; and the purposes that drive the leader's actions. Examples of leadership enactment from the cases are presented with attention to how these enactment stories demonstrate the teachers' use of practical reasoning in the situations described. The final analysis looks more specifically at the idea of practical leadership using a dynamic model called "leadership space" to demonstrate interactions among self, contexts, and purposes over time. The dissertation highlights three conclusions: (1) practical reasoning as the theoretical foundation for analyzing leadership provides a useful and valid analytical framework since it locates the leadership enactment in the deliberation and actions of the leader rather than understanding leadership as the application of a generalized set of principles about how to lead; (2) conceptions of leadership influence leadership enactment; and (3) teacher leadership roles are crafted, not filled.
...ensure forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest...enhance growth and quality of wood fiber, special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in...
...forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest Stand Improvement...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in conjunction with...
...forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest Stand Improvement...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in conjunction with...
Front-page articles in science and education periodicals and journals give voice to the growing concern that scores on nationwide science exams have either declined or, at best, have had a minute increase even after several years of pushing for better science learning. With this reality facing science education, being knowledgeable about some best practices in science instruction is important.
\\u000a Public education in the United States has a history of local control in the development of curriculum and instruction. Although\\u000a notable court decisions have led to more universal applications of educational policy and practices (Brown v. Board of Education\\u000a 1954, Oberti v. Clementon 1993), it has been federal law that has resulted in significant changes in instruction. The Individuals\\u000a with
The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying
Community-based forest management (CBFM) is a major strategy in managing forest lands in the Philippines. Forest and land management activities implemented in CBFM project sites include management of tropical forests (enrichment planting, timber stand improvement or TSI and limited harvesting), rehabilitation of degraded lands (reforestation, assisted natural regeneration (ANR)) and agroforestry. The environmental effects of CBFM and its technologies are
This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about the practice of interdisciplinary research. We explore the practical difficulties of interdisciplinary research in the context of a regional- or local-scale project. We posit four barriers to interdisciplinarity that are common across many disciplines and draw on our own experience and on other sources to explore how these barriers are manifested. Values enter into scientific theories and data collection through scientists' hidden assumptions about disciplines other than their own, through the differences between quantitative and interpretive social sciences, and through roadblocks created by the organization of academia and the relationship between academics and the larger society. Participants in interdisciplinary projects need to be self-reflective about the value judgments embedded in their choice of variables and models. They should identify and use a core set of shared concerns to motivate the effort, be willing to respect and to learn more about the other, be able to work with new models and alternative taxonomies, and allow for plurality and incompleteness.
SHARACHCHANDRA LÃÂÃÂLÃÂÃÂ and RICHARD B. NORGAARD (;)
The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working in the African Humid Tropics (AHT) since 1987. Despite its natural wealth, small-scale farmers of AHT are among the poorest people in the world and have relied on extractive harvesting of forest products and traditional shifting cultivation for their food and other needs. After years of severe deforestation, alternatives now have to
Z. TCHOUNDJEU; E. K. ASAAH; P. ANEGBEH; A. DEGRANDE; P. MBILE; C. FACHEUX; A. TSOBENG; A. R. ATANGANA; M. L. NGO-MPECK; A. J. SIMONS
The Nuffield Foundation was created in 1943 by William Morris, the founder of Morris Motors. He wanted to contribute to improvements in society, primarily the "advancement of social well-being." According to the site, he "emphasised the importance of education, training and research in achieving that goal." This website, created by the Foundation, is a logical extension of his work, containing practical activities designed for use in the classroom with students in high school and college. The activities here are arranged into a dozen topics, including Astronomy, Atoms and nuclei, and Physics applications. The activities here include "Hearing a laser beam," "What's the frequency?," and 75 others that use video clips, interactive graphics, and other visual materials to make these concepts and principles come alive. The Forces and Motion area is one of the best, as it is host to activities that really delve into the concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration. Visitors can also use the search engine to look for specific items of interest.
The Paper is based on the evaluation of a sample of communities of practice formed with funding from Reframing the Future in 2002. The paper provides three good practice examples from the 2002 communities that were effective in identifying, reflecting upon and improving their practice, such as their ideas, tools and work styles. This reflection on practice was particularly apparent
Increased dependence of resource-poor rural communities on soils of low inherent fertility are the major problem of desert agroecosystem. Agrisilviculture practices may help to conserve the soil biota for maintaining essential soil properties and processes in harsh climate. Therefore, the impacts of different land use systems on faunal density, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of soil were studied in agrisilviculture system of Indian desert. The selected fields had trees (Zizyphus mauritiana, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica) and crops (Cuminum cyminum, Brassica nigra, Triticum aestivum) in different combinations. Populations of Acari, Myriapoda, Coleoptera, Collembola, other soil arthropods and total soil fauna showed significant changes with respect to different land use practices and tree species, indicating a strong relation between above and below ground biodiversity. The Coleoptera exhibited greatest association with all agrisilviculture fields. The Z. mauritiana system indicated highest facilitative effects (RTE value) on all groups of soil fauna. Soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were greater under tree than that of tree plus cropping system. It showed accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen in tree field and more utilization by crops in cultivated lands. Positive and significant correlation among organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity clearly reflects increase in soil nutrients with the increase in microbial and other biotic activity. P. cineraria field was the best pedoecosystem, while C. cyminum was the best winter crop for cultivation in desert agroforestry system for soil biological health and soil sustainability. The increase in organic carbon, soil nutrients and microbial activity is associated with the increase in soil faunal population which reflect role of soil fauna in fertility building. This suggests that strategies may be developed for nurturing fertility-building soil fauna and managing degraded pedoecosystem in desert just by adopting suitable agricultural practices. PMID:16335596
REPORT TOWARDS CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE Use of patient records from general practice of General Practice, University of Glasgow Nicola Perrin, Senior Policy Adviser, Wellcome Trust Citing Practice: Use of patient records from general practice for research. London: Wellcome Trust; 2009. www
Best Practice BestPracticeForum Forum Center for Educational Resources c e r Innovative Instructor@jhu.edu Forum categories Pedagogy Forum Hopkins professors share successful strategies for teaching excellence Practice Forum "How To"workshops on using technologies and applying innovative instructional methods
Best Practice BestPracticeForum Forum Center for Educational Resources c e r Innovative Instructor-7181 Forum categories Pedagogy Forum Hopkins professors share successful strategies for teaching excellence Practice Forum "How To"workshops on using technologies and applying innovative instructional methods Making
Best Practice BestPracticeForum Forum Center for Educational Resources c e r Innovative Instructor-7181 Forum categories Pedagogy Forum Hopkins professors share successful strategies for teaching excellence Practice Forum "How To"workshops on using technologies and applying innovative instructional methods
Best Practice BestPracticeForum Forum Center for Educational Resources c e r Innovative Instructor@jhu.edu Forum categories Pedagogy Forum Hopkins professors share successful strategies for teaching excellence Practice Forum "How To"workshops on using technologies and applying innovative instructional methods To the
We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. Establecimiento de Prioridades Prácticas para la Conservación de Aves en los Andes Occidentales de Colombia. PMID:25065287
BIOSPECIMEN BEST BIOSPECIMEN BEST PRACTICES FORUM PRACTICES FORUM Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Best Practices Best Practices June 18, 2007 June 18, 2007 Karen Smith Thiel, Ph.D., J.D. Karen Smith Thiel,
agreed upon by the advanced practice registered nurse and one or more licensed physicians or dentists Practice Registered Nurse, which have entered into collaborative practices (List all physicians below licensed specialty in space) within collaborative practice guidelines agreed upon by the collaborative
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Prepared by Virginia Golf Course Superintendents Association #12;#12;EnvironmEntal BEst managEmEnt PracticEs for virginia's golf III I am pleased to endorse the Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses
Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…
With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…
Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…
Environmental Public Health Practice in the Southeastern United States Southeast Regional Academic Center for Environmental Public Health School of Public Health University of Alabama at Birmingham #12; Environmental Public Health Practice
Best Practices in Intergenerational Programming: Practice 1 Staff members of the adult and child, Human Development, Virginia Tech Karen DeBord, Extension Specialist, Family and Human Development, and appropriate socialization for both young and old (Jarrott 2011). The first practice relates to collaboration
A conceptual model for teaching and practicing social policy is presented, that distinguishes between social policy practice at macro- and micro-levels in order to sort out functional tasks, skills, and the consequent knowledge base. Suggestions are made regarding organizing social policy practice content in both the class and the field.…
In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices submitted in the 2012 Training Top 125 application. Best practices: (1) Edward Jones: Practice Makes Perfect (sales training); (2) Grant Thornton LLP: Senior Manager Development Program (SMDP); (3) MetLife, Inc.: Top Advisor…
Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582
of labour and income, gender roles and gender power relations have not been properly addressed. Therefore the land uses change affects the lives of farm women and men, their gender roles and the gender power share and distribution of income, gender role of women and men, and the household gender power
Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the
Modern agriculture has deprived local communities in the tropics of their natural life-support system—the forest resource and the traditional knowledge about indigenous species—and this has not been replaced by employment opportunities or social services. This project in the west and northwest regions of Cameroon takes an innovative three-step approach to improving the lives of local people by establishing rural resource
Ebenezar K. Asaah; Zacharie Tchoundjeu; Roger R. B. Leakey; Bertin Takousting; James Njong; Innocent Edang
Action research changes people's practices, their understandings of their practices, and the conditions under which they practice. It changes people's patterns of "saying", "doing" and "relating" to form new patterns--new ways of life. It is a meta-practice: a practice that changes other practices. It transforms the sayings, doings and relating…
The healthcare marketing game has radically changed. Medical practices must rely on strategies instead of tactics to better separate themselves from the competition. The Internet has become a disruptive force in marketing, tipping the balance and control of the reputations of medical practices to the patient. Done right, medical practices can harness this new energy to attract new patients and keep current patients loyal. PMID:21243884
Discusses some good oral reading concepts that teachers should consider when developing new classroom practices, including: round robin reading, silent reading before oral reading, shared reading, etc. (NL)
BEST PRACTICES SUMMARY REPORT ENGINEERING EDUCATION INNOVATORS CONFERENCE April 7-8, 1997 Sheraton ... Engineering Education and Centers Division Directorate for Engineering National Science Foundation ...
This booklet focuses on aspects of effective education that appear to be universal in formal schooling. The practices, which are generally for use in elementary and secondary classrooms, show large, positive learning effects for students in widely varying conditions. Information in the booklet is based on research spanning half a century. Each…
Assessment is more than simply ascribing an 'A' or a 'B' to a particular student achievement. In an era of state-mandated proficiencies and alternative assessment strategies, educators need practical ideas they can use to meaningfully assess their students' learning and their own practice. This issue of "ENC Focus" centers on the topic of inquiry…
. Â· Allow programming location to vary; for example, use the children's classroom to offer varietyBest Practices in Intergenerational Programming: Practice 8 Facilitators skillfully stage Programming A Children's, Youth, and Families at Risk project of Virginia Tech with the Jefferson Area Board
Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice. PMID:23243088
Background: Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease that was seen in the clinical practice especially for family physicians. Methods: This review article covered the important practical clinical issues for managing overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Conclusions: The clinical issues were addressed by clinical scenario followed by questions and stressed on the important clinical points. PMID:25161963
Lipases are the most used enzymes in synthetic organic chemistry, catalyzing the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters in aqueous medium or the reverse reaction in organic solvents. Recent methodological advancements regarding practical factors affecting lipase activity and enantioselectivity are reviewed. Select practical examples concerning the use of lipases in the production of chiral intermediates are also highlighted.
Media communications and practice Essentials Courses BA (Hons) in Media and Communications BA (Hons) in Media and Cultural Studies BA (Hons) in Media Practice BA (Hons) in English and Media Studies (p76) BA (Hons) in Sociology and Media Studies (p128) BSc (Hons) in Computing for Digital Media (p58) Foundation
In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…
This article summarizes the development of the Tanacross practical orthography, highlighting the crucial differences between practical and technical orthography used in some linguistic publications. Three stages of Tanacross orthography are exemplified in research from the 1980s. A fourth stage is a hybrid of the second and third stages,…
Currently there is considerable debate on the role and function of nurses in Australia and internationally. This debate stems from developments within the nursing profession itself from political and economic issues in health platforms, due to restructuring of the health care system, consumer expectations of health care and nurses' expectations of a career. This paper provides the opportunity to reflect on the development of the role of the private practice (independent nurse) and where that role is situated in the nursing profession. This forms the basis for discussion of the development of specialty practice at an advanced level in Australia and to demonstrate its relationship with the nurse practitioner movement in Australia. PMID:16116776
nutrition and athletic performance, as well as common ergogenic aids. In addition, NYCC offers a graduate program in acupuncture and Oriental medicine that includes a course in the science and practice of clinical nutrition from both Eastern and Western... publications. He has also written a book titled Clinical Nutrition for Pain, Inflammation, and Tissue Healing. Five respondents cited Weston A. Price or the Price-Pottenger Foundation, and another listed Price?s book, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration...
The structures and contexts within which nurses work results in the moral agency and moral autonomy of the nurse being compromised. This claim results from a confusion of (1) the concept of autonomy with those of freedom and independence; and (2) a confusion of the notion of moral autonomy with that of autonomous professional practice. The drawing of appropriate distinctions allows clarification of the relevant concepts. It also underlines the responsibility of practitioners to recognize the moral dimension of their practice, and the moral implications of their actions, as they attempt to meet the health care needs of their patients and develop practice professionally. PMID:9845488
Traditionally, it has been assumed that metaphysical and practical questions about personhood and personal identity are inherently linked. Neo-Lockean views that draw such a link have been problematic, leading to an opposing view that metaphysical and ethical questions about persons should be sharply distinguished. This paper argues that consideration of this issue suffers from an overly narrow conception of the practical concerns associated with persons that focuses on higher-order capacities and fails to appreciate basic practical concerns more directly connected to our animality. A more inclusive alternative is proposed. PMID:20607613
In this paper, a class of nonlinear nonautonomous systems with multiple nonlinearities is considered. Sufficient conditions are developed for a type of practical stability with specified settling time. The conditions are independent of the actual form of nonlinear characteristics so that they can be interpreted as conditions for 'absolute' practical stability. The stability test is reduced to verification of the Hurwitz property of a constant matrix. This makes the stability analysis of the considered class of nonlinear systems convenient for machine computations. The proposed practical stability analysis is applied to a third-order system with several nonlinearities.
Adult feminine hygiene practices are the focus of this exploratory descriptive study. In a sample of 193 women, the typical respondent lived in the Southeast and was a single student who was 23 years of age, and White. Body cleansing, feminine hygiene, and menses management practices were examined. It was found that handwashing varied according to bodily involvement or specific feminine hygiene practices. Assorted menses management products were used for menses management and were used when the woman was not menstruating. The results of this study suggest that it might be possible for health care providers to teach women safe and economical health care practices, such as not douching and handwashing before and after use of menses management products to prevent infections. PMID:8771856
Graphic visualization has demonstrated its value for organizing transactional data and modeling complex phenomena in a wide variety of fields, from theoretical physics to medicine. Behavior analysts have historically used a variety of graphic tools not only for presentation but also for analysis and teaching. As they turn increasingly to the analysis and design of cultural practices, the phenomena behavior analysts study are becoming increasingly complicated. Many cultural practices of interest are embedded in extensive webs of interlocking practices and contingencies that can be difficult to grasp comprehensively. Building on contingency diagrams, which have proven to be useful for the analysis of operant behavior, and graphic tools developed for object-oriented systems analysis, this paper suggests graphic tools for capturing the interlocking contingencies that constitute cultures. These diagrams offer a broad-bandwidth technology for analyzing and designing cultural practices. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:22478262
The thesis is an exploration of the relations between know-how, abilities, and ordinary knowledge of facts. It is shown that there is a distinctively practical sort of know-how and a corresponding interpretation of 'S knows ...
For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices. PMID:23866659
Thyroid pathology is a specialist area but is often encountered by the general pathologist in a variety of forms including cytology, frozen sections, and resection specimens. In the thyroid gland, as for other endocrine organs, many aspects of diagnosis are unique to this area of histopathology; thus, the aims of this paper are to set out best practice guidelines which, although not entirely comprehensive, will be of practical use. PMID:12783963
This paper provides an overview of how practice courses in an administration and planning concentration have been redesigned to be multi-paradigmatic and to intentionally elevate subjugated knowledge. Rational and nonrational theories are used to guide diverse program designs. Assignments are engaging educators, practitioners, and students in the teaching\\/learning\\/grading processes. These efforts are geared to preparing future leaders for practice in
In June 2007, the NCI initiated an education and outreach program targeted at investigators, industry representatives, hospital administrators, patient advocates, and the general public. Four forums were held in key U.S. cities to provide information about the importance of best practices in guiding biospecimen use, the operational and ethical standards in the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources, and resources for achieving high-quality and accessible biospecimens. Audience discussion and participation were key to the success of these events.
As part of the commitment to maintaining current and scientifically accurate best practices, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sought public comment on a revised version of the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources from July 28, 2010 to Sept. 21, 2010. Comments received during the public comment period were taken into consideration and edited into the final version which can be found below or here.
HEALTH ISSUE: There are differences in health practices and self-rated health among different socio-demographic groups of women. The relationship between socio-demographic status and a) a range of health behaviours and b) a combination of multiple risk and multiple health promoting practices were examined. The relationship between self-rated health and health practices was also assessed. KEY FINDINGS: There were geographic differences in health practices with women in British Columbia having the highest odds of engaging in multiple health promoting practices, while women in Quebec had the lowest. Reports of engaging in multiple risk behaviours were most common in Ontario. Women from Ontario had the highest odds of reporting very good/excellent health and women from British Columbia had among the lowest odds.The data supported a strong social gradient between an increase in income/education and healthy practices, especially those that are health promoting. However, women with higher education were more likely to be overweight and those with higher incomes were more likely to drink alcohol regularly.Immigrant women were less likely to engage in multiple health risk practices compared to Canadian-born women. However, they were less likely to report very good/ excellent health than non- immigrants. While marriage appeared to have a generally protective effect on women's health practices, single women were more likely to be physically active and have a normal weight. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: More sensitive indicators need to be developed to better understand possible reasons for the socioeconomic gradient. Data collection should focus on both rural and Aboriginal populations. PMID:15345067
Maclean, Heather; Glynn, Keva; Cao, Zhenyuan; Ansara, Donna
Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983
By the 1980s, forest lands in the Himalayas in central Nepal had become severely degraded as people cleared land for pastures. This led to lowered soil infiltration capacities, resulting in increased surface runoff, soil erosion, and flooding during the rainy season.
and Natural Resources Executive Summary The Need Current Indiana coal mine reclamation regulations require of all tallied trees and shrubs. Both black locust and green ash are still widely planted in reclamation of Reclamation's (INDOR) recommendation to reduce the amount of black locust in tree plantings has reduced
To explore the potential of native tropical hardwoods for forestry development, 84 timber species were tested in a species screening trial in Costa Rica; 17 were widely planted tropical exotics, 52 were locally indigenous, and 15 were native to other areas of Costa Rica. A complete randomized block design was used with single tree plots replicated 24 times per site.
In northwest China, an area of more than 11?000km2 is covered by Pisha Sandstone, a kind of loosely bonded sandstone formed during the Tertiary period. Pisha Sandstone is hard when it is dry but becomes loose when it is wet. Due the nature of this sandstone, this area of northwest China is plagued with a high erosion rate (over 20?000t\\/km2yr)
of almost one hundred native tree species to be grown in plantations under several site conditions at La Selva. There had been little prior research conducted on native species. Exotic species, such as eucalyptus, pines, and Gmelina arborea have been... of almost one hundred native tree species to be grown in plantations under several site conditions at La Selva. There had been little prior research conducted on native species. Exotic species, such as eucalyptus, pines, and Gmelina arborea have been...
It is time to challenge the issue of pleasure associated with the core of medical practice. Its importance is made clear through its opposite: unhappiness--something which affects doctors in a rather worrying way. The paper aims to provide a discussion on pleasure on reliable grounds. Plato's conception of techne is a convenient model that offers insights into the unique practice of medicine, which embraces in a single purposive action several heterogeneous dimensions. In Aristotle's Ethics, pleasure appears to play a central role for action's assessment and intensification. Pleasure is also tightly associated with the Kantian faculty of reflective judgment, which operates at the heart of clinical reasoning. Indeed, practicing medicine means to deal with the particular and the manifold, requiring clinical judgment, but also relying on embodied habitus. With Bourdieu's notion of habitus, pleasure is the mark of a happy practice, which presupposes a deep involvement in one's field. Throughout our inquiry, the question of pleasure comes to offer a critical reappraisal of real medical practice and leads to consider ethics more as a component of techne than as a separate realm of concern. PMID:21728071
There are many opportunities in the health care arena to make a difference. The structured sense of change is "old school." New "surfers" of the system will be entrepreneurial in spirit, energy, and flexibility. There is no job description for the perfect person, only a sense of excitement and innovation that gives one the feeling energetic change is about to happen. In nursing, the risk takers are abundant in the APN role. It is the reason why they walk the line of provider/nurse. Making a difference to patients is important. Riding the waves of clinical care is the excitement. The final results are "the big waves" of life--a patient's life. A provider who defines the reality of practice creates a vision and skillfully bridges the road between the two. Design the surfboard--catch the wave. PMID:9987328
The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. PMID:23782705
Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP) in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on a one to seven rating scale. Barriers to EBP were measured on a five-point Likert scale using two subscales. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 414 nurses were included in the study. The greatest barriers to developing EBP among nurses were insufficient time for research (3.51 ± 0.97) and insufficient resources to change practices (3.64 ± 0.99). Nurses with more years of experience reported increased use of EBP (P <0.01), more positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and fewer barriers to research (P <0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between years of experience and practice (r = 0.16) and attitudes (r = 0.20). Nurses with a baccalaureate degree reported fewer barriers to research than those qualified at a diploma level (P <0.001). Nurses who perceived more barriers to research reported less use of EBP (P <0.001), less positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and limited EBP knowledge/skills (P <0.001). Conclusion: These findings provide a basis for enhancing nursing practices, knowledge and skills. Continuing education for nurses and minimising barriers is crucial to increasing the use of EBP in Oman.
Ammouri, Ali A.; Raddaha, Ahmad A.; Dsouza, Preethy; Geethakrishnan, Renu; Noronha, Judith A.; Obeidat, Arwa A.; Shakman, Lina
In the United States, state laws develop basic practices to define the scopes of practice for registered nurses and licensed practical nurses (LPNs). The purpose of the study was to describe the actual practice patterns of LPNs working in North Carolina. The results of the study convey an unfavorable pattern regarding LPN scope of practice. Indications are that a paradigm shift might be required in order to reverse the pattern of overpractice by LPNs. PMID:22367015
According to the author, there is no fundamental difference between the behavior of wells producing liquids and the behavior of wells producing gas. This book bridges the gap between the results of empirical testing and the theory of unsteady-state flow in porous media. It strengthens the bond between conventional reservoir engineering practices and understanding gas well behavior. Problems are included
Professor, Human Development, Virginia Tech Karen DeBord, Extension Specialist, Family and Human Development, and appropriate socialization for both young and old (Jarrott 2011). The fifth practice relates to choosing. This primarily speaks to adult programs; however, many child programs are beginning to collect this information
, Human Development, Virginia Tech Karen DeBord, Extension Specialist, Family and Human Development, and appropriate socialization for both young and old (Jarrott 2011). The 11th practice relates to documenting on children's cues. When applied to an older adult audience, documentation usually takes the form of powers
Veterinary surgeons have a long tradition of consulting one another about problem cases and many have unwittingly practised telemedicine when discussing cases by telephone or by sending laboratory reports by telefax. Specific veterinary telemedicine applications have been in use since the early 1980s, but little research has been undertaken in this field. The Pubmed and CAB International databases were searched for the following Boolean logic-linked keywords; veterinary and telemedicine, veterinary and telecare, animal and telemedicine, animal and telecare and veterinary and e-mail and an additional search was made of the worldwide web, using Google Scholar. This returned 25 papers which were reviewed. Of these only 2 report research. Sixteen papers had no references and 1 author was associated with 13 papers. Several themes emerge in the papers reviewed. These include remarks about the use of telemedicine, the benefits that can and are derived from the use of telemedicine, areas of practice in which telemedicine is being used, ethical and legal issues around the practice of telemedicine, image standards required for telemedicine, the equipment that is required for the practice of telemedicine, advice on ways in which digital images can be obtained and educational aspects of telemedicine. These are discussed. Veterinary practice has lagged behind its human counterpart in producing research on the validity and efficacy of telemedicine. This is an important field which requires further research. PMID:17120623
Ski Hill Michigan Tech Lakeshore Center (1 mile) Portage Lake Golf Course (2.8 miles) Tech Trails 41 50 84 Practice Fields Soccer Fields Tennis Courts Sherman Field US Hwy. 41 (College Ave.) US Hwy Walker Arts & Humanities Center College of Sciences & Arts, Humanities, Visual & Performing Arts 12
USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...
Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…
Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been received with enthusiasm and interest by many nurses. It has, however, raised skepticism and negative reactions from others. This article seeks to address the place of EBP in care of the elderly by outlining EBP and providing some pertinent examples of how it can be used in caring for older people. Finally, it promotes EBP
This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…
“Practice of Humanity” examines visual and legal representations of transnational sex and domestic work. Specifically, we analyze a 2003 United Nations public service announcement, Cleaning Lady; the 2000 UN Protocol on Human Trafficking; the 2000 US Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act; and current trends in the sociological literatures of both types of work. We demonstrate how these texts
The development of the positions of nurse practitioner and physician assistant is a good example of differentiating staffing and practice to meet individual needs in an effective and cost-efficient way. This type of differentiation has been confined to the healthcare industry, principally to health maintenance organizations, but perhaps those in…
If sustainable construction is to be secured as a response to sovereign governments’ acknowledgement of global warming, then there is an urgent need to focus on both the built environment’s facility and asset serviceability and service life characteristics and their management. Includes building life management, life based procurement practice together with the product’s associated life care needs. Adopting such a
The semi-annual European Environment Sustainable Conference in Aalborg, Denmark brought together from primarily Europe, but also other parts of the world. The Conference focused on sustainability but one panel focused on practical applications for public policy and private industry. The papers from this panel are presented in this special issue of the journal. They cover topics ranging from corporate sustainable
on odor strength, the flow rate of the source odor air stream, the hedonic tone of the odorBest Environmental Management Practices Farm Animal Production Odor Control Options for Confined manure systems. Exhaust Air Treatment The most promising air treatment technology for reducing odor from
. Orthogonal polynomials, 123 18. Polynomial roots and colleague matrices, 132 19. ClenshawÂCurtis and Gauss-squares, 219 27. PadÂ´e approximation, 232 28. Analytic continuation and convergence acceleration, 247 Appendix. Everything is practical and fast, so we will routinely compute polynomial interpolants or Gauss quadrature
When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.
Teachers and administrators at Health Sciences High and Middle College in San Diego, California, wanted to create a grading system that reflected understanding while still encouraging students to practice. They developed course competencies, or performance assessments, that teachers use to measure what students know and can do with the concepts…
The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…
'Gospel Practice Interpretations', explored in John Vincent (ed.), Mark: Gospel of Action (SPCK, 2006), are 'personal and community responses' from various Markan scholars. Here, the responses of a small inner city Sheffield congregation to Mark chapter two both connect with, and give new perspectives for, the responses of first-century disciples.
Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…
Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa
Coherent career practice is conceptualized as an integrated reciprocal system involving 4 core elements: (1) career literacy; (2) career gumption; (3) career context; and (4) career integrity. It also accounts for "career integration", or the process by which these elements are assembled and reassembled. The source of client difficulties may…
The role of the calibration lab is becoming more and more important in view of the `global business' environment. Scheduled, regular calibration of test and measuring instruments with measurement traceability to the nationally accepted standards is a prerequisite. Certification to ISO 9000-Quality System Standards becoming a must for exports, the calibration activity being the backbone for quality, calibration laboratory practices
'Theoretical investigations of doping of several wide-gap materials suggest a number of rather general, practical"doping principles" that may help guide experimental strategies of overcoming doping bottlenecks. This paper will be published as a journal article in the future.
In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…
This book summarizes practical experience in the use of holographic methods and equipment for solving problems in the fields of physics, technology, biology, medicine, and the fine arts. Results are examined for a number of holographic experiments dealing with self-focusing in optical fibers employed in telecommunications, the survivability of blood cells under cryogenic conditions, climate-induced deformation of images in frescoes
E. A. Antonov; V. M. Ginzburg; E. N. Lekhtsier; E. V. Moroz; E. G. Semenov; B. M. Stepanov; N. S. Khanin; V. Ia. Tsarfin
Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine in the Line of Fire #12; UTHealthScienceCenter University of tennessee HealtH science center Medicine Magazine Winter 2007 CommunicationsTeam Writing,Editing ShH science center Medicine Magazine Winner 2006 Gold Award Best Magazine Â External Audience Public Relations
Utilizing an ecological framework and based on the existing literature and research, as well as my own 24 years of clinical practice with children, youth, and families, this paper examines gender variant childhood development from a holistic viewpoint where children and en-vironments are understood as a unit, in the context of their relationship to one another. This chapter is limited
Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…
This informational publication issued by the NCI OBBR is designed to increase awareness and understanding among advocates and the interested public of the importance and role of biospecimens in cancer research. It outlines the need for and purpose of best practices for biospecimen resources.
This article discusses workplace participatory practices: the reciprocal process of engaging in and learning through work. The reciprocity between the affordance of the workplace (its invitational qualities) and individuals' engagement in the workplace is proposed as a means of understanding how learning through work proceeds. How workplaces…
Performance improvement is thought to occur through engagement in deliberate practice. Deliberate practice is predicted to be challenging, effortful, and not inherently enjoyable. Expert and intermediate level Gaelic football players executed two types of kicks during an acquisition phase and pre-, post-, and retention tests. During acquisition, participants self-selected how they practiced and rated the characteristics of deliberate practice for effort and enjoyment. The expert group predominantly practiced the skill they were weaker at and improved its performance across pre-, post- and retention tests. Participants in the expert group also rated their practice as more effortful and less enjoyable compared to those in the intermediate group. In contrast, participants in the intermediate group predominantly practiced the skill they were stronger at and improved their performance from pretest to posttest but not on the retention test. Findings provide support for deliberate practice theory and give some insight into how experts practice and improve their performance beyond its current level. PMID:24001022
Coughlan, Edward K; Williams, A Mark; McRobert, Allistair P; Ford, Paul R
As winter and the influenza season approaches, the article by Watts and Kelly1 is timely in highlighting significant deficiencies in the surveillance of influenza in Australia. Watts and Kelly conducted a telephone survey of sentinel practice schemes in August 2001 and found that sentinel influenza surveillance schemes vary in their definition of influenza-like illness (ILI) and in their access to laboratory support. The impact of this is illustrated in a comparison between data from New South Wales and Victorian sentinel practice schemes for 2000 (Figure). In Victoria the rates per 1,000 consultations were almost an order of magnitude lower than in New South Wales, although the number of laboratory reports of influenza in the two States during the same period were very similar. 2 Figure: Rate per 1,000 consultations
Paul Roche; Jenean Spencer; Angela Merianos; Epidemiology Section
Our health care system has been facing significant changes over the past 20 years with the introduction of health maintenance organizations plus the seismic changes associated with the introduction of the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act and accountable care organizations. Lower reimbursements by health plans and the need for significant infrastructure investments in information technology such as electronic medical records have also put major financial and organizational strains on solo practices. Although it is unknown how these changes will have an impact on reproductive endocrinologists, consolidation and mergers seem to be on the rise in anticipation of the coming tsunami. Many solo physicians have cherished the freedom and opportunity of small practices, but it appears that the delivery system of the future will be dramatically different. PMID:23609152
Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824
Government Performance and Results Act (1993) APR Program goal: Enhance the development of infants and toddlers (0-3) with disabilities and support their families in meeting their special needs 1 Family Indicator: The percentage of families participating... Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...
This review will discuss the investigation of infertility, with emphasis on laboratory testing and reference to the value of other investigations, including clinical and radiological. The role of laboratory investigations is viewed within an appropriate clinically directed pathway that includes medical, surgical, and social history together with environmental factors. Because embryology and assisted reproduction techniques are developing rapidly and produce continuous changes in everyday practice, this article gives a critical review of the plethora of tests that are currently used. PMID:12663636
The following games are super fun ways to practice area and perimeter concepts! They will challenge your knowledge in formulas for different shapes like rectangles, circles, and squares. Area of Rectangles Baseball! - Time to play ball! Try and score a home run by solving for the unknown areas of rectangles. If you solve it correctly, you will earn three balls to hit! Don't forget to get help from your "coach" so he can show you different strategies to get you ...
to artificial lighting beginning on January 1. Four treatment mares came into estrus by February and Narch whereas four control mares did not show signs of estrus until 4pril. Loy (1967) suggested that management practices associated with the domestication... mares, ovulate throughout the year. Loy also reported that when mares were denied an increasing photoperiod by constant exposure to fifteen hours of darkness, the onset of the ovulatory season was delayed in some and not in others; all mares...
Attitudes toward the urban environment and place of origin were found to be the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. When urbanism attitude and origin were scaled and placed in an equation to predict practice location, identification of an optometrist's practice location as rural or urban was highly accurate. Most important, scores on the equation were predictive of optometry students' future practice location. A single cutoff point on the equation correctly identified 79 percent of students who entered a rural or isolated small city practice and 81 percent of those who entered urban practice. The findings imply that optometry students most likely to enter rural practice can be objectively identified early in their training. If certain factors affecting choice of practice location are common to all health professions, the predictive equation presented here may be useful in the selection of students for rural practice in medicine. PMID:839513
While simple in its presentation, ButterickÃ¢ÂÂs Practical Typography is perhaps the most clear and useful resource for understanding text as its own art form. Simply stated, typography is the visual component of the written word and this site is a wonderful tool for those who work with words on an everyday basis. It offers helpful reminders and even teaches those who may have never heard of the field before. We appreciate the straightforward prose, the option of a condensed 10-minute version, easy site navigation, and the numerous sample documents that put theory into practice.This website begins with an introductory statement that will ring true to most folks: "If you work with information and ideas, then writing plays a central role in your professional life." Butterick's Practical Typography offers up sage and thoughtful advice about how typography can be used to enhance and illuminate good prose. Visitors who might be pressed for time can look over the "Typography in Ten Minutes" area to get a sense of some bedrock principles introduced in the work. For those with more time, the complete work is also available here, along with a Summary of Key Rules and the all-important Why Typography Matters area. Visitors shouldn't miss the Sample Documents area which contains sample formatting suggestions and more for research papers, letterheads, resumes, and websites.
Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal process all around us--in manufactured objects from metals, ceramics, polymers, and many compounds. From a vast professional literature, Sintering Theory and Practice emerges as the only comprehensive, systematic, and self-contained volume on the subject. Covering all aspects of sintering as a processing topic, including materials, processes, theories, and the overall state of the art, the book Offers numerous examples, illustrations, and tables that detail actual processing cycles, and that stress existing knowledge in the field Uses the specifics of various consolidation cycles to illustrate the basics Leads the reader from the fundamentals to advanced topics, without getting bogged down in various mathematical disputes over treatments and measurements Supports the discussion with critically selected references from thousands of sources Examines the sintering behavior of a wide variety of engineered materials--metals, alloys, oxide ceramics, composites, carbides, intermetallics, glasses, and polymers Guides the reader through the sintering processes for several important industrial materials and demonstrates how to control these processes effectively and improve present techniques Provides a helpful reference for specific information on materials, processing problems, and concepts For practitioners and researchers in ceramics, powder metallurgy, and other areas, and for students and faculty in materials science and engineering, this book provides the know-how and understanding crucial to many industrial operations, offers many ideas for further research, and suggests future applications of this important technology. This book offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore sintering in both practical and theoretical terms, whether at the lab or in real-world applications, and to acquire a broad, yet thorough, understanding of this important technology.
This report describes the challenges for advanced practice nurses (APNs) relative to supply and demand issues. The article also includes opportunities with the Balanced Budget Act, physician acceptance of Advanced Practice Nurses, and expanding practice opportunities. The challenges include the nursing shortage (both in nursing students and faculty), the aging of the nursing workforce, and a lag in nursing salaries; increased demand for nursing based on aging baby boomers, increasing patient acuity and technology, and new arenas for practice. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 provided new opportunities for advanced practice nurses, including enhanced autonomy to provide services and bill independently of physicians. With these changes come new opportunities for advanced practice nurse entrepreneurs in the areas of independent practice, including opportunities to positively impact the health of families and communities in alignment with the Federal government's vision for "Healthy People 2010." As physician acceptance of advanced practice nurses continues to grow and in light of the changes in medical practice and education (residency reduction), opportunities to expand collaborative practice arrangements also exist. APNs are best suited to make the most of these changes. One example of an opportunity for independent practice, a Community Wellness Center, is developed as an entrepreneurial venture benefiting both the APN and the health of a community. Who better than registered nurses (RNs), especially those practicing at the advanced level, can ensure that these opportunities and challenges are addressed in an ethical manner and focused on the needs and health of the community? PMID:12029667
F-1 Curricular Practical Training Definition of Curricular Practical Training Practical training for students on F-1 visas who have maintained their immigration status and have completed full-time enrollment in order to comply with US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) regulations. PLEASE PRINT Name
This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…
Background: Demands for change in medical practices are coming from multiple sources. Since interventions to change clinical practice continue to have limited success, understanding the func- tional structure of primary care practices and the dynamics of providing care have become increas- ingly important. Methods: To portray and understand the primary care office system, we developed \\
Helen McIlvain; Benjamin Crabtree; Jim Medder; Kurt C. Stange; William L. Miller
Practice Makes Perfect Despite Imperfect Theory 89 Practice Makes Perfect Despite Imperfect Theory and Power highlight the difficulties theory encounters when practice progresses at a rapid pace. The effect sense of that effect. While the books ably document the changes in pedagogy, they do not take the logic
Technologic and Operational Best Practices Elizabeth H Hammond MD Vice Chair, Group Ba nking Committee NCI Scope of Presentation • Definition of Repositories • Scope of the Qualified Sample Issue • Best Practice Resources • Specimen Handling and Processes
Translating pharmacogenetics research into practice: ethical and policy issues 18th - 19th #12;Translating pharmacogenetics research into practice: ethical and policy issues Contents DELIVERY 7 2. THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH'S PHARMACOGENETICS INITIATIVE 8 3. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE ACTIVITIES
Dr Philip Hopkins defines obesity and describes its incidence in his general practice. He stresses the importance of dealing with underlying psychological factors in the treatment of the condition.Dr A A Lewis discusses hormonal influences and advocates a high protein diet as being an acceptable means of achieving weight reduction.Professor John Yudkin shows that a low protein diet is impracticable, and stresses the importance of physical activity in the treatment of obesity. He advocates a low carbohydrate diet with unrestricted fat and protein. PMID:14269775
This book is for technical professionals in mineral exploration, environmental management, agriculture or forestry, this new edition takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a lively and detailed overview of practical sedimentology. Emphasizing application over theory, the text is streamlined for comprehension, and it features many summary tables and graphs. The ideal companion to Analytical Sedimentology, this volume updates both methodology and applications, incorporates software information and extensively covers new technical developments. Specifically designed for students and cross-functional practitioners, it requires minimal geological background.
Lewis, D.W. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. (Southern Cross Univ., New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Coastal Management)
This paper describes the reservoir management practices used at fields developed and operated by Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI). The goal of EPMI's reservoir management activities is to maximize profitability and economical recovery of oil. Excellence in reservoir management is achieved with clearly defined and endorsed plans for management of each reservoir and a coordinated process to collect, analyze, validate, and integrate reservoir description and performance data into optimal development and depletion plans. Use of a multidisciplinary team to identify problems and to implement timely, innovative solutions is a key ingredient. Through regular reports to management and frequent discussion among functional groups, reservoir management objectives and stewardship performance are communicated.
Trice, M.L. (Esso Production Malaysia Inc., EMPI Reservoir Development Section, Kuala Lampur (Malaysia)); Dawe, B.A. (EPMI Offshore Div., Esso Production Malaysia Inc., Kerteh (Malaysia))
Physics is an extremely practical science. If you were to ask, ``Who uses physics in their job?'' people will cite engineers or scientists. Physics is actually extremely important to many different jobs. Often, our classes are filling with students who do not intend to continue on in physics. It is most important to show these students that physics is more than string theory and nanotechnology. I laving a working knowledge of physics is important in many jobs outside of science. These videos make that point very clear!
Spectrophotometers have been successfully used for colour measurement. This paper addresses digital imaging as a complementary and alternative method of colour measurement and appearance and an effective communication tool as part of a practical colour management programme within the supply chain of a textile retailer. The specific needs—to measure and communicate textured dyed material and printed fabric—are discussed, as well as the colour specification and quality control (QC) of currently un-measurable fabrics and accessories. A unique method of using digital imaging for the assessment of colour fastness will also be discussed.
A sociocultural approach takes into account how literacy is acquired and used in social contexts. Socially determined meanings of literacy practices and the different ways cultures are valued reflect tensions between practical consciousness and official or dominant consciousness. Literacy education should recognize literacy as a cultural practice…
The research on grading practice over two decades is clear: grading practices are firmly held beliefs that are near and dear to the teaching professional. At a time when government, business and industry, and the general public are calling for an accountability of student knowledge and abilities, classroom assessment practices could be…
This lesson plan will help students learn the practical applications of sustainable building practices. Students will work in pairs to research a sustainable building method and develop a statement of support for the building practice. The class will work to compile the building methods that would be the most beneficial and cost effective. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
For many years the profession has acknowledged a schism between theories taught in the classroomand the practice of clinicians. This tends to arise from beliefs that knowledge which has been generalized (formalized) can be readily transferred to informal settings (practice). Whilst apprehension of formalized knowledge is crucial to professional development, a mediator is necessary to demonstrate its relevance to practice.
This article, drawing especially but not exclusively on Bourdieu's work on practice and its relationships with habitus, capital, and field, argues for a perspective on policy, as informed by and as practice, and applies it across all elements of the policy cycle. It is argued that a practice perspective captures well the economies of power in…
This document contains four symposium papers on linking human resource development (HRD) theory and practice. "Partnership Research: Ensuring More Useful HRD Collaborations" (Ronald L. Jacobs), which proceeds from the premise that most HRD research has limited impact on practice because research problems are usually generated devoid of a practice…
Declarers of above average, average, and below average Practical Skills on the ACT Student Profile Report were compared on the basis of OPI personality scale scores by means of multivariate analysis of covariance. Results indicated significant differences by level of Practical Skill and no significant interaction between sex and practical skill…
Counselor cultural competency with respect to Native Americans requires understanding of common healing practices and ceremonies and of their spiritual significance. Historical trauma serves as a general backdrop for Native America experience and identity. Particular tribal practices and the individual's degree of affiliation with such practices provide a more specific context for client worldview. Knowledge of the symbolic significance of
The health practices of school nurses affect our role as advocates and educators to promote the health of youth. This study describes the health practices of a convenience sample of 388 school nurses who attended the business meeting at an annual school nurse conference. A self-administered, 40-item questionnaire identified health practices of…
Petch-Levine, Deborah; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl; Murray, Meg
Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855
Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.
The Aboriginal people in Canada have been noted to have low self-esteem, subsequently increasing their risk of HIV. To this effect, two traditional healing practices are being used to help these people avoid HIV infection, and to live more healthily and positively if they are infected. The first method is the Medicine Wheel, which is a traditional model used to represent the complex interrelationship among all living things and show how their immune system is physically affected by their emotions and worries. Many Aboriginal AIDS Organizations, counselors and others are now using this AIDS teaching Wheel model. Meanwhile, the second method is the Sharing Circles, which provide an environment where people feel safe to talk about HIV and give participants a sense of support and a means for expression without stigma or judgement. As a result, many people who attend HIV circles begin to take better care of themselves and of others. Overall, it is emphasized that these traditional healing practices can be effectively adapted for use in HIV counseling and education. PMID:12296176
This field practice internship final report gives an overview of the field practice, which was completed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Management Department, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field practice focused on the completion of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312, Tier II Report. The field practice internship was conducted on a full-time basis between December 13, 1993 through February 18, 1994. Sheila Poligone, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Coordinator served as the field practice preceptor.
Telemedicine is defined as the "delivery of health care and sharing of medical knowledge over a distance using telecommunication systems." The concept of telemedicine is not new. Beyond the use of the telephone, there were numerous attempts to develop telemedicine programs in the 1960s mostly based on interactive television. The early experience was conceptionally encouraging but suffered inadequate technology. With a few notable exceptions such as the telemetry of medical data in the space program, there was very little advancement of telemedicine in the 1970s and 1980s. Interest in telemedicine has exploded in the 1990s with the development of medical devices suited to capturing images and other data in digital electronic form and the development and installation of high speed, high bandwidth telecommunication systems around the world. Clinical applications of telemedicine are now found in virtually every specialty. Teleradiology is the most common application followed by cardiology, dermatology, psychiatry, emergency medicine, home health care, pathology, and oncology. The technological basis and the practical issues are highly variable from one clinical application to another. Teleradiology, including telenuclear medicine, is one of the more well-defined telemedicine services. Techniques have been developed for the acquisition and digitization of images, image compression, image transmission, and image interpretation. The American College of Radiology has promulgated standards for teleradiology, including the requirement for the use of high resolution 2000 x 2000 pixel workstations for the interpretation of plain films. Other elements of the standard address image annotation, patient confidentiality, workstation functionality, cathode ray tube brightness, and image compression. Teleradiology systems are now widely deployed in clinical practice. Applications include providing service from larger to smaller institutions, coverage of outpatient clinics, imaging centers, and nursing homes. Teleradiology is also being used in international applications. Unresolved issues in telemedicine include licensure, the development of standards, reimbursement for services, patient confidentiality, and telecommunications infrastructure and cost. A number of states and medical boards have instituted policies and regulations to prevent physicians who are not licensed in the respective state to provide telemedicine services. This is a major impediment to the delivery of telemedicine between states. Telemedicine, including teleradiology, is here to stay and is changing the practice of medicine dramatically. National and international communications networks are being created that enable the sharing of information and knowledge at a distance. Technological barriers are being overcome leaving organizational, legal, financial, and special interest issues as the major impediments to the further development of telemedicine and realization of its benefits. PMID:9579416
This is a collection of more than 50 classroom experiments introducing users to geometric optics and the ray model of light. Developed for use in high school science classrooms, each experiment focuses on practical applications of ray optics and is supplemented with full instructional procedures, safety guidelines, drawings/photos, and tips for teachers. Background information accompanies each activity, as well. **Note: Most of the experiments require the use of a ray box or bright lamp, concave and convex lenses, and an optical bench. Items are readily available at scientific supply houses, with costs ranging from $300 to $1,500, depending upon the capabilities of the item purchased. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre. SEE RELATED ITEMS BELOW for a link to the full collection.
From the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction at Maricopa Community College and John Gibson of Phoenix College, this page presents information about digital visual literacy (DVL), the "set of skills that enable students to function in an increasingly digital and visual workplace." In this module, visitors will find an instructors' guide, a PowerPoint presentation, copyright quiz, and quiz rubric. This module supports the DVL areas of Commerce and Cultural Context. Students learn how copyright law strives to balance the monetary value of visual materials with the need to share and communicate ideas visually. The module also emphasizes the development of practical skills for resolving common workplace challenges such as finding and assessing the copyright status of images, determining fair use, and licensing oneÃ¢ÂÂs own images.
Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous over intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant preterm infant without any other clinical and radiological evidence of NEC, minimal enteral nutrition rather than complete suspension of enteral feeding may be an alternative. Human milk-based fortifier as compared to bovine-based fortifier may reduce the incidence of NEC but additional studies are required. PMID:23415260
This is a set of nine experiments that introduce students to the concept of density and provide practice in measuring it. Many students have difficulty understanding density as a quantity derived from mass and volume. Learners often enter college with deeply-entrenched misconceptions, such as the erroneous idea that gases have no mass. These classroom labs were developed to promote correct ideas of density, and to demonstrate differing techniques for measuring density in solids, liquids, and gases. Specific topics include: density of regular solid shapes, measuring density and weight of liquids, measuring the average density of a student, weighing a sample of air, and more. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre. SEE RELATED ITEMS BELOW for a link to the full collection.
In this lab-based activity, students learn how to use scientific instruments used to take hydrological data. Students will rotate among measurement stations for each of the hydrology protocols that will be done by the class. They will practice using the field guide with the instrument or kit for that particular measurement, exploring sources of variation and error. The resource includes eight student activity sheets and an authentic assessment, and is part of the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. The activity is supported by the GLOBE hydrology protocols. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.
In summarizing this discussion of the meaning of EvBP and best practice and their relationship to each other, there is merit in beginning with a delineation of six characteristics of quality care. These six characteristics synthesized by Brown (2001, p. 1) consist of care that is (a) patient centered, (b) scientifically based, (c) population outcomes based, (d) refined through quality improvement and benchmarking, (e) individualized to each patient, and (f) compatible with system policies and resources. These characteristics set the stage and reinforce critical aspects of the definition of both concepts: EvBP and best practice. For evidence to be meaningfully and successfully translated into practice by individuals, and groups of practitioners, the concept of best practice adds an organizational and ongoing quality monitoring to promote continual improvement. Best practice is not a specific practice per se but rather a level of agreement about research-based knowledge and an integrative process of embedding this knowledge into the organization and delivery of health care. The question "Are EvBP and best practice the same?" has guided this discussion, which has focused on how these concepts are related to each other but not the same. Best practice requires a level of agreement about evidence to be integrated into practice. The challenge now is to answer this question: "How can practice be built based on evidence and an environment supportive of this kind of practice?" The struggle needing to be faced is how to devise strategies to operationalize best practice. A beginning identification of the multiple questions and issues in doing so are outlined by Harrison, Logan, Lynn, and Graham (1998), and Newman and Papadopoulos (2000). Plus, Mulhall (1998) poses the challenging question of how is nursing best placed to maximize the benefits that some kind of evidenced-based care can bring? Research is needed into the situations under which evidence can be adopted into practice--and into the consequences of doing so. Best practice, built on a foundation of EvBP, can bridge the practice-research gap and provide a basis for researchers and clinicians to work together to translate research into meaningful practice. Understanding the concept of EvBP and joining together to devise best practice for health care organizations can promote achieving the goal of desired patient outcomes. PMID:12148838
Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,
Background The authors describe an educational program designed to prepare practicing dentists to engage in practice-based research in their practices—a trend receiving more emphasis and funding from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). Methods The Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT), an NIDCR-funded network of which the authors are members, developed a one-day educational program to educate practitioners in principles of good clinical research. The program has four components built around the following questions: “What is the question?”; “What are the options?”; “How do you evaluate the evidence?”; and “How do you conduct a study?” Results The intensive one-day program initially offered in early 2006, which concluded with applications of research principles to research topics of interest to practitioners, was well-received. Despite their admission that the research methodology by itself was not of great interest, the dentists recognized the importance of the background material in equipping them to conduct quality studies in their practices. Conclusions Dentists interested in participating in practice-based research view training in research methodology as helpful to becoming better practitioner-investigators. The PRECEDENT training program seemed to reinforce their interest. Practice Implications As dentistry evolves to become more evidence-based, more and more of the evidence will come from practice-based research. This training program prepares practicing dentists to become engaged in this trend. PMID:18310739
OBJECTIVE: To examine the attitudes toward clinical practice guidelines of a group of family physicians who had recently entered practice in Ontario, and to compare them with the attitudes of a group of internists from the United States. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire survey of all members of a defined cohort. SETTING: Ontario family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who received certification in 1989, 1990, and 1991 and who were practising in Ontario. Of 564-cohort members, 395 (70%) responded. Men (184) and women (211) responded at the same rate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of agreement with 10 descriptive statements about practice guidelines and analyses of variance of these responses for several physician characteristics. RESULTS: Of respondents in independent practice, 80% were in group practice. Women were more likely to have chosen group practice, in which they were more likely to use practice guidelines than men. Generally favourable attitudes toward guidelines were observed. Physician characteristics occasionally influenced agreement with the descriptors. The pattern of agreement was similar to that noted in the study of American internists, but, in general, Ontario physicians were more supportive. CONCLUSIONS: This group of relatively new-to-practice Ontario family physicians shows little resistance to guidelines and appears to read less threat of external control in them than does the US group. PMID:8616286
Ferrier, B. M.; Woodward, C. A.; Cohen, M.; Williams, A. P.
The EGPRN (European General Practice Research Network) research agenda is a review compiling the strengths and areas of development of European general practice, based on a systematic literature survey and its versatile analysis. The research agenda is a framework paper sharpening the definition and functions of general practice as well as its significance for researchers and decisionmakers. The agenda is useful in structuring the research, evaluation of research needs, strengthening of infrastructure and strategic planning of new research. PMID:24961062
Telemedicine refers to the use of electronic communications to deliver health-related services from a distance, and is particularly useful in bringing specialty services to remote and/or underserved areas. Despite the increasing use of videoconference technology in psychology, there are very few guidelines to direct practitioners as to the ethical practice and utilization of telemedicine, and even fewer resources for practitioners of telecognitive assessment or teleneuropsychology. This paper seeks to outline several practical and ethical considerations that are relevant to the practice of telecognitive assessment and to assist practitioners in providing safe, ethical, and competent care to their patients by proposing some initial practice recommendations. PMID:21951075
Grosch, Maria C; Gottlieb, Michael C; Cullum, C Munro
...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...
...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...
...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...
...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...
APPA's Effective & Innovative Practices Award continues to highlight the best of the most creative and practical programs and processes that enhance and transform service delivery, lower costs, increase productivity, improve customer service, generate revenue, or otherwise benefit an educational institution. This article features five 2011…
This article has been written in response to the current developments in social work education which seek to make anti-racist practice a central requirement of social work training and to make it into a central component of good social work practice. In the present context in which social work is undertaken this will not be an easy goal to achieve
In this article, we argue that teaching is and should be a central element to learning to teach, particularly as teacher education once again turns toward practice. From this perspective, we must elaborate how such a shift addresses the need to bridge the gap between knowledge for teaching and knowledge from teaching, between theory and practice,…
Aim. The context of this study is a group of clinical nurse specialists from across a Trust seeking accreditation as a practice development unit. The university was asked to facilitate the accreditation process via 11 2-hour learning sessions (including a one-hour focus group). During initial discussions between the university and practice development unit, the overarching research question for this study
This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…
that the simulation of the everyday environment makes them particularly effective for collaboration. Based on a study of visual practice in Second Life, we argue: first, that the practice of looking is more varied than as sites of collaboration might lie more in their richness and openness to appropriation than
Problems emerge in practical medicine because the binary ethics of the classic patient\\/doctor relationship has been replaced by multiagent interaction between those engaged in the process of diagnosis and treatment. New methods are required to deal with complex problems in every patient. Where and why the current practice can fail is illustrated with an example of an unspectacular routine case
Some athletics officials worry that, on many campuses, male practice players are taking opportunities away from female athletes. In an effort to try keeping second-string players off the sidelines, the NCAA's Committee on Women's Athletics has recommended banning male practice players in all women's sports. The proposal has touched off a fierce…
Background/Context: A fundamental tension has long existed between school reform proposals and actual teaching practice. Despite a large literature on teacher change, the discontinuity between innovation and practice continues and many attempts to reform teaching fail to be enacted in most classrooms. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…
Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter; van Driel, Jan
This fastback document examines small education businesses that provide direct and personal instructional service to clients. Although education private-practice enterprises have not received the attention that high-profile companies have commanded, there are thousands of such one- and two-person enterprises. These practices work with and support…
For the past decades, inclusive educational practice has developed to be a guiding political vision in Norway as in several other Western countries. In this article, we are concerned with how the ideal of inclusive practice is realized in one particular classroom. Ann is the homeroom teacher for a third-grade class and in her class she has two boys with
The major objectives of this study were to develop a questionnaire based on the National Association for the Education of Young Children guidelines  for developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood education and to use this questionnaire for obtaining information regarding kindergarten teachers’ beliefs and practices. The Teacher Questionnaire containing two subscales, the Teachers’ Beliefs Scale and the Instructional Activities
Rosalind Charlesworth; Craig H. Hart; Diane C. Burts; Sue Hernandez
to water resources. The Catalog also describes conservation practices that provide other benefits to soilA Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania
Three issues concerning the relationship between research and practice are addressed. (1) A certain "prototype mathematics classroom" seems to dominate the research field, which in many cases seems selective with respect to what practices to address. I suggest challenging the dominance of the discourse created around the prototype mathematics…
This document is intended to give business teachers a few best practice ideas. Section 1 presents an overview of best practice and a chart detailing the instructional levels, curricular areas, and main competencies addressed in the 26 papers in Section 2. The titles and authors of the papers included in Section 2 are as follows: "A Software Tool…
This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…
Remote practice offices (RPOs) offer unique opportunities for hospitals and physicians to increase market share from targeted areas where previously only limited demand existed. This article discusses the benefits and explores the fundamentals of developing a remote practice office. PMID:10302056
The findings from the Improving Practical Work in Science (IPWiS) evaluation suggest that the project can, and did, bring about noticeable improvements in the effectiveness of practical work in school science. However, the extent of these improvements varied widely and appeared to be dependent on the departmental seniority of the person…
This website contains examples of the eight Mathematical Practice standards. Each example is referred to as an illustration and is intended to expand teacher knowledge of the practices. Each illustration contains a task, student dialogue about the task, information about grade level, standards, and the context for the dialogue; teacher reflection questions; a mathematical overview; and optional student materials.
Dr Peter Sowerby has written an important criticism of Michael Balint's work based on his understanding of Karl Popper's writings. I dispute Sowerby's interpretation of Popper and disagree with his conclusions, which I suggest would lead general practice into a retreat. I believe Balint made a major contribution to general practice and has helped us towards practising whole-person medicine. PMID:536971
of the material applied: Water solubility is Low Low Water solubility is High High Soil adsorption is High LowLand Treatment Practices for Water QualityQuality Conservation Buffers Â Alley Cropping Â Contour Buffer stripsLand Treatment Practices for Water QualityQuality Conservation Buffers Â Alley Cropping Â Contour Buffer strips
SOILLESS CULTURETHEORY AND PRACTICE EDITED BY: Michael Raviv Newe Ya'ar Research Center, ARO9 open recto 1 Color 44 Lines Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice Michael Raviv Heiner Lieth recto 1 Color 44 Lines Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Radarweg 29, PO Box 211
Almost ubiquitous in discourses about the development of teachers, reflective practice describes the process that occurs when persons are apprenticed to any meaningful activity. But reflective practice is a descriptive term for that process: it does not imply that the process is itself open to dissection and instruction. We contend that mistaken…
This article suggests a way in which family therapists can begin to develop a multicultural family practice. The authors view review literature regarding recommendations for working with diverse families, examine the therapist's adoption of Multicultural Competencies, and provide a model for components of a family practice that encourages diverse…
This article discusses the importance of international perspectives in designing and promoting educational innovation and reform, cultural and financial limitations of imposing western special education inclusion principles and practices on developing countries, and special education practices in China, Vietnam, and Costa Rica. (Contains 2…
In this essay, Paul Smeyers and Nicholas Burbules reexamine the concept of "practice" and propose a new way of conceiving it that does justice to the idea that education is in some sense an initiation into practices without endorsing either the conservative and reproductive conception of what initiation entails or the radically social…
Practical Ethics H.Narayanan, EE Department IIT Bombay, Mumbai (Text of a lecture delivered on 16th Oct 2012) A dilemma faced by young people, usually at the stage when they leave home for the first an approach to handling the problem of formulating a very personal but practical ethical code. The actual
With the increasing interest in cross-cultural research, there is a growing need for standard and validated practices for translating psychological instruments. Developing a psychologically acceptable instrument for another cultural group almost always requires more effort than a literal translation, which all too often is the common practice. The adequacy of translations can be threatened by various sources of bias. Three
Training Contracts - Some Practical Advice This hand out is part of the Law series. For more hand.facebook.com/MMUCareersandEmployability Careers & Employability Service www.mmu.ac.uk/careers/guides #12;2 TRAINING CONTRACTS Â SOME PRACTICAL ADVICE Introduction This leaflet is designed to be a guide to those about to enter into a training
Colorado Forestry Best Management Practices Forest Stewardship Guidelines for Water Quality Management Practices (BMPs) for forestry activities. BMPs are a set of water-quality protection measures-harvest sites in southwest Colorado to assess Colorado forestry BMP application and effectiveness. Sites were
This article deals with the theory and practice of sovereignty from the perspective of a trend in theoretical perspectives as well as the relevant trend in practice. The article provides a survey of the leading thinkers and philosophers views on the nature and importance of sovereignty. The concept of sovereignty is exceeding the complex. Unpacking its meanings and uses over
The author examined the practice of transformative pedagogy in an undergraduate teacher education program. The research was guided by two questions: What is the impact of transformative pedagogy on fostering preservice teachers' transformative learning? and What practices of transformative pedagogy impact student transformative learning?…
IGNATIAN PEDAGOGY A Practical Approach #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE FOREWORD i INTRODUCTORY NOTES 3 IGNATIAN PEDAGOGY 5 The Goal of Jesuit Education 5 Towards a Pedagogy for Faith and Justice 6 Pedagogy an Ignatian Pedagogy 21 Theory Into Practice: Staff Development Programs 23 Some Concrete Helps to Understand
Assessment is an important element to the present and future of sport psychology (McCann et al., 2002), both in science and in practice. Yet, there exist few resources addressing the unique developmental parameters facing sport scientists and sport practitioners when it comes to conducting sound assessment across the athletic lifespan. Indeed, this aspect of the literature remains particularly sparse with respect to youth sport assessment (Noble, 2011). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the practical issues and best practice guidelines pertaining to assessment during the provision of sport psychology services to children and adolescent athletes. PMID:24523567
Harris, Brandonn S.; Blom, Lindsey C.; Visek, Amanda J.
Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance. PMID:24761021
Britton, Mark L.; Wheeler, Richard E.; Carter, Sandra M.
This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces. PMID:22011770
Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A
Background With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to\\u000a determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best\\u000a practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines\\u000a (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they
J. Stuart Wolf; Heddy Hubbard; Martha M. Faraday; John B. Forrest
This article reviews research in Strategy-as-Practice (SAP) and suggests directions for its development. The power of this perspective lies in its ability to explain how strategy-making is enabled and constrained by prevailing organizational and societal practices. Our review shows how SAP research has helped to advance social theories in strategic management, offered alternatives to performance-dominated analyzes, broadened the scope in
This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia’s future. The study focused on rural\\/regional Australia, specifically New South Wales sites in the Murray-Darling Basin (crucial to Australian agricultural economy, under substantial environmental
The CMA Infobase is a free Web-based resource that contains evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. The database is maintained by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and is available on its Web site. The CMA Infobase currently contains 1,200-plus clinical practice guidelines either developed or endorsed by an authoritative health care organization located in Canada. It is an alternative source of free clinical practice guidelines to the National Guideline Clearinghouse. This column will cover the basics of CMA Infobase, including searching, special features, and available resources which complement the database. PMID:19042721
Family practice obstetrics is strongly influenced by demography and marketing. The falling birth rate is leading to a surplus of caregivers who may inappropriately apply their technical skills to a population of low-risk pregnant women. This in turn may lead to a ‘cascade’ of negative consequences for the normal, child-bearing public. The family practice accoucheur has a key role to play as an advocate of high quality, humanistic maternity care. Training programs must address the academic base of family practice obstetrics through direct teaching, role modelling, research, and quality assurance. PMID:21267147
In 2011, we made predictions on the basis of data from the National Practice Benchmark (NPB) reports from 2005 through 2010. With the new 2011 data in hand, we have revised last year's predictions and projected for the next 3 years. In addition, we make some new predictions that will be tracked in future benchmarking surveys. We also outline a conceptual framework for contemplating these data based on an ecological model of the oncology delivery system. The 2011 NPB data are consistent with last year's prediction of a decrease in the operating margins necessary to sustain a community oncology practice. With the new data in, we now predict these reductions to occur more slowly than previously forecast. We note an ease to the squeeze observed in last year's trend analysis, which will allow more time for practices to adapt their business models for survival and offer the best of these practices an opportunity to invest earnings into operations to prepare for the inevitable shift away from historic payment methodology for clinical service. This year, survey respondents reported changes in business structure, first measured in the 2010 data, indicating an increase in the percentage of respondents who believe that change is coming soon, but the majority still have confidence in the viability of their existing business structure. Although oncology practices are in for a bumpy ride, things are looking less dire this year for practices participating in our survey. PMID:23277766
Describes three activities, substrate inhibition, product inhibition by fructose and glucose, and gel immobilization of invertase for use with undergraduate biochemistry classes. Discusses materials, methods, and results. Stresses the advantages of practical exercises in undergraduate classes. (CW)
The UK's Arts and Humanities Data Service, a project of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), has recently made available the GIS Guide to Good Practice, the first of a series of Guides to Good Practice. These Guides are intended to "provid[e] the humanities research and teaching communities with practical instruction in applying recognized standards and good practice to the creation and use of digital resources." The first guide covers GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and its relationship to archaeology, as well as interdisciplinary studies. The guide is divided into six major topics, including types and documentation of data, structuring information, and archiving datasets. A substantial selected bibliography and glossary accompany the guide, making it an even more valuable resource.
Lehman College's graduate nursing program uses theory-based courses to prepare advanced nurse practitioners. Students increase scholarly inquiry skills and clinical decision making; use of nursing conceptual models helped them plan and evaluate their practice. (SK)
Advanced Policy Practice Spring 2014 SW 548-001 Instructor course that focuses on the theory and evidence-based skill sets of policy analysis, development, implementation, and change. The course focuses on policy
Discusses how the communication and information systems (CIS) infrastructure model is changing and explores the implications for higher education practices and purposes in this context of frequently disruptive but newly empowering technologies. (EV)
The Center for Reflective Community Practice in MIT's Department of Urban studies is involved in projects helping community organizers working on social change. In order to foster reflection, they are currently utilizing ...
sustainable coffee management with sustainable livelihoods. Keywords: agriculture, agroforestry, corridor.Although overall cultivated coffee area has decreased by 8% since 1990, coffee production and agricultural distribution patterns and local coffee management practices have exhib- ited dramatic changes, with major
Nurses should value knowledge gained by experience, and pass on such knowledge to new colleagues. Collaboration between nurses and academics is a beneficial method of sharing clinical and academic viewpoints. Reflective groups and journal clubs can help to develop evidence-based practice. Implementing knowledge in practice is a challenge and can be very rewarding for practitioners, as well as improving patient care. PMID:12029879
Chinese trait. The reasons for this are various: the prevalence of the practice in the country, the resonance it shares with certain traditional Chinese cultural philosophies, and the specific rules and etiquette that are parts of its practice... discussing the existence and prevalence of guanxi, it ultimately becomes necessary to consider it in light of both cultural and institutional aspects. As such, a rigorous definition of both culture and institution is necessary in order to move forward...
This article discusses important issues in delivery of best practice Internet-based therapy (etherapy). Etherapy is first defined as the interaction between a consumer and a therapist via the Internet (commonly via e-mail) in association with the use of a structured web-based clinical treatment program. A summary of the professional and ethical issues is provided, along with illustrated examples of best-practice
Objective To describe food-related policies and practices in secondary schools in Minnesota.Design Mailed anonymous survey including questions about the secondary school food environment and food-related practices and policies.Subjects\\/Setting Members of a statewide professional organization for secondary school principals (n=610; response rate: 463\\/610=75%). Of the 463 surveys returned, 336 met the eligibility criteria (current position was either principal or assistant principal
Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…
Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.
Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice. PMID:10382408
Abstract Objective To help understand physician movement out of Manitoba by determining the factors that influence Manitoba medical graduates’ choices about practice locations. Design Cross-sectional, within-stage, mixed-model survey. Setting Manitoba. Participants All University of Manitoba medical graduates from classes 1998 to 2009 for whom we had valid contact information (N = 912 of 943 graduates) were invited in August 2009 to participate in a survey. Main outcome measures Demographic information; ratings, on a 5-point scale, of the importance when choosing first practice locations of 12 practice characteristics, 3 recruitment strategies, and 4 location characteristics listed in the survey; free-text narratives on unlisted factors; and estimates of likely practice location upon completion of training for recent graduates still in residency training. Results Completed surveys were received from 331 (35.1%) graduates of the surveyed classes, 162 (53.3%) of whom chose Manitoba for their first practice location. Multiple regression analyses indicated that graduates choosing Manitoba for their first practice location were significantly more likely to have done their residency training in Manitoba (P < .05), whether or not they gave a high rating to the importance of being near family and friends. Also, graduates choosing Manitoba were significantly more likely to be recent graduates (P = .007) and less likely to be members of a visible minority (P = .018). These associations were robust even when analyses were restricted to responses from practitioners without cause to estimate practice locations. Early self-selection of graduates during entry into specific residency programs, results of the residency match process, and “putting down roots” during residency years were 3 important interrelated themes identified through qualitative analyses. Conclusion Residency education in Manitoba is the overwhelming factor influencing graduates’ choice of Manitoba as their first practice location, regardless of graduates’ rating of the importance of being near family or friends. Graduates’ narratives provided insights into the complexities of choosing practice locations and enhanced the interpretive and theoretical validity of the study findings. More extensive studies involving all Canadian residents could further define the role residency location plays in physician practice location. PMID:23152474
Raghavan, Malathi; Fleisher, William; Downs, Allan; Martin, Bruce; Sandham, J. Dean
;CURRICULAR PRACTICAL TRAINING #12;Curricular Practical Training (CPT) Definition (i) Curricular practical of an established curriculum as listed in the immigration regulations Employment that has a strong and measurable
...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...
Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.
...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...
...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...
...which prohibits certain disruptive trading, practices, or conduct...markets against abusive and disruptive practices, particularly those...Comment Letters in Response To Disruptive Trading Practices Proposed...GFI'') Hampton Technology Resources...
The purpose of the study was to explore Jordanian women's breastfeeding beliefs and practices including exclusive breastfeeding. A descriptive cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 200 Jordanian mothers was used. The majority of mothers were muliparous and were recruited from primary health-care centres within 6 weeks of a normal vaginal birth or an instrumental delivery. Eligible women, who met the inclusion criteria, were invited to participate in the study. A sociodemographic data form and a 14-item questionnaire concerning different aspects of breastfeeding beliefs and practices were developed for self administration. This study indicated high early initiation of breastfeeding. Most mothers gave supplements other than breastfeeding, including water without knowing that this supplementation could affect exclusive breastfeeding or the continuation of breastfeeding. Finding of this study shed some light on the current breastfeeding practices including exclusive breastfeeding among Jordanian women. Women need to be better educated about breastfeeding. Therefore, more efforts and resources should be put into providing opportunities for education to discuss breastfeeding during antenatal care. This Jordanian study could be relevant to Arabic women in the West, because cultural beliefs and practices are likely to be part of immigrant woman's perceptions about breastfeeding practices. PMID:19187167
The reproductive profile and contraceptive practice of 402 women undergoing female sterilization at the Central Women's Hospital are presented. Most (89%) of the interviewees were urban-dwellers and housewives with primary school education. Fifty-two percent were between 30 and 34 years with a mean of 4.2 living children. Sixty-nine percent were past contraceptive users, of them; 29.9% had used more than one method. A considerable gap between knowledge and practice of different methods was found. Education level and employment had a significant effect on contraceptive practice (p < 0.01 and p < 0.5). The majority knew and used combined oral contraceptive pills and injectable progestogens, whereas rhythm, withdrawal and barrier contraception were lesser known methods. Contraceptive use was primarily for child-spacing whereas the main reasons for female sterilization were socioeconomic and achievement of desired family size. PMID:8250756
This text describes in practical terms how to use a desk-top computer to monitor and control laboratory experiments. The author clearly explains how to design electronic circuits and write computer programs to sense, analyse and display real-world quantities, including displacement, temperature, force, sound, light, and biomedical potentials. The book includes numerous laboratory exercises and appendices that provide practical information on microcomputer architecture and interfacing, including complete circuit diagrams and component lists. Topics include analog amplification and signal processing, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion, electronic sensors and actuators, digital and analog interfacing circuits, and programming. Only a very basic knowledge of electronics is assumed, making it ideal for college-level laboratory courses and for practising engineers and scientists. Everything you need to know about using a PC to monitor and control laboratory experiments Full of practical circuit designs and C-code examples Ideal for students and practising scientists
Autism is the most commonly studied of a spectrum of developmental disorders that are believed to be neurobiologically based but which, at this point, for lack of good biomarkers, are defined purely by behavior. In the last 20 years, the definition of autism has shifted in emphasis from extreme aloofness and positive signs of abnormality in repetitive and sensori-motor behaviors to a greater awareness of the importance of more subtle reciprocal social-communication deficits as core features. Standard diagnostic instruments were developed for research purposes to acquire information both through caregiver interviews and direct clinical observation. Use of these instruments in clinical practice resulted in major improvements which in turn affected research results. These results yielded further improvements that led to changes in clinical practice over time. The synergism between research and clinical practice in the understanding of autism is discussed. PMID:21058793
This paper focuses on the materialization of technological practices as a form of identity expression. Contextual analyses of a Mycenaean workshop area in the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns (Argolis, Greece) are presented to investigate the interaction of different artisans under changing socio-political and economic circumstances. The case study indicates that although certain technological practices are often linked to specific crafts, they do not necessarily imply the separation of job tasks related to the working of one specific material versus another. Shared technological practices and activities, therefore, may be a factor in shaping cohesive group identities of specialized artisans. Since tracing artisans' identities is easier said than done on the basis of excavated materials alone, we employ the concepts of multiple chaînes opératoires combined with cross-craft interactions as a methodology in order to retrieve distinctive sets of both social and technological practices from the archaeological remains. These methodological concepts are not restricted to a specific set of steps in the production cycle, but ideally encompass reconstructing contexts of extraction, manufacture, distribution and discard/reuse for a range of artefacts. Therefore, these concepts reveal both technological practices, and, by contextualising these technological practices in their spatial layout, equally focus on social contacts that would have taken place during any of these actions. Our detailed contextual study demonstrates that the material remains when analysed in their entirety are complementary to textual evidence. In this case study they even form a source of information on palatial spheres of life about which the fragmentary Linear B texts, so far, remain silent.
This paper examines the recent development of a computer-assisted learning program--in Practice--at the School of Health Science, in the University of Wales Swansea. The project, which began in 2001, was developed in close collaboration with The Meningitis Trust, the aim being to produce a software package to increase nursing students' knowledge…
A growing percentage of physicians are selecting employment over solo practice, and fewer family physicians have hospital admission privileges. Results from surveys of recent medical school graduates indicate a high value placed on free time. Factors to consider when choosing a practice opportunity include desire for independence, decision-making authority, work-life balance, administrative responsibilities, financial risk, and access to resources. Compensation models are evolving from the simple fee-for-service model to include metrics that reward panel size, patient access, coordination of care, chronic disease management, achievement of patient-centered medical home status, and supervision of midlevel clinicians. When a practice is sold, tangible personal property and assets in excess of liabilities, patient accounts receivable, office building, and goodwill (ie, expected earnings) determine its value. The sale of a practice includes a broad legal review, addressing billing and coding deficiencies, noncompliant contractual arrangements, and potential litigations as well as ensuring that all employment agreements, leases, service agreements, and contracts are current, have been executed appropriately, and meet regulatory requirements. PMID:24261436
A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…
Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.
The Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut is committed to the intentionality of interweaving course work and practice in its 5-year teacher preparation program, the Integrated Bachelor's and Master's program. It offers a wide range of field experiences to teacher candidates. Teacher candidates enter the program at the…
Practicing pediatricians were surveyed to assess their need for diabetes education programs. Pediatricians generally have fewer than five diabetic patients, see them less than every four months, prescribe single daily insulin injections, and do not include diatetic services in the treatment program. No adequate rationale for continuing education…
A recommendation from the Social Work Task Force was that all employers of social workers should conduct a regular "health check" of the social work profession to learn from practice as part of a continuous cycle of improvement. This article documents how the London Borough of Tower Hamlets has gone about this. I describe the…
The review of the literature and the results gained from this research suggest an important link between the effectiveness of a board, including its corporate governance practices, and organisational effectiveness. This link attests to the importance of a greater focus upon the governance approach used by organisations. There is extensive literature about corporate governance in the business sector and there
Individualized care in children's services requires practitioners to move beyond individual worldviews to gain a cultural context for service planning and delivery to an increasingly diversifying U.S. population. As such, research is needed to empirically support diversity practice models used to prepare practitioners for cross-cultural work. This…
Integrating professional practice in higher education business curriculum is challenging. The challenges are vexing because student learning is affected by variables such as faculty preparation, pedagogy, student preparation, target labor market human capital requirements and institutional resources. Anchoring student learning based on integrating the liberal arts with expectations of the business community provides an excellent starting point for developing both
In professional education today, Schon's concept of "reflective practice" underpins much thinking about learning at work. This approach--with its emphasis on the inner life of the professional and on her own interpretations of her learning experiences--is increasingly being challenged: often cited objections are that the model ignores factors like…
Purpose : Traditionally, radiographers and radiation therapists function in a workplace environment that is protocol- driven with limited functional autonomy. The workplace promotes a culture of conformity and discourages practitioners from reflective and critical thinking, essential attributes for continuing learning and advancing workplace practices. As part of the first author's doctoral study, a continuing professional development (CPD) educational framework was
More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary,…
Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Mozer, Michael C,; Pashler, Harold
The purpose of this article is to provide a mnemonic device that when incorporated into practice behavior is shown through case study to help students develop an understanding of the relationship between exercises, new and old, and the music that they are preparing. I developed the mnemonic "Preparation of Relevant Activities Causes Technical…
Purpose – Any reasonably advanced practice is a blend of rational thinking, thinking structured by concepts and numerical representations rendering the world static and immovable, and intuitive thinking, a mode of knowing operating “in-between” concepts and representations and, therefore, are apprehending the fluid and fleeting nature of being. When moving from being a novice to an expert practitioner, the actor
As part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service Project, this Guide to Good Practice covers computer-aided design (CAD). It is a free online handbook "for individuals and organisations involved in the creation, maintenance, use, and long-term preservation of CAD-based digital resources in the humanities." Rather than focusing on a specific software application and situation, the guide discusses a wide range of CAD tools and practices, offering an introduction upon which CAD users can build. The seven chapters describe hardware and software choices, data capturing and documentation, and archiving processes.
ABSTRACT Postinfectious arthritis is a relatively often encountered in pediatric practice. The authors present the most important data concerneing this pathology, with up to date informations exemplifying with case presentations. Clinical cases bring to attention the most common forms of postinfectious arthritis (reactive arthritis, postinfectious arthritis bacterial, viral, spirochete, and so on). Although highly studied and commonly found in current pediatric practice, arthritis occurring after infections remains controversial entities, especially regarding terminology. While, according to some authors, postinfectious arthritis belongs to the large group of reactive arthritis, by other authors, these joint events are independent entities. PMID:24371480
The "Nursing Excellence in Practice Awards" encourages nurses to share their research, evidence-based projects, practice innovations, publishing successes, and patient education programs with their colleagues. All projects are presented in poster format, and evaluation teams judge each poster. Cash prizes are awarded to the best projects in each category in this annual Nurses Week celebration. In addition, a pin and certificate are awarded to each participant, and a compendium is printed with the summaries of all projects. The author will describe the planning, funding, educational resources, evaluation criteria, recognition ceremony, and challenges of this program in the community hospital. PMID:18349767
Many family physicians have written about how they influence, nurture, and empower people in their communities of practice. In this essay, the author writes of the personal joys that family medicine has brought him. An expression of his appreciation for his work as a family doctor, it touches on 6 themes that continue to rejuvenate his practice: love, faith, mystery, place, dance, and medicine. By examining the emotional and psychological dimensions of these themes, he offers a path by which other family physicians may be able to find sustenance and joy in their daily work. PMID:22585892
When the nations of the world signed and later ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), they accepted the difficult challenge of stabilizing the composition of the atmosphere with respect to the greenhouse gases (GHGs). Success will require a reduction in both use of fossil fuels and rates of deforestation. Forests have a large enough influence on the atmosphere that one of the options for stabilizing the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere includes the use of forests as a carbon sink through reforestation of large areas. We identify in this paper the potential and the limitations of such projects. We discuss the implications of four approaches in management of forests globally: (i) continued deforestation, (ii) halting deforestation, (iii) net reforestation including agroforestry, and (iv) substituting the use of wood fuels for fossil fuels.
Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, R.M. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)
"Dimensions of possible variation" is a phrase that now occupies a safe place in the literature describing the application of education theory to education practice: "asking yourself what could be changed [in the task], while using the same approach or technique, opens up dimensions of possible variation. A set of exercises forming a sequence of…
Reviews the research presented in this issue and its implications for classroom practice. The topics include sex-role stereotyping and cultural diversity in award-winning picture books for children; children's storytelling; parent involvement and quality of day care; cultural-familial predictors of children's metacognitive and academic…
Exercises posted on this web site offer an opportunity for students to evaluate how much they have retained in various subjects of Algebra. Topics covered include geometry, functions, vectors, and statistics. There are corresponding lessons and solutions to each practice exercise. Also, the site contains useful tools such as graphs and spreadsheet modeling exercises to help students better visualize and understanding algebra concepts.
Practical Aspects of Palliative Care Course Directors September 4Â6, 2014 Harvard Medical School and Harvard Medical School Center for Palliative Care Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care Attendance is limited to 120 participants. Register early! Guest Faculty Eva H
In this work, prominent authorities review the latest research on all aspects of ELL instruction (K-12) and identify what works for today's students and schools. Provided are best-practice guidelines for targeting reading, writing, oral language, vocabulary, content-domain literacies, and other core skill areas; assessing culturally and…
This publication is a compilation of monographs offering practical suggestions for teachers of adapted physical education. It contains numerous suggestions on teaching techniques, activity adaptations, equipment modifications, programming information, coaching hints, skill development strategies, and curriculum data. The five sections offer…
Association for Research, Administration, Professional Councils & Societies, Reston, VA.
The article explains the six tasks involved in practical reasoning and describes a research project that centered around teaching a six-week course in critical thinking to inmates at a medium security prison in an attempt to determine the feasibility of implementing a moral education program in correctional institutions. (SB)
This report gives an overview of a study conducted by the Space Applications Board (SAB) on the practical applications of space systems. In this study, the SAB considered how the nation's space capability might be used to solve problems such as the shortage of food and energy; the improvement of the physical environment; inventorying and…
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.
There is a profound need for the family practitioner to take his place as an investigator. This paper describes some of the difficulties and advantages of research in family practice. The paper suggests ten principles for performing effective research. PMID:20468924
assess psychological journal articles Develop your ability to interpret statistical information in general, and specifically to evaluate inferences and conclusions present in psychological literature #121 PRACTICAL COURSE HANDBOOK PSYL08002 Psychology 2 2012-2013 Course Organiser Semester 1 Dr Antje
The U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB or the Board) has a statutory responsibility to report to Congress and the President regarding 'whether the public interest in a civil service free of prohibited personnel practices is being adequately protect...
Practical circadian therapy for the cancer patient involves 3 spheres of intervention—improving lifestyle, optimizing internal biochemical milieu, and adjusting treatment times. The potential value of improving overall circadian functioning is shown in the work of Mormont et al in which pronounced rest—activity rhythms were associated with better survival in colorectal cancer patients receiving chronomodulated chemotherapy. Lifestyle interventions that may improve
Keith I. Block; Penny B. Block; Susan Reynolds Fox; Jamie Stouffer Birris; April Y. Feng; Michael de la Torre; Deva Nathan; Peter Tothy; Amanda K. Maki; Charlotte Gyllenhaal
Satisfiability solving, the problem of deciding whether the variables of a propositional formula can be assigned in such a way that the formula evaluates to true, is one of the classic problems in computer science. It is of theoretical interest because it is the canonical NP-complete problem. It is of practical interest because modern SAT-solvers can be used to solve
Koen Claessen; Niklas Een; Mary Sheeran; N. Sorensson
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the extent to which school counselors in Alabama are engaged in accountability practices consistent with the ASCA National Model and other contemporary views of the school counselors' roles and responsibilities. This study includes a sample of 420 professional school counselors. Participants…
This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…
The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.
Conducted a pilot questionnaire study on Singaporean family reading practices. Found that in the majority of homes, the mother initiated reading of mostly fictional material borrowed from public libraries. Reading aloud to children occurred in about one-third of homes, with direct reading instruction occurring in over two-thirds of families. Found…
College of Education Clinical Practice 10-Day Improvement Plan Revised 5/2009 1 Prior Facilitator, and either the Department Chair or the Chair of the Student Progress Committee. Start Date. The cooperating teacher will maintain a daily feedback log on the teacher candidate's progress with each
Members (n=182) of the Educational Audiology Association were surveyed to determine emerging levels of best practices in the field. Demographic data, uses of amplification, the role of the educational audiologist as case manager/consultant, and both clinical and professional concerns are discussed. Areas for further research are suggested.…
". Â· Greater use of trace evidence (paint/glass/fibres). Â· DNA revolution. The rise of DNA was coincident Statistics in Practice Â p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific: Â· Trace evidence (glass/paint/fibres) being treated statistically. Â· More evidence types: Â· common
This article reflects on the potentialities of education practices guided by the idea of sustainability and how they can contribute to the reformulation of the contents and methods of learning and to the quality of education. Sustainability entails the transformation of all aspects of school life, from preschool to the university. The article also…
The objective of this article is to present a brief historical over- view of ideas related to the distribution of cognition, offer a criti- cal appraisal, and outline some of the implications for the teach- ing and learning practice. First, the article provides a description of the mind as disembodied and disembedded, an image that has come to dominate western
Rita Silverman, Bill Welty, and I have used my description of the classroom event at the end of the preface as a basis for composing our essays in this special issue of Innovative Higher Education. They present this material as a case, while I have written it as a story, to illustrate the strengths of narrative for reflective teaching practice.
The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…
This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual…
Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…
In 2003, Sierra Health Foundation's Board of Directors selected school-aged youth as the target for its next focused grantmaking effort. As part of the program research and development phase, staff and consultants examined evidenced-based practices that appear promising in positively affecting adolescent health and development for young people…
Birtwhistle, Amy; Lefkovitz, Bina; Meehan, Dorothy; Needham, Heather; Paul, Andy
Comprehensive and user-friendly, this ideal graduate text and professional reference provides a developmentally informed framework for assessing 3- to 6-year-olds in accordance with current best practices and IDEA guidelines. The authors are leading clinician-researchers who take the reader step by step through selecting appropriate measures,…
This book provides the reader with principal theories and practices of management in educational organizations. It attempts to widen both the breadth and depth of the body of knowledge in this area of specialization. The work provides useful reference material for students and scholars at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in universities…
The AWF's attractive and easy-to-read guides for pet owners are stocked in many veterinary practices. But did you know that the AWF also produces advice for vets on tail docking in dogs and free-range poultry diseases? PMID:25281456
This booklet examines principles for effective tutoring. An introduction defines tutoring. Ten sections present research findings and practical applications. Section 1, "Real-Life Goals," includes making consistent, regular time; targeting real- life goals; and exploring understanding. Section 2, "Question and Prompt," discusses avoiding lectures,…
Markov chain Monte Carlo using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a general method for the simulation of stochastic processes having probability densities known up to a constant of proportionality. Despite recent advances in its theory, the practice has remained controversial. This article makes the case for basing all inference on one long run of the Markov chain and estimating the Monte
This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay people might…
In a previous work by Campello (see International Symposium on Information Theory, p.193, p.12-16, 1998), necessary and sufficient conditions for a discrete bit assignment to be the solution to the discrete bit loading problems were derived. In the present work, we make use of these results to derive fast algorithms that can be efficiently implemented in practice
Model Checking: Theory into Practice E. Allen Emerson ? Department of Computer Sciences and Computer Engineering Research Center The University of Texas at Austin, Austin TXÂ78712, USA firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/emerson/ Abstract. Model checking is an automatic method for verifying
The public expects nurse practitioners (NPs) to be informed about scientific advances and adjust practice as disease screening and management evolves with new research findings. No discipline has evolved more quickly than genomics. This article describes six areas in genomics in which NPs should be competent, concluding with three case studies. PMID:25208040
Guidelines are presented for the preparation of a software development plan. The various phases of a software development project are discussed throughout its life cycle including a general description of the software engineering standards and practices to be followed during each phase.
Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…
the potential to impact America's use of non-renewable energy beyond its own design capacity by applying it to the optimization of an existing building's system. Solar-thermal chilling systems are not new. However, few of them can be described as a practical...
Secretarial Practice is a finishing course for persons taking a vocational stenographic curriculum sequence or a three-unit sequence in either stenography or machine transcription. The syllabus discusses in detail the course objectives (definition of terms, general objective, selected specific objectives, syllabus organization and human…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
... practice of splitting tablets, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the American Medical Association, and other medical organizations advise against it unless it's specified in the drug's labeling. Tablet splitting often involves buying higher strength tablets and then breaking the tablets in ...
This article uses democratic political theory to compare three types of arts management practices. When art is treated as an elite status good, it is likely to have antidemocratic effects that largely reproduce status hierarchies. When art is treated as an exclusive group identity good, as in the case of identity politics, it is likely to contribute to democracy by
's dynamic market. #1) Begin with your customers. The goal of a sup- ply chain is to deliver products, and on the development of innovative prod- ucts,services and business processes. Allowing the mar- ket demand to drive a winning strategy and a business model that utilizes best practices in supply chain management (SCM
very day, clinicians assess risk in various settings. Psychiatrists in all forms of practice are asked to use their skills to forecast the risk of violence: Is the patient dangerous? Should the patient be detained against his or her will? When can we safely release the patient into the community? These are just a few of the formidable questions that
Based on the clinical expertise of social workers at Jewish Family Services of Central Maryland, this book presents practical advice for parents of all faiths, with each of 34 chapters exploring a specific parenting issue. The book is divided into five sections: (1) "Many Kinds of Families," dealing with only children, sibling struggles, adoption,…
This article provides a systematic review of the emerging practice doctorate in social work. Based on the experience of the first such Doctor of Social Work (DSW) program, we provide information regarding the program origins and rationale, development, current structure, and future direction. Such information will enrich the discussion on the role…
It is generally accepted that the practice of medicine could be improved by turning to the humanities in general, and to narrative and text interpretation in particular. Neverthless, there is hardly any agreement as to the nature of the clinical text, whether it be the patient's narrative that needs to be richly understood, or the patient as patient who must
In their breakthrough anthology of women's rhetoric, "Available Means," Kate Ronald and Joy Ritchie presented the first comprehensive collection of women's rhetorical theory and practice from the third century B.C. to 2001. With that expansive gathering of women's rhetoric, they raised questions about gender, difference, and the rhetorical canon,…
In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…
In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…
Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…
This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…
The evidence-based practice movement has become an important feature of health care systems and health care policy. Within this context, the APA 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice defines and discusses evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP). In an integration of science and practice, the Task Force's report describes…
This article explores a new approach to taking theory into practice--one that offers a direct route from research to practice. Traditionally, theory makes its way to practice cloaked in particular curriculum interventions. We argue that taking theory into practice is essentially a matter of transfer--applying teaching and learning principles in…
In this article, we report on a study of how creative linguistic practices (which we call "hybrid discourse practices") were enacted by students in a fifth-grade science unit on barn owls and how these practices helped to produce a synergistic micro-community of scientific practice in the classroom that constituted a fertile space for students…
Page 1 BUILDING A PHARMACEUTICAL CARE PRACTICE Phar 6219 Spring 2014 2 credits Wednesday 1 practice and to develop a professional practice plan that allows the student to provide pharmaceutical care after graduation. 2) To understand the practice of pharmaceutical care well enough to teach others
A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…
Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry
Evidence-based practice has become part of the language of health care. This article illustrates the professional implications for orthopaedic nurses and the challenges it raises for current and future practice development. The article suggests steps for developing an evidence-based approach to orthopaedic practice, the necessary skills nurses need to develop, and the benefits of a multidisciplinary view in developing practice.