These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Practices in Temperate North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry, an ecologically and environmentally sustainable land use, offers great promise to sequester carbon (C). The\\u000a objectives of this chapter are to (1) provide a review of C sequestration opportunities available under various agroforestry\\u000a practices in temperate North America, and (2) estimate C sequestration potential by agroforestry in the US. Since accurate\\u000a land area under agroforestry was not available, the

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Shibu Jose

2

Agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impacts of agroforestry systems (AFS) on soil management in temperate, subtropical, and tropical biomes support the beneficial, holistic role of tree components in agricultural land-use systems. Compared to annual monocultures, AFS can enhance several soil physical properties improving soil resi...

3

Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

2003-01-01

4

An evaluation of the Acacia albida -based agroforestry practices in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.

Peter Poschen

1986-01-01

5

Variations in soil aggregate stability and enzyme activities in a temperate agroforestry practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry and grass buffers have been shown to improve soil properties and overall environmental quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates (WSA), soil carbon, soil nitrogen, enzyme activity, and microbial community DNA content. Treatments were row crop (RC), grass buffer (GB), agroforestry buffer (AG), and grass waterways (GWW). A

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Robert J. Kremer; Brandon W. Adamson; Stephen H. Anderson

2008-01-01

6

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

7

Effects of reforestation practices on Staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Southwestern China forests.  

PubMed

In 2004, Staphylinid beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages were studied via pitfall trapping to examine the effects of reforestation in southwestern China forests. Sites included two 100-yr-old mature forest types (hemlock-spruce forest and birch forest), and three 40-yr-old forest types established after harvesting (spruce plantation, larch plantation, and natural broad-leaved forest). Staphylinid species richness was greater in natural broad-leaved forests than those in hemlock-spruce forests and spruce plantations, but no significant difference was found in abundance among the five forest types. Beetle assemblages from young forest stands were significantly different from those in older forest stands, and some environmental characteristics, i.e., elevation, proportion of broad-leaved trees, and coarse woody debris, significantly affected species abundances. Moreover, some staphylinid species predominantly found only in older forest stands indicate that mature forest specialists might be threatened by loss of habitat. So it is necessary to retain adequate patches of older successional stages for conserving these beetle assemblages. PMID:23339781

Luo, Tian-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

2013-02-01

8

Possibilities for agroforestry development in Bulgaria: Outlooks and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current conditions in Bulgaria are favorable for the development of agroforestry due to socio-economic incentives and environmental necessities. As a scientific theory and practice, agroforestry is less familiar than other farming systems in Bulgaria. Hence, to ensure successful agroforestry development in Bulgaria, four necessary movements (or collective national ‘moments’) are described here: (1) wide-scale popularization of agroforesty's fundamental tenets, including

Jordanka Stancheva; Sonja Bencheva; Krasimira Petkova; Vladimir Piralkov

2007-01-01

9

OSM's reforestation initiative  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) has discouraged reforestation in some situations where reforestation would be desirable. OSM is engaged in an initiative to increase the amount of mined land reclaimed to forest where appropriate. The authors are seeking to determine those elements of the Federal/State regulator programs that discourage reforestation and find ways to offset these impacts. Potential factors militating against reforestation are identified and possible solutions are discussed.

Boyce, J.S.

1999-07-01

10

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems  

PubMed Central

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-01-01

11

Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett

2009-01-01

12

Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

13

Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

14

Agroforestry systems in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems in North America vary widely in terms of components (tree, forb, graminoid, and shrub species) and outputs. Most of the agroforestry systems used in North America have emphasized wood and livestock production. The objective of each system has been to produce annual and long term economic returns and sustainable yields. Inputs such as fossil fuels, fertilizers, herbicides and

T. H. Bandolin; R. F. Fisher

1991-01-01

15

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

1991-01-01

16

Impacts of Afforestation, Deforestation, and Reforestation on  

E-print Network

Impacts of Afforestation, Deforestation, and Reforestation on Forest Cover in China from 1949 in the terrestrial ecosystems. Keywords: afforestation, deforestation, reforestation, forest cover F orests play on forest cover in China from 1949 to 2003. Data Data for afforestation, deforestation, and reforestation

Song, Conghe

17

Parklands Partnership: Education through Reforestation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes New York City's Parklands Partnership Program, in which elementary and secondary students visit natural woodlands areas in their neighborhood, learn about forest ecology, and engage in restoration and reforestation activities that foster a connection between themselves and their local environment. (SV)

Scalia, Josephine A.

1992-01-01

18

Controlled reforestation can raise yield  

SciTech Connect

Reforestation in tropical countries by means of controlled man-made plantations of exotic species could increase the yield of fiber by something in the order of 20 to 30 cubic metres per hectare per annum. With the move away from wood in the solid to reconstituted wood products, this enormous annual increment could have significant effects on supply prospects and reduce the need for tropical forest destruction.

Gammie, J.I.

1981-04-25

19

26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.  

...2014-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1.194-1 Section... § 1.194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general...84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined in §...

2014-04-01

20

26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1.194-1 Section... § 1.194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general...84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined in §...

2011-04-01

21

26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1.194-1 Section... § 1.194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general...84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined...

2010-04-01

22

26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1.194-1 Section... § 1.194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general...84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined in §...

2012-04-01

23

26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1.194-1 Section... § 1.194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general...84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined in §...

2013-04-01

24

Reforesting the Earth. Worldwatch Paper 83.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document deals with efforts aimed at reforesting large areas of degraded lands. It includes sections on: (1) tree cover trends; (2) fuelwood challenges of the future; (3) the need to supply industrial wood; (4) stabilizing soil and water resources; (5) forests and climate change; and (6) mobilization for reforestation. (TW)

Postel, Sandra; Heise, Lori

25

Agroforestry systems for the temperate zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical development of a permanent agriculture system based on the use of agroforestry in the temperate zone is traced. In general, reasons for a renewed interest in agroforestry include the end of cheap, subsidized fossil fuels; increased concern about soil erosion and marginal land use; an international awakening as to the dangers of indiscriminate use of pesticides, herbicides and other

Michael A. Gold; James W. Hanover

1987-01-01

26

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

27

www.ForestConnect.com Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation  

E-print Network

www.ForestConnect.com Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation 1 Northeastern Tree Planting;2 Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation www.ForestConnect.com TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 ­ Recommended homework before planting................................... 3 Chapter 2 ­ Planting trees to meet your goals

Keinan, Alon

28

Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

Allen, J.A.

1997-01-01

29

Pp. 14 -20 in Colombo, S.J. (comp.) 2005. The Thin Green Line: A symposium on the state-of-the-art in reforestation Proceedings. Thunder Bay, ON. 26-28 July 2005. Ont. Min. Nat. Resour., Ont. For. Res. Inst., Sault Ste. Marie, ON. For. Res. Inf. Pap. No.  

E-print Network

-of-the-art in reforestation Proceedings. Thunder Bay, ON. 26-28 July 2005. Ont. Min. Nat. Resour., Ont. For. Res. Inst., Sault practices by nursery managers. This is a departure from traditional reforestation seedling production. Nursery management and reforestation in North America have progressed tremendously since the first large

30

Biotechnology and Agroforestry in Indian Arid Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to

Varsha Sharma; Shaily Goyal; K. G. Ramawat

31

Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

1995-12-01

32

Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

2009-06-01

33

Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory. PMID:18481517

Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

2008-04-01

34

Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1978-01-01

35

Reforestation trials in the Russian Far East  

SciTech Connect

Enormous areas of primary forest in Russia have been and continue to be destroyed by fire and harvesting. Most all of these areas have been left to reforest naturally. Little reforestation by planting has been attempted and these efforts have met with limited success. Consequently vast areas are without forest cover. Weyerhaeuser Company initiated cooperative forest planting trials in the Russian Far East (RFE) in 1989. Seeds from the RFE were used to produce high quality containerized seedlings in the US. These seedlings were then used in research plantings trials in 1991 and 1992, near Vanino and Khabarovsk. A large-scale operational planting project was carried out in 1993. Seedling survival and growth has been excellent over a wide range of sites. The operational planting results demonstrate that high quality seedlings can be used to successfully reforest sites that have been burned or harvested in the RFE. Key to the operational planting success was good logistical support and a well trained, organized and positively motivated work force.

Lowery, R.F. (Weyerhaeuser Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Perevertailo, I. (Far East Forestry Research Inst., Khabarovsk (Russian Federation))

1994-12-01

36

Hill agroforestry systems in south Sikkim, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mamlay watershed of south Sikkim, India, about 80% of the population depend on land for their livelihood. The agricultural land-use activity includes agroforestry, horticulture and animal husbandry besides growing crops in irrigated or unirrigated fields. Trees are maintained in the farms mainly for fodder and rarely for fuel purposes. Cropping system is characterised by cultivation of cereals and

R. C. Sundriyal; S. C. Rai; E. Sharma; Y. K. Rai

1994-01-01

37

CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

38

Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park; )

2006-05-01

39

Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and extent to which biophysical resources are captured and utilized by the components of an agroforestry system are determined by the nature and intensity of interac- tions between the components. The net effect of these interactions is often determined by the influence of the tree component on the other component(s) and\\/or on the overall system, and is expressed

M. R. RAO; P. K. R. NAIR; C. K. ONG

1998-01-01

40

Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification  

PubMed Central

Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by ?75% and species richness of forest-using species by ?60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by ?40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends. PMID:17360392

Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G.; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

2007-01-01

41

Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems are believed to provide a number of ecosystem services; however, until recently evidence in the agroforestry\\u000a literature supporting these perceived benefits has been lacking. This special issue brings together a series of papers from\\u000a around the globe to address recent findings on the ecosystem services and environmental benefits provided by agroforestry.\\u000a As prelude to the special issue, this

Shibu Jose

2009-01-01

42

Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

1981-01-01

43

Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

1982-01-01

44

The future role of reforestation in reducing buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Among the options posed for mitigating the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2} is planting new forest areas to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Among the questions of interest in modeling the global carbon cycle is the extent to which reforestation is likely to succeed in providing physical removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are many strategies for using forest land to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of CO{sub 2}: decreasing the rate at which forests are cleared for other land uses, increasing the density of carbon storage in existing forests, improving the rate and efficiency at which forest products are used in the place of other energy intensive products, substitution of renewable wood fuels for fossil fuels, improved management of forests and agroforestry, and increasing the amount of land in standing forest. Because increasing the area of forests has social, political, and economic limitations; in addition to physical limitations; it is hard to envision a large increase in forest area except where there are associated economic benefits. The authors speculation is that, over the next several decades, the forest strategies most likely to be pursued for the express purpose of CO{sub 2} mitigation are those which provide more or more-efficient substitution of forest products for energy or energy-intensive resources and that the physical accumulation of additional carbon in forests will be of lesser importance.

Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1993-12-31

45

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

SciTech Connect

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.

MacDicken, K.G.

1997-10-01

46

Farmer participation in reforestation incentive programs in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforestation programs are a common policy response among developing country governments in the tropics attempting to deal with environmental and economic problems caused by widespread deforestation. The objective of this paper is to examine participation by small-and medium-sized farms in two reforestation programs undertaken in recent years by one country, Costa Rica, which has been at the forefront of developing

T. Thacher; D. R. Lee; J. W. Schelhas

1996-01-01

47

Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

2002-01-01

48

Financial and economic profitability of reforestation in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly acknowledged that the economic profitability of reforestation differs considerably from financial profitability if market prices include price effects of distortions due to market or policy failures. Although these failures are common, especially in developing countries, few studies exists where the economic and financial profitability of reforestation are assessed separately. In this study, the financial and economic profitability

Anssi Niskanen

1998-01-01

49

An economic and ecological multi-criteria evaluation of reforestation methods to recover burned Pinus nigra forests in NE Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrence of recent large wildfires is threatening the permanence of Pinus nigra Arnold (Black pine) forests in central Catalonia (NE Spain), due to the almost nil post-fire regeneration of this non-serotinous pine. Potential practices to carry out extensive reforestation programs with P. nigra may differ widely in terms of their final success, economic cost and undesired ecological impact. In this

Josep Maria Espelta; Javier Retana; Abdessamad Habrouk

2003-01-01

50

Test of the SHETRAN technology for modelling the impact of reforestation on badlands runoff and sediment yield at Draix, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically based distributed models, such as SHETRAN, have the ability to predict the impacts of land management changes in advance of any change taking place. It needs to be shown, though, that they can deliver practical results while accounting for uncertainty in parameter evaluation. As a demonstration, SHETRAN was used to simulate the impact of reforestation on runoff and erosion

B. T Lukey; J Sheffield; J. C Bathurst; R. A Hiley; N Mathys

2000-01-01

51

Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

52

Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experiences of a national program  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been in the forefront of agroforestry research ever since organized research in agroforestry started worldwide about\\u000a 25 years ago. Considering the country's unique land-use, demographic, political, and sociocultural characteristics as well\\u000a as its strong record in agricultural and forestry research, India's experience in agroforestry research is important to agroforestry\\u000a development, especially in developing nations. Agroforestry has received much

S. Puri; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

53

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction  

E-print Network

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

54

Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry.  

PubMed

1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic landscape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain forest fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic interactions. 2. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 24 agroforestry systems, differing in the distance to the nearest natural forest (0-1415 m), light intensity (37.5-899.6 W/m(-2)) and number of vascular plant species (7-40 species) were studied. Ten standardized trap nests for bees and wasps, made from reed and knotweed internodes, were exposed in each study site. Occupied nests were collected every month, over a period totalling 15 months. 3. A total of 13,617 brood cells were reared to produce adults of 14 trap-nesting species and 25 natural enemy species, which were mostly parasitoids. The total number of species was affected negatively by increasing distance from forest and increased with light intensity of agroforestry systems. The parasitoids in particular appeared to benefit from nearby forests. Over a 500-m distance, the number of parasitoid species decreased from eight to five, and parasitism rates from 12% to 4%. 4. The results show that diversity and parasitism, as a higher trophic interaction and ecosystem service, are enhanced by (i) improved connectivity of agroecosystems with natural habitats such as agroforestry adjacent to rain forest and (ii) management practices to increase light availability in agroforestry, which also enhances richness of flowering plants in the understorey. PMID:16637985

Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

2006-03-01

55

Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.  

PubMed

Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x¯ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (x¯ = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. PMID:25460423

Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

2015-03-01

56

Monitoring of reforested areas using LANDSAT data. [Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1981-01-01

57

Farmer perspectives on agroforestry opportunities and constraints in cape verde  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ?gua de Gato Watershed on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, 51 farmers were surveyed regarding their attitudes\\u000a and knowledge of agroforestry. The farmers identified eight constraints to agroforestry implementation, with virtually all\\u000a indicating that a source of loan funds was the major concern. Space or land constraints and availability of tree seedlings\\u000a were identified as constraints

James E. Johnson; Orlando J. Delgado

2003-01-01

58

Development of the forSIM model to quantify positive and negative hydrological impacts of tropical reforestation  

E-print Network

reforestation Nick A. Chappell a,*, Wlodek Tych a , Mike Bonell b a Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster Abstract Existing approaches to modelling the impacts of reforestation on tropical hydrology only simulate, illustrates quantifiable interrelationships between reforestation-related hydrological changes

Chappell, Nick A

59

Effect of reforestation on streamflow in central New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic data have been collected since 1932 in central New York State to determine the effect of reforestation on streamflow. Data are available for three small partly reforested areas and for one nonreforested control area. From 35 to 58 percent of the 3 areas were reforested, mostly with species of pine and spruce. The trees were allowed to grow without thinning or cutting, and by 1958 these reforested areas had developed into dense coniferous woodlots. Intensive statistical analyses of the data from the four study areas were made in 1958. Analyses were made for three hydrologic periods: the dormant season represented by the 6-month period ending April 30, the growing season represented by the 6-month period ending October 31, and the year represented by the 12-month period ending April 30. Analyses of the hydrologic data using multiple correlation with time as a variable and analyses of covariance between early and late periods of record indicated that several significant changes had occurred in the streamflow from the partly reforested study areas. Based on correlation with precipitation, total runoff for the dormant season from the 3 study areas was reduced by annual rates of 0.17 to 0.29 inches per year. Based on correlations with streamflow from a control area, total runoff from the partly reforested Shackham Brook area was reduced by average rates of 0.14 inches per growing season, 0.23 inches per dormant season, and 0.36 inches per hydrologic year. Peak discharges on Shackham Brook during the dormant season were reduced by 1958 by an average of 41 percent for the season, with reductions ranging from an average of 66 percent for November to an average of 16 percent for April. No significant changes were found in the peak discharges for the growing season, rates of base-flow recession, volumes of direct runoff, or annual low flows of streams in the three partly reforested areas. The significant reductions in total runoff are attributed to increases in interception and transpiration in the reforested areas. The reductions in peak discharges during the dormant period are attributed largely to increased interception and sublimation of snowfall, and a gradual desynchronization of snowmelt runoff from the wooded and open areas of partly reforested watersheds. The changes in streamflow occurred gradually over the years; it could not be determined from the data whether changes in streamflow were still occurring in 1958, or whether they had reached a maximum.

Schneider, William Joseph; Ayer, Gordon Roundy

1961-01-01

60

Riparian reforestation and channel change: How long does it take?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeated measurements of two small streams in northeastern Vermont document change in channel width and suggest variable rates of widening because of passive reforestation over four decades. Historic data on channel width are available for several tributaries to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA from the 1960s. In 2004 and 2008, we re-measured channel dimensions in two of these tributaries, in two reaches of upper Pope Brook and along seven reaches of an unnamed tributary (W12). Four reaches had reforested since 1966; two reaches remained nonforested. The other three reaches have been forested since at least the 1940s. Comparisons between 1966 and 2004 showed that reforested reaches widened significantly, and comparisons between 2004 and 2008 showed continued widening, but at a greater rate. Between 1966 and 2004, reforested reaches widened at an average rate of 4.1 cm/year, while the rate more than doubled for the last four years (8.7 cm/year). Additionally, turbulence data collected during five peak flows in the spring of 2005 showed significantly greater turbulent kinetic energy ( TKE) in the reforested reach than in either the forested or nonforested reach. Our data add supporting information to the conceptual model of stream W12 that describes a process of incision, widening, and recovery of a stream reach transitioning from nonforested to forested riparian vegetation.

McBride, Maeve; Hession, W. Cully; Rizzo, Donna M.

2010-04-01

61

A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

62

Methods for estimation, measurement, monitoring and reporting of LULUCF activities under Articles 3.3 & 3.4 IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF 4.51  

E-print Network

.3 & 3.4 IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF 4.51 4.2.5 Afforestation and Reforestation This section and reforestation refer to direct, human- induced conversion of land to forest from another land use occurs on land that has not been forest for at least 50 years, while reforestation occurs on land

63

Planning of the reforestation at abandoned coal mines using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a prototype of decision support system for planning the reforestation at abandoned coal mines. The characteristics of deforested zone due to mine development were analyzed and categorized to define the schema of GIS database. Multiple criteria (i.e. forest-climate zone, mining method, visibility, managerial condition, slope gradient, reforestation purpose) were considered to classify the deforested zone and to assign unique IDs to the key index fields in tables. ArcMap, ArcObjects and Visual Basic.NET were used to implement the system. The application to the Samcheok coal block in Korea shows that the system could present a rational solution to select suitable trees for the reforestation and can also provide cost evaluation tools to support the environmental planning work.

Choi, Y.; Oh, S.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.

2009-12-01

64

Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.  

PubMed

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

65

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China  

PubMed Central

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

66

Economic analysis of industrial agroforestry: poplar ( Populus deltoides ) in Uttar Pradesh (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet raw material requirements, Wimco, the biggest manufacturer of matches in India, has been promoting poplar-based agroforestry through an agroforestry project since 1984 approved by the National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD) in the northern region of India. This study aims at evaluating the performance of poplar-based agroforestry in terms of income, employment and environmental impact from

S. K. Jain; P. Singh

2000-01-01

67

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

68

Environmental Services of Native Tree Plantations and Agroforestry Systems in Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides supplying the growing demand for wood, plantations and agroforestry systems provide environmental services such as carbon sequestration and recovery of biodiversity. Several countries of Central America have recently started incentive programs to encourage plantation and agroforestry development. In Costa Rica, Payment for Environmental Services (PES) provides subsidies to farmers for plantations and agroforestry systems. Funding for these subsidies comes

Florencia Montagnini; Daniela Cusack; Bryan Petit; Markku Kanninen

2004-01-01

69

Strategies for Reforestation under Uncertain Future Climates: Guidelines for Alberta, Canada  

E-print Network

Strategies for Reforestation under Uncertain Future Climates: Guidelines for Alberta, Canada Laura for reforestation under the assumption that tree populations are optimally adapted to local environments. However the last several decades. The objective of this study is to show how we can arrive at reforestation

Hamann, Andreas

70

REFORESTATION AND THE NURSERY Planting stock of high survival and growth  

E-print Network

REFORESTATION AND THE NURSERY Planting stock of high survival and growth potential is of paramount importance for reforestation on the Pacific Slope. In the Mediterranean ecosystems of California and western required for prompt reforestation place a manifold burden on the larger forest tree nurseries. Whether

Standiford, Richard B.

71

Original article The decline of a Pinus nigra Arn. reforestation stand  

E-print Network

Original article The decline of a Pinus nigra Arn. reforestation stand on a limestone substrate 1997) Abstract - The Austrian black pine reforestation projects on Monte Morello, near the heavily pop of conifers were widely used in Italy to reforest areas where the autochthonous forest vegetation normally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LARGE-SCALE REFORESTATION: PROCEEDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the workshop was to identify major operational and ecological considerations needed to successfully conduct large-scale reforestation projects throughout the forested regions of the world. Large-scale" for this workshop means projects where, by human effort, approx...

73

Value of external environmental impacts of reforestation in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although environmental impacts have played a vital role in the general reasoning and argumentation for forest plantations, environmental impact analyses have often received less attention than economic analyses in the planning of plantation forestry projects. Lack of a single measurement unit for various environmental impacts has especially restricted the comparability of different reforestation options and their environmental impacts. In this

Anssi Niskanen

1998-01-01

74

Reforestation strategies amid social instability: lessons from Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts. PMID:22314681

Groninger, John W

2012-04-01

75

Soil properties following reforestation or afforestation of marginal cropland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reforestation or afforestation of marginal agricultural lands offers opportunities to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and improve the quality of degraded soils. The objectives of this study were to identify the extent and distribution of marginally productive cropland that was originally under f...

76

Drivers of reforestation in human-dominated forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical forest habitat continues to decline globally, with serious negative consequences for environmental sustainability. The small mountain country of Nepal provides an excellent context in which to examine trajectories of forest-cover change. Despite having experienced large-scale forest clearing in the past, significant reforestation has taken place in recent years. The range of bio- physical and ecological environments and diversity of

Harini Nagendra

77

Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only about 2.8 million ha of an estimated original 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests still exist in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of the United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and state agencies initiated reforestation efforts in the late 1980s to improve wildlife habitat. We surveyed restorationists responsible for reforestation in the LMAV to determine the magnitude of past and future efforts and to identify major limiting factors. Over the past 10 years, 77,698 ha have been reforested by the agencies represented in our survey and an additional 89,009 ha are targeted in the next 5 years. Oaks are the most commonly planted species and bare-root seedlings are the most commonly used planting stock. Problems with seedling availability may increase the diversity of plantings in the future. Reforestation in the LMAV is based upon principles of landscape ecology; however, local problems such as herbivory, drought, and flooding often limit success. Broad-scale hydrologic restoration is needed to fully restore the structural and functional attributes of these systems, but because of drastic and widespread hydrologic alterations and socioeconomic constraints, this goal is generally not realistic. Local hydrologic restoration and creation of specific habitat features needed by some wildlife and fish species warrant attention. More extensive analyses of plantings are needed to evaluate functional success. The Wetland Reserve Program is a positive development, but policies that provide additional financial incentives to landowners for reforestation efforts should be seriously considered.

King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.

1999-01-01

78

Impacts of non-native spruce reforestation on ground beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of non-native spruce reforestation on ground beetles were studied. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 years), young (15 years), middle-aged (30 years), old spruce plantation (50 years) and a native beech forest (70 years) were compared. Results indicate that the soil temperature, the pH, the compactness and the CaCO3 content of the soil, the cover of the leaf litter and the herbs and the

Tibor Magura; Zoltán Elek; Béla Tóthmérész

2002-01-01

79

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe.Design\\/Methodology\\/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations.Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional agroforestry was common in the study area. There were no cases of innovative agroforestry other than dwindling remnants from

Munyaradzi Chitakira; Emmanuel Torquebiau

2010-01-01

80

Belowground interactions for water between trees and grasses in a temperate semiarid agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is the complementary use of soil resources. However, productivity of many agroforestry\\u000a systems has been lower than expected due to net competition for water, highlighting the need for a mechanistic understanding\\u000a of belowground interactions. The goal of this study was to examine root–root interactions for water in a temperate semiarid\\u000a agroforestry system, based on ponderosa

María Elena Fernández; Javier Gyenge; Julian Licata; Tomás Schlichter; Barbara J. Bond

2008-01-01

81

Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

2007-01-01

82

Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs): Targeting Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry tree domestication emerged as a farmer-driven, market-led process in the early 1990s and became an international initiative. A participatory approach now supplements the more traditional aspects of tree improvement, and is seen as an important strategy towards the Millennium Development Goals of eradicating poverty and hunger, promoting social equity and environmental sustainability. Considerable progress has been made towards the

Roger R. B. Leakey; Zac Tchoundjeu; Kate Schreckenberg; Sheona E. Shackleton; Charlie M. Shackleton

2005-01-01

83

Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland with contrasting  

E-print Network

Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland; accepted 30 March 2005 Abstract Large areas of abandoned cropland in the world can be reforested with native shrubs and trees to gain a number of environmental benefits. In abandoned Mediterranean croplands

Espigares, Tíscar

84

More than Just Trees: Assessing Reforestation Success in Tropical Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities in many parts of the tropics are dependent of forests for their livelihoods and for environmental services. Forest resources in the tropics have declined rapidly over the past century and therefore many developing countries in the tropics have reforestation programs. Although reforestation is a long-term process with long-term…

Le, Hai Dinh; Smith, Carl; Herbohn, John; Harrison, Stephen

2012-01-01

85

Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (20012010) T. Mitchell Aide1,7  

E-print Network

Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001­2010) T. Mitchell Aide1 have documented extensive deforestation, but there are also many local studies reporting forest evaluated deforestation and reforestation from the municipal to continental scale, we lack a comprehensive

Lopez-Carr, David

86

Development of forest structure on cleared rainforest land in eastern Australia under different styles of reforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainforests in eastern Australia have been extensively cleared over the past two centuries. In recent decades, there have been increasing efforts to reforest some of these cleared lands, using a variety of methods, to meet a range of economic and environmental objectives. However, the extent to which the various styles of reforestation restore structure, composition and ecological function to cleared

J. Kanowski; C. p. Catterall; G. w. Wardell-johnson; H. Proctor; T. Reis

2003-01-01

87

REFORESTATION ET STOCKAGE DU CARBONE SICLE SUR LE VERSANT SUD DU MONT-LOZRE  

E-print Network

60 REFORESTATION ET STOCKAGE DU CARBONE AU XXème SI�CLE SUR LE VERSANT SUD DU MONT-LOZ�RE (FRANCE : sols, reforestation, biomasse, épicéas, hêtres, Mont-Lozère. Abstract : The study is based on research

Boyer, Edmond

88

Expediting Reforestation in Tropical Grasslands: Distance and Isolation from Seed Sources in Plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where tropical forests have been cleared and abandoned, forest regrowth is often slow. Because of the increasing extent of such degraded lands and desire for these areas to fulfill conservation and ecosystem functions, it has become important to assess mechanisms that accelerate reforestation. In situations where site conditions limit tree establishment, one option to facilitate reforestation is to establish plantations

Amy E. Zanne; Colin A. Chapman

2001-01-01

89

Land-use changes and natural reforestation in the Eastern Central Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern agriculture, only the cultivation of highly productive and easily accessible slopes remains profitable. As a consequence, inaccessible and steep areas are being increasingly abandoned. In this paper, the mechanisms of natural reforestation of abandoned areas are examined on three levels as a prelude to determine natural reforestation rates. The study sites selected on the municipality level (1:25,000) are

Erich Tasser; Janette Walde; Ulrike Tappeiner; Alexandra Teutsch; Werner Noggler

2007-01-01

90

The influence of the form of tenure on reforestation in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of an empirical investigation of the variation in reforestation among different types of forest tenure in British Columbia. Indicators of management, based on available statistical information about not satisfactorily restocked (NSR) lands and artificial reforestation on cutover lands, are compared across four major forms of tenure, ranging from relatively secure private holdings to relatively short-term

Daowei Zhang; Peter H. Pearse

1997-01-01

91

Avian communities in forest fragments and reforestation areas associated with banana plantations in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the conservation value of forest habitats associated with banana (Musa sp.) plantations, an inventory of bird species was conducted in 10 forest fragments and reforestation areas surrounding seven plantations in the Costa Rican Atlantic lowlands. Birds were censused by point counts at 42 points in conserved forest remnants and 30 points in reforestation areas. To gather information about

Robert B. Matlock; Dennis Rogers; Peter J. Edwards; Stephen G. Martin

2002-01-01

92

Litter degradation and CN dynamics in reforested mangrove plantations at Gazi Bay, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to assess how mangrove reforestation has influenced litter degradation and concomitant nutrient dynamics in previously deforested plantations. Dynamics of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen and C:N ratios) in decomposing leaves of conspecific species were investigated with litterbags in Sonneratia alba and Rhizophora mucronata reforested treatments using appropriate bare and natural less disturbed treatments as controls.

J. O. Bosire; F. Dahdouh-Guebas; J. G. Kairo; J. Kazungu; F. Dehairs; N. Koedam

2005-01-01

93

Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

2010-02-01

94

Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical tree species planted across a precipitation gradient in the Republic of Panama  

E-print Network

Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical tree species planted across a , N. Ceden~o a , D. Ibarra a , R. Condit a , P.M.S. Ashton b a Native Species Reforestation Project 34002, USA b Native Species Reforestation Project (PRORENA), Yale School of Forestry and Environmental

Bermingham, Eldredge

95

Exploring the Potential Impact of Reforestation on the Hydrology of the Upper Tana River Catchment and the Masinga Dam, Kenya  

E-print Network

DRAFT Exploring the Potential Impact of Reforestation on the Hydrology of the Upper Tana River to assess the impact of meeting a national goal for reforestation of 30% of deforested lands expansion to 2015. Using a rapid rural appraisal methodology, it was determined that reforestation below 1

96

Afforestation Reforestation and afforestation projects, such as these thousands of newly planted pine trees, reduced the annual  

E-print Network

Afforestation Reforestation and afforestation projects, such as these thousands of newly planted level, however, afforestation and reforestation have led to an increase in forest and tree cover in some and invasive spread of trees into nonforested regions. This contrasts with reforestation, which denotes

Lopez-Carr, David

97

Matching planting stock with environments for reforestation under changing climate Laura Gray 1 and Andreas Hamann 2  

E-print Network

Matching planting stock with environments for reforestation under changing climate Laura Gray 1 be considered for reforestation with Douglas-fir (UF 1.5, LF 2.3, and FP 1.1). In those areas we see increased, a reforestation recommendation for the Alberta foothills region is derived in the upper-right box. Presence

Hamann, Andreas

98

A GIS-based database management application for agroforestry planning and tree selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry (the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs in rural lands) is being promoted in the United States as an alternative resource management system that can bring landowners economic benefits and provide environmental services such as reduced soil erosion, improved water quality and wildlife habitat. Landowners, farmers and extension agents need to be better informed about different agroforestry opportunities and

E. A. Ellis; P. K. R. Nair; P. E. Linehan; H. W. Beck; C. A. Blanche

2000-01-01

99

Agroforestry system effects on soil characteristics of tropical soils in the Sarapiqui Region of Costa Rica  

E-print Network

and their impact on selected soil properties as compared to baseline data and pastures utilizing on-farm agroforestry plots established in the Sarapiqui Region of Costa Rica in 1990. Tree components of the agroforestry systems were Vochysia ferruginea and V...

Tornquist, Carlos G.

1997-01-01

100

Agroforestry is a Form of Sustainable Forest Management: Lessons from South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry as land use based on planted trees, provides productive and protective (biological diversity, healthy ecosystems, protection of soil and water resources, terrestrial carbon storage) forest functions that societies care about in the debate on sustainable forest management. Yet, the trees planted in agroforestry systems are excluded in formal definitions and statistics of 'forestry plantations' and overlooked in the legal

Meine van Noordwijk; James M. Roshetko; Marian Delos Angeles; Chip Fay; Thomas P. Tomich

2003-01-01

101

Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry…

Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

2008-01-01

102

The future of reforestation programs in the tropical developing countries: insights from the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reforestation against the rapid rate of deforestation and forest degradation is common in most tropical developing countries. The main objective of reforestation programs is to restore and/or enhance the degraded landscapes depreciated in environmental value. However due to changing socio-political contexts and increasing awareness on sustainable development and environmental issues such programs are becoming more challenging, particularly in the developing tropics. Like most tropical developing countries substantial deforestation has occurred in the Philippines followed by massive logging and slash-and-burn agriculture, resulting in severe social and environmental problems. The country is also one of the pioneer countries that introduces reforestation program to restore its degraded forests. Most recently the government of the Philippines has launched the National Greening Program (NGP), one of the largest reforestation projects so far, with an aim to reforest 1.5 million hectares of degraded forest in critical watersheds over a five year time period. This paper highlights the key challenges that might hinder the success of the reforestation program through National Greening Program. We found that it is unlikely to achieve the desired project goals if rural communities dependent on upland landscapes are excluded from the reforestation program through plantation establishment. Bringing larger amount of areas and greater number of people under community based forest management (CBFM) initiatives for reforestation programs, with clearly defined rights and responsibilities, as well as securing timely access to timber harvesting permits to the communities involved in maintaining the plantations could enhance the long term reforestation success in the country. The paper also tries to provide a critical review of the past reforestation efforts in the Philippines, and direction of possible research and development in order to achieve a win-win situation that will benefits both the local livelihoods and the environment, not only in the Philippines but in other tropical developing countries with similar socio-political context.

Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J. L.

2013-12-01

103

Benefits of Using Shrubs as Nurse Plants for Reforestation in Mediterranean Mountains: A 4Year Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Shrubs are commonly,considered,competitors,of planted seedlings in reforestation programs. However, shrubs can facilitate the,establishment,of,understory,seedlings,in environments that, like Mediterranean-type ecosystems, are characterized,by,harsh,environmental,conditions. In 1997, an experiment was set up in the Sierra Nevada mountains,(southeast Spain) to test the use,of shrubs,as nurse,plants,for an,alternative,reforestation,technique. Two-year-old seedlings,of Pinus sylvestris and,Pinus nigra were,planted,in four microhabitats:,(1) open,interspaces without,vegetation,(which is the usual method,employed,in reforestation programs), (2) under

Jorge Castro; Regino Zamora; Jose A. Ho Dar; Jose M. Go Mez; Lorena Go Mez-aparicio

104

Landscape level reforestation priorities for forest breeding landbirds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of ha of cleared wetlands are being reforested annually in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Despite the expansive and long-term impacts of reforestation on the biological communities of the MAV, there is generally a lack of landscape level planning in its implementation. To address this deficiency we used raster-based digital data to assess the value of forest restoration to migratory landbirds for each ha within the MAV. Raster themes were developed that reflected distance from 3 existing forest cover parameters: (1) extant forest, (2) contiguous forest patches between 1,012 and 40,000 ha, and (3) forest cores with contiguous area 1 km from an agricultural, urban, or pastoral edge. Two additional raster themes were developed that combined information on the proportion of forest cover and average size of forest patches, respectively, within landscapes of 50,000, 100,000, 150,000, and 200,000 ha. Data from these 5 themes were amalgamated into a single raster using a weighting system that gave increased emphasis to existing forest cores, larger forest patches, and moderately forested landscapes while deemphasizing reforestation near small or isolated forest fragments and within largely agricultural landscapes. This amalgamated raster was then modified by the geographic location of historical forest cover and the current extent of public land ownership to assign a reforestation priority score to each ha in the MAV. However, because reforestation is not required on areas with extant forest cover and because restoration is unlikely on areas of open water and urban communities, these lands were not assigned a reforestation priority score. These spatially explicit reforestation priority scores were used to simulate reforestation of 368,000 ha (5%) of the highest priority lands in the MAV. Targeting restoration to these high priority areas resulted in a 54% increase in forest core - an area of forest core that exceeded the area of simulated reforestation. Bird Conservation Regions, developed within the framework of the Partners in Flight: Mississippi Alluvial Valley Bird Conservation Plan, encompassed a large proportion (circa 70%) of the area with highest priority for reforestation. Similarly, lands with high reforestation priority often were enrolled in the Wetland Reserve Program.

Twedt, D.J.; Uihlein, W.B., III

2005-01-01

105

Discerning fragmentation dynamics of tropical forest and wetland during reforestation, urban sprawl, and policy shifts.  

PubMed

Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land planning to reduce future fragmentation. PMID:25409016

Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

2014-01-01

106

REFORESTATION OF DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST LANDS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

LAMB, D. 1994. Reforestation of degraded tropical forest lands in the Asia-Pacific region. This paper reviews the reforestation of degraded tropical forest lands in the Asia Pacific region. The scale of the problem is defined and methods of dealing with such lands are considered. These methods may be classified as a three-point sequence of reclamation\\/r ehabilitation\\/restoration on a continuum upwards

David Lamb

1994-01-01

107

Reforestation: on. site effects on hydrology and erosion, eastern Raukumara Range, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforestation with Pinus radiata plantations on rapidly eroding hill country underlain by clay-rich shales and fine sandstones has reduced annual runoff by 170-400 mm year-i. Soil water contents are lower than under pasture for most of the year, with a )-4 month winter period of high soil water content compared to 6-8 months before reforestation. Interception loss in the forest

A. J. PEARCE; C. L. O'LOUGHLIN; R. J. JACKSON; X. B. ZHANG

1987-01-01

108

Waiting for trees to grow: nest survival, brood parasitism, and the impact of reforestation efforts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the forested wetlands that once covered the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, only -25% remain due to large-scale conversion to agriculture. Reforestation efforts are currently underway, but tracts planted with slow-growing oaks maintain the structure of a grassland for 5 yr or longer, and will require at least 40 yr to resemble a mature forest. Nonetheless, it is hoped that reforestation, even in early stages, can effectively increase core area in extant tracts of mature forest by reducing higher rates of nest failure and brood parasitism often associated with forest-agriculture interfaces. To test this, we monitored nests of a mature-forest specialist, the Acadian Flycatcher, in extensive bottomland forests adjacent to agricultural fields and reforested tracts (<20 yr-old). We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate alternative hypotheses regarding the relative impacts of agriculture and reforestation in the landscape. Controlling for year, season, and stand basal area, there was little evidence that landscape context significantly affected nest survival, although survival tended to increase with decreasing amounts of agriculture. The probability of brood parasitism increased with greater proportions of open habitats in the landscape. There was much stronger support for the hypothesis that parasitism rates depended on the sum of agricultural and reforested tracts, rather than on the amount of agriculture alone. Thus, reforested tracts are not expected to have the desired effect of reducing parasitism rates in the adjacent mature forest until several decades have passed.

Hazler, K.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Cooper, R.J.

2005-01-01

109

Reforestation of degraded hills in Nepal: Review of silvicultural and management issues  

SciTech Connect

Nepal's Middle Hill regions have been excessively deforested. The government has launched a community-based reforestation project with help of international donors. However, results have been far from satisfactory. Plantation targets have not been met and survival rates of the planted trees are poor averaging around 60%. Social factors are given more blame than technical ones for these failures. However, an analysis of the available information indicates, rather, that about two-thirds of the failures were due to technical and administrative reasons. Only about 13% of the failures could be attributed to social causes. Poor quality seeds are used to raise undersized seedlings which are planted improperly during the wrong time of the year. Species selected are not appropriate for the site or the people for whom the plantations are being created; rather they are selected for the ease of planting and to meet administrative targets. The overall trend has been to plant conifers (mainly pinus roxburghii) and to plant on relatively easy sites. The result has been the creation of forest plantations which often do not have any management plant, while the few which often do not have any management plan, while the few which do are without any committed managers. There is a tremendous lack of information regarding user demand, growth, yield, and harvesting and utilization techniques. This paper stresses that research to improve practical methods in plantation establishment and training to produce competent, and dedicated resource managers be immediately initiated.

Karki, M.B.; Dickmann, D.I. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

1991-01-01

110

Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems  

E-print Network

Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems Andy Hankins, Extension Specialist, Alternative Agriculture; Virginia State University Introduction American ginseng mountain people. American ginseng is native to many states, east of the Mississippi River, in the United

Liskiewicz, Maciej

111

Comparing common methods for assessing understory light availability in shaded-perennial agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulating the shade provided by overstory trees is important in the management of shaded-perennial agroforestry systems. In order to compare the merits of commonly used light-assessment techniques that could potentially be useful to farmers and extensionists and to quantify the extent of shading in multistrata agroforestry systems, understory photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured beneath 28 single-species and four mixed-species

J. G Bellow; P. K. R Nair

2003-01-01

112

Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.  

PubMed

High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

2014-10-01

113

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

2010-05-01

114

LLUVIA, ESCURRIMIENTO SUPERFICIAL Y EROSIÓN DEL SUELO EN SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES DE CAFÉ BAJO SOMBRA RAIN, RUNOFF AND SOIL EROSION IN SHADED COFFEE AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a tropical region of Veracruz, México, five shaded coffee agroforestry systems were evaluated without repetition: 1) wild agroforestry system; 2) improved traditional polycultivation (PTM) with live barriers of \\

Joel Pérez-Nieto; Eduardo Valdés-Velarde; Matías E. Hernández-San Román; Víctor Ordaz-Chaparro

115

Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.  

PubMed

Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-12-01

116

Brush-eating device promises reforestation, wood energy aid  

SciTech Connect

An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.

Blackman, T.

1981-01-01

117

Factors controlling carbon distribution on reforested minelands and regenerating clearcuts in Appalachia, USA.  

PubMed

Increasing carbon (C) storage in soils of degraded lands, such as surface coal mines, is of interest because of its potential role in mitigating increases in atmospheric CO2. While it has been shown that reforesting degraded lands can significantly increase C storage in soils, there are limited studies addressing what processes control soil C in these systems. A study was initiated with the following objectives: 1) quantify the amount of soil C accumulating on reforested mine lands; and 2) examine several biological processes that govern the amount of C sequestered into soil (decomposition, soil respiration and microbial dynamics). A chronosequence approach was used to examine C changes with time in reforested mine lands (years 1, 3, and 8) and unmined regenerating clear-cuts (years 4, 12 and 20). From a C perspective, our results indicated that the young reforested mines (ages 1 and 3) differed significantly from the older mines (age 8) and all regenerating clear-cuts for all parameters examined. However, after 8 years litterfall, microbial biomass C and nitrogen (N), microbial activity, litter decomposition and CO2 efflux were similar on the mine as that found on the 12-year-old naturally regenerating clear-cut. Although soil organic C (SOC) content was lower on the reforested mines than the regenerating forests, rates of SOC accumulation were greater on the mine sites, likely because the young mine lands were initially devoid of SOC and conditions were suitable for rapid sequestration. PMID:23332715

Littlefield, Tara; Barton, Chris; Arthur, Mary; Coyne, Mark

2013-11-01

118

Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

2007-03-01

119

Contribution of deforestation to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and reforestation as an option to control CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss various aspects of global climate change as related to forests: the rate of deforestation; CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from deforestation; and reforestation as a means to control atmospheric CO/sub 2/. We also include for perspective a discussion of current policy considerations related to methods for reducing deforestation or promoting reforestation. 68 refs.

Kinsman, J.D.; Marland, G.

1989-01-01

120

Riparian reforestation and channel change: A case study of two small tributaries to Sleepers River, northeastern Vermont, USA  

E-print Network

Riparian reforestation and channel change: A case study of two small tributaries to Sleepers River 2008 Keywords: Riparian reforestation Stream widening Channel morphology Large woody debris Conceptual had a diverse patchwork of forested and nonforested riparian vegetation. Nearly 40 years later, we

Vermont, University of

121

Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical tree species planted across a precipitation gradient in the Republic of Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of deforestation and unsustainable land use have created large expanses of degraded lands across Central America. Reforestation may offer one means of mitigating these processes of degradation while sustaining resident human communities. However, a lack of information regarding tree species performance has been identified as an important limitation on the success and adoption of diversified reforestation strategies. We analyzed

M. H. Wishnie; D. H. Dent; E. Mariscal; J. Deago; N. Cedeño; D. Ibarra; R. Condit; P. M. S. Ashton

2007-01-01

122

Potential impact of land use change on future regional climate in the Southeastern U.S.:1 Reforestation and crop land conversion.2  

E-print Network

Reforestation and crop land conversion.2 M. Trail1 , A.P. Tsimpidi1 , P. Liu1 , K. Tsigaridis2, 3 , Y. Hu1 , A that reforestation of cropland in the southeastern U.S. tends to25 warm surface air by up to 0.5 K while replacing Summertime warming associated with reforestation of croplands could increase the31 production of some

Nenes, Athanasios

123

Natural recovery of genetic diversity by gene flow in reforested areas of the1 endemic Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis2  

E-print Network

1 Natural recovery of genetic diversity by gene flow in reforested areas of the1 endemic Canary in response21 to environmental change. The genetic diversity within a transect of reforested stands22.04.009 #12;2 microsatellites presented lower haplotype diversity in reforested stands, and this may26

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Evaluation of the Performance of the Community Rainforest Reforestation Program in North Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Community Rainforest Reforestation Program (CRRP) in north Queensland, Australia, was a multi-faceted experiment in facilitating farm forestry. It was motivated in part by the World Heritage listing of the Wet Tropics of Queensland rainforests, which removed a large resource from the timber industry. Survey results indicate that some landholders have applied high-quality silvicultural management to their stands with a

Robert Harrison; Steve Harrison

2004-01-01

125

Reforestation in Arid Lands. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad subject of project implementation) includes…

Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

126

Responses of 20 Native Tree Species to Reforestation Strategies for Abandoned Farmland in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics often leads to unproductive agriculture and results in abandoned, degraded grasslands that tree species recolonize poorly. To evaluate why forests do not regenerate naturally and to identify potential species for use in reforestation of degraded areas, we planted 15 000 seeds of 20 native tree species, varying in seed size and shade tolerance, in abandoned Panamanian

Elaine Hooper; Richard Condit; Pierre Legendre

2002-01-01

127

Riparian reforestation and channel change: How long does it take? Maeve McBride a,  

E-print Network

Riparian reforestation and channel change: How long does it take? Maeve McBride a, , W. Cully in revised form 13 August 2009 Accepted 12 November 2009 Available online 20 November 2009 Keywords: Riparian riparian vegetation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Riparian vegetation exerts

Vermont, University of

128

Effect of Afforestation and Reforestation of Pastures on the Activity and Population Dynamics of Methanotrophic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine

Brajesh K. Singh; Kevin R. Tate; Gokul Kolipaka; Carolyn B. Hedley; Catriona A. Macdonald; Peter Millard; J. Colin Murrell

2007-01-01

129

Pre and post-reforestation gully development in Mangatu Forest, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following clearance of the indigenous forest and conversion of the land to pasture early in the 20th century, gully erosion became a pervasive feature in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin, and was notably problematic in the 140-km2 area now covered by the Mangatu Forest. In this area, before reforestation in 1961, gully erosion affected c. 4% of the

Michael Marden; Greg Arnold; Basil Gomez; Donna Rowan

2005-01-01

130

Farm forestry: an alternative to government-driven reforestation in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Philippine government borrowed heavily from the Asian Development Bank and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund to finance its Contract Reforestation Program between 1988 and 1992. People were paid to plant trees on public lands in the first 3 years of the program. A 25-year stewardship agreement succeeds the paid labour arrangement which provides cost benefit sharing between the contractor

Paulo N Pasicolan; Helias A Udo de Haes; Percy E Sajise

1997-01-01

131

Mineral deficiencies and fertilization of coastal reforestations in Benin, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coastal zone of Benin K and P deficiencies are a common phenomena in reforestated Eucalyptus camaldulensis as well as in young stands of Casuarina equisetifolia (filao) even with initial fertilization during planting. Mineral disorders (N\\/K-ratios of about 10) were also described for Leucaena leucocephala used in alley cropping trials. Special attention was focused on the development of deficiency

P. Drechsel; S. Schmall

1990-01-01

132

The effect of rabbit herbivory on reforestation of abandoned pasture in southern Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that a number of factors may limit forest seedling growth in abandoned tropical pastures; however, mammalian seedling herbivory has not been previously reported as a major factor inhibiting tropical pasture restoration. Seedlings of four native tree species were planted in abandoned pasture in southern Costa Rica to test their suitability for reforestation. Overall, the stems of 64%

Karen D Holl; Edgar Quiros-Nietzen

1999-01-01

133

Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

2013-08-01

134

Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

2013-08-01

135

The impact of reforestation in the northeast United States on precipitation and surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1920s, forest coverage in the northeastern United States has recovered from disease, clearing for agricultural and urban development, and the demands of the timber industry. Such a dramatic change in ground cover can influence heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere, as measured in altered landscapes in Australia, Israel, and the Amazon. In this study, the impacts of recent reforestation in the northeastern United States on summertime precipitation and surface temperature were quantified by comparing average modern values to 1950s values. Weak positive (negative) relationships between reforestation and average monthly precipitation and daily minimum temperatures (average daily maximum surface temperature) were found. There was no relationship between reforestation and average surface temperature. Results of the observational analysis were compared with results obtained from reforestation scenarios simulated with the BUGS5 global climate model. The single difference between the model runs was the amount of forest coverage in the northeast United States; three levels of forest were defined - a grassland state, with 0% forest coverage, a completely forested state, with approximately 100% forest coverage, and a control state, with forest coverage closely resembling modern forest coverage. The three simulations were compared, and had larger magnitude average changes in precipitation and in all temperature variables. The difference in magnitudes between the model simulations observations was much larger than the difference in the amount of reforestation in each case. Additionally, unlike in observations, a negative relationship was found between average daily minimum temperature and amount of forest coverage, implying that additional factors influence temperature and precipitation in the real world that are not accounted for in the model.

Clark, Allyson

136

Tropical Forest Ecosystem and Agroforestry Management (Forest TEAM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.

2008-07-24

137

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

2011-01-01

138

Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

139

MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN AND WOODLAND  

E-print Network

Chapter MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN Research (CSIC) Pinar 25, 28006, Madrid, Spain. e-mail: pcampos@ieg.csic.es; acaparros@ieg.csic.es 2 University Complutense, Madrid, Spain. E-mail: ecerdate@ccee.ucm.es 3 College of Natural Resources

Standiford, Richard B.

140

An electromagnetic induction method for monitoring variation in soil moisture in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil water extraction by trees in agroforestry systems has long been seen as an important step towards understanding their functioning. Traditional methods of soil moisture monitoring have been employed with some success but limitations in utilising them efficiently across both time and space have led to restrictions in their use. An

N. I. HuthA; P. L. PoultonA

2007-01-01

141

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of  

E-print Network

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing

Xi, Weimin

142

Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

143

Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?  

PubMed Central

Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha?1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha?1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2012-01-01

144

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in neem-based agroforestry systems in Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study of traditional agroforestry systems in six districts of the arid and semiarid zones of Rajasthan was undertaken where annual rainfall varied from 140 to 1000mm and soil types ranged from coarse fine sand in Jaisalmer to clay loams in Kota. The field investigation showed that Glomus, Gigaspora and Sclerocystis were the genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi present

Manish Pande; J. C Tarafdar

2004-01-01

145

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

146

Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),

Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

147

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

148

Factors determining the occurrence of the agroforestry system with Acacia mearnsii in Central Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1922, the colonial government introducedAcacia mearnsii in the tobacco-growing region of Wonosobo. Soon this species was accepted by the local people who developed an agroforestry system based on a rotation ofA. mearnsii and agricultural crops.

Luciënne M. Berenschot; Bram M. Filius; Soedarwono Hardjosoediro

1988-01-01

149

Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

150

Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

151

Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System is Improved with Intercropped Kura Clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys of agroforestry systems provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover, m...

152

ICE DAMAGE IN A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY PINE PLANTATIONS IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in re...

153

KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

154

Evaluation of the performance of the community rainforest reforestation program in North Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Community Rainforest Reforestation Program (CRRP) in north Queensland, Australia, was a multi-faceted experiment in facilitating\\u000a farm forestry. It was motivated in part by the World Heritage listing of the Wet Tropics of Queensland rainforests, which\\u000a removed a large resource from the timber industry. Survey results indicate that some landholders have applied high-quality\\u000a silvicultural management to their stands with a

Robert Harrison; Steve Harrison; John Herbohn

2004-01-01

155

Financial, economic and environmental profitability of reforestation of Imperata grasslands in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reforestation of Imperata grasslands is considered financially, economically and environmentally important. The successful establishment of a forest plantation on Imperata grassland needs heavy investment at the outset. It was estimated that the minimum establishment costs are US$840\\/ha. The total pulpwood production costs at the mill gate were calculated to be US$21\\/m3 by water transport and to US$27\\/m3 by road

Mirja Kosonen; Antti Otsamo; Jussi Kuusipalo

1997-01-01

156

Pen culture of mud crab Scylla serrata in tidal flats reforested with mangrove trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and survival of mixed sex mud crabs Scylla serrata (Forskal), held in 200 m2 pens located in reforested mangrove tidal flats, were evaluated. The effects of stocking density (0.5 or 1.5 m?2) and feed (salted fish bycatch or a mixed diet of 75% salted brown mussel flesh and 25% salted fish bycatch) were determined in a replicated factorial experiment.

Avelino T Triño; Eduard M Rodriguez

2002-01-01

157

Survival, reproduction, and recruitment of woody plants after 14 years on a reforested landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills\\u000a into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees\\u000a and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest.\\u000a However, among woody species that have been screened

George R. Robinson; Steven N. Handel; Victoria R. Schmalhofer

1992-01-01

158

Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

2006-01-01

159

Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value

J. A. McNeely

2004-01-01

160

Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

161

Production Potential and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Agrihorticulture Agroforestry Systems in Northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree growth, crop yield and cost benefit analysis of guava (Psidum guajava cv. Allahabad safeda) and Assam lemon (Citrus lemon cv. Local) based agrihorticulture agroforestry system (AFS) was analyzed in a split plot experiment on acid alfisol under rainfed conditions at ICAR Research farm, Umiam, Meghalaya, India. Three rice varieties, RCPL-1-24, RCPL-1-25 and RCPL-1-29, were intercropped with guava and Assam

B. P. Bhatt; L. K. Misra

2003-01-01

162

Application of Constructed Wetlands in Recycling, Agriculture and Agroforestry: Water Management for Changing Flow Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasingly, constructed wetland systems are being utilized for treatment and buffering of effluent and runoff water, functioning\\u000a in nutrient removal, disinfection and also as transitional environments in recycling applications. Agriculture and agroforestry\\u000a opportunities are abundant for water treated by wetland systems. Progressively, wetland use as a component in potable recycling\\u000a may be more acceptable in areas as changing flow regimes

Herbert John Bavor

163

Abundance of springtails (Collembola) under four agroforestry tree species with contrasting litter quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil- and litter-dwelling Collembola under four agroforestry tree species (Treculia africana, Dactyladenia (Acioa) barteri, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala) were monitored monthly for a period of 12 months and results were compared with those of a secondary forest and a grass\\u000a plot. Treculia and Dactyladenia produced lower quality litter, leading to lower soil temperature and higher soil moisture under

M. A. Badejo; T. I. Nathaniel; G. Tian

1998-01-01

164

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

165

GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

166

Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27years after reforestation.  

PubMed

Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

2015-01-01

167

The impact of agroforestry combined with water harvesting on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in central Chile evaluated using the ICBM\\/N model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N) stocks in an agroforestry system with water harvesting were analysed in a field experiment and the results compared with those of other crop management systems in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile. Agroforestry with water harvesting showed higher positive effects on N stocks, mainly in the upper soil layer, than the other

Osvaldo Salazar; Manuel Casanova; Thomas Kätterer

2011-01-01

168

Pine seedling availability for reforestation on nonindustrial private forest land in the South  

SciTech Connect

In 1980-81, southern US nurseries produced 602 million seedlings; this is expected to increase to 702 million in 1982-83. The proportion available to nonindustrial private forestry is expected to increase from 55% to 64% over the same period. However, the potential area regenerated may not reach the 1990 goal, of reforesting 1 million acres of private land (set by the Resources Planning Act) unless more land is converted using direct sowing and natural regeneration. For the current planting season (1981-82), 42% of the seedlings produced are genetically improved.

Brissette, J.C.

1982-01-01

169

Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.  

PubMed

Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree-based intercropping site, higher wheat biomass, grain yield and number of grains per spike were observed in agroforestry than in conventional agricultural system soils, but in the drought treatment only. Drought (windbreak site) and flooding (both sites) treatments significantly reduced wheat yield and 1000-grain weight in both types of system. Relationships between soil biochemical properties and soil microbial resilience or wheat productivity were strongly dependent on site. This study suggests that agroforestry systems may have a positive effect on soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience, which could operate positively on crop productivity and tolerance to severe water stress. PMID:23792247

Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

2013-10-01

170

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

171

Reforestation as a post-mining land use in the Midwest  

SciTech Connect

With the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), some very stringent requirements for the successful establishment of trees and shrubs have come into effect. In response to these requirements, AMAX Coal Company is developing a reforestation program for seven surface mines in Indiana and Illinois using the best technology currently available. The program emphasizes obtaining good quality stock, the proper care and handling of stock, the proper planting of the stock, and an effective weed control program. The value of weed control for the establishment and growth of hardwoods has long been recognized in the forest industry, but has not been used extensively in the reforestation of surface mined lands. The improved survival of tree seedlings with the use of weed control justifies the additional cost. Weed control also enhances the growth of tree seedlings. However, the long term growth of seedlings is questionable due to the compaction resulting from the extensive grading required to achieve approximate original contour. To minimize compaction, a forest area in Illinois is being minimally graded only to the extent necessary for environmental stability. Minimal grading is designed to reduce compaction which in turn will promote the development of a more productive forest resource.

Parr, D.E.

1982-12-01

172

Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

173

Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

174

Reboisement des Terres Arides. (Reforestation in Arid Lands. Manual M5A). Appropriate Technologies for Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the French translation for a manual which presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad…

Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

175

Inequitable access to urban reforestation: the impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are

Harold A. Perkins; Nik Heynen; Joe Wilson

2004-01-01

176

Secondary forests as temporary carbon sinks? The economic impact of accounting methods on reforestation projects in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical forestry is often not competitive with agricultural land uses such as pasture for cattle ranching. Additional revenues from carbon sequestration generated by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol can change this situation. In three different zones of north-western Ecuador, minimum compensation payments for carbon sequestration were determined, which would make reforestation a feasible land-use alternative. Based

Roland Olschewski; Pablo C. Benítez

2005-01-01

177

POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

178

Maize stem borer colonization, establishment and crop damage levels in a maize-leucaena agroforestry system in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of resource concentration on the population of stem-borers of maize in the maize-leucaena agroforestry system was evaluated. The studies covered six cropping seasons from October 1992 to August 1995, and were conducted at Mtwapa and Amoyo in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. Treatments included monocropped and intercropped (maize, leucaena) plots, weeded and unweeded plots, mulched and unmulched plots,

Callistus K. P. O. Ogol; John R. Spence; Andrew Keddie

1999-01-01

179

Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R. [Univ. of Agricultural Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Farm Forestry

1992-12-31

180

Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

1981-01-01

181

Survival, reproduction, and recruitment of woody plants after 14 years on a reforested landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened for use on landfills, these ecological potentials have not yet been investigated. We examined a 14-yr-old landfill plantation in New Jersey, USA, established to test tolerance of 19 species of trees and shrubs to landfill environments. We measured survivorship, reproduction, and recruitment within and around the experimental installation. Half of the original 190 plants were present, although survival and growth rates varied widely among species. An additional 752 trees and shrubs had colonized the plantation and its perimeter, as well as 2955 stems of vines. However, the great majority (>95%) of woody plants that had colonized were not progeny of the planted cohort, but instead belonged to 18 invading species, mostly native, bird-dispersed, and associated with intermediate stages of secondary plant succession. Based on this evidence, we recommend that several ecological criteria be applied to choices of woody species for the restoration of municipal landfills and similar degraded sites, in order to maximize rapid and economical establishment of diverse, productive woodlands.

Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.; Schmalhofer, Victoria R.

1992-03-01

182

Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

1997-01-01

183

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

184

Reforestation with native mixed-species plantings in a temperate continental climate effectively sequesters and stabilizes carbon within decades.  

PubMed

Reforestation has large potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. Native mixed-species plantings have a higher potential to reverse biodiversity loss than do plantations of production species, but there are few data on their capacity to store carbon. A chronosequence (5-45 years) of 36 native mixed-species plantings, paired with adjacent pastures, was measured to investigate changes to stocks among C pools following reforestation of agricultural land in the medium rainfall zone (400-800 mm yr(-1) ) of temperate Australia. These mixed-species plantings accumulated 3.09 ± 0.85 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) in aboveground biomass and 0.18 ± 0.05 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) in plant litter, reaching amounts comparable to those measured in remnant woodlands by 20 years and 36 years after reforestation respectively. Soil C was slower to increase, with increases seen only after 45 years, at which time stocks had not reached the amounts found in remnant woodlands. The amount of trees (tree density and basal area) was positively associated with the accumulation of carbon in aboveground biomass and litter. In contrast, changes to soil C were most strongly related to the productivity of the location (a forest productivity index and soil N content in the adjacent pasture). At 30 years, native mixed-species plantings had increased the stability of soil C stocks, with higher amounts of recalcitrant C and higher C : N ratios than their adjacent pastures. Reforestation with native mixed-species plantings did not significantly change the availability of macronutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S) or micronutrients (Fe, B, Mn, Zn, and Cu), content of plant toxins (Al, Si), acidity, or salinity (Na, electrical conductivity) in the soil. In this medium rainfall area, native mixed-species plantings provided comparable rates of C sequestration to local production species, with the probable additional benefit of providing better quality habitat for native biota. These results demonstrate that reforestation using native mixed-species plantings is an effective alternative for carbon sequestration to standard monocultures of production species in medium rainfall areas of temperate continental climates, where they can effectively store C, convert C into stable pools and provide greater benefits for biodiversity. PMID:25230693

Cunningham, Shaun C; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Mac Nally, Ralph; Paul, Keryn I; Baker, Patrick J; Beringer, Jason; Thomson, James R; Thompson, Ross M

2014-09-18

185

Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.

Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

1999-07-01

186

Soil carbon, microbial activity and nitrogen availability in agroforestry systems on moderately alkaline soils in northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation aimed to analyze the role of agroforestry systems in improving soil organic matter status, microbial activity and nitrogen availability with a view to effective management of the fertility of moderately alkaline soils. The study site was located at Karnal (29°59?N, 76°51?E, 250m.s.l.) and the systems were characterized by a rice–berseem crop rotation; agrisilvicultural systems of Acacia, Eucalyptus

B. Kaur; S. R. Gupta; G. Singh

2000-01-01

187

Effects of terracing and agroforestry on soil and water loss in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin is a serious concern over sustainable crop production and sound ecosystem.\\u000a A 3-year experiment was conducted using the method of runoff plots to examine the effects of terracing and agroforestry in\\u000a farmland systems on soil and water conservation of slope fields in the hilly areas in Jianyang County, Sichuan Province, Southwestern

J. H. Zhang; Z. A. Su; G. C. Liu

2008-01-01

188

Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and aggregates with carbonate, clay, ferrous and/or manganese oxides) indicates a low potential reserve of plant nutrients. The clay mineralogy, with the presence of 2:1 minerals, explains the high CEC (60.95 cmolc dm-3). Moderately alkaline pH is above the desirable range. P (282 mg kg-1) is high, while N (0.3 g kg-1) is low. ESP < 4% classifies the waste as non-sodium and the EC (60.95 cmolc dm-3) reflects mainly the Ca. The low values of soil organic matter (3,56 g kg-1) indicate the relevance of using organic amendments for the reconstruction of the soil for plant growth. Based on these data a forestation experiment (randomized block design) was done on a large waste heap preserved for scientific research, where 500 tree seedling were planted (9 different species) in a plot of 134 m x 60 m in size.Two substrates treatments were used: block with 1.4 kg organic matter per plant hole and blocks without organic matter. The preliminary statistical data show good responses to the treatments. This constitutes a way to transform gypsum mining wastes into soil. Application of these technologies for environmental rehabilitation can be used in other problems.

Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

2012-04-01

189

Changes in butterfly abundance in response to global warming and reforestation.  

PubMed

In the Republic of Korea, most denuded forest lands have been restored since the 1960s. In addition, the annual mean temperature in the Republic of Korea has increased approximately 1.0 degrees C during the last century, which is higher than the global mean increase of 0.74 degrees C. Such rapid environmental changes may have resulted in changes in the local butterfly fauna. For example, the number of butterflies inhabiting forests may have increased because of reforestation, whereas the number of butterflies inhabiting grasslands may have declined. Furthermore, the number of northern butterflies may have declined, whereas the number of southern butterflies may have increased in response to global warming. Therefore, we compared current data (2002 approximately 2007) regarding the abundance of butterfly species at two sites in the central portion of the Korean Peninsula to data from the late 1950s and early 1970s for the same sites. Changes in the abundance rank of each species between the two periods were evaluated to determine whether any patterns corresponded to the predicted temporal changes. The predicted changes in butterfly abundance were confirmed in this study. In addition, the results showed a different response to habitat change between northern and southern species. In northern butterfly species, butterflies inhabiting forests increased, whereas those inhabiting grasslands declined. However, the opposite was true when southern butterfly species were evaluated. Changes in the abundance indicate that habitat change may be one of the key factors related to the survival of populations that remain around the southern boundary of butterfly species. PMID:20388261

Kwon, Tae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Shin, Joon Hwan

2010-04-01

190

Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation  

SciTech Connect

The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

Scherer, G.; Everett, R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Wenatchee, WA (United States). Forestry Science Lab.

1998-12-31

191

Satellite Data-Based Phenological Evaluation of the Nationwide Reforestation of South Korea  

PubMed Central

Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950–53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982–2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r?=?0.54) and spatially (r?=?0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade?1, perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development. PMID:23520541

Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Gim, Hyeon-Ju

2013-01-01

192

Satellite data-based phenological evaluation of the nationwide reforestation of South Korea.  

PubMed

Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950-53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982-2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r?=?0.54) and spatially (r?=?0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade(-1), perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development. PMID:23520541

Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Gim, Hyeon-Ju

2013-01-01

193

Nitrogen fertilization and aspects of fruit yield in a Missouri black walnut alley cropping practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing nut production through cultural practices is important to landowners for maximizing economic gain from agroforestry\\u000a plantings. This project studied the effects of applying low rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer during either the spring or late\\u000a summer, on pistillate flowers formed, fruits retained, and fruit quality (percentage kernel) in black walnut (Juglans nigra\\u000a L.) grown under alley cropping management. Treatments

Dean Gray; H. E. Gene Garrett

1998-01-01

194

Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower slope is influenced by accumulation of pyroclastic material. Theses soils can be characterized through a closer C:N ratio, higher pH (5.7-6.2) values, and plant available phosphorus reach values of 23 mg/kg. The mineralogical analyses illustrated less weathered volcanic material here and in the investigated samples zeolithe, smectite and a higher amount of plagioclase could be found. Cristobalite und pyroxene could be detected in all samples and indicate the influence of volcanic activity. Smectite und zeolithe are reason for the higher CEC values of these soils. Erosion and intensive tropical weathering processes including solutional weathering of limestones decline production potential at higher altitudes. Agroforestry systems are the most adapted systems for sustainable plant production systems in this area. Phosphorus release of soil is strongly influenced by the geomorphology of this landscape. Limiting parameters of this production system is the amount and the distribution of precipitation. The impact of global change to this specific area of Nicaragua will lead to extreme values of local precipitation events and an increase in temperature. If these events continue important production areas for optimum coffee production in agroforestry systems in Central America will be lost. Acknowledgement: This project was financed through the Austrian APPEAR program (OEAD).

Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

2013-04-01

195

Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1979-01-01

196

Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-12-01

197

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

198

[Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].  

PubMed

Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840

Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

2008-11-01

199

Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed. PMID:21628247

Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-05-01

200

Appropriate technology sourcebook. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

The second in a 2 volume set of guides to practical books and plans for village and small community technology, with over 500 annotated references in print in 1980/1. The forestry section includes material on deforestation, conservation, reforestation, firewood crops, agroforestry, timber drying and the safe use of chain saws. Improved cooking stoves and charcoal kilns are covered in another section, and there is also a section on aquaculture. A glossary and a general index are included.

Darrow, K.; Keller, K.; Pam, R

1981-01-01

201

Effect of site preparation and initial fertilization on the establishment and growth of four plantation tree species used in reforestation of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. dominated grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site preparation methods used in reforestation of Imperata cylindrica grasslands were studied in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. In the first trial the effects of strip plowing and complete plowing on the performance of Acacia mangium were compared. In the second trial the effects of complete plowing, herbicide treatment and fertilization (NPK) were compared with four tree species commonly used in Imperata

Antti Otsamo; Göran Ådjers; Tjuk Sasmito Hadi; Jussi Kuusipalo; Kari Tuomela; Risto Vuokko

1995-01-01

202

Interaction between Stipa tenacissima and Pinus halepensis: consequences for reforestation and the dynamics of grass steppes in semi-arid Mediterranean areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha or esparto grass (Stipa tenacissima) is a perennial tussock grass that coexists with Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis) in semi-arid areas of southeast Spain and northern Africa where the pine is the tree most widely used in reforestation projects. Several authors have proposed that the improvement of soil characteristics by S. tenacissima in semi-arid slopes might be brought about in

Mar??a Gasque; Patricio Garc??a-Fayos

2004-01-01

203

[Effects of reforestation on soil chemical properties and microbial communities in a severely degraded sub-tropical red soil region].  

PubMed

Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670

Gong, Xia; Niu, De-kui; Zhao, Xiao-rui; Lu, Sun-bao; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Wei, Xiao-hua; Guo, Xiao-min

2013-04-01

204

The effect of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs in sediment from different habitats in Guangdong, China.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs, the concentrations and homologue patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments from different mangrove forests and their adjacent mud flats in Guangdong Province were determined. The total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 3.03 to 46.62 ng g?¹ (dry weight). Differences in the accumulation and distribution of PCBs were found between the mangrove sites and the mud flats. Furthermore, the natural forests and restored mangrove forests of native species showed slight PCB contamination, whereas the exotic species Sonneratia apetala exacerbated the PCB pollution at certain sites. It was suggested that the native mangrove species Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum could represent good choices for the phytoremediation of PCB contamination. PMID:22704149

Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yan-Wu; Chen, Gui-Zhu

2012-08-01

205

Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

2012-12-01

206

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

207

Agroforests: an original agro-forestry model from smallholder farmers for environmental conservation and sustainable development pp. 52-58 in Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforests are defined as complex agroforestry systems which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems, but are integrated into agricultural management systems. Their conception, their management and their economic and environmental qualities, clearly differentiate them from better known \\

G. Michon; H. de Foresta

208

Responses of native legume desert trees used for reforestation in the Sonoran Desert to plant growth-promoting microorganisms in screen house  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three slow-growing legume trees used for desert reforestation and urban gardening in the Sonoran Desert of Northwestern Mexico\\u000a and the Southwestern USA were evaluated whether their growth can be promoted by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria\\u000a (Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), unidentified arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (mainly Glomus sp.), and supplementation with common compost under regular screenhouse cultivation common to

Yoav Bashan; Bernardo Salazar; Ma. Esther Puente

2009-01-01

209

Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

2013-01-01

210

Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2010-04-01

211

National forest cover change in Congo Basin: deforestation, reforestation, degradation and regeneration for the years 1990, 2000 and 2005.  

PubMed

This research refers to an object-based automatic method combined with a national expert validation to produce regional and national forest cover change statistics over Congo Basin. A total of 547 sampling sites systematically distributed over the whole humid forest domain are required to cover the six Central African countries containing tropical moist forest. High resolution imagery is used to accurately estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and regeneration. The overall method consists of four steps: (i) image automatic preprocessing and preinterpretation, (ii) interpretation by national expert, (iii) statistic computation and (iv) accuracy assessment. The annual rate of net deforestation in Congo Basin is estimated to 0.09% between 1990 and 2000 and of net degradation to 0.05%. Between 2000 and 2005, this unique exercise estimates annual net deforestation to 0.17% and annual net degradation to 0.09%. An accuracy assessment reveals that 92.7% of tree cover (TC) classes agree with independent expert interpretation. In the discussion, we underline the direct causes and the drivers of deforestation. Population density, small-scale agriculture, fuelwood collection and forest's accessibility are closely linked to deforestation, whereas timber extraction has no major impact on the reduction in the canopy cover. The analysis also shows the efficiency of protected areas to reduce deforestation. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on the reduction in CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and serve as reference for the period. PMID:23504894

Céline, Ernst; Philippe, Mayaux; Astrid, Verhegghen; Catherine, Bodart; Musampa, Christophe; Pierre, Defourny

2013-04-01

212

Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 promotes Pinus sylvestris reforestation of lead-contaminated mine tailing sites.  

PubMed

Vegetation is critical to stabilize and remediate mine tailing sites, but plant growth is often poor due to toxicity from heavy metal(loid)s (HMs). A non-symbiotic endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7, isolated from Pb-contaminated mine tailing soil, exhibited both high tolerance to HMs and desirable plant growth-promoting characteristics. PDR1-7 promoted HM solubilization in mine tailing soil and removed significant amounts of Pb and other HMs from liquid media containing single and multiple metals. Pb removal efficiency increased with initial pH from 4 to 6 and with Pb concentration from 100 to 125 mg L(-1). Inoculating soil with PDR1-7 significantly increased nutrient availability and seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein contents, as well as antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase) activity. A decrease in malondialdehyde indicated less oxidative stress. HM concentrations were much higher in Pinus sylvestris roots when PDR1-7 was present. These observations suggest the utility of Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 for pine reforestation and phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated mine soil. PMID:24496029

Babu, A Giridhar; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

2014-04-01

213

Relationships of stable carbon isotopes, plant water potential and growth: an approach to asses water use efficiency and growth strategies of dry land agroforestry species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between annual wood stable carbon isotope composition (?13C), dry season midday plant water potential, and annual growth rate were investigated to asses the ability of agroforestry\\u000a species to adapt to climate changes. 6–8 stem disks from four co-occurring species (Acacia senegal, A. seyal, A. tortilis and Balanites aegyptiaca) were collected for radial growth measurements using tree-ring analysis spanning

Aster Gebrekirstos; Meine van Noordwijk; Henry Neufeldt; Ralph Mitlöhner

2011-01-01

214

Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

2014-08-01

215

Potential impact of land use change on future regional climate in the Southeastern U.S.: Reforestation and crop land conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

impact of future land use and land cover changes (LULCC) on regional and global climate is one of the most challenging aspects of understanding anthropogenic climate change. We study the impacts of LULCC on regional climate in the southeastern U.S. by downscaling the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model E to the regional scale using a spectral nudging technique with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Climate-relevant meteorological fields are compared for two southeastern U.S. LULCC scenarios to the current land use/cover for four seasons of the year 2050. In this work it is shown that reforestation of cropland in the southeastern U.S. tends to warm surface air by up to 0.5 K, while replacing forested land with cropland tends to cool the surface air by 0.5 K. Processes leading to this response are investigated and sensitivity analyses conducted. The sensitivity analysis shows that results are most sensitive to changes in albedo and the stomatal resistance. Evaporative cooling of croplands also plays an important role in regional climate. Implications of LULCC on air quality are discussed. Summertime warming associated with reforestation of croplands could increase the production of some secondary pollutants, while a higher boundary layer will decrease pollutant concentrations; wintertime warming may decrease emissions from biomass burning from wood stoves.

Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, K.; Hu, Y.; Nenes, A.; Stone, B.; Russell, A. G.

2013-10-01

216

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

217

REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

218

The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

2014-01-01

219

Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2009-12-01

220

Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

2014-05-01

221

Ensemble Composition and Activity Levels of Insectivorous Bats in Response to Management Intensification in Coffee Agroforestry Systems  

PubMed Central

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-01

222

The rain-runoff response of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation in the Western Ghats of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe effects of forest degradation and use and establishment of tree-plantations on degraded or modified forest ecosystems at multi-decadal time-scales using tree-plantations on the streamflow response are less studied in the humid tropics when compared to deforestation and forest conversion to agriculture. In the Western Ghats of India (Uttar Kannada, Karnataka State), a previous soil hydraulic conductivity survey linked with rain IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) had suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess overland within the degraded forest and reforested areas and thus potentially higher streamflow (Bonell et al., 2010). We further tested these predictions in Uttar Kannada by establishing experimental basins ranging from 7 to 23 ha across three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen Forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest (DF) and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. In total, 11 basins were instrumented (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF) in two geomorphological zones, i.e., Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad) and at three sites (one Coastal, two Up-Ghat). The rainfall-streamflow observations collected (at daily and also at a 36 min time resolutions in the Coastal basins) over a 2-3 year period (2003-2005) were analysed. In both the Coastal and Up-Ghat basins, the double mass curves showed during the rainy season a consistent trend in favour of more proportion of streamflow in the rank order DF > AC > NF. These double mass curves provide strong evidence that overland flow is progressively becomes a more dominant stormflow pathway. Across all sites, NF converted 28.4 ± 6.41stdev% of rainfall into total streamflow in comparison to 32.7 ± 6.97stdev% in AC and 45.3 ± 9.61stdev% in DF. Further support for the above trends emerges from the quickflow ratio QF/Q for the Coastal basins. There are much higher values for both the DF and AC land covers, and their rank order DF > AC > NF. The quickflow response ratio QF/P is also the highest for the DF basin, and along with the QF/Q ratio, can exceed 90%. The corresponding delayed flow response ratios, QD/P clearly show the largest QD yields as a proportion of event precipitation from the Forest (NF1). The application of linear model supported these differences (e.g. 10-36% difference between NF and DF, p < 0.001) in the storm hydrologic response of the Coastal basins. The exception was QF/P where there was a higher uncertainty connected with inter-basin mean differences. Cross-correlation plots for rain-streamflow and corresponding lag regression models for three storm events in the Coastal basins suggested the existence of alternative stormflow pathways with multiple lags with peaks between ˜12 and 24 h in NF, compared to respective bimodal peaks at ˜1 and 16 h in AC and ˜1 and 12 h in DF. The long time lags for NF are suggestive of deep subsurface stormflow and groundwater as the contributing sources to the storm hydrograph. The short time lags in DF and AC are indicative of overland flow and so 'memory' of the previous degraded land cover is retained in AC as supported by previous hydraulic conductivity data. As potential and actual evapotranspiration is likely to be depressed during the monsoon, differences in streamflow and run-off responses between land-cover types is largely attributed to differences in soil infiltration and hydrologic pathways. Enhancing infiltration and reducing run-off in managed ecosystems should be explored in the terms of the context of other ecosystem services and biodiversity.

Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas; Rakesh, K. N.

2012-11-01

223

Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land degradation remain.

Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

2014-09-01

224

The impact of reforestation on discharge and sediment fluxes in drylands: long-term evidences from the Western Rift Valley Escarpment (Northern Ethiopia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation and land degradation have been common problems in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, including for the Western Rift Valley Escarpment. In particular, the rapid deforestation of the steep catchments (average slope gradient of 44% ± 10%) in the second half of 20th century, together with rainfall variability and over-cultivation, resulted in the development of dense gully and scar networks. Subsequently, huge amounts sediment were taken to the densely populated graben bottoms. In response, extensive reforestation interventions were carried out as of the 1980s, resulting in improvements of vegetation cover in many catchments. This study analyses the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover and rainfall variability and their impact on discharge and sediment transport in escarpment catchments. Degree of rehabilitation was examined in 20 adjacent catchments by correlating the density of scar networks incised down to the bed rock with Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and slope gradient. Based on these results, 11 contrasting catchments were selected for detailed investigation. To study the current spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and its relation with daily peak discharge, 7 rain gauges were installed at different locations and altitudes. Trendlines of decadal rainfall variability since 1996 will be established based on the analysis of NOAA's rainfall estimates, and long-term rainfall variability will be explored by correlating the field data to long-term rainfall measurements in nearby synoptic stations. The changes in land use and cover will be detected from aerial photos of the 1935, 1965 and 1986. Peak discharges were monitored using 11 crest stage gauges. Fixed boulders were painted in stream reaches to quantify the transport of bedload. This was done by photographing the stream reaches and by measuring the displacement of painted boulders after flood events. In a multiple regression analysis, scar density was negatively related with NDVI and positively with average gradient of very steep slopes (r2 = 0.53; p<0.01, n= 20). Data for the rainy season of 2012 showed no relationship between rainfall distribution and altitude. Average daily peak discharge in the 11 rivers was positively related with daily rainfall depth as well as with catchment size and negatively with NDVI (r2 = 0.83; p<0.01, n=11). Further analysis of the data will allow better understanding of past degradation phases and the impact of land use/cover changes and rainfall variability on the rehabilitation of mountain streams. Keywords: peak discharge; crest stage gauge; boulders; bed load; reforestation.

Asfaha, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

2014-05-01

225

Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

226

The groundwater recharge response and hydrologic services of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation: Support for the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off hypothesis”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic effects of forest use and reforestation of degraded lands in the humid tropics has implications for local and regional hydrologic services but such issues have been relatively less studied when compared to the impacts of forest conversion. In particular, the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off” hypothesis which predicts a net gain or loss to baseflow and dry-season flow under both, forest degradation or reforestation depending on conditions has not been tested adequately. In the Western Ghats of India, we examined the hydrologic responses and groundwater recharge and hydrologic services linked with three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest(DF), and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. Instrumented catchments ranging from 7 to 23 ha representing these three land-covers (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF, in total 11 basins), were established and maintained between 2003 and 2005 at three sites in two geomorphological zones, Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad). Four larger (1-2 km2) catchments downstream of the head-water catchments in the Malnaad with varying proportions of different land-cover and providing irrigation water for areca-nut and paddy rice were also measured for post-monsoon baseflow. Daily hydrological and climate data was available at all the sites. In addition, 36 min data was available at the Coastal site for 41 days as part of the opening phase of the summer monsoon, June-July 2005. Low potential and actual evapotranspiration rates during the monsoon that are similar across all land-cover ensures that the main control on the extent of groundwater recharge during the south-west monsoon is the proportion of rainfall that is converted into quick flow rather than differences in evapotranspiration between the different land cover types. The Flow duration curves demonstrated a higher frequency and longer duration of low flows under NF when compared to the other more disturbed land covers in both the Coastal and Malnaad basins. Groundwater recharge estimated using water balance during the wet-season in the Coastal basins under NF, AC and DF was estimated to be 50%, 46% and 35% respectively and in the Malnaad it was 61%, 55% and 36% respectively. Soil Water Infiltration and Movement (SWIM) based recharge estimates also support the pattern (46% in NF; 39% in AC and 14% in DF). Furey-Gupta filter based estimates associated with the Coastal basins also suggest similar groundwater recharge values and trends across the respective land-covers: 69% in NF, 49% in AC, and 42% in DF. Soil water potential profiles using zero flux plane methods suggest that during the dry-season, natural forests depend on deep soil moisture and groundwater. Catchments with higher proportion of forest cover upstream were observed to sustain flow longer into the dry-season. These hydrologic responses provide some support towards the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off” hypothesis in which differences in infiltration between land-cover rather than evapotranspiration determines the differences in groundwater recharge, low flows and dry-season flow. Groundwater recharge is the most temporally stable under natural forest, although substantial recharge occurs under all three ecosystems, which helps to sustain dry-season flow downstream in higher order streams that sustain local communities and agro-ecosystems. In addition to spatial scale effects, greater attention also needs to be given to the role of hydrogeology within the context of the above hypothesis and its implications for hydrologic services.

Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Rakesh, K. N.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas

2013-08-01

227

Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface and subsurface soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed, natural broadleaved forest; (ii) a 25-year-old, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to mainly reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broadleaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 mm year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

2014-12-01

228

Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface- and sub-soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed natural broad-leaved forest; (ii) a mature, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broad-leaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 m year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

2014-03-01

229

Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-05-01

230

Erratum: Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-08-01

231

Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

2010-12-01

232

Potential of agroforestry for carbon sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from soils in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Losses of carbon (C) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are challenges that scientists and policy makers have been facing in the recent past. Intensified agricultural practices lead to a reduction in ecosystem carbon stocks, mainly due to removal of aboveground biomass as harvest and loss of carbon as CO2 through burning and\\/or

Patrick K. Mutuo; G. Cadisch; A. Albrecht; C. A. Palm; L. Verchot

2005-01-01

233

Theorizing Practice and Practicing Theory  

E-print Network

his paper describes the emerging field of practice theory as it is practiced in relation to organizational phenomena. We identify three approaches—empirical, theoretical, and philosophical—that relate to the what, the how, ...

Feldman, Martha S.

234

Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the ?13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

2012-04-01

235

Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

2001-01-01

236

Practicing Precision  

E-print Network

/her field, giving immediate adoption of research-proven practices. ?Furthermore, we envision that neighboring growers will be more likely to implement new management practices demonstrated on nearby farms rather than those shown only on small Experiment... Station plots.? PIN strives to achieve these water savings through producer education, which results in the adoption of advanced technologies and conservation practices. Preliminary studies suggest that, based on 90,000 acres of irrigated land, widespread...

Supercinski, Danielle

2007-01-01

237

Changing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue contains nine articles all on the subject of "changing practice," i.e., innovative practices of rural English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Byte-ing into Medieval Literature" (John Fyler) describes an online conference on medieval literature for rural high school students. "Literacy in Cattle Country" (Dan…

Benson, Chris, Ed.

1999-01-01

238

Practical Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded over 40 years ago by an economist, Practical Action's aim is to help impoverished people "use technology to challenge poverty", to gain "access to technical options and knowledge", and "influence the social, economic and institutional systems for innovation and use of technology." The "Downloads" tab has a link to "Practical Answers" that cover almost two dozen themes and lets users browse the extensive library, submit technical questions to expert, and it also provides users with a section entitled "Share" which documents peoples' experience with Practical Action. Visitors will also find the "Featured Articles" section of the Downloads useful and full of such practical information as "Build Your Own Tippy Tap", for hand washing after toileting and a "Solar Voltaic System Design Info Sheet" that covers electrical design issues. Back on the homepage, visitors will find links to their social networking, e-newsletter, and the latest from their series of blogs.

239

Practical leadership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines conceptions of leadership and leadership enactment by teachers to develop a conceptual foundation for teacher leadership. The research question driving this study was: How do elementary school teacher leaders within a curricular and instructional reform effort describe their conceptions and enactment of leadership within their school and district contexts? Two program sites for elementary school science reform were selected, and six teachers from each program were invited to participate in the study. First-hand reports of conceptions of leadership and stories of enactment, collected through individual and focus group interviews with the teachers, served as the primary data for the study. A case for each of the twelve teachers is presented and analyzed. The outcome of the study is a theory of practical leadership. This conception draws upon the intellectual tradition of practical reasoning, which emphasizes deliberation and action of the individual when faced with a decision or a problematic situation. Practical leadership draws primarily from three dimensions: the self of the leader; the contexts in which the leader is acting; and the purposes that drive the leader's actions. Examples of leadership enactment from the cases are presented with attention to how these enactment stories demonstrate the teachers' use of practical reasoning in the situations described. The final analysis looks more specifically at the idea of practical leadership using a dynamic model called "leadership space" to demonstrate interactions among self, contexts, and purposes over time. The dissertation highlights three conclusions: (1) practical reasoning as the theoretical foundation for analyzing leadership provides a useful and valid analytical framework since it locates the leadership enactment in the deliberation and actions of the leader rather than understanding leadership as the application of a generalized set of principles about how to lead; (2) conceptions of leadership influence leadership enactment; and (3) teacher leadership roles are crafted, not filled.

Sato, Mistilina Dawn

240

Multiplication Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice Your Multiplication Skills! Watch These Fun Multiplication Videos *Need a review? Watch the Multiplication is Repeated Addition Video Four Legged Zoo I ve Got 6 Ready or Not Here I Come (5s) Twelve Toes Elementary My Dear 2s Figure 8 Lucky 7s Video My Hero Zero Naughty Number 9 Practice your multiplication skills with these fun games: Multiplication Facts Become the king of multiplication with Castle Quest Dish up some ice cream with Crazy Cone Multiplication. Earn disco moves to make a dinosaur dance with Disco Dino. Design your own granny and make her race in a ...

Miss Lerdahl

2010-02-23

241

COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE AGREEMENT DEFINITIONS  

E-print Network

agreed upon by the advanced practice registered nurse and one or more licensed physicians or dentists Practice Registered Nurse, which have entered into collaborative practices (List all physicians below1 COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE AGREEMENT DEFINITIONS Collaborative Practice Agreement refers

242

Litter dynamics and fine root production in Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum plantations and regrowth forest in Eastern Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest plantations and agroforestry systems with Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum have greatly expanded in the Brazilian Amazon, generally as an alternative for reforesting degraded areas. To our knowledge\\u000a there are no reports of above- and below-ground production in these forest systems. We quantified litter and fine root production\\u000a in 6-yr old Schizolobium-based plantation forests (monospecific: MON, mixture: MIX, and agroforestry

Antonio Kledson Leal Silva; Steel Silva Vasconcelos; Claudio José Reis de Carvalho; Iracema Maria Castro Coimbra Cordeiro

243

Good Practice case studies Interpreted practical  

E-print Network

Good Practice case studies Interpreted practical conservation Sherwood Forest District 1. Protected wellbeing. It is hoped 1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 #12;Good Practice case studies 2 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 the group

244

Angle Practice!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How well do you know your angles? Check out these games and put your knowledge to the test! They will stump you if you don't pay close attention to the different angles they give you! Alien Angles! - Use the protractor to guess where the alien has flown away to. If you pick the right spot, you can save all the aliens! Squirt the Dog! Angle practice - Move the hose using different measures of angles to try and squirt the dog. To what degree? - Think you're ready to challenge yourself? Check out ...

Hume, Ms.

2012-11-02

245

Practicing Interdisciplinarity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about the practice of interdisciplinary research. We explore the practical difficulties of interdisciplinary research in the context of a regional- or local-scale project. We posit four barriers to interdisciplinarity that are common across many disciplines and draw on our own experience and on other sources to explore how these barriers are manifested. Values enter into scientific theories and data collection through scientists' hidden assumptions about disciplines other than their own, through the differences between quantitative and interpretive social sciences, and through roadblocks created by the organization of academia and the relationship between academics and the larger society. Participants in interdisciplinary projects need to be self-reflective about the value judgments embedded in their choice of variables and models. They should identify and use a core set of shared concerns to motivate the effort, be willing to respect and to learn more about the other, be able to work with new models and alternative taxonomies, and allow for plurality and incompleteness.

SHARACHCHANDRA LÃÂÃÂLÃÂÃÂ and RICHARD B. NORGAARD (;)

2005-11-01

246

Practical Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nuffield Foundation was created in 1943 by William Morris, the founder of Morris Motors. He wanted to contribute to improvements in society, primarily the "advancement of social well-being." According to the site, he "emphasised the importance of education, training and research in achieving that goal." This website, created by the Foundation, is a logical extension of his work, containing practical activities designed for use in the classroom with students in high school and college. The activities here are arranged into a dozen topics, including Astronomy, Atoms and nuclei, and Physics applications. The activities here include "Hearing a laser beam," "What's the frequency?," and 75 others that use video clips, interactive graphics, and other visual materials to make these concepts and principles come alive. The Forces and Motion area is one of the best, as it is host to activities that really delve into the concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration. Visitors can also use the search engine to look for specific items of interest.

2012-08-17

247

PUTTING PARTICIPATORY DOMESTICATION INTO PRACTICE IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working in the African Humid Tropics (AHT) since 1987. Despite its natural wealth, small-scale farmers of AHT are among the poorest people in the world and have relied on extractive harvesting of forest products and traditional shifting cultivation for their food and other needs. After years of severe deforestation, alternatives now have to

Z. TCHOUNDJEU; E. K. ASAAH; P. ANEGBEH; A. DEGRANDE; P. MBILE; C. FACHEUX; A. TSOBENG; A. R. ATANGANA; M. L. NGO-MPECK; A. J. SIMONS

2006-01-01

248

The effects of reforestation of mountain basins on its evolution into forests, and on the stabilization of the streams draining into them. The case of Arratiecho's gorge basin in Aragon Pyrenees (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known the high vulnerability of mountain gorges to rainfall events (extreme rainfall or sudden melting of the snow), as well as the need to restore their catchment areas and to ensure the stability over time, where the forest acts effectively, after been corrected their channels with hydraulic works. We also know that all the fundamental aims of a watershed restoration are: a) the protection of its population, goods and services from the damage that can be caused by torrential geodynamics triggered on the basin by rainfall events and b) the regulation of water cycles and sediments on the basin in any situation, during torrential intervals and the periods that pass between them, so that people can use the available land and water resources in a sustainable way The basin of Arratiecho gorge (1.6 km2) is located in the province of Huesca (Spain). Its maximum and minimum elevation are 1667 m and 860 m and its average slope 52.81%. The length of the gorge is 1,4 km, with an average slope of 25%. The main type of soil is colluvial Flysch and currently 80% of the basin is occupied by trees from old reforestation and the remaining 20% are pasture and crops. At the beginning of the XXth century the basin was completely deforested and degraded, so due to rainfall events its sedimentation cone moved and at the top of the basin superficial landslides occured. Just after writing its hydrological restoration plan, between 1901-05, works were carried out, continued and completed. This poster shows the evolution of the basin before these works, the initial results and their current status, their achievements and the need of their maintenance task in the future

Fabregas, S.; Hurtado, R.; Mintegui, J.; Robredo, J. C.; García-Rodríguez, J. L.

2012-04-01

249

Theory into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of putting theory into practice can be addressed and advocated to educators and gifted students through the presentation of a Continuum of Practice. Articulating the sequence and phases of practice can underscore how practice can take place; it also can change the perspective and meaning of practice.

Kaplan, Sandra N.

2012-01-01

250

Impact of land use practices on faunal abundance, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of desert pedoecosystem.  

PubMed

Increased dependence of resource-poor rural communities on soils of low inherent fertility are the major problem of desert agroecosystem. Agrisilviculture practices may help to conserve the soil biota for maintaining essential soil properties and processes in harsh climate. Therefore, the impacts of different land use systems on faunal density, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of soil were studied in agrisilviculture system of Indian desert. The selected fields had trees (Zizyphus mauritiana, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica) and crops (Cuminum cyminum, Brassica nigra, Triticum aestivum) in different combinations. Populations of Acari, Myriapoda, Coleoptera, Collembola, other soil arthropods and total soil fauna showed significant changes with respect to different land use practices and tree species, indicating a strong relation between above and below ground biodiversity. The Coleoptera exhibited greatest association with all agrisilviculture fields. The Z. mauritiana system indicated highest facilitative effects (RTE value) on all groups of soil fauna. Soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were greater under tree than that of tree plus cropping system. It showed accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen in tree field and more utilization by crops in cultivated lands. Positive and significant correlation among organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity clearly reflects increase in soil nutrients with the increase in microbial and other biotic activity. P. cineraria field was the best pedoecosystem, while C. cyminum was the best winter crop for cultivation in desert agroforestry system for soil biological health and soil sustainability. The increase in organic carbon, soil nutrients and microbial activity is associated with the increase in soil faunal population which reflect role of soil fauna in fertility building. This suggests that strategies may be developed for nurturing fertility-building soil fauna and managing degraded pedoecosystem in desert just by adopting suitable agricultural practices. PMID:16335596

Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

2005-11-01

251

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

2010-12-01

252

Tropical leguminous species for acid soils: studies on plant form and growth  

E-print Network

have been conducted to test the potential of native species for reforestation and agroforestry in acid, infertile soils. Results are presented from a three-year species screening trial with 25 legume species, of which most were tree species of potential...

Tilki, Fahrettin

1996-01-01

253

BIOSPECIMEN BEST PRACTICES FORUM  

Cancer.gov

BIOSPECIMEN BEST BIOSPECIMEN BEST PRACTICES FORUM PRACTICES FORUM Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Best Practices Best Practices June 18, 2007 June 18, 2007 Karen Smith Thiel, Ph.D., J.D. Karen Smith Thiel,

254

Professional Learning through Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practice article explores the relationship between practice and professional learning. Are these two distinctly separate activities, competing for the time of a staff member, or are practice and learning linked? If so, what is the nature of this link and how can we best align professional learning with practice outcomes? Using an example from…

Ford, Jill

2006-01-01

255

Practice States and Capitals!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year we are learning the states and capitals of the United States. The best way to learn them is to practice, practice, practice! Use the following links to review and practice the states and capitals of the United States. Although you may prefer one website over another, try them all to see what they have to offer and to test your knowledge. Enjoy! Geospy USA State Capitals Quiz Sheppard Software States and Capitals Practice ...

Hoffman, Mr.

2007-09-06

256

Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

Quennerstedt, Mikael

2013-01-01

257

Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

Johnston, Howard

2011-01-01

258

EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…

Glenn, Joanne M. Lozar

2006-01-01

259

Reforestation efforts reshape Hawaii's soil hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting with the arrival in Hawaii of Polynesian settlers in the fourth century and peaking in the mid-1800s, the destructive forces of wildfires and pests and the grazing of feral pigs, goats, and cattle reduced the native forests of Maui to just one tenth of their original extent. Maui's native vegetation was replaced largely by imported or invasive species. Over time, the invasive grasses that took root reshaped the hydrological properties of the soil, reducing the viability of native plant species, which had evolved to thrive under Hawaii's previous hydrological dynamics. Maui's ecosystem had been changed for so long that scientists were uncertain whether the region could actually again support the native flora

Schultz, Colin

2012-04-01

260

REFORESTATION TECHNIQUES IN COGONGRASS-INFESTED AREAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cogongrass is a nonnative grass that is rapidly invading the gulf coast states, with projected spread into the interior of the Southeastern U.S. Cogongrass is particularly damaging to forested land as it decreases biodiversity and wildlife habitat, hinders plantation establishment, creates a wildfi...

261

The causes of the reforestation in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test an emerging theory of the forest transition using the case of Vietnam. In the early 1990s, decollectivisation of agriculture, allocation of forestry land to households, and the development of market networks transformed land use in the mountains of Vietnam, leading to an increase in forest area. We used census and geographic data covering the whole country at a

Patrick Meyfroidt; Eric F. Lambin

2008-01-01

262

Carbon-accounting methods and reforestation incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, and the consequent potential for climate change are the focus of increasing international concern. Temporary land-use change and forestry projects (LUCF) can be implemented to offset permanent emissions of carbon dioxide from the energy sector. Several approaches to accounting for carbon sequestration in LUCF projects have been proposed. In the present paper,

Oscar J. Cacho; Robyn L. Hean; Russell M. Wise

2003-01-01

263

Environmental Public Health Practice  

E-print Network

Environmental Public Health Practice in the Southeastern United States Southeast Regional Academic Center for Environmental Public Health School of Public Health University of Alabama at Birmingham #12; Environmental Public Health Practice

264

Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices submitted in the 2012 Training Top 125 application. Best practices: (1) Edward Jones: Practice Makes Perfect (sales training); (2) Grant Thornton LLP: Senior Manager Development Program (SMDP); (3) MetLife, Inc.: Top Advisor…

Training, 2012

2012-01-01

265

Reflecting Reflective Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

Galea, Simone

2012-01-01

266

Engineering from reflective practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ideas for a new epistemology, encompassing practical action, based on the concept of reflective practice, are presented. The term reflective practitioner was first suggested by Schon (1983) in an analysis of the need to define the nature of practical competence. The prevailing culture of technical rationality, which depends on science for it rigor, is compared with that of the

D. I. Blockley

1992-01-01

267

Educating Advanced Practice Nurses for Practice Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why content related to role acquisition and transition is critical in preparing advanced practice nurses. Recommends teaching strategies and timing and placement options for role content in graduate education. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

Hamric, Ann B.; Hanson, Charlene M.

2003-01-01

268

Trip Report Apologies for long report. Geophysical boundary conditions must be considered in defining a  

E-print Network

are phased out linearly over 2010- 2030 period; return below 350 ppm can be hastened via reforestation. In that case improved forestry and agricultural practices, especially reforestation, could get atmospheric CO2

Hansen, James E.

269

Practicing gender or practicing science? Gender practices of women scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtle biases women face in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields have been the subject of many studies and initiatives in recent years. Many programs hoping to increase the numbers of women in these fields and to contribute to women's advancement have focused on identifying and remedying gendered institutional barriers and practices that ultimately disadvantage women. This dissertation

Laura Anne Rhoton

2009-01-01

270

Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?  

PubMed

Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

2010-09-01

271

Veterinary practice internal controls.  

PubMed

This chapter explores the responsive management requirements critical for effective internal controls. Internal control techniques offered include the application of segregation of function, goal-orientation, performance planning, and training objectives in five veterinary practice areas. These areas are client controls, cash controls, inventory controls, purchase controls, and stock controls. Because only trusted staff members are given access to practice assets, the veterinary leadership must have a responsive management plan to protect the life of the practice while building the practice team. Methods are shared for controlling opportunities that can lead to employee fraud while concurrently building a team approach to internal controls. PMID:8778946

Catanzaro, T E

1996-02-01

272

When Policy Joins Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy influences practice. Policy has the capacity to strengthen practice by demanding accountability for both process and results through clear expectations as well as deliberate sanctions for failure to meet those expectations. Policies can also provide resources to meet expectations. In this article, the authors discuss how several national…

Killion, Joellen; Davin, Linda

2009-01-01

273

Assessment That Informs Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is more than simply ascribing an 'A' or a 'B' to a particular student achievement. In an era of state-mandated proficiencies and alternative assessment strategies, educators need practical ideas they can use to meaningfully assess their students' learning and their own practice. This issue of "ENC Focus" centers on the topic of inquiry…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

2000-01-01

274

Reflective Learning in Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

275

Current Practices and Obstacles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the assessment practices used by resource room teachers in Jordan to determine eligibility for learning disability, and to identify assessment obstacles. The study also investigated whether assessment practices and obstacles of assessment differ among resource room teachers as a function of gender and academic…

Al-Natour, Mayada; AlKhamra, Hatem; Al-Smadi, Yahya

2008-01-01

276

Playful Teaching Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In physical education, playful teaching practices are essential to relationship building and creating "connections" for successful group dynamics. Perhaps most importantly, playful teachers develop positive attitudes in their students and help students understand that learning can be fun and joyful. Playful teaching practices also greatly enhance…

Michaelis, Bill

2005-01-01

277

Toward practicing privacy  

PubMed Central

Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice. PMID:23243088

Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

2013-01-01

278

Everyday Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Do what's best for kids!" The author's former principal said this often when they discussed media program needs. Media specialists can make media centers places where students and teachers want to be. This article looks at everyday, attainable, common sense best practices. These everyday best practices require time, energy, new ways of thinking,…

Anderson, Mary Alice

2011-01-01

279

Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…

Training, 2011

2011-01-01

280

Best Practice Goes Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a best practice model for an online teacher education course, illustrating the process of integrating computer and reading literacies to increase learning and improve teaching. Six best practice components were included in the class design: integrative units, small group activities, representing to learn, classroom workshop,…

Wilcox, Bonita L.; Wojnar, Linda C.

281

University of Alberta Developing Adaptation Strategies for Forest Management  

E-print Network

by guiding species choice in reforestation programs. Nevertheless, uncertainty due to a variety of causes has what species should be used for reforestation for a particular site, and subsequently selecting. Amendments to aspen reforestation practices are proposed, avoiding the use of the species in areas where

Hamann, Andreas

282

BY MARY I.WILLIAMS AND R. KASTEN DUMROESE  

E-print Network

will have important consequences for reforestation and nursery practices. Plant materials outplanted today their operations. This article highlights some adaptation strategies to help reforestation and nursery prac- tices that WESTERN FORESTER x JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2014 11 E Role of Climate Change in Reforestation and Nursery

283

Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center  

E-print Network

Introduction Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation of these steps may result in poor-quality seedlings that limit reforestation success. This paper will provide reforestation practices (e.g., landscaping), because these seedlings are substantially more expensive than bare

284

Annals of Forest Science Official journal of the Institut National  

E-print Network

and reforestation with coniferous trees are two widely practiced forest regeneration strategies after timber regeneration with broadleaved species and reforestation with spruce induced different diversities of the ground regeneration and reforestation resulted in large differences in ground bryophyte populations. A larger

Chen, Jiquan

285

Lessons Learned on 50,000 acres of Plantation in Northern California1  

E-print Network

Fredrickson2 Abstract Many lessons have been learned during reforestation of large wildfires and clearcuts and Laudenslayer, et al., 1988). Reforestation practices on private land in Northern California have evolved over reforestation started with the Pondosa Burn in 1977. Other burns included the Day fire (1989), Fern fire (1990

Standiford, Richard B.

286

Benchmarking the Urology Practice  

PubMed Central

The medical practice today is relentlessly challenged by medical progress, by rising costs, and by the mounting pressures of the managed care environment. It should be the approach of every medical practice manager and practitioner to seek out and measure up to the best standards so as to optimize patient care and business outcomes. This requires the resolute pursuit of good models, brought about by the fostering of key collaborative relationships that are both practical and strategic. Integral to this process is benchmarking: the way by which information is obtained from both internal and external sources to determine and set the standards for performance. Benchmarking is an invaluable strategic tool. PMID:19107215

Brower, Paul A.

2008-01-01

287

Practical knowledge and abilities  

E-print Network

The thesis is an exploration of the relations between know-how, abilities, and ordinary knowledge of facts. It is shown that there is a distinctively practical sort of know-how and a corresponding interpretation of 'S knows ...

Glick, Ephraim N

2009-01-01

288

Practicing Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Practicing Fireworks Safety Tweet Fireworks eye injuries common in young people, bystanders Nearly ... to avoid the risk of serious eye injury." Fireworks Safety Tips The Academy advises that the best ...

289

Ten practice redesign approaches.  

PubMed

As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches. PMID:24228375

Slayton, Val

2013-01-01

290

Practicing like Thomas Edison.  

PubMed

For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices. PMID:23866659

Baum, Neil; Ornstein, Hal

2013-01-01

291

Practice Parameter Allergy Diagnostic Testing: An Updated Practice  

E-print Network

Practice Parameter Allergy Diagnostic Testing: An Updated Practice Parameter I. Leonard Bernstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S67 XV. Assessment of Inhalant Allergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S74 XVI. Assessment of Food Allergy

Levetin, Estelle

292

Agroforestry in Palau1 Ebals Sadang2  

E-print Network

the taro swamps are planted to fruit trees such as mango, Eugenia, betel nut, lemon and other citrus such as lemon, guava, orange, Spondias, and others are inter-mixed with Xanthosoma taro, banana, and papaya

Standiford, Richard B.

293

Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving  

E-print Network

, shrinking farm size, poverty and a new market situation and has gradually been changing towards monoculture cash crop production and its proximate and underlying causes and ii) to analyse and explain how production (fertilizer and seed), experience of others, risk of theft, and wildlife disturbance. These causes

294

Understanding practice management: a qualitative study in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports a qualitative study of practice managers’ roles and responsibilities in eight practices in the Grampian region of Scotland. Observes wide variations in the roles and responsibilities of managers associated with the size and fundholding status of the practice. Notes that larger practices had better developed management structures allowing the managers to delegate tasks and undertake a more proactive planning

Marlene Westland; Jeremy Grimshaw; Jim Maitland; Maureen Campbell; Edna Ledingham; Ellie Mcleod

1996-01-01

295

Positive criminology in practice.  

PubMed

The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. PMID:23782705

Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

2014-11-01

296

Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP) in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on a one to seven rating scale. Barriers to EBP were measured on a five-point Likert scale using two subscales. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 414 nurses were included in the study. The greatest barriers to developing EBP among nurses were insufficient time for research (3.51 ± 0.97) and insufficient resources to change practices (3.64 ± 0.99). Nurses with more years of experience reported increased use of EBP (P <0.01), more positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and fewer barriers to research (P <0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between years of experience and practice (r = 0.16) and attitudes (r = 0.20). Nurses with a baccalaureate degree reported fewer barriers to research than those qualified at a diploma level (P <0.001). Nurses who perceived more barriers to research reported less use of EBP (P <0.001), less positive attitudes towards EBP (P <0.001) and limited EBP knowledge/skills (P <0.001). Conclusion: These findings provide a basis for enhancing nursing practices, knowledge and skills. Continuing education for nurses and minimising barriers is crucial to increasing the use of EBP in Oman. PMID:25364558

Ammouri, Ali A.; Raddaha, Ahmad A.; Dsouza, Preethy; Geethakrishnan, Renu; Noronha, Judith A.; Obeidat, Arwa A.; Shakman, Lina

2014-01-01

297

Guided Metacognition in Instrumental Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ensemble directors have a special interest in helping students learn to practice effectively. Practice is also an essential component of musical development. Music educators need to both teach effective practice strategies and guide students toward meaningful, thoughtful practice. Metacognition strategies are one way to accomplish this. Current…

Hart, John T., Jr.

2014-01-01

298

Arthropod diversity in alley cropped black walnut ( Juglans nigra L.) stands in eastern Missouri, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the complex interactions among trees, crops and their associated fauna is necessary to determine the viability of a particular agroforestry practice. Information is lacking concerning these interactions, particularly in temperate agroforestry practices. We examined the effects of two forages on the growth, nut production, and arthropod communities of alley cropped eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra L. Experimental plots

W. Terrell Stamps; Terryl W. Woods; Marc J. Linit; Harold E. Garrett

2002-01-01

299

Policies Can Follow Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roser discusses how both teachers and librarians, whom she calls the preservers of children's reading, should cling tightly to three essential practices to ensure that our children read more, read better, and read more widely. She argues we should: a) keep the classroom library viable; b) preserve, protect, and defend time for self-selected…

Roser, Nancy

2010-01-01

300

Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

Schaars, Marvin A.

301

The Practice of Solitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is only one practice of solitude: to make a choice and carry it out well. The particulars assemble around this simple principle. One may later regret the choice; one may end up reversing or abandoning it. The choice may consist of doing nothing or refraining from a decision until the time is right. But no matter what it entails, one must…

Senechal, Diana

2012-01-01

302

GROUNDWATER QUALITY PROTECTION PRACTICES  

E-print Network

#12;GROUNDWATER QUALITY PROTECTION PRACTICES Submitted to: Environment Canada 224 West Esplanade.............................................................................................1 2.0 GROUNDWATER RESOURCES WITHIN THE FRASER BASIN.................3 2.1 Lower Fraser Region..............................................................................5 3.0 COMMON SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION ...............6 3.1 Category 1 - Sources Designed

303

Best Program Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for use by adult literacy programs in Saskatchewan, Canada, consists of three questionnaires. The questionnaires were developed under the guidance of Saskatchewan's 11-member Good Practice Task Force to give adult literacy programs an opportunity to reflect on their current initiatives, identify their strengths,…

Saskatchewan Literacy Network, Saskatoon.

304

The Practical Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Practical Astronomer" by Thomas Dick, LLD, E.C. & J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 1849, is reviewed. Information on telescope makers and astronomers can be found. Mentioned are: Fraunhofer; John Herschel; Lawson; Dollond; Tulley; W. & S. Jones; and S.W. Burnham.

Koester, Jack

305

Management accounting as practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we outline a distinctive practice theory approach to considering the role of management accounting in the constitution of organizations. Building on (Schatzki, T.R. (2002). The site of the social: a philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press) notion of arrays of activity we emphasise the ways in

Thomas Ahrens; Christopher S. Chapman

2006-01-01

306

Adult Recruitment Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

307

Collecting Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices

Tedford, Jennifer

2008-01-01

308

Good Laboratory Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) in conjunction with the principles of Total Quality Management (see chapter 6) ensure the quality and reliability of the laboratory results, which in turn help to ensure the protection of the environment and human health and safety. A step further is the accreditation of laboratories to ISO 17025 (see chapter 2) to perform specified activities.

Hadjicostas, Evsevios

309

LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

310

Veterinary practice marketeer.  

PubMed

Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. PMID:25614552

Phillips, Justin

2015-01-24

311

Nursing Education and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three issues directly influence the relationship between nurses and physicians: the nature of nursing practice, the education of registered nurses, and the American Medical Association proposal for registered care technicians. Nursing education programs should focus their programs and objectives so as to prepare their graduates for different…

Lindeman, Carol A.

1989-01-01

312

Put Theory into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice

Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.

2013-01-01

313

Creativity in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For anyone who has wondered about how creativity looks in practice, this article offers a picture of how creativity can be a powerful force in the classroom. The author provides three examples illustrating some alternatives that he has developed that work with pupils and teachers in many countries all over the world. The magic bucket activity…

Persson, Hans

2009-01-01

314

Translating and Practice  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Population Health Service Fellowship 11 Community Engagement 12 Evidence Based Practice 13, Publications, Programs 17 Capitol Briefings by the Evidence-Based Health Policy Project 18 Publications 18 Rankings and Roadmaps, the Evidence Based Health Policy Project, and the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership

Sheridan, Jennifer

315

Turning Ideas into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

Adams, Caralee

2011-01-01

316

Coherent Career Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherent career practice is conceptualized as an integrated reciprocal system involving 4 core elements: (1) career literacy; (2) career gumption; (3) career context; and (4) career integrity. It also accounts for "career integration", or the process by which these elements are assembled and reassembled. The source of client difficulties may…

Magnusson, Kris; Redekopp, Dave

2011-01-01

317

Toward Scholarship in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Over the past decade, scholars of teaching and teacher education have concluded that the field lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to undergird systematic investigation of practice. Absent a shared language, we can neither articulate common questions nor establish common tools--essential elements for building knowledge and…

Singer-Gabella, Marcy

2012-01-01

318

Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling  

SciTech Connect

Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Elias, Yuval [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mor, Tal [Computer Science Department, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Weinstein, Yossi [Physics Department, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2011-04-15

319

Is quantum search practical?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gauging a quantum algorithm's practical significance requires weighing it against the best conventional techniques applied to useful instances of the same problem. The authors show that several commonly suggested applications of Grover's quantum search algorithm fail to offer computational improvements over the best conventional algorithms.

George F. Viamontes; Igor L. Markov; John P. Hayes

2005-01-01

320

Troubling Practices: Short Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

2012-01-01

321

Implementing Sustainable Institutional Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…

Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis

2009-01-01

322

CSI Manual of Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a basic treatise on all principles and practices common to all engineering and architectural specifications. The subjects covered have been selected to--(1) include the most pressing problems typically facing the specifier, (2) provide information from the bidders, contractors and manufacturer's-supplier's viewpoint, and (3)…

Construction Specifications Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

323

How experts practice: a novel test of deliberate practice theory.  

PubMed

Performance improvement is thought to occur through engagement in deliberate practice. Deliberate practice is predicted to be challenging, effortful, and not inherently enjoyable. Expert and intermediate level Gaelic football players executed two types of kicks during an acquisition phase and pre-, post-, and retention tests. During acquisition, participants self-selected how they practiced and rated the characteristics of deliberate practice for effort and enjoyment. The expert group predominantly practiced the skill they were weaker at and improved its performance across pre-, post- and retention tests. Participants in the expert group also rated their practice as more effortful and less enjoyable compared to those in the intermediate group. In contrast, participants in the intermediate group predominantly practiced the skill they were stronger at and improved their performance from pretest to posttest but not on the retention test. Findings provide support for deliberate practice theory and give some insight into how experts practice and improve their performance beyond its current level. PMID:24001022

Coughlan, Edward K; Williams, A Mark; McRobert, Allistair P; Ford, Paul R

2014-03-01

324

Backpressure Routing Made Practical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current data collection protocols for wireless sensor networks are mostly based on quasi-static minimum-cost routing trees. We consider an alternative, highly-agile approach called backpressure routing, in which routing and forwarding decisions are made on a per-packet basis. Although there is a considerable theoretical literature on backpressure routing, it has not been implemented on practical systems to date due to concerns

Scott Moeller; Avinash Sridharan; Bhaskar Krishnamachari; Omprakash Gnawali

2010-01-01

325

Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice  

E-print Network

Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...” of services must be reported IFSP supports family outcomes through… Services to assist families in meeting child needs Measurable results of child and family progress Services in the natural environment Family directed assessment of resources, priorities...

Zuna, Nina

2005-05-05

326

Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

2010-01-01

327

Technologic and Operational Best Practices  

Cancer.gov

Technologic and Operational Best Practices Elizabeth H Hammond MD Vice Chair, Group Ba nking Committee NCI Scope of Presentation • Definition of Repositories • Scope of the Qualified Sample Issue • Best Practice Resources • Specimen Handling and Processes

328

Medical audit in general practice  

PubMed Central

Increasing interest is being shown in the standards of medical care in general practice. The method of measuring these standards, known as medical audit, is discussed in relation to general practice in Great Britain. PMID:4478845

Curtis, P.

1974-01-01

329

Todo K-2 Math Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app provides students in grades K-2 with practice counting, writing numerals, addition and subtraction. The user can select the grade level and adjust the time of practice; the app then generates a selection of activities from the base six activities of the app. At the end of the practice the app asks for feedback on the level of difficulty in order to make adjustments for the next practice session.

Locomotive Labs, Inc

2013-08-15

330

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science Dr. David Lucy d.lucy@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University Statistics in Practice ­ p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific in Practice ­ p.2/36 #12;Forensic Science Greater realisation that uncertainty is important has lead to

Lucy, David

331

Education Policy, Practice, and Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, drawing especially but not exclusively on Bourdieu's work on practice and its relationships with habitus, capital, and field, argues for a perspective on policy, as informed by and as practice, and applies it across all elements of the policy cycle. It is argued that a practice perspective captures well the economies of power in…

Heimans, Stephen

2012-01-01

332

Practical 1P8 Metallography  

E-print Network

Practical 1P8 Metallography What you should learn from this practical Science This practical ties optical microscope, recording the observed 1 1P8 - Metallography #12;microstructures with a hand drawn. Much information can be lost by not examining at a low magnification. 2 1P8 - Metallography #12

Paxton, Anthony T.

333

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 2 Responsibilities Supervisors Identify research projects and experimentsCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas. It outlines responsibilities, safe

Machel, Hans

334

Toward practical SERS sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its discovery more than 30 years ago, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been recognized as a highly sensitive detection technique for chemical and biological sensing and medical diagnostics. However, the practical application of this remarkably sensitive technique has not been widely accepted as a viable diagnostic method due to the difficulty in preparing robust and reproducible substrates that provide maximum SERS enhancement. Here, we demonstrate that the aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) array substrates engineered by the oblique angle deposition method are capable of providing extremely high SERS enhancement factors (>108). The substrates are large area, uniform, reproducible, and compatible with general microfabrication process. The enhancement factor depends strongly on the length and shape of the Ag nanorods and the underlying substrate coating. By optimizing AgNR SERS substrates, we show that SERS is able to detect trace amount of toxins, virus, bacteria, or other chemical and biological molecules, and distinguish different viruses/bacteria and virus/bacteria strains. The substrate can be tailored into a multi-well chip for high throughput screening, integrated into fiber tip for portable sensing, incorporated into fluid/microfluidic devices for in situ real-time monitoring, fabricated onto a flexible substrate for tracking and identification, or used as on-chip separation device for ultra-thin layer chromatography and diagnostics. By combining the unique SERS substrates with a handheld Raman system, it can become a practical and portable sensor system for field applications. All these developments have demonstrated that AgNR SERS substrates could play an important role in the future for practical clinical, industrial, defense, and security sensing applications.

Zhao, Yiping

2012-06-01

335

Practical radiotherapy planning  

SciTech Connect

An introductory chapter reviews basic principles of treatment planning, including field arrangements, type and energy of radiation, shielding, and beam modification. The sections which follow consider tumors at specific sites. Each section contains a brief overview of the role of radiation therapy, the pertinent regional anatomy, methods of assessing the extent of tumor, and how to define treatment volume. There are practical instructions for patient positioning, choice of field arrangements, and implementation of the final plan. Separate chapters on pediatric tumors and systemic and palliative radiation complete the work. The text is supplemented by anatomic drawings and radiographs.

Dobbs, J.; Barrett, A.

1985-01-01

336

Digitization Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

Xue, Fei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, Irma S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knudson, Frances L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

337

7.RP Track Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Angel and Jayden were at track practice. The track is $\\frac25$ kilometers around. Angel ran 1 lap in 2 minutes. Jayden ran 3 laps in 5 minutes. How ma...

338

Standards, Normen, Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Die folgenden Unterkapitel geben einen kurzen Abriss einiger weniger Standards, Normen und Practices. Hierzu gehören die Standards\\u000a und IT-Grundschutzkataloge des BSI, die ISO\\/IEC 27000er-Familie, die ISO\\/IEC 24762:2008, die ISO\\/IEC 20000 sowie ITIL® und\\u000a COBIT®. Verschiedentlich findet sich ein auszugsweiser und überblicksartiger Vergleich mit dem Vorgehensmodell und den Inhalten\\u000a der Sicherheitspyramide. Darüber hinaus listet das entsprechende Verzeichnis am Buchende eine Vielzahl

Klaus-Rainer Müller

339

Practical sedimentology, Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book is for technical professionals in mineral exploration, environmental management, agriculture or forestry, this new edition takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a lively and detailed overview of practical sedimentology. Emphasizing application over theory, the text is streamlined for comprehension, and it features many summary tables and graphs. The ideal companion to Analytical Sedimentology, this volume updates both methodology and applications, incorporates software information and extensively covers new technical developments. Specifically designed for students and cross-functional practitioners, it requires minimal geological background.

Lewis, D.W. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. (Southern Cross Univ., New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Coastal Management)

1994-01-01

340

Retrofit Best Practices Guide  

SciTech Connect

Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

Stovall, T.K.

2004-01-13

341

Field practice internship final report  

SciTech Connect

This field practice internship final report gives an overview of the field practice, which was completed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Management Department, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field practice focused on the completion of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312, Tier II Report. The field practice internship was conducted on a full-time basis between December 13, 1993 through February 18, 1994. Sheila Poligone, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Coordinator served as the field practice preceptor.

Foster, T.

1994-05-01

342

Linking theory to practice in introductory practice learning experiences.  

PubMed

Nurse educators internationally are challenged with finding a sufficient number of suitable practice learning experiences for student nurses. This paper reports on a study which aimed to evaluate the utilisation of specialised and highly technical environments ("new" environments) as first practice learning experiences for adult nursing students in the UK. A survey was conducted on 158 first year student nurses who were allocated to either "new" or "old" (those that have been traditionally used) environments. Data analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney U test and exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results have demonstrated that all environments afford novice nurses the opportunity to observe or practice the essential skills of nursing. In addition, the "new" environments have revealed greater opportunity to observe and practice aspects of practice related to governance of care. This paper concludes that a nursing curriculum which makes clear association between the essential nature of nursing and practice based learning outcomes will help the student to appreciate contemporary nursing practice and to link nursing theory with practice. Further research is required to explain the observation that aspects of practice related to governance are more visible within highly technical areas of practice. PMID:25481982

Fotheringham, Diane; Lamont, David; Macbride, Tamsin; MacKenzie, Laura

2014-11-26

343

Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits, is the ninth chapter in Volume III â??Semiconductors. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: ElectroStatic Discharge; Computational circuits; and Oscillator circuits. As of June 2009, a few of the subjects in this chapter were still incomplete, but the site is updated regularly and this chapter should soon be complete. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

344

Practical Physics: Measuring Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of nine experiments that introduce students to the concept of density and provide practice in measuring it. Many students have difficulty understanding density as a quantity derived from mass and volume. Learners often enter college with deeply-entrenched misconceptions, such as the erroneous idea that gases have no mass. These classroom labs were developed to promote correct ideas of density, and to demonstrate differing techniques for measuring density in solids, liquids, and gases. Specific topics include: density of regular solid shapes, measuring density and weight of liquids, measuring the average density of a student, weighing a sample of air, and more. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre. SEE RELATED ITEMS BELOW for a link to the full collection.

Centre, Nuffield C.

2011-02-09

345

Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

346

Practical Marginalized Multilevel Models.  

PubMed

Clustered data analysis is characterized by the need to describe both systematic variation in a mean model and cluster-dependent random variation in an association model. Marginalized multilevel models embrace the robustness and interpretations of a marginal mean model, while retaining the likelihood inference capabilities and flexible dependence structures of a conditional association model. Although there has been increasing recognition of the attractiveness of marginalized multilevel models, there has been a gap in their practical application arising from a lack of readily available estimation procedures. We extend the marginalized multilevel model to allow for nonlinear functions in both the mean and association aspects. We then formulate marginal models through conditional specifications to facilitate estimation with mixed model computational solutions already in place. We illustrate the MMM and approximate MMM approaches on a cerebrovascular deficiency crossover trial using SAS and an epidemiological study on race and visual impairment using R. Datasets, SAS and R code are included as supplemental materials. PMID:24357884

Griswold, Michael E; Swihart, Bruce J; Caffo, Brian S; Zeger, Scott L

2013-01-01

347

Practicing the Protocols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab-based activity, students learn how to use scientific instruments used to take hydrological data. Students will rotate among measurement stations for each of the hydrology protocols that will be done by the class. They will practice using the field guide with the instrument or kit for that particular measurement, exploring sources of variation and error. The resource includes eight student activity sheets and an authentic assessment, and is part of the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. The activity is supported by the GLOBE hydrology protocols. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

348

Practical quantum coin flipping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.

Pappa, Anna; Chailloux, André; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

2011-11-01

349

Transfusion practices in trauma  

PubMed Central

Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

2014-01-01

350

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

351

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2011-07-01

352

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2012-07-01

353

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2014-07-01

354

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2013-07-01

355

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2010-07-01

356

The Practice of Organization Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article about the men who are doing organization Development (O.D.) work is presented. It is divided into the following sections: (1) The Elements of O.D. Practice; (2) Interrelationships of the Elements of O.D. Practice; (3) Sources of Data on O.D. Practice; (4) The O.D. Practitioner and the Client; (5) The O.D. Practitioner and the Evaluator;…

Vaill, Peter B.

357

Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

Price, David W.

1997-01-01

358

Practice Makes Practice: Learning to Teach in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we argue that teaching is and should be a central element to learning to teach, particularly as teacher education once again turns toward practice. From this perspective, we must elaborate how such a shift addresses the need to bridge the gap between knowledge for teaching and knowledge from teaching, between theory and practice

McDonald, Morva; Kazemi, Elham; Kelley-Petersen, Megan; Mikolasy, Karen; Thompson, Jessica; Valencia, Sheila W.; Windschitl, Mark

2014-01-01

359

Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium  

E-print Network

Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium Amir Kamil, Jimmy Su, and Katherine Yelick, y , Titanium Group http://titanium.cs.berkeley.edu U.C. Berkeley November 15 2005November by another threadthread · Titanium, Java, UPC, and many other languages do not provide sequentiallanguages do

California at Berkeley, University of

360

Situated Practices of Looking: Visual Practice in an Online World  

E-print Network

Situated Practices of Looking: Visual Practice in an Online World Lilly Irani, Gillian R. Hayes Graphical virtual worlds are increasingly significant sites of collaborative interaction. Many argue it might at first seem; second, that we need to look beyond the virtual in understanding virtual worlds

Dourish,Paul

361

A Practical Guide to Practice Analysis for Credentialing Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers recommendations for the conduct of practice analysis (i.e., job analysis) concerning these issues: (1) selecting a method of practice analysis; (2) developing rating scales; (3) determining the content of test plans; (4) using multi-variate procedures for structuring test plans; and (5) determining topic weights for test plans. (SLD)

Raymond, Mark R.

2002-01-01

362

[Good prescribing practice].  

PubMed

Drug prescription is the very first step initiating a cascade of events in the medication process. It is, hence, decisive for success or failure of any pharmacologic treatment. A good prescription must therefore consider (1) relevant patient factors and co-morbidities, (2) evidence-based knowledge on medically sound prescribing practices, and (3) the setting in which a prescription is issued. The setting will determine which partners will participate, contribute, and safeguard the ongoing medication process and how much responsibility can be shared. Partners in the medication process refer to other healthcare professionals dispensing the drug, teaching the patient, or administering the medicines. It also involves the patients or their relatives with their information needs and often variable motivation and conviction to use a drug. By issuing a prescription, the physician must provide the partners with sufficient and appropriate information, must ensure that they understand the meaning of the prescription and are able to perform their assigned tasks during the medication process. Lastly, medication prescription is also subject to formal constraints and must meet legal criteria that are relevant for reimbursement by health insurance companies. PMID:24867345

Seidling, Hanna M; Haefeli, Walter E

2014-06-01

363

Practical dust control methods  

SciTech Connect

At a remediation project in Granite City, Illinois, the presence of lead was detected in and below the surface soil in the form of construction debris and contaminated soil. Contamination was also present in the form of airborne dust as well as surface contamination. The contaminated dust was present on equipment, tools, and the clothing of laborers working inside of the exclusion zone. OHM established an exclusion zone to limit access to the area and required that protective equipment be worn inside of the exclusion zone to allow for more efficient decontamination. Wetting methods were used as well as a foam material which was used to cover larger piles. Formal decontamination methods were implemented to limit the spread of contamination from the exclusion zone. These methods included specific procedures to remove protective equipment, water washing for equipment, and an inspection before leaving the zone. To the extent practical, transportation equipment was staged at the edge of the exclusion zone rather than entering the zone. Plastic tarpaulins were used to collect contaminated debris near the edge of the zone.

Thomas, B.R.; Blassingame, S.R. [OHM Remediation Services Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

364

Diagnostic Technologies in Practice  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

2015-01-01

365

Practical cosmology with lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys with submillimetre telescopes are revealing large numbers of gravitationally lensed high-redshift sources. I describe how, in practice, these lensed systems could be simultaneously used to estimate the values of cosmological parameters, test models for the evolution of the distribution of dark-matter haloes and investigate the properties of the source population. Even the existing sample of lenses found with the Herschel Space Observatory is enough to formally rule out the standard models of the evolving population of dark-matter haloes, with the likely explanation a combination of baryon physics and the perturbation by infalling baryons of the density distribution of dark matter at the centres of the haloes. Independently of the evolution of the haloes, observations of a sample of 100 lensed systems would be enough to estimate ?? with a precision of 5 per cent and observations of 1000 lenses would be enough to estimate w, the parameter in the equation of state of dark energy, with a precision similar to that obtained from the Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background. While the fraction of submillimetre sources that are lensed depends weakly on the specific halo mass function that is used in the model, it depends very strongly on the evolution of the submillimetre luminosity function of the source population. Therefore measurements of the lensing fraction could be used to investigate galaxy evolution in a way that is independent of the properties of the intervening haloes.

Eales, S. A.

2015-01-01

366

Descriptive Inquiry as Contemplative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon and integrates a number of distinct but overlapping areas of inquiry in the literature on teaching: teacher inquiry, reflective practice, spirituality and education, and contemplative practice. In it, we examine the implementation of a particular phenomenological form of teacher inquiry, the Descriptive Review, in an urban…

Kesson, Kathleen; Traugh, Cecelia; Perez, Felix, III

2006-01-01

367

Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

Hough, David L., Ed.

2010-01-01

368

Deliberate Practice in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deliberate practice is increasingly recognised as necessary for professional development. This paper sets out to explore in what ways student teachers' learning activities in a teacher education programme can be characterised as deliberate practice. Based on an in-depth exploration of 574 learning activities, our results highlight the…

Bronkhorst, Larike H.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Koster, Bob; Vermunt, Jan D.

2014-01-01

369

Getting Practical--The Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from the Improving Practical Work in Science (IPWiS) evaluation suggest that the project can, and did, bring about noticeable improvements in the effectiveness of practical work in school science. However, the extent of these improvements varied widely and appeared to be dependent on the departmental seniority of the person…

Abrahams, Ian; Reiss, Michael J.; Sharpe, Rachael

2011-01-01

370

Best Practices in Business Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended to give business teachers a few best practice ideas. Section 1 presents an overview of best practice and a chart detailing the instructional levels, curricular areas, and main competencies addressed in the 26 papers in Section 2. The titles and authors of the papers included in Section 2 are as follows: "A Software Tool…

Briggs, Dianna, Ed.

371

Cognitive practices and cognitive character  

Microsoft Academic Search

The argument of this paper is that we should think of the extension of cognitive abilities and cognitive character in integrationist terms. Cognitive abilities are extended by acquired practices of creating and manipulating information that is stored in a publicly accessible environment. I call these cognitive practices (2007). In contrast to Pritchard (2010) I argue that such processes are integrated

Richard Menary

2012-01-01

372

COMPARING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES UNDER  

E-print Network

COMPARING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES UNDER COMMUNITY-BASED AND CONVENTIONAL TENURES IN BRITISH: Comparing forest management practices under community-based and conventional tenures in British Columbia of community forestry, I used multiple types of data to compare five community forests to geographically

373

In Defense of a Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some athletics officials worry that, on many campuses, male practice players are taking opportunities away from female athletes. In an effort to try keeping second-string players off the sidelines, the NCAA's Committee on Women's Athletics has recommended banning male practice players in all women's sports. The proposal has touched off a fierce…

Lipka, Sara

2007-01-01

374

Elastic Practice in academic developers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic developer’s role is the focus of a growing body of literature. This paper builds on that literature by arguing the importance to current practice of making our theoretical underpinnings explicit. We excise and describe fragments of practice from the work of individual academic developers in order to discuss and consider the relationship between particular theories of Academic Development

Anna L. Carew; Geraldine Lefoe; Maureen Bell; Lenore Armour

2008-01-01

375

How To Make Innovations Practical  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: A fundamental tension has long existed between school reform proposals and actual teaching practice. Despite a large literature on teacher change, the discontinuity between innovation and practice continues and many attempts to reform teaching fail to be enacted in most classrooms. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…

Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter; van Driel, Jan

2013-01-01

376

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

Supervisors · Identify research projects and experiments that use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or where H2S mayCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE Rev January 2013 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas or where hydrogen

Machel, Hans

377

Wanted: Internationally Appropriate Best Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of international perspectives in designing and promoting educational innovation and reform, cultural and financial limitations of imposing western special education inclusion principles and practices on developing countries, and special education practices in China, Vietnam, and Costa Rica. (Contains 2…

Meyer, Luanna H.

2003-01-01

378

PS MUSIC LAB PS PRACTICE  

E-print Network

) PS FACULTY (GP) PS LARGE RECORDING PS SMALL RECORDING SOUND LOCK PS CONTROL ROOM LACTATION ROOM SUPPORT PS INSTRUMENT STORAGE PS PRACTICE PS PRACTICE SOUND LOCK SOUND LOCK PS FACULTY (GP) PS FACULTY (UP COSTUME SHOP SOUND / LIGHT LOCK MEZZANINE ACCESS SOUND / LIGHT LOCK BLACK BOX THEATRE THAR SCENE SHOP

Bermúdez, José Luis

379

Hippocrates on Ethical Practice Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's society, it seems that there is a tension between successful practice management and ethical practice behavior. The doctor-patient relationship that is based on trust should be esteemed and preserved in our society. We should consider dedicating ourselves to the preservation of a trusted doctor-patient relationship. (J Chiropr Humanit 2004;11:44-48)

William E. Morgan

380

Nutrition Practices of Older Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify nutrition practices of older athletes that may affect competitive performance and reflect nutrition misinformation. Statewide Senior Games participants (n=100) were surveyed on dietary practices, supplement use and sources of nutrition information. The survey instrument was previewed by an exercise physiologist and gerontology RD for content validity and pretested in a seniors exercise

A. K. Black; R. A. Glass

1998-01-01

381

Practice Effects in Backward Masking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments we demonstrate that much larger practice effects occur in a backward masking paradigm where patterned masks are used than in similar visual processing paradigms, such as lateral masking and whole report. In additional experiments we examine four possible explanations for the large practice effects: increased familiarity with the paradigm in general, learning about the targets, learning about

George Wolford; Frank Marchak; Howard Hughes

1988-01-01

382

Education as Initiation into Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Paul Smeyers and Nicholas Burbules reexamine the concept of "practice" and propose a new way of conceiving it that does justice to the idea that education is in some sense an initiation into practices without endorsing either the conservative and reproductive conception of what initiation entails or the radically social…

Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

2006-01-01

383

Thinning Practice A Silvicultural Guide  

E-print Network

Thinning Practice A Silvicultural Guide Version 1.0 January 2011 By Gary Kerr and Jens Haufe #12;Thinning Practice A Silvicultural Guide Version 1.0 Page 2 28 January 2011 Contents 1. Introduction............................................................................5 1.1 Why thin? ­ Thinning and management objectives..................5 1.2 What type of stand

384

Tiagabine in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Among the newly introduced antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), tiagabine (TGB) stands out as a compound with a well-understood and documented mechanism of action. It is a lipophilic derivative of nipecotic acid that blocks gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake by inhibition of the GAT-1 transportation system, and that has no other significant pharmacodynamic effect. The relationship between intake and blood levels is linear. Usual daily maintenance doses range from 20 to 50 mg. It is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and its half-life is approximately 7-9 h. TGB is sensitive to enzyme induction: when coprescribed with enzyme-inducing AEDs, its half-life is shortened to 2-3 h, whereas the daily dosage has to be increased into the upper range. It should be given 3 times per day. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, add-on studies conducted in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies have demonstrated its efficacy and overall safety. The clinical benefits appear to persist over time. Data on its use in monotherapy are scanty. The efficacy and tolerability of TGB in the pediatric age still remain to be investigated adequately. In daily practice, TGB appears to be a safe drug, but mild to moderate side effects are frequently seen, especially during titration: these include dizziness and fatigue, and are clearly abated when the drug is absorbed during meals. Titration should be especially slow, no faster than 5 mg weekly. Clinicians also should beware of the possible occurrence of confusion, which may be misdiagnosed as absence status, a short-lasting, quickly reversible central nervous system-related side effect that appears to be correlated with the peak plasma concentrations of TGB. Particularly beneficial indications for TGB and/or AED associations including TGB have not been pointed out, but there is a hint that it works best in temporal lobe epilepsies. PMID:11520322

Genton, P; Guerrini, R; Perucca, E

2001-01-01

385

Software ``Best'' Practices: Agile Deconstructed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software “best” practices depend entirely on context - in terms of the problem domain, the system constructed, the software designers, and the “customers” ultimately deriving value from the system. Agile practices no longer have the luxury of “choosing” small non-mission critical projects with co-located teams. Project stakeholders are selecting and adapting practices based on a combina tion of interest, need and staffing. For example, growing product portfolios through a merger or the acquisition of a company exposes legacy systems to new staff, new software integration challenges, and new ideas. Innovation in communications (tools and processes) to span the growth and contraction of both information and organizations, while managing the adoption of changing software practices, is imperative for success. Traditional web-based tools such as web pages, document libraries, and forums are not suf ficient. A blend of tweeting, blogs, wikis, instant messaging, web-based confer encing, and telepresence creates a new dimension of communication “best” practices.

Fraser, Steven

386

Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 ?m) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

2015-03-01

387

The Amount of Practice Really Matters: Specificity of Practice May Be Valid Only after Sufficient Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies investigating the specificity hypothesis have not always demonstrated that reliance on a specific source of feedback increases with practice. The goal of the present study was to address this inconsistency by having participants practice a throwing task with or without vision at incremental levels (10, 50, 100, or 200 acquisition trials).…

Krigolson, Olav E.; Tremblay, Luc

2009-01-01

388

Practice Experiences at a Single Institutional Practice Site to Improve Advanced Pharmacy Practice Examination Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance. PMID:24761021

Britton, Mark L.; Wheeler, Richard E.; Carter, Sandra M.

2014-01-01

389

Satellite Mission Operations Best Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort of compiling a collection of Best Practices for use in Space Mission Operations was initiated within a subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Space Operations and Support Technical Committee (SOSTC). The idea was to eventually post a collection of Best Practices on a website so as to make them available to the general Space Operations community. The effort of searching for available Best Practices began in the fall of 1999. As the search progressed, it became apparent that there were not many Best Practices developed that were available to the general community. Therefore, the subcommittee decided to use the SOSTC Annual Workshop on Reducing Space Mission Costs as a forum for developing Best Practices for our purpose of sharing them with a larger audience. A dedicated track at the April 2000 workshop was designed to stimulate discussions on developing such Best Practices and forming working groups made up of experienced people from various organizations to perform the development. These groups were solicited to help outside the workshop to bring this effort to fruition. Since that time, biweekly teleconferences have been held to discuss the development of the Best Practices and their posting.

Galal, Ken; Hogan, Roger P. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

390

Prayer practices among young adults.  

PubMed

Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included. PMID:21037458

Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

2010-01-01

391

The Canadian Family Practice Accoucheur  

PubMed Central

Family practice obstetrics is strongly influenced by demography and marketing. The falling birth rate is leading to a surplus of caregivers who may inappropriately apply their technical skills to a population of low-risk pregnant women. This in turn may lead to a ‘cascade’ of negative consequences for the normal, child-bearing public. The family practice accoucheur has a key role to play as an advocate of high quality, humanistic maternity care. Training programs must address the academic base of family practice obstetrics through direct teaching, role modelling, research, and quality assurance. PMID:21267147

Klein, Michael

1986-01-01

392

Scope of practice: freedom within limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Scope of practice” has a variety of meanings amongst midwives, other health professionals, health organizations, and consumers of midwifery care. For some, it refers to the Standards for the Practice of Midwifery; for others, it encompasses the legal base of practice; still others equate it with the components of the clinical parameters of practice. Because “scope of practice” is dynamic

Kerri D Schuiling; Joani Slager

2000-01-01

393

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

394

The Journal of Doctoral Nursing Practice  

E-print Network

of practice, standards and competencies for the advanced practice nurse, ICN regulation series. GenevaThe Journal of Doctoral Nursing Practice CSRClinical Scholars Review www practice, A Nurse Practitioner / Advanced Practice Nurse is a registered nurse who has acquired the expert

Grishok, Alla

395

Simple Practical Investigations Using Invertase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three activities, substrate inhibition, product inhibition by fructose and glucose, and gel immobilization of invertase for use with undergraduate biochemistry classes. Discusses materials, methods, and results. Stresses the advantages of practical exercises in undergraduate classes. (CW)

Asare-Brown, Emma; Bullock, Clive

1988-01-01

396

Implementation of Boiler Best Practices  

E-print Network

Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient, economical operation can significantly affect the reliability and profitability of the entire plant. Best Practices for Boilers include tools to determine where a plant...

Blake, N. R.

397

GIS Guide to Good Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK's Arts and Humanities Data Service, a project of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), has recently made available the GIS Guide to Good Practice, the first of a series of Guides to Good Practice. These Guides are intended to "provid[e] the humanities research and teaching communities with practical instruction in applying recognized standards and good practice to the creation and use of digital resources." The first guide covers GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and its relationship to archaeology, as well as interdisciplinary studies. The guide is divided into six major topics, including types and documentation of data, structuring information, and archiving datasets. A substantial selected bibliography and glossary accompany the guide, making it an even more valuable resource.

1998-01-01

398

Online Active Learning in Practice  

E-print Network

We compare the practical performance of several recently proposed algorithms for active learning in the online setting. We consider two algorithms (and their combined variants) that are strongly online, in that they do ...

Monteleoni, Claire

2007-01-23

399

Preparation for Advanced Nursing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lehman College's graduate nursing program uses theory-based courses to prepare advanced nurse practitioners. Students increase scholarly inquiry skills and clinical decision making; use of nursing conceptual models helped them plan and evaluate their practice. (SK)

Frik, Seigina M.; Pollock, Susan E.

1993-01-01

400

Advanced Policy Practice Spring 2014  

E-print Network

policies within the frameworks of evidence-based practice and critical thinking course that focuses on the theory and evidence-based skill sets of policy actions to accomplish evidence-based policy outcomes. V. Course Rationale

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

401

Practical Portfolio Optimization [rev. 7].  

E-print Network

“There is some evidence that a number of experienced investment ... Standard MV Optimizers ignore some important constraints that apply in practice. ... these are the potential costs of holding a supposedly optimal portfolio based as it is on a ...

Isaac Siwale

2014-12-22

402

JOINT NOTICE OF PRIVACY PRACTICES  

E-print Network

JOINT NOTICE OF PRIVACY PRACTICES THIS NOTICE DESCRIBES HOW MEDICAL INFORMATION ABOUT YOU MAY disclosure of your immunization data to the Wisconsin Immunization Registry. A request for restriction should

403

Behavior Modification: Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to give some idea of how reinforcement and other learning principles work in practice with students in ordinary schools by using as reference three workshops for teachers run by educational psychologists in Birmingham in 1975. (Author/RK)

Presland, John

1978-01-01

404

Practical Guide to Estate Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical Guide to Estate Planning provides an overview of estate planning, offering the widest variety of discussion on planning principles and tools from the simple to the sophisticated. Practical Guide to Estate Planning is now available in an eBook format which you can download to your computer instantly.\\u000aThis book is not lacking in detail, as witnessed by its well-annotated

Ray D Madoff; Cornelia R Tenney; Martin A Hall; Lisa N Mingolla

2011-01-01

405

Department Head Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences  

E-print Network

Department Head Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences College of Pharmacy University of Minnesota Duluth, Minnesota Campus The College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice head will have responsibility for all aspects of the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical

Thomas, David D.

406

Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice Center  

E-print Network

Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice Center In An Emergency: Equipment & Supplies List for Food Vietnamese.................................12 #12;Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice Center Funded Offsite cold storage options (contact info for truck, warehouse) #12;Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice

407

Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

2012-01-01

408

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2012-10-01

409

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2014-10-01

410

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2013-10-01

411

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2010-10-01

412

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2011-10-01

413

Status of Reforested Mine Sites in Southwestern Indiana  

E-print Network

sites. Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) dominated 18 percent of the sites and made up 14 percent of all tallied trees and shrubs. Both black locust and green ash are still widely planted in reclamation borer. Where black locust and green ash comprise a large proportion of the stand, long-term forest

414

Promoting biodiversity: advances in evaluating native species for reforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the potential of native tropical hardwoods for forestry development, 84 timber species were tested in a species screening trial in Costa Rica; 17 were widely planted tropical exotics, 52 were locally indigenous, and 15 were native to other areas of Costa Rica. A complete randomized block design was used with single tree plots replicated 24 times per site.

Rebecca P. Butterfield

1995-01-01

415

Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

. Vochysia guatemalensis 3. Stryphnodendron microstachium 4. Hymenolobium mesoamericanum 5 . Termi nali a i vorensi s 6. Terminalia amazonia 7. Jacaranda copaia 8. Rollinia microsepala 9. Dipteryx panamensis 10. Genipa americana 11. Laetia procera 12...

Toness, Anna Sutherland

2012-06-07

416

MINISITE PREPARATION FOR REFORESTATION OF STRIP-MINED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that site preparation of a minisite (20x60 cm cylinder) would be effective in promoting seedling survival and growth and still save considerable cost compared to area-wide site preparation. Spoil within the cylinder was mixed wi...

417

REFORESTATION TECHNIQUES IN COGONGRASS (IMPERATA CYLINDRICA) INFESTED AREAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is a non-native, invasive weed that is disrupting economically and ecologically important plant communities in the southeastern United States. Cogongrass is invading forest lands, especially those growing loblolly pine (Pinus teada L.) plantations. Thes...

418

Analytical conceptual plan to reforest central Himalaya for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Himalayan region is suffering from severe ecological problems as a consequence of deforestation and that threatens\\u000a the subsistence population of the region. We analyze this problem and propose a plan for ecologically sustainable development\\u000a for the region based on an analysis of the interrelationships of various ecosystems, particularly cropland and forest ecosystems,\\u000a around which most human activities are

Surendra P. Singh; Jamuna S. Singh

1991-01-01

419

Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

420

The prospect of solving the COâ problem through global reforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One short-term approach to limit the increase in atmospheric COâ would be to stimulate the growth of forests to take up in woody matter enough carbon to balance the discharge of COâ from fossil fuel burning. This study evaluated the extent to which the area and\\/or net growth rate (mean annual increment) of global forests would need to be enhanced

Greg Marland

1988-01-01

421

Mapping burns and natural reforestation using thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing techniques are specially suitable to detect and to map areas affected by forest fires. In this work, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data has been used to study a number of forest fires that occurred in the province of Valencia (Spain) and to monitor the vegetation regeneration over burnt areas.A reference area (non?burnt forest) was established to assess

M. J. López García; V. Caselles

1991-01-01

422

Early species selection for tropical reforestation: A consideration of stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Third year growth data from a species screening trial established by the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) at the La Selva Biological Station in Puerto Viejo, Heredia, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica from 1987 to 1990 serve as the basis for analysis. Both exotic and native timber species were tested for survival, growth, and form.The species x site sum of squares was

Rebecca P. Butterfield

1996-01-01

423

Expanding options for reforestation of the Cumberland Plateau  

SciTech Connect

Stems of d.b.h. 4 inches or greater in a low quality stand in Tennessee dominated by white and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) were sheared in September-November 1976, chipped, and removed. Sawtimber quality trees (30) in the 37-acre area were felled separately by conventional methods. Residual trees (2-3 inches d.b.h., ht. over 4.5 ft) in some areas were injected with herbicide. One-acre plots were planted with 1+0 loblolly pine, 2+0 white pine (Pinus strobus), or 1+0 yellow poplar, or left to regenerate naturally. After 2 years, survival of all trees was good (83% or over) and average height of loblolly pine, yellow poplar and desirable natural stems (white, scarlet or black oak, Quercus velutina) was 3.3 ft, significantly different from that of white pine (1.5 ft). It is concluded that poor quality stands can be cheaply improved by this method, although release from competing vegetation may be necessary, especially in the case of white pine.

McGee, C.E.

1980-01-01

424

28 CFR 42.409 - Employment practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Employment practices. 42.409 Section... NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Coordination...Assisted Programs § 42.409 Employment practices....

2011-07-01

425

28 CFR 42.409 - Employment practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Employment practices. 42.409 Section... NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Coordination...Assisted Programs § 42.409 Employment practices....

2010-07-01

426

Teaching reflective practice in practice settings: students' perceptions of their clinical educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice potential not being realised. This study explored final year physiotherapy students' perceptions of clinical educators as

Franziska Trede; Megan Smith

2012-01-01

427

[Websites of dental practices evaluated].  

PubMed

In 2013, a dental practice without a website is almost unthinkable. Using a sample of309 dentists drawn from the list of members of the Dutch Dental Association in 2012, a study was carried out to find out whether the dental practice of the general dental practitioner had a website. The content of each website was subsequently inventoried using a questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent of the dental practices had a website. The content of the websites, however, varied enormously. An element such as the professional registration number with a reference to the professional register were absent in 73% of the websites and the date of the most recent update of the website was mentioned only once. The name of the dentist, his or her professional qualification and an email address were missing on respectively 9%, 20% and 9% of the websites. Contracts of the practice with insurance companies were rarely clearly indicated. The websites of many practices would benefit considerably from a significant improvement. PMID:24881254

Poorterman, J H G; Tjiook, S P; Moeijes, S F S; Brand, H S

2014-05-01

428

Teaching biology with engineering practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) expresses a vision of science education that requires students to not only have an understanding of science concepts but be able to investigate the natural world through process of science inquiry or to solve meaningful problems though the practices of engineering design. While incorporating engineering practices into our science curriculum will soon be requirement of the new state standards, there is little research published as to how this should be implemented in a biology classroom. The goal of this study was to measure the effectiveness of incorporating engineering design into a biology curriculum on student understanding of engineering practices and science content knowledge. The results of this study indicate that the integration of engineering design in a biology curriculum has a positive effect on student's science content knowledge as well as their understanding of engineering design principles.

Potter, Stephen

429

The choice of practice location.  

PubMed

A ten per cent sample survey of all general practitioners in England and Wales in 1969-70 included two questions about the choice of practice location. The most common reasons given were the absence of any real alternatives (in the immediate post-war period), the influence of family or friends, the existence of medical contacts in the area, and favourable points about the practice itself.In considering possible future moves, general practitioners would pay closest attention to the educational facilities of an area, its rural or coastal location, its social and cultural amenities, and the practice conditions. The conclusion is drawn that financial incentives are unlikely to contribute much towards a more equal distribution of general-practitioner manpower. More thought should be given to recruitment to the medical profession in under-doctored areas through the development of the highest professional standards and facilities in such places. PMID:1195223

Butler, J R; Knight, R

1975-07-01

430

Optimizing Distributed Practice: Theoretical Analysis and Practical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary,…

Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Mozer, Michael C,; Pashler, Harold

2009-01-01

431

Private Practice: Exploring the Missing Social Dimension in "Reflective Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In professional education today, Schon's concept of "reflective practice" underpins much thinking about learning at work. This approach--with its emphasis on the inner life of the professional and on her own interpretations of her learning experiences--is increasingly being challenged: often cited objections are that the model ignores factors like…

Kotzee, Ben

2012-01-01

432

Learning about Practice from Practice: A Peer-Based Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recommendation from the Social Work Task Force was that all employers of social workers should conduct a regular "health check" of the social work profession to learn from practice as part of a continuous cycle of improvement. This article documents how the London Borough of Tower Hamlets has gone about this. I describe the…

Stanley, Tony

2014-01-01

433

Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

434

Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Buzz Words or Best Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) concerns teaching techniques which identify and foster developmental needs of children individually and in groups from birth to age 8. In a DAP classroom, play is a central focus, as it enables children to make sense of their world, develops social and cultural understanding, and fosters flexible and…

Smrekar, Jocelynn; Hansen, Andrea

1998-01-01

435

Evaluation of objective structured practical examination and traditional practical examination.  

PubMed

To evaluate the competency of Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) as an assessment technique compared to Traditional Practical Examination (TDPE) in assessment of laboratory component of physiology, the results of Physiology practical examination of 400 students from 4 Medical Colleges, two Government and two non Government (Dhaka Medical College, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh Medical College, Uttara Women's Medical College) under Dhaka University were studied. Students' performance in OSPE and TDPE was compared. Mean score obtained in OSPE was 77.72+/-0.66 and found significantly higher than that for TDPE (64.44+/-0.61). Again mean scores achieved in OSPE were compared among different Medical Colleges and significant difference was noted. In OSPE, male students achieved significantly higher score than that of female students, especially in responding question station. The outcome of the present study thus indicates that OSPE is a better choice as an assessment technique over the Traditional method measuring wide range of practical skill. It may be concluded that it is important for competency based performance discrimination and it also helps improving students performance quality in laboratory exercise. PMID:17344771

Rahman, N; Ferdousi, S; Hoq, N; Amin, R; Kabir, J

2007-01-01

436

AHDS Guides to Good Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service Project, this Guide to Good Practice covers computer-aided design (CAD). It is a free online handbook "for individuals and organisations involved in the creation, maintenance, use, and long-term preservation of CAD-based digital resources in the humanities." Rather than focusing on a specific software application and situation, the guide discusses a wide range of CAD tools and practices, offering an introduction upon which CAD users can build. The seven chapters describe hardware and software choices, data capturing and documentation, and archiving processes.

Eiteljorg, Harrison.; Fernie, Kate.; Huggett, Jeremy.; Robinson, Damian.

2002-01-01

437

Practicing ethics: where's the action?  

PubMed

Kass uses the occasion of the Hastings Center's 20th anniversary to critique contemporary bioethics. He describes what he terms seven "dominant fashions" in the modern practice of ethics that he believes have resulted in a theoretical and rationalistic approach with grave weaknesses. He raises questions about the relationship between moral theory and moral action, and about the nature and formation of a moral life. In discussing the future work of the Hastings Center, Kass calls for less thinking about doctrine and principles and more thinking about education and institutions, particularly those involved with medical practice. PMID:2312273

Kass, L R

1990-01-01

438

The Joy of Family Practice  

PubMed Central

Many family physicians have written about how they influence, nurture, and empower people in their communities of practice. In this essay, the author writes of the personal joys that family medicine has brought him. An expression of his appreciation for his work as a family doctor, it touches on 6 themes that continue to rejuvenate his practice: love, faith, mystery, place, dance, and medicine. By examining the emotional and psychological dimensions of these themes, he offers a path by which other family physicians may be able to find sustenance and joy in their daily work. PMID:22585892

Ventres, William

2012-01-01

439

Mentoring Practices Benefiting Pediatric Nurses.  

PubMed

Previous studies examining predictors of pediatric nurse protégé mentoring benefits demonstrated that protégé perception of quality was the single best predictor of mentoring benefits. The ability to identify the mentoring practices that predict specific benefits for individual nurses provides a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations promoting mutual mentoring benefits. This descriptive correlational, non-experimental study of nurses at a northeast Ohio, Magnet® recognized, free-standing pediatric hospital advances nursing science by demonstrating how mentoring practices benefit pediatric nurse protégés. PMID:25128577

Weese, Meghan M; Jakubik, Louise D; Eliades, Aris B; Huth, Jennifer J

2014-07-31

440

Organising communities-of-practice: facilitating emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The notion of communities of practice (CoP) has received great attention in educational and organisational practice and research. Although the concept originally refers to collaborative practices that emerge naturally, educational and HRD practitioners are increasingly searching for ways to create these practices intentionally in order to stimulate learning and professional development in specific fields. This paper aims to

Sanne Akkerman; Christian Petter; Maarten de Laat

2008-01-01

441

Chapter One: What Is Discursive Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practice is not meant to be understood as the opposite of theory, DeKeyser wrote; instead, practice involves specific activities in an L2 that learners engage in, deliberately, with the goal of developing knowledge of and skills in the L2. In the book "Discursive Practice in Language Learning and Teaching," by "practice" the author means something…

Young, Richard F.

2008-01-01

442

Resources to Manage a Private Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to Enhance Private Practice Management…

Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

1997-01-01

443

Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification  

E-print Network

Module: Evidence Based Practice Module Specification KEY FACTS Module Code: RCM005 Department: Evidence Based Practice Summary Description Evidence based practice is an approach to clinical problem solving and health care provision based on "good evidence". The purpose of evidence based practice

Weyde, Tillman

444

Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

2009-01-01

445

Doctor of Nursing Practice Student Outcomes  

E-print Network

as the basis for advanced level nursing practice. 2. Develop and evaluate new practice approaches based the evaluation of evidence to determine and implement best practice. 5. Function as a practice specialist, and accountability in designing, delivering, and evaluating evidence-based care to improve patient outcomes. 10

Sheridan, Jennifer

446

Good Practice case studies New Forest District  

E-print Network

Good Practice case studies MOSAIC New Forest District 1. Protected Characteristic category Race://www.mosaicnationalparks.org/ 1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 #12;Good Practice case studies 2 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 visits to key FC recreational

447

Contemplative Practices in Human Services Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter explores the correlation between human services practice and stress and examines the use of contemplative practices in the classroom as a way to teach self-care. The chapter also discusses ways in which contemplative practices can be incorporated as a critical component of human services education. Examples include stillness practices…

Griswold, Jacqueline M.

2010-01-01

448

Hybrid Discourse Practice and Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report on a study of how creative linguistic practices (which we call "hybrid discourse practices") were enacted by students in a fifth-grade science unit on barn owls and how these practices helped to produce a synergistic micro-community of scientific practice in the classroom that constituted a fertile space for students…

Kamberelis, George; Wehunt, Mary D.

2012-01-01

449

Nursing Practice Models: Implications for IS Design  

PubMed Central

Nursing Practice Models describe the structural and contextual features of nursing practice environments. They offer direction in the design of information systems for practice. As part of a larger study, using a modified Delphi process, an expert panel identified 11 higher order factors characterizing and addressing the communication demands, scope of practice and nature of interdisciplinary collaboration needed for contemporary practice. These factors provide a model that IS design and implementation teams can use to specify features of the clinical practice environment that IS applications should support. Support for this work came from a grant, Variations in Nursing Practice Models, M Anthony, PI (NR 8723).

Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Anthony, Mary

1997-01-01

450

CLOUD SERVICES CODE OF PRACTICE  

E-print Network

Web 2.0 or social media applications and services often have storage capability. Whilst ­ RHUL Code of Practice October2012 Introduction The University is currently considering its policy Protection Act (DPA) 1998; ii. Confidential to the University or a third party; iii. Of such criticality

Royal Holloway, University of London

451

Contemplative Practice in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume has offered both the theory and practice for a model of contemplative teaching and learning in community colleges--a way of teaching, of learning, of thinking that has often been missing in higher education. Contemplative teaching and learning, with its focus on community, reflection, and mindfulness--in short, on what it means to be…

Kroll, Keith

2010-01-01

452

Practical Applications of Space Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report gives an overview of a study conducted by the Space Applications Board (SAB) on the practical applications of space systems. In this study, the SAB considered how the nation's space capability might be used to solve problems such as the shortage of food and energy; the improvement of the physical environment; inventorying and…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

453

Publications Aquaculture: Principles, Practices, and  

E-print Network

Publications Aquaculture: Principles, Practices, and Disease Controls Are Published "Principles of Warmwater Aquaculture" by Robert R. Stickney, has been published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. as an introductory text. As such, it examines various subject areas of aquaculture and provides concepts

454

Academics and Practical Geographic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An internship program is described in which geography undergraduates and graduate students receive on-the-job career training as well as academic training. This particular program was begun in 1969 at San Diego State University to help geography students relate their academic training to practical job experiences and to help them obtain meaningful…

Heiges, Harvey E.

455

Progressions and Sums Putnam Practice  

E-print Network

Progressions and Sums Putnam Practice October 6, 2004 An arithmetic progression is a sequence progression. 6. Show that if a, b, c are positive numbers such that a2, b2, c2 are in arithmetic progression, then 1 b + c , 1 c + a , 1 a + b are in arithmetic progression. 2 #12;

Albert, John

456

The performance prism in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and illustrates the practical application of a new measurement framework – The Performance Prism – which addresses the shortcomings of many of the traditional measurement frameworks being used by organisations today. The Performance Prism, with its comprehensive stakeholder orientation, encourages executives to consider the wants and needs of all the organisation’s stakeholders, rather than a subset, as

Andy Neely; Chris Adams; Paul Crowe

2001-01-01

457

The Social Work Practice Doctorate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a systematic review of the emerging practice doctorate in social work. Based on the experience of the first such Doctor of Social Work (DSW) program, we provide information regarding the program origins and rationale, development, current structure, and future direction. Such information will enrich the discussion on the role…

Hartocollis, Lina; Cnaan, Ram A.; Ledwith, Kate

2014-01-01

458

Nutritional Support of Medical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to assemble for the medical practitioner in the developed countries those features of nutritional science which are clearly useful and clinically applicable in day-to-day medical practice. The book contains 32 chapters structured into three parts. After a brief description from the viewpoint of human biology, the first main…

Schneider, Howard A., Ed.; And Others

459

Practical Markov Chain Monte Carlo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Markov chain Monte Carlo using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a general method for the simulation of stochastic processes having probability densities known up to a constant of proportionality. Despite recent advances in its theory, the practice has remained controversial. This article makes the case for basing all inference on one long run of the Markov chain and estimating the Monte

Charles J. Geyer

1992-01-01

460

Family Participation: DEC Recommended Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper lists practices recommended by the Council for Exceptional Children's Division for Early Childhood in the area of family participation in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs for infants and young children with special needs and their families. An introduction to the quality indicators points out…

Vincent, Lisbeth J.; Beckett, Julie Ann

461

Best Practices in ELL Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, prominent authorities review the latest research on all aspects of ELL instruction (K-12) and identify what works for today's students and schools. Provided are best-practice guidelines for targeting reading, writing, oral language, vocabulary, content-domain literacies, and other core skill areas; assessing culturally and…

Li, Guofang, Ed.; Edwards, Patricia A., Ed.

2010-01-01

462

Linking HRD Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on linking human resource development (HRD) theory and practice. "Reorienting the Theoretical Foundations of Human Resource Development: Building a Sustainable Profession and Society" (Tim Hatcher) examines the theoretical disciplines of economics, general systems, sociology, psychology, and ethics in…

1999

463

Paradigm Shifts: Considerations for Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In part one, changes in counseling theory from the perspectives of the self-organization paradigm, quantum theory, and sex-role development are discussed. In part two, the change structure of counseling practice is discussed, including articles on uses of imagery, dream therapy, metaphors, learning style, voluntary self-regulation, and…

Newton, Fred B.; Caple, Richard B. (Eds.)

1985-01-01

464

Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

2011-01-01

465

Mr. Martini's Classroom - Math Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mr. Martini's Classroom is designed to give elementary-school students the opportunity to practice and reinforce math skills online. The whole spectrum of K-8 math topics is covered - multiplication, division, fractions, decimals, geometry, pre-algebra, and kids math facts. Online tools include math flash cards and self-correcting quick quizzes. There are also printable math worksheets.

466

Practice Theory in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…

Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

2013-01-01

467

Practical surface acoustic wave devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tutorial discussion is presented on selected surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices for the use of engineers and electronic systems designers. Currently practical components for use in radar systems, communications systems, and as frequency domain filters are described. Emphasis is placed on nondispersive and dispersive delay lines, devices for generating and detecting various radar waveforms, devices for generating and detecting

MELVIN G. HOLLAND; LEWIS T. CLAIBORNE

1974-01-01

468

Common Practices in Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…

Johanson, Karl M., Ed.

469

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

A Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania, additional assistance is also available. Local county conservation districts and the USDA's Natural Resources

Kaye, Jason P.

470

Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as

Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

1995-01-01

471

Open Educational Resources and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at what constitutes an open educational resource and considers the issues and benefits to an educational institution that is moving to participate in open educational resource development and to adopt more open educational practices. It describes the initial steps in these directions being made by the Educational Development…

Blackall, Leigh

2008-01-01

472

Practical realization of DB metasurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, experimental realization of recently proposed DB metasurface is presented. A compact DB unit cell is proposed and its operating principle is tested both numerically and experimentally. Practical realization of a single layer DB metasurface, composed of 16 DB unit cells, is presented. Prototyped DB metasurface was measured in a waveguide environment and obtained experimental results support theoretically predicted DB properties.

Zaluški, Davor; Hrabar, Silvio; Muha, Damir

2014-06-01

473

PHPUnit in Practice Scott Grant  

E-print Network

PHPUnit in Practice Scott Grant #12;What is Systematic Testing? · Systematic Testing · An explicit discipline or procedure (a system) for: · choosing and creating test cases · executing the tests testing) #12;PHPUnit · A programmer-oriented testing framework for PHP · Provides a framework for creating

Cordy, James R.

474

A practical gated expert network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in training multilayer networks for strongly nonlinear problems has led some researchers to propose the gated expert networks. The idea is based on having several local “expert networks”, where each learns a particular region of the input space. A “gating network” combines the outputs of the expert networks to produce the final output. We propose a practical gated expert

A. Atiya; R. Aiyad; S. Shaheen

1998-01-01

475

Exploring into Teacher's Specialized Practicality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher specialization is a subject with very strong practicality as regards its essence. This paper analyzes the main problems of the existing teacher professionalism, poses and argues the 3 hypotheses of teacher professionalism. Around the reality of teacher professionalism, the author brings forward and establishes a new teacher evaluation…

Tian, Lian-jin

2010-01-01

476

Theory into Practice Goes Exactly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Dimensions of possible variation" is a phrase that now occupies a safe place in the literature describing the application of education theory to education practice: "asking yourself what could be changed [in the task], while using the same approach or technique, opens up dimensions of possible variation. A set of exercises forming a sequence of…

Griffiths, Jonny

2007-01-01

477

Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

Goodheart, Carol D.

2011-01-01

478

Parent Involvement as Ritualized Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual…

Doucet, Fabienne

2011-01-01

479

Risk and Social Work Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment and risk management have emerged as central organising principles for an increasing number of health and welfare programs. As a consequence, the language, technologies and imperatives of risk have assumed considerable prominence in the practice of many social workers. The present paper addresses three significant and contemporary explanations for the rise of risk in the day-to-day work of

David Green

2007-01-01

480

Best Management Practices Water Quality  

E-print Network

Rank Rivers Lakes Estuaries 1 Agricultural Agricultural Urban runoff 2 Municipal point sources Municipal point sources Municipal point sources 3 Stream/ habitat changes Urban runoff Agricultural ThreeBest Management Practices (BMP) for Water Quality How Land Treatment Can Protect Water Quality? #12

Mukhtar, Saqib

481

Practical Reasoning in Corrections Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explains the six tasks involved in practical reasoning and describes a research project that centered around teaching a six-week course in critical thinking to inmates at a medium security prison in an attempt to determine the feasibility of implementing a moral education program in correctional institutions. (SB)

LaBar, C.; And Others

1983-01-01

482

Practicing Hospitality in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores pedagogical approaches to teaching students how to practice hospitality toward the other. Using case examples from the college classroom, the authors discuss the roots of Christian hospitality and educational theory on transformative learning to explore how students experience engaging with others after they have…

Burwell, Rebecca; Huyser, Mackenzi

2013-01-01

483

Reading Practices in Singapore Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted a pilot questionnaire study on Singaporean family reading practices. Found that in the majority of homes, the mother initiated reading of mostly fictional material borrowed from public libraries. Reading aloud to children occurred in about one-third of homes, with direct reading instruction occurring in over two-thirds of families. Found…

Mee, Cheah Yin; Gan, Linda

1998-01-01

484

Optimizing Java Theory and Practice  

E-print Network

Optimizing Java Theory and Practice Zoran Budimlic Ken Kennedy Rice University Computer Science popularity of the Internet has made an instant star of the Java programming language. Java's portability Java implementation, even with just­in­time compilation technology, is far behind the most popular

Budimliæ, Zoran

485

Best Practice Guidelines IT DIVISION  

E-print Network

processes are preserved and improved rather than replaced. Good process and documentation practices help with similar scope, allowing the documentation and process to become easier for everyone over time. 6. Present document is a draft document which need value addition. It is expected that through a consultative process

Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

486

Distribution Theory Practice Exam 2011  

E-print Network

Distribution Theory Practice Exam 2011 April 7, 2011 Assume 40-45 minutes per question. 1. (a) Let (p = 1, 2, . . . ). Show that one can define a regularised distribution corresponding to f by ~Tf is a distribution such that ~Tf () = Tf () if 0 / supp().) In what circumstances can we take the limit b ? (b) Let

Dorlas, Teunis C.

487

Adult Education; Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course organized by the United Kingdom and the University of Liverpool aimed at reviewing research undertaken in European countries, and examining its significance for the practice of adult education in different countries and the possibilities of cooperative action. The three main areas of research identified were: the approach to adult…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

488

Mindfulness Meditation in Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…

Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra; Weissbecker, Inka; Hoover, Katherine; Ulmer, Christi; Studts, Jamie L.

2004-01-01

489

Knowledge Practices Laboratory Integrated Project  

E-print Network

27490 KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory Integrated Project Information Society Technologies DII of the project (M37-M48). These are as follows: KPE: Shared Space Views and Common, Support and Optional Tools.03.2010 Start date of project: 1.2.2006 Duration: 60 Months Organisation name of the lead contractor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

490

Measuring supply chain management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to perform an empirical investigation about the constructs and indicators of the supply chain management practices framework. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The measuring framework proposed is based on a survey that was carried out on 107 Brazilian companies. Statistical techniques were employed to verify, validate, and test the reliability of the constructs and their indicators. To validate

Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour; Alceu Gomes Alves Filho; Adriana Backx Noronha Viana; Charbel José Chiappetta Jabbour

2011-01-01

491

Art Practice as Prosthetic Visuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this lecture I explore and conceptualize the anomalous spaces of perception and memory in art practice and research where experimental and alternative discourses and pedagogies can emerge. I argue that the instabilities and slippages between what is visible and invisible, known and unknown, in these spaces enable insightful and multivalent ways…

Garoian, Charles R.

2010-01-01

492

Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

2008-01-01

493

Foundationalism and the Metaphysics of Practical Reasons  

E-print Network

Foundationalism and the Metaphysics of Practical Reasons Heath White Valparaiso University Abstract: This paper argues that much contemporary thought about practical reasons is saddled with a questionable assumption. The assumption... is that practical reasons owe their normative force to their metaphysical nature; or in other words, that "practical reason" is a metaphysical kind. This assumption is traced to an implicit foundationalism in views of practical reasons, which is itself a...

White, Heath

494

Illustrating the practice of statistics  

SciTech Connect

The practice of statistics involves analyzing data and planning data collection schemes to answer scientific questions. Issues often arise with the data that must be dealt with and can lead to new procedures. In analyzing data, these issues can sometimes be addressed through the statistical models that are developed. Simulation can also be helpful in evaluating a new procedure. Moreover, simulation coupled with optimization can be used to plan a data collection scheme. The practice of statistics as just described is much more than just using a statistical package. In analyzing the data, it involves understanding the scientific problem and incorporating the scientist's knowledge. In modeling the data, it involves understanding how the data were collected and accounting for limitations of the data where possible. Moreover, the modeling is likely to be iterative by considering a series of models and evaluating the fit of these models. Designing a data collection scheme involves understanding the scientist's goal and staying within hislher budget in terms of time and the available resources. Consequently, a practicing statistician is faced with such tasks and requires skills and tools to do them quickly. We have written this article for students to provide a glimpse of the practice of statistics. To illustrate the practice of statistics, we consider a problem motivated by some precipitation data that our relative, Masaru Hamada, collected some years ago. We describe his rain gauge observational study in Section 2. We describe modeling and an initial analysis of the precipitation data in Section 3. In Section 4, we consider alternative analyses that address potential issues with the precipitation data. In Section 5, we consider the impact of incorporating additional infonnation. We design a data collection scheme to illustrate the use of simulation and optimization in Section 6. We conclude this article in Section 7 with a discussion.

Hamada, Christina A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

495

Family physicians' practices regarding Norplant.  

PubMed

In 1993, 242 family practice physicians belonging to the Ohio Academy of Family Physicians completed a questionnaire aimed to examine the extent to which family practice physicians currently offer and insert the contraceptive implant system, Norplant. 130 family practice physicians (54%) offered Norplant to their clients. 60 (25%) actually inserted the implants. Physicians who offered Norplant were more likely than those who did not offer it to be younger (38.8 vs. 47.8 years; p 0.0001), to be in practice for a shorter period of time (9.2 vs. 18 years; p 0.0001), to be female (32% vs. 15%; p 0.003), and to be board certified (96% vs. 83%; p 0.003). They were also more likely to have more than 30% of their practice consist of premenopausal women (36% vs. 20%; p 0.01), to offer obstetric care to patients (26% vs. 3%; p 0.0001), and to perform at least two procedures other than Norplant insertion (46% vs. 26%; p 0.003). The training approaches of the 60 physicians inserting Norplant themselves included training course or workshop (35%), self-taught (32%), taught by another family physician (20%), and trained by an obstetrician-gynecologist (15%). The leading reasons for not offering Norplant among the 112 physicians (46%) who did not offer Norplant were side effects (19%), unfamiliarity with Norplant (16%), personal or religious reasons (14%), too expensive for patients (13%), and not appropriate for patients (13%). 88% of the physicians offering Norplant were satisfied with its performance. 95% of those who inserted Norplant themselves were satisfied. Overall, the most common patient groups identified that would most benefit from Norplant included youth with compliance problems, women not wanting children within 5 years, older women unsure about sterilization, and unreliable pill takers, and women who cannot use estrogens. These findings suggest that family physicians can insert Norplant and thus broaden the scope of their services. PMID:7964543

Tafelski, T; Taylor, C

1994-11-01

496

36 CFR 230.36 - State priority plan-purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to resource management for all nonindustrial private forest and agroforestry...complement efforts of sustainable forestry management already in place...to practice sustainable management and to actively...enhance their forest...

2010-07-01

497

Mycorrhizal fungi + trees -- practical beneficial tools for mineland reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Successful consistent revegetation of drastically disturbed sites (i.e., acid coal spoils and mineral waste dumps) throughout the US and several foreign countries has been achieved by using the biological {open_quotes}tools{close_quotes} -- Mycor Tree {trademark} seedlings and native shrub and grass species. These unique plants are custom-grown in bareroot and container nurseries with selected mycorrhizal fungi. On disturbed sites, specific mycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus tinctorius (PT) or VAM provide significant benefits to the plant symbionts through increased water and nutrient absorption, decreased toxic materials absorption, and overall plant stress reduction. During the past 15 years, the Ohio Division of Reclamation--Abandoned Minelands Project (AML) has utilized the combination of the PT fungus and reforestation to significantly improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of AML projects. Since 1981, over 3.5 million PT-inoculated pine and oak seedlings have been planted on approximately 2,500 acres of unreclaimed AML sites. Tree survival has averaged over 85 percent in the PT-inoculated tree plantings with few failures as compared with less than 50% survival and over 75% failures in previous plantings with the same noninoculated tree species. From 1981 to 1995, the 2,348 acres reclaimed in Ohio have cost approximately $832,000.00. Traditional reclamation would have cost approximately $14 million and represents a 94% cost reduction. The total PT reforestation cost in 1995 was $354.00 per acre and the added cost of the PT-inoculated seedlings is approximately 13% ($45.00/acre) or $.03 per seedling. This is a minute expense when compared to conventional AML reclamation costs ($6,000/acre). Interest in the application of this natural environmentally-friendly technology to mineland reclamation programs throughout the US and abroad is expanding.

Cordell, C.E.; Marx, D.H.; Jenkins, B.

1996-12-31

498

Master of Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice Degrees in Advanced Practice Nursing & Health  

E-print Network

Master of Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice Degrees in Advanced Practice Nursing & Health Systems and Organizational Leadership For the love of practice #12;An advanced practice registered nurse nurses is that a significant component of the education and practice focuses on direct care

Chapman, Michael S.

499

Understanding and Applying the Dynamics of Test Practice and Study Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two different methods of practice are available in the learning of simple information, test practice or study practice. Of these two methods of learning, research has generally shown that test practice is superior to study practice. However, this research has not considered the testing advantage with respect to the fact that test learning is…

Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.

2007-01-01

500

Applied Ethics in Professional Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Professional Engineering Practice Liaison Program at the University of Washington provides the Applied Ethics in Professional Practice Website. Real ethics cases are selected bi-monthly for the Case of the Month Club. This site is interactive, and viewers can vote on suggested solutions provided with each case study. However, viewers are welcomed to write in their solutions if they do not agree with any of the suggested solutions. General information on ethical decision-making is also included at the site. This site is a great resource for education or training in the workplace. Role-playing exercises and the interactive nature of the site make the case studies more real and interesting for students.