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1

Valuing Soil Conservation Benefits of Agroforestry Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although advocates of agroforestry have promoted soil conservation as one of its primary benefits, empirical estimates of these benefits have been lacking due to temporal and spatial complexity of agroforestry systems and soil resource dynamics. This stud...

S. Pattanayak D. E. Mercer

1996-01-01

2

Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can\\u000a make them effective carbon

F. Montagnini; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

3

Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry practices in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of various types of on-farm trials and methods for collecting and analysing data needed to assess the adoption potential of agroforestry practices. The review is based on farmers' and researchers' experiences in seven case studies in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa assessing the biophysical performance, profitability and acceptability of agroforestry practices. Assessments of adoption potential

S. Franzel; R. Coe; P. Cooper; S. J. Scherr

2001-01-01

4

ECOFARMING AND AGROFORESTRY FOR SELF-RELIANCE: Small-scale, Sustainable Growing Practices in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry concepts are applicable to both small-scale (family farm) and microscale (e.g., home garden) cultivation. However, there is little research on the relevance of gardening practices in temperate zones to agroforestry and vice versa. In Russia, microscale ecofarming is an extremely widespread, time-tested practice. Despite the minuscule size (600 m2) of individual plots and absence of machinery, cultivators have demonstrated

Leonid Sharashkin; Michael Gold; Elizabeth Barham

5

Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

2003-01-01

6

An evaluation of the Acacia albida -based agroforestry practices in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.

Peter Poschen

1986-01-01

7

Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

2011-08-01

8

Agroforestry in the West African Sahel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of agroforestry on the Sahel today, the basic problems that are encountered in the current practice of agroforestry, and the opportunities that are available to donors such as AID, to promote agroforestry in the region. Tr...

1983-01-01

9

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

10

Village Agroforestry Systems and Tree-Use Practices: A Case Study in Sri Lanka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central ...

A. Wickramasinghe

1992-01-01

11

Research Issues: A Prospectus for Agroforestry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considerable progress is visible in both the concepts and practice of agroforestry projects, over the past few decades. In such circumstances, what might be a useful approach to structure further research or investigations. At least three characteristics ...

W. T. Hinds

1989-01-01

12

Science in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry research is being transformed from a collection of largely descriptive studies into more scientific approaches, based on process-oriented research. The development of agroforestry as a science should be based on four key features:competition, complexity, profitability and sustainability. Managing thecompetition between trees and crops for light, water and nutrients to the farmers' benefit is the biophysical determinant of successful agroforestry

P. A. Sanchez

1995-01-01

13

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-05-21

14

Impacts of climate change on soil erosion in Portuguese watersheds with contrasting Mediterranean climates and agroforestry practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in Mediterranean regions could lead to higher winter rainfall intensity and, due to higher climatic aridity, lower vegetation cover. This could lead to increasing soil erosion rates, accelerating ongoing soil degradation and desertification processes. Adaptation to these scenarios would have costs and benefits associated with soil protection but also agroforestry production and water usage. This presentation will cover project ERLAND, which is studying these impacts for two headwater catchments (<1000 ha) in Portugal, located in distinct climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate area, and their land-use practices are adapted to these conditions. The Macieira de Alcoba catchment in northern Portugal has a wet Mediterranean climate (1800 mm/yr, but with a dry summer season). The high rainfall allows the plantation of fast growing tree species (pine and eucalypt) in the higher slopes, and the irrigation of corn in the lower slopes. Forest fires are a recurring problem, linked with the high biomass growth and the occurrence of a dry season. Potential impacts of climate change include less favorable conditions for eucalypt growth, higher incidence of wildfires, and less available water for summer irrigation, all of which could lead to lower vegetation cover. The Guadalupe catchment in southern Portugal has a dry Mediterranean climate (700 mm/yr, falling mostly in winter). The land-use is montado, an association between sclerophyllous oaks (cork and holm oaks) and annual herbaceous plans (winter wheat or pasture). The region suffers occasional severe droughts; climate change has the potential to increase the frequency and severity of these droughts, leading to lower vegetation cover and, potentially, limiting the conditions for cork and holm oak growth. Each catchment has been instrumented with erosion measurement plots and flow and turbidity measurements at the outlet, together with surveys of vegetation and soil properties; measurements in Macieira began in 2010 and in Guadalupe they began in 2011. These datasets will be used to parameterize, calibrate and validate the SWAT ecohydrological model, in order to ensure the appropriate simulation of the most important hydrological, vegetation growth and erosion processes which could be impacted upon by climate change. The model will, in turn, be the main tool to study future climate and land-use scenarios. The presentation will focus on the data collected so far, the modeling structure, and preliminary results coming for the work.

Nunes, J. P.; Lima, J. C.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Veiga, S.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Sampaio, E.; Batista, D. P.; Zhang, R.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Moreira, M.; Santos, J. M.; Keizer, J. J.; Corte-Real, J.

2012-04-01

15

Tree gardening and taungya on Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry is a general concept for a land management system combining trees and agricultural crops. For application, various specific techniques can be chosen. Each of these techniques is adjusted to a specific set of environmental as well as socio-economic factors. Agroforestry cultivators or managers belonging to varying social strata and institutional groupings may practice different forms of agroforestry, even within

K. F. Weersum

1982-01-01

16

Homestead agroforestry in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Homestead agroforestry system is very important in the economy of Bangladesh. The many woody species grown in the homesteads are a significant source of fuelwood; they also provide fodder, building materials and other forms of wood. In the context of the prevailing shortage of fuelwood and excessive deforestation in Bangladesh, this homestead agroforestry system needs to be strengthened.

William A. Leuschner; Kibriaul Khaleque

1987-01-01

17

Research issues: A prospectus for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress is visible in both the concepts and practice of agroforestry projects, over the past few decades. In such circumstances, what might be a useful approach to structure further research or investigations At least three characteristics come to mind that merit consideration: complexity of the phenomena, criteria for priorities, and choices constrained by resource scarcity. In the next few paragraphs, these three topics will briefly examined. Significant research issues for agroforestry remain urgent, but they tend to be generally site-specific in nature in comparison with other disciplines of field-related research. This site-specific characteristic tends to Balkanize scientific attention, so that choices for research effort reflect local perceptions, and perhaps dilute attention to the overall importance of agroforestry as an investigative disciplines. Furthermore, these issues are notorious for their ecological complexity, so this aspect will be the first to be examined. 23 refs.

Hinds, W.T.

1989-04-01

18

Agroforestry: Tenure and Incentives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of tree and land tenure on farmers' incentives to plant trees is examined, and lessons for agroforestry project planning are drawn. The validity of the generally accepted security of tenure model, which assumes that without land tenure security...

J. W. Bruce L. Fortmann

1989-01-01

19

Economics of agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although from the start ICRAF recognized the importance of the socio-economic dimensions of agroforestry land-use systems, it was only five years after its official commencement that an economist was added to the staff.

Dirk A. Hoekstra

1987-01-01

20

Parklands Partnership: Education through Reforestation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes New York City's Parklands Partnership Program, in which elementary and secondary students visit natural woodlands areas in their neighborhood, learn about forest ecology, and engage in restoration and reforestation activities that foster a connection between themselves and their local environment. (SV)

Scalia, Josephine A.

1992-01-01

21

Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system practiced by non-tribal ‘Mestizo’ farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption, and for a regional market. The

C. Padoch; J. Chota Inuma; W. DE JONG; J. Unruh

1985-01-01

22

PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS' EXPERIENCES OF TERMITE PROBLEMS IN AGROFORESTRY IN TORORO DISTRICT, UGANDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agroforestry technologies are developed and promoted, there is a need to integrate indigenous knowledge about pest identification and management techniques into the scaling-up process in order to improve farmers' pest management practices. This paper documents farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management practices against termites in agroforestry in Tororo District, Uganda. The applicability and implications of such information in the development

Philip Nyeko; Florence M. Olubayo

23

Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

2003-01-01

24

Prospects for Agroforestry in the Tropics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agroforestry has come of age remarkably during the past 10 to 15 years. However, the lack of a synthesized 'package' of technical and socio-economic information on agroforestry is a serious drawback in channeling development assistance to agroforestry pro...

P. K. R. Nair

1990-01-01

25

Classification of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification.

P. K. R. Nair

1985-01-01

26

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC`s and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L.L.; Ranney, J.W.

1991-12-31

27

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

1991-01-01

28

Agroforestry In-Service Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is to be used to train counterpart teams of PCVs and HCNs in agroforestry and strengthen their personal working relationship. Recommends guidelines for planning and implementing inservice training. Includes a 6-day training program.

J. Fillion J. Weeks

1984-01-01

29

Indigenous market-oriented agroforestry: dissecting local diversity in western Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of local diversity and variation in indigenous agroforestry practices among Amazonian peasants\\u000a in a traditional community near Iquitos, Peru. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews with agroforestry-reliant households\\u000a n = 36) on farming practices, demographic characteristics, income-expenditures and household wealth. Visits to crop fields\\u000a and forest fallows n = 329) allowed the reconstruction of

O. T. Coomes; G. J. Burt

1997-01-01

30

Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

Allen, J.A.

1997-01-01

31

Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.  

PubMed

Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture. PMID:22124586

Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

2012-11-01

32

Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1978-01-01

33

Interspecific interactions in temperate agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological principles that define the competitive and complementary interactions among trees, crops, and fauna in agroforestry\\u000a systems have received considerable research attention during the recent past. These principles have not yet, however, been\\u000a adequately integrated and synthesized into an operational approach. This paper reviews the ecological and ecophysiological\\u000a bases for interspecific interactions based on data from site-specific research and

S. Jose; A. R. Gillespie; S. G. Pallardy

2004-01-01

34

Tree domestication in tropical agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We execute tree ‘domestication’ as a farmer-driven and market-led process, which matches the intraspecific diversity of locally\\u000a important trees to the needs of subsistence farmers, product markets, and agricultural environments. We propose that the products\\u000a of such domesticated trees are called Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs) to distinguish them from the extractive tree resources\\u000a commonly referred to as non-timber forest products

A. J. Simons; R. R. B. Leakey

2004-01-01

35

Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the large number of empii-ical studies of agroforestry adoption published during the last decade, we believe it is time to take stock and identify general determinants of agroforestry adoption. In reviewing 120 ar- ticles on adoption of agricultural and forestry technology by small holders, we find five categories of factors that explain technology adoption within an economic

Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; D. Evan Mercer

2003-01-01

36

Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the large number of empirical studies of agroforestry adoption published during the last decade, we believe it is time to take stock and identify general determinants of agroforestry adoption. In reviewing 120 articles on adoption of agricultural and forestry technology by small holders, we find five categories of factors that explain technology adoption within an economic framework:

Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills; Jui-Chen Yang

2003-01-01

37

Carbon storage benefits of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field. Because of the extent at which it is occurring, however, it also has a global dimension. Agroforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. From the farmer's perspective, agroforestry can be a way to increase crop yields and the diversity of products grown. An

P. Schroeder

1994-01-01

38

Agroforestry systems for the temperate zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical development of a permanent agriculture system based on the use of agroforestry in the temperate zone is traced. In general, reasons for a renewed interest in agroforestry include the end of cheap, subsidized fossil fuels; increased concern about soil erosion and marginal land use; an international awakening as to the dangers of indiscriminate use of pesticides, herbicides and other

Michael A. Gold; James W. Hanover

1987-01-01

39

Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

1981-01-01

40

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

41

Farmer participation in reforestation incentive programs in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforestation programs are a common policy response among developing country governments in the tropics attempting to deal with environmental and economic problems caused by widespread deforestation. The objective of this paper is to examine participation by small-and medium-sized farms in two reforestation programs undertaken in recent years by one country, Costa Rica, which has been at the forefront of developing

T. Thacher; D. R. Lee; J. W. Schelhas

1996-01-01

42

Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

2002-01-01

43

The future role of reforestation in reducing buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Among the options posed for mitigating the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2} is planting new forest areas to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Among the questions of interest in modeling the global carbon cycle is the extent to which reforestation is likely to succeed in providing physical removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are many strategies for using forest land to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of CO{sub 2}: decreasing the rate at which forests are cleared for other land uses, increasing the density of carbon storage in existing forests, improving the rate and efficiency at which forest products are used in the place of other energy intensive products, substitution of renewable wood fuels for fossil fuels, improved management of forests and agroforestry, and increasing the amount of land in standing forest. Because increasing the area of forests has social, political, and economic limitations; in addition to physical limitations; it is hard to envision a large increase in forest area except where there are associated economic benefits. The authors speculation is that, over the next several decades, the forest strategies most likely to be pursued for the express purpose of CO{sub 2} mitigation are those which provide more or more-efficient substitution of forest products for energy or energy-intensive resources and that the physical accumulation of additional carbon in forests will be of lesser importance.

Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1993-12-31

44

Using Social Science Tools in Agroforestry Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent innovations in agroforestry research indicate the need to elicit farmers' participation in technology adaptations. The paper is intended for non-social scientists who wish to use social science research tools in order to assess the role of multipur...

J. L. Marcucci

1990-01-01

45

Emergy Evaluation of Lacandon Maya Indigenous Swidden Agroforestry in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lacandon Maya of Chiapas, Mexico practice a system of swidden agroforestry that mimics the surrounding ecosystem and its successional stages. Their fields rotate through grass (milpa), and shrub (acahual) and forest fallow stages that regenerate soil, nutrients, and seed banks. Each successional stage, including the fallow stages, produces over 25 types of crops, raw materials, and medicines. Lacandon traditionally

Stewart A. W. Diemont; Jay F. Martin; Samuel I. Levy-Tacher

2006-01-01

46

Biotechnology and Agroforestry in Indian Arid Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to

Varsha Sharma; Shaily Goyal; K. G. Ramawat

47

Analysis of Mechanized Systems for Planting Trees for Reforestation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanized methods of planting trees for reforestation are investigated and the system studied from the nursery through field planting operations. Concepts for planting machines are presented and compared using a mathematical model and a computer program ...

J. N. Lawyer

1978-01-01

48

Adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the\\u000a tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based\\u000a development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental understanding of how\\u000a and why farmers

D. E. Mercer

2004-01-01

49

Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.  

PubMed

Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system. PMID:18820966

Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

2009-06-01

50

Insect diversity responses to forest conversion and agroforestry management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ongoing loss of pristine tropical rainforests increases the potential im- portance of agroforestry systems for the conservation of tropical arthropod diversity. Shaded agroforestry systems can still support high levels of biodiver- sity, even resembling those supported by undisturbed forests, but intensively managed open agroforestry systems may cause severe losses in insect diver- sity. In this study we evaluate

Merijn M. Bos; Patrick Hohn; Shahabuddin Saleh; Boris Buche; Damayanti Buchori; Ingolf Stean-Dewenter

2007-01-01

51

The state of the art of agroforestry diagnosis and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven years ago the International Council for Research in Agroforestry set out to develop a methodology for the diagnosis of land management problems and design of agroforestry systems. Since then over 60 documents (articles, conference papers and manuals) relating to the D & D methodology have been published by ICRAF and the methodology has been used to develop agroforestry plans

John B. Raintree

1987-01-01

52

Women and agroforestry: four myths and three case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are traditionally important participants in both the agricultural and forestry components of agroforestry production. Women are frequently ignored in the design of agroforestry projects because of commonly held myths about their participation in both production activities and in public life. The involvement of women in agroforestry projects and activities are examined in case studies from the Dominican Republic, India

Louise Fortmann; Dianne Rocheleau

1985-01-01

53

Strategies for Reforestation under Uncertain Future Climates: Guidelines for Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Commercial forestry programs normally use locally collected seed for reforestation under the assumption that tree populations are optimally adapted to local environments. However, in western Canada this assumption is no longer valid because of climate trends that have occurred over the last several decades. The objective of this study is to show how we can arrive at reforestation recommendations with alternative species and genotypes that are viable under a majority of climate change scenarios. Methodology/Principal Findings In a case study for commercially important tree species of Alberta, we use an ecosystem-based bioclimate envelope modeling approach for western North America to project habitat for locally adapted populations of tree species using multi-model climate projections for the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. We find that genotypes of species that are adapted to drier climatic conditions will be the preferred planting stock over much of the boreal forest that is commercially managed. Interestingly, no alternative species that are currently not present in Alberta can be recommended with any confidence. Finally, we observe large uncertainties in projections of suitable habitat that make reforestation planning beyond the 2050s difficult for most species. Conclusion/Significance More than 50,000 hectares of forests are commercially planted every year in Alberta. Choosing alternative planting stock, suitable for expected future climates, could therefore offer an effective climate change adaptation strategy at little additional cost. Habitat projections for locally adapted tree populations under observed climate change conform well to projections for the 2020s, which suggests that it is a safe strategy to change current reforestation practices and adapt to new climatic realities through assisted migration prescriptions.

Gray, Laura K.; Hamann, Andreas

2011-01-01

54

Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory. PMID:18481517

Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

2008-04-01

55

Monitoring of reforested areas using LANDSAT data. [Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1981-01-01

56

Hill agroforestry systems in south Sikkim, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mamlay watershed of south Sikkim, India, about 80% of the population depend on land for their livelihood. The agricultural land-use activity includes agroforestry, horticulture and animal husbandry besides growing crops in irrigated or unirrigated fields. Trees are maintained in the farms mainly for fodder and rarely for fuel purposes. Cropping system is characterised by cultivation of cereals and

R. C. Sundriyal; S. C. Rai; E. Sharma; Y. K. Rai

1994-01-01

57

Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and extent to which biophysical resources are captured and utilized by the components of an agroforestry system are determined by the nature and intensity of interac- tions between the components. The net effect of these interactions is often determined by the influence of the tree component on the other component(s) and\\/or on the overall system, and is expressed

M. R. RAO; P. K. R. NAIR; C. K. ONG

1998-01-01

58

BIRDS AS PREDATORS IN TROPICAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and\\/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a

Sunshine A. Van Bael; Stacy M. Philpott; Russell Greenberg; Peter Bichier; Nicholas A. Barber; Kailen A. Mooney; Daniel S. Gruner

2008-01-01

59

Socioeconomic Aspects of Agroforestry in Rural Haiti.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Socioeconomic data on exotic tree planting under A.I.D.'s Agroforestry Outreach Project (AOP) was collected between June 1985 and April 1986 at Fond-des-Blancs and Beaumont on Haiti's southern peninsula. Using these data, the report describes the study ar...

A. Balzano

1986-01-01

60

Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park;)

2006-05-01

61

Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification  

PubMed Central

Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by ?75% and species richness of forest-using species by ?60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by ?40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Hohn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Kohler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G.; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, Andre; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

2007-01-01

62

Using agroforestry to improve soil fertility: effects of intercropping on Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) plantations with Araucaria angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the use of agroforestry to improve soil nutrient properties in plantations containing Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire (yerba mate). Intercropping within tree plantation systems is widely practiced by farmers around the World, but\\u000a the influence of different species combinations on system performance still requires further investigation. I. paraguariensis is a major South American crop commonly cultivated in intensive

Tal IlanyMark; Mark S. Ashton; Florencia Montagnini; Constanza Martinez

2010-01-01

63

APPALACHIAN REGIONAL REFORESTATION INITIATIVE AND THE FORESTRY RECLAMATION APPROACH1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a broad- based citizen\\/industry\\/government program working to encourage the planting of productive trees on active and abandoned coal mine lands. Using a combination of private and governmental resources, the program facilitates and coordinates citizen groups, university researchers, the coal industry, corporations, the environmental community, and local, state, and federal government agencies that have

Victor M. Davis

64

Bottomland Hardwood Reforestation in the Lower Mississippi Valley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin assists farmers or other private landowner in reestablishing forests on part of their land. It is most useful if the land is in the Lower Mississippi Valley and the main reason for reforestation is to produce wildlife habitat, either for priv...

J. A. Allen H. E. Kennedy

1989-01-01

65

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LARGE-SCALE REFORESTATION: PROCEEDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the workshop was to identify major operational and ecological considerations needed to successfully conduct large-scale reforestation projects throughout the forested regions of the world. Large-scale" for this workshop means projects where, by human effort, approx...

66

Natural reforestation of abandoned farmland: the role of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural regeneration of abandoned farmland in several areas within the catchments of the Sydney Water Board has been very slow. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the fact that natural reforestation has not occurred, even after up to 50 years of abandonment. This study examines regeneration in relation to substrate, soil types and soil chemistry. The abandoned farmlands

Zeng Liangzhong; Robert J. Whelan

1993-01-01

67

Reforestation strategies amid social instability: lessons from Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts. PMID:22314681

Groninger, John W

2012-04-01

68

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

SciTech Connect

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.

MacDicken, K.G.

1997-10-01

69

Nitrogen dynamics in maize-based agroforestry systems as affected by landscape position in southern Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Malawi, agroforestry is very promising for N replenishment; however, there are still large variations in the performance of these agroforestry technologies on farmers’ fields. A study was conducted on-farm to determine the influence of three landscape positions on N dynamics in maize (Zea mays L.)-based agroforestry systems. The agroforestry systems were relay fallow using Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr or

Rebbie Harawa; Johannes Lehmann; Festus Akinnifesi; Erick Fernandes; George Kanyama-Phiri

2006-01-01

70

Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

2009-01-01

71

Homestead Agroforestry: a Potential Resource in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Homestead, the home and adjacent grounds occupied by a family, is the potential production area in Bangladesh, especially\\u000a for the resource poor group. Homestead production system, which is popularly called homestead agroforestry or home gardening\\u000a (the integrated production of crops, trees, and\\/or livestock in the household’s residence and its surrounding areas), has\\u000a been playing an important role in the rural

M. Giashuddin Miah; M. Jahangir Hussain

72

Smallholder Agroforestry Systems For Carbon Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most smallholder agroforestry systems in Southeast Asia are tree- and species-rich systems producing non-wood and wood products\\u000a for both home use and market sale. Due to their high biomass, these systems contain large carbon (C) stocks. While the systems\\u000a of individual farmers are of limited size, on a per area basis smallholder systems accumulate significant amounts of C, equaling\\u000a the

James M. Roshetko; Rodel D. Lasco; Marian S. Delos Angeles

2007-01-01

73

Agroforestry and the utilisation of fragile ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

King, K.F.S., 1979. Agroforestry and the utilisation of fragile ecosystems. Forest Ecol. Manage., 2: 161—168. Sixty-five percent of the land in the tropical world occupies fragile ecosystems. The number of people who depend upon these areas for their food and livelihood is 630 million or 35% of the total population of the developing countries. Not only is the physical environment

K. F. S. KING

1979-01-01

74

Eucalyptus in agroforestry: its effects on agricultural production and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of eucalyptus in agroforestry and its effects on agricultural crops have been studied with the help of observations made during the harvests in agricultural fields and from the information supplied by progressive farmers. Three rotations of eucalyptus in agroforestry were selected for comparative study of its returns and relative loss to the crops, in order to ascertain the

Parvez Ahmed

1989-01-01

75

Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

76

Incorporation of indigenous knowledge and perspectives in agroforestry development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls for the effective integration of indigenous knowledge and perspective into agroforestry are increasingly familiar in agroforestry programmes. This is the result of a need to better target research, ethical concerns about participation and power and the recognition that indigenous knowledge is a potentially powerful source of understanding that may often be complementary to scientific knowledge.Incorporating indigenous knowledge into development

D. H. Walker; F. L. Sinclair; B. Thapa

1995-01-01

77

Strategies for enhancing the adoptability of agroforestry innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has been given a broad and hopeful mandate to assist in devising productive and sustainable systems of land management to meet the demographic and ecological challenges of mankind's somewhat uncertain future. As a new and explicity interdisciplinary field of applied scientific research and technological synthesis, agroforestry is in a unique position to benefit from recent advances in our understanding

J. B. Raintree

1983-01-01

78

Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.  

PubMed

Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P?agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden. PMID:24790810

Linger, Ewuketu

2014-01-01

79

Enhanced biodiversity and pollination in UK agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Monoculture farming systems have had serious environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity and pollinator decline. The authors explain how temperate agroforestry systems show potential in being able to deliver multiple environmental benefits. PMID:23553354

Varah, Alexa; Jones, Hannah; Smith, Jo; Potts, Simon G

2013-07-01

80

More than Just Trees: Assessing Reforestation Success in Tropical Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities in many parts of the tropics are dependent of forests for their livelihoods and for environmental services. Forest resources in the tropics have declined rapidly over the past century and therefore many developing countries in the tropics have reforestation programs. Although reforestation is a long-term process with long-term…

Le, Hai Dinh; Smith, Carl; Herbohn, John; Harrison, Stephen

2012-01-01

81

Soils and the 'sponge effect' - what to expect from reforestation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many salutary effects ascribed to reforestation is the 'sponge effect', the improvement of a soil's macroporosity thanks to replacing whatever land cover with forest. The purported benefits of this improvement include less overland flow and hence less erosion and less variability in stream flow. This view tacitly assumes that some soil traits, such as macroporosity, can only be acquired from the prevailing land cover when, in fact, they can also be inherited from the parent material from which soils form; they can also derive from long-term soil development. In view of this dual aspect of hydrologically relevant soil properties - acquired versus inherited, the notion of a 'sponge effect' that is uniformly beneficial across all soilscapes appears untenable. The 'intermediate-peak hypothesis' for the sponge effect postulates that there exist a set of circumstances under which the 'sponge effect', and hence the effect of reforestation, is optimal, because parent material and soil genesis are less influential than forest cover. Away from this intermediate peak, the former swamp the latter, and the 'sponge effect' is minimal or nonexistent, either because the inherited macroporosity is too large to be significantly affected by land cover, or because inherited soil traits severely limit the effect of land cover. I illustrate this hypothesis with examples from diverse ecoregions and present a simple metric for the 'sponge effect'.

Elsenbeer, H.

2012-12-01

82

Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

2010-02-01

83

Agroforestry and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United Nations (UN) are at the heart of the global development agenda. This\\u000a chapter examines the role of agroforestry research and development (R&D) in light of the MDGs. It reviews some of the ways\\u000a in which agroforestry is substantively assisting to achieve the goals and discusses how the agenda can be realigned to

D. P. Garrity

2004-01-01

84

Agroforestry systems: sources of sinks of greenhouse gases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prominent role of forestry and agroforestry systems in the flux and long-term storage of carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere has increased global interest in these land-use options to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Preliminary assessments suggest that some agroforestry systems (e.g., agrosilvicultural) can be CO2 sinks and temporarily store C, while other systems (e.g., ruminant-based silvopastoral systems) are

R. K. Dixon

1995-01-01

85

Directions in tropical agroforestry research: past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflections on the past two decades of organized research in tropical agroforestry raise several issues. Research efforts\\u000a started with an inductive and experiential approach but have subsequently followed a deductive and experimental approach that\\u000a includes hypothesis testing and the development of predictive capability; agroforestry research is thus being transformed\\u000a into a rigorous scientific activity. The research agenda, so far, has

P. K. R. Nair

1997-01-01

86

Trees of prosperity: Agroforestry, markets and the African smallholder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developing countries, especially in Africa, farmers have been introduced to agroforestry with little consideration\\u000a for the markets for trees and tree products aside from potential productivity gains to food crops. It is now being recognized\\u000a that expanding market opportunities for smallholders particularly in niche markets and high value products is critical to\\u000a the success of agroforestry innovations. Some

D. Russell; S. Franzel

2004-01-01

87

Modeling the impacts of reforestation on future climate in West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential impacts of reforestation in West Africa on the projected regional climate in the near two decades (2031-2050) under the SRES A1B scenario. A regional climate model (RegCM3) forced with a global circulation model (ECHAM5) simulations was used for the study. The study evaluates the capability of the regional model in simulating the present-day climate over West Africa, projects the future climate over the region and investigates impacts of seven hypothetical reforestation options on the projected future climate. Three of these reforestation options assume zonal reforestation over West Africa (i.e., over the Sahel, Savanna and Guinea), while the other four assume random reforestation over Nigeria. With the elevated GHGs (A1B scenario), a warmer and drier climate is projected over West Africa in 2031-2050. The maximum warming (+2.5°C) and drying (-2 mm day-1) occur in the western part of the Sahel because the West Africa Monsoon (WAM) flow is stronger and deflects the cool moist air more eastward, thereby lowering the warming and drying in the eastern part. In the simulations, reforestation reduces the projected warming and drying over the reforested zones but increases them outside the zones because it influences the northward progression of WAM in summer. It reduces the speed of the flow by weakening the temperature gradient that drives the flow and by increasing the surface drag on the flow over the reforested zone. Hence, in summer, the reforestation delays the onset of monsoon flow in transporting cool moist air over the area located downwind of the reforested zone, consequently enhancing the projected warming and drying over the area. The impact of reforesting Nigeria is not limited to the country; while it lowers the warming over part of the country (and over Togo), it increases the warming over Chad and Cameroon. This study, therefore, suggests that using reforestation to mitigate the projected future climate change in West Africa could have both positive and negative impacts on the regional climate, reducing temperature in some places and increasing it in others. Hence, reforestation in West Africa requires a mutual agreement among the West African nations because the impacts of reforestation do not recognize political boundaries.

Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Adeyewa, Zachariah D.; Oguntunde, Philip G.; Salami, Ayobami T.; Ajayi, Vincent O.

2012-10-01

88

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

89

Tree root characteristics as criteria for species selection and systems design in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review presents information about the role of tree root systems for the functioning of agroforestry associations and rotations and attempts to identify root-related criteria for the selection of agroforestry tree species and the design of agroforestry systems. Tree roots are expected to enrich soil with organic matter, feed soil biomass, reduce nutrient leaching, recycle nutrients from the subsoil

G. Schroth

1995-01-01

90

Effects of reforesting degraded grassland on hydrological flow pathways on Leyte, the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reforestation of degraded land in the tropics is promoted for a wide range of expected benefits, including carbon sequestration and streamflow regulation. However, how reforestation of degraded land affects runoff generation mechanisms and catchment water yield is still poorly understood as most experimental work pertains to non-degraded terrain. We set out to study the differences in hydrological functioning of a small degraded grassland catchment and a similar catchment that was reforested 15 years ago. Both catchments are located near Tacloban, Leyte, the Philippines. Stream stage, EC and temperature are measured continuously since June 2013. Precipitation, soil moisture content, and groundwater levels are monitored as well. Samples are taken from streamflow, precipitation, groundwater, and soil water prior to and during rainfall events for geochemical and stable isotope analysis to elucidate source contributions to storm runoff. Streamflow and event water contributions increase rapidly during almost every rainfall event in the grassland. In the reforested catchment, event water contributions to streamflow are much smaller and only increase during large events. These tracer results suggest that overland flow occurs much less frequently and is much less widespread in the reforested catchment compared to the grassland catchment. Our results thus indicate that the dominant flow pathways have changed as a result of reforestation and suggest that reforestation can largely restore the hydrological functioning of degraded sites if the forest is allowed to develop over a sufficiently long period without subsequent disturbance.

van Meerveld, Ilja; Zhang, Jun; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno

2014-05-01

91

Mangrove reforestation in Vietnam: the effect of sediment physicochemical properties on nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment physicochemical properties most likely control the reforestation success on degraded mangrove sites. Our objectives\\u000a were (1) to determine the nutritional status of reforested mangrove stands; (2) to investigate the effects of the redox potential\\u000a (Eh) and pH on phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) cycling; and (3) to assess the effect of pH on P speciation. Five transects\\u000a were studied

J. F. Oxmann; Q. H. Pham; L. Schwendenmann; J. M. Stellman; R. J. Lara

2010-01-01

92

Reforestation in Central and Eastern Europe after the breakdown of socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition in Eastern Europe from command-driven to market-oriented economies brought about a sudden decline in agricultural production, which led to widespread farmland abandonment and subsequent reforestation across much of the region. We provide an overview of reforestation trends in post-socialist Eastern Europe. We also analyze remote sensing data and national statistics for three case studies (in Latvia, Romania, and

Gregory N. Taff; Daniel Müller; Tobias Kuemmerle; Esra Ozdeneral; Stephen J. Walsh

2010-01-01

93

Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.  

PubMed

The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach. PMID:21556936

Millard, Edward

2011-08-01

94

Eutrophication indices of an atlantic agroforestry catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main elements causing eutrophication in waters are nitrogen and phosphorus. It is admitted that surface waters productivity is limited by either phosphorus, in lakes, or nitrogen, in rivers. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the seasonal fluctuation of N and P concentrations and to assess the N/P ratio at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under atlantic climatic conditions in order to assess its eutrophication status. The studied catchment is located in A Coruña province (NW Spain). Water samples were collected at the catchment outlet from 2003 to 2007, amounting to a total of 555 samples. Total phosphorus contents were measured using ICP-MS whereas those of nitrogen were assessed by capilar electrophoresis. Maximum average values were registered in 2006 for nitrogen and 2005 for phosphorus. Nitrogen minimum average values were measured in 2003 and those of phosphorus in 2007. Coefficients of variation were higher for phosphorus than for nitrogen. The highest N/P ratios were observed in 2007 and the lowest ones in 2003. Usually, higher N/P values were related to base flow periods whereas lower values of this ratio occurred during floods. N/P values higher than 7 indicate eutrophication conditions caused by phosphorus and if the ratio is lower than this threshold, nitrogen is the limitant element. Our results indicated that, in this catchment, phosphorus was the limitant element for eutrophication. Moreover, eutrophication risk is higher during flood events with phosphorus supplies by runoff.

Sande-Fouz, P.; Miras-Avalos, J. M.

2009-04-01

95

Reforestation of degraded hills in Nepal: Review of silvicultural and management issues  

SciTech Connect

Nepal's Middle Hill regions have been excessively deforested. The government has launched a community-based reforestation project with help of international donors. However, results have been far from satisfactory. Plantation targets have not been met and survival rates of the planted trees are poor averaging around 60%. Social factors are given more blame than technical ones for these failures. However, an analysis of the available information indicates, rather, that about two-thirds of the failures were due to technical and administrative reasons. Only about 13% of the failures could be attributed to social causes. Poor quality seeds are used to raise undersized seedlings which are planted improperly during the wrong time of the year. Species selected are not appropriate for the site or the people for whom the plantations are being created; rather they are selected for the ease of planting and to meet administrative targets. The overall trend has been to plant conifers (mainly pinus roxburghii) and to plant on relatively easy sites. The result has been the creation of forest plantations which often do not have any management plant, while the few which often do not have any management plan, while the few which do are without any committed managers. There is a tremendous lack of information regarding user demand, growth, yield, and harvesting and utilization techniques. This paper stresses that research to improve practical methods in plantation establishment and training to produce competent, and dedicated resource managers be immediately initiated.

Karki, M.B.; Dickmann, D.I. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

1991-01-01

96

Soil evaporation measurements in an agroforestry system in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation from soil (Es) was studied in an agroforestry system using soil microlysimeters, where the tree and crop components were grown together, in monocultures where the two components were grown separately, and in bare soil. All measurements were carried out at an equatorial field site in Kenya. Es varied according to the different shade regimes and as a function of

N. A Jackson; J. S Wallace

1999-01-01

97

Modelling soil evaporation in an agroforestry system in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil evaporation measurements from bare soil and shaded soil under an agroforestry tree canopy were used to construct a model to predict soil evaporation with and without tree shade. It was found that a simple daily time step model based on the Ritchie (1972)approach was unable to predict daily soil evaporation accurately, but was capable of providing good estimates of

J. S Wallace; N. A Jackson; C. K Ong

1999-01-01

98

Mycorrhizal relations in trees for agroforestry and land rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mycorrhizal stimulation of trees by increasing the efficiency of nutrient uptake from soil is discussed with special reference to tree species used in agroforestry\\/sylvopastoral systems. The occurrence of the two major classes of mycorrhizas is indicated as are the soil, plant and fungus factors affecting the size of the response. The low intensity of rooting of many tree species

Kurt Haselwandter; Glynn D. Bowen

1996-01-01

99

Economic principles to appraise agro-forestry projects  

SciTech Connect

Basic economic principles and the classical project evaluation technique can be satisfactorily used to solve investment decisions for agroforestry projects. Recommendations made for this type of appraisal are to: concentrate on the small farm participants; study the forestry component and risk diversification; detail the externalities; and consider the cultural environment. 15 references.

Harou, P.A.

1983-01-01

100

Potential for novel food products from agroforestry trees: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestication of trees for agroforestry approaches to poverty alleviation and environmental rehabilitation in the tropics depends on the expansion of the market demand for non-timber forest products. This paper reviews published data on the nutritive values of the flesh, kernels and seedoils of the seventeen fruit tree species that have been identified, in four ecoregions of the tropics, by

R. R. B Leakey

1999-01-01

101

Contribution of agroforestry trees to nutrient requirements of intercropped plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major tenet of agroforestry, that trees maintain soil fertility, is based primarily on observations of higher crop yields near trees or where trees were previously grown. Recently objective analyses and controlled experiments have addressed this topic. This paper examines the issues of tree prunings containing sufficient nutrients to meet crop demands, the timing of nutrient transfer from decomposition to

C. A. Palm

1995-01-01

102

Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less

J. B. Raintree; K. Warner

1986-01-01

103

Brush-eating device promises reforestation, wood energy aid  

SciTech Connect

An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.

Blackman, T.

1981-01-01

104

Assessment of the Extent of Agroforestry Systems in Europe and Their Role Within Transhumance Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems are unevenly distributed across Europe and are often linked to transhumance, the seasonal movement of\\u000a stock which is widely in decline. Whilst the high biodiversity associated with traditional agroforestry is widely recognised,\\u000a the ecology of modern systems is less well understood. The inherent nature of the agroforestry systems means that it is necessary\\u000a to know the characteristics of

R. G. H. Bunce; M. Pérez-Soba; M. Smith

2009-01-01

105

Assessing agroforestry adoption potential utilising market segmentation: A case study in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, agroforestry adoption has lagged behind progress in agroforestry systems research. This study sought\\u000a to facilitate the communication of landowner land management objectives, values, knowledge and perceptions of the barriers\\u000a and benefits to agroforestry through applied social marketing research methods and market segmentation analysis. A mail survey\\u000a instrument was sent to 250 members of the Pennsylvania Association

Nicole A. Strong; Michael G. Jacobson

2005-01-01

106

WaNuLCAS, a model of water, nutrient and light capture in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of tree-soil-crop interactions in agroforestry should maintain a balance between dynamic processes and spatial patterns of interactions for common resources. We give an outline and discuss major assumptions underlying the WaNuLCAS model of water, nitrogen and light interactions in agroforestry systems. The model was developed to deal with a wide range of agroforestry systems: hedgerow intercropping on flat or

M. VAN NOORDWIJK; B. LUSIANA

1999-01-01

107

Comparing genetic diversity in agroforestry systems with natural forest: a case study of the important timber tree Vitex fischeri in central Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible that current tree domestication practices undertaken by farmers reduce the genetic base of tree resources on\\u000a farms, raising concerns regarding the productivity, sustainability and conservation value of agroforestry ecosystems. Here,\\u000a we assessed possible changes in genetic variation during domestication in the important and heavily utilised timber species,\\u000a Vitex fischeri Grke (syn. Vitex keniensis), by comparing geographically proximate

Ard G. Lengkeek; Alice Muchugi Mwangi; Caroline A. C. Agufa; Joseph O. Ahenda; Ian K. Dawson

2006-01-01

108

Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

2007-03-01

109

Contribution of deforestation to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and reforestation as an option to control CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss various aspects of global climate change as related to forests: the rate of deforestation; CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from deforestation; and reforestation as a means to control atmospheric CO/sub 2/. We also include for perspective a discussion of current policy considerations related to methods for reducing deforestation or promoting reforestation. 68 refs.

Kinsman, J.D.; Marland, G.

1989-01-01

110

Nitrogen-Fixing Trees with Actinorhiza in Forestry and Agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing trees with actinorhiza (or actinorhizal trees) form a group that is a key component in many natural ecosystems, agro-ecosystems, and agroforestry systems in the world, and that provides an important source of fixed nitrogen in these ecosystems. The general characteristics of the actinorhizal symbiosis, including aspects of nodule formation, co-evolution of both partners, and nitrogen fixation rates at field

R. O. RUSSO

111

Ecosystem Services from Smallholder Forestry and Agroforestry in the Tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Smallholder forestry and agroforestry systems in the tropics provide essential products and services for millions of producers,\\u000a their surrounding communities, national and international consumers, and global society. The diversity of products provided\\u000a by these systems meet the needs of smallholder producers for fuelwood, food, animal fodder, and other household and farm needs;\\u000a they provide additional income to supplement major commodity

Travis Idol; Jeremy Haggar; Linda Cox

112

Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs): Targeting Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry tree domestication emerged as a farmer-driven, market-led process in the early 1990s and became an international initiative. A participatory approach now supplements the more traditional aspects of tree improvement, and is seen as an important strategy towards the Millennium Development Goals of eradicating poverty and hunger, promoting social equity and environmental sustainability. Considerable progress has been made towards the

Roger R. B. Leakey; Zac Tchoundjeu; Kate Schreckenberg; Sheona E. Shackleton; Charlie M. Shackleton

2005-01-01

113

Diameter patterns of 5-year old Karas (Aquilaria malaccensis) agroforestry stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work conducted in this study is based on a preliminary data collection for assessing a soil status in a 5-year old Karas agroforestry plantations in Rembau, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Three agroforestry components involved in this study include (1) Karas (Aquilaria malaccensis) monoculture, (2) Karas intercropped with lemongrass, and (3) Karas intercropped with guava. Three replicative plots measuring at 6

Nurul Ain Noor Rahman; Mohd Nazip Suratman; Ab. Rasip Ab. Ghani; Tsan Fui Ying

2011-01-01

114

Adoption of agroforestry in the hills of Nepal: a logistic regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as

Ramji P. Neupane; Khem R. Sharma; Gopal B. Thapa

2002-01-01

115

The central agroforestry hypothesis: the trees must acquire resources that the crop would not otherwise acquire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple tree-crop interaction equation is re-interpreted in terms of resource capture. Benefits in physical yields from agroforestry are to be expected only when there is complementarity of resource capture by trees and crops. Most of the current biophysical hypotheses formulated for agroforestry research are based on this central tenet, specified for various resources, soil and climatic conditions.

M. G. R. Cannell; M. Van Noordwijk; C. K. Ong

1996-01-01

116

Economic factors in farmer adoption of agroforestry: Patterns observed in Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of agroforestry adoption by 3,000 project participants in Siaya and South Nyanza Districts in Kenya supports three hypotheses. 1.(1) Historical increases in tree domestication and management intensity are responses to declining supply of uncultivated tree resources, increased subsistence and commercial demand for tree products, and perceived risks of ecological degradation. Adoption of agroforestry is most likely where consistent

Sara J. Scherr

1995-01-01

117

Pre and post-reforestation gully development in Mangatu Forest, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following clearance of the indigenous forest and conversion of the land to pasture early in the 20th century, gully erosion became a pervasive feature in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin, and was notably problematic in the 140-km2 area now covered by the Mangatu Forest. In this area, before reforestation in 1961, gully erosion affected c. 4% of the

Michael Marden; Greg Arnold; Basil Gomez; Donna Rowan

2005-01-01

118

Reforestation in Arid Lands. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad subject of project implementation) includes…

Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

119

Capability of Reclaimed Mined Land for Supporting Reforestation with Seven Appalachian Hardwood Species1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforestation of the Appalachian coalfields with native hardwoods is becoming increasingly popular. However, establishing some hardwood species has been difficult due to the poor quality of many mine soils. The purpose of this study was to contrast after 15 years the growth, survival, and overall performance of seven hardwood species planted on three mine sites in Southwestern Virginia. The seven

James A. Burger; Amy G. Fannon

120

Future role of reforestation in reducing buildup of atmospheric CO(sub 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the options posed for mitigating the buildup of atmospheric CO(sub 2) is planting new forest areas to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Among the questions of interest in modeling the global carbon cycle is the extent to which reforestation is l...

G. Marland

1993-01-01

121

Integer Programming (IP) formulation for minimizing sediment delivery in a watershed by reforestation of optimal sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches exist to model the production, transport and delivery of water and sediment flows in watersheds but none of these are dealing with spatial optimality requirements. However, policy and decision makers dealing with environmental conservation and land use planning often require identifying potential sites for contributing to minimize sediment flow reaching riverbeds. This is the case of reforestation initiatives,

Pablo Vanegas; Dirk Cattrysse; Jos Van Orshoven

2009-01-01

122

Establishment and growth of container seedlings for reforestation: A function of stocktype and edaphic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A properly selected stocktype can greatly enhance reforestation success through increased survival and growth following outplanting. Implementing a robust stocktype trial using stocktypes of equal quality can ensure results lead to the best choice. Six container types, differing primarily in depth and volume, were used to evaluate the performance of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws. var. ponderosa) seedlings outplanted on

Jeremiah R. Pinto; John D. Marshall; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglas R. Cobos

2011-01-01

123

Determining options for agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds in Alemaya Basin, Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.

Bishaw, B.

1993-01-01

124

The Use of Landsat Data for Evaluation and Characterization of Deforested Pastureland and Reforested Areas in Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compatibility of using LANDSAT data for pastureland and reforestation studies was studied. The degradation of pastureland after deforestation was identified automatically using four indicators: the percentages of exposed soil, lateritic soil, types of...

P. H. Filho A. P. Dossantos E. M. L. Demoraesnovo Y. E. Shimabukuro V. Duarte

1980-01-01

125

Global Supply of Biomass for Energy and Carbon Sequestration from Afforestation\\/Reforestation Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide an analytical framework to estimate the joint production of biomass and carbon sequestration from\\u000a afforestation and reforestation activities. The analysis is based on geographical explicit information on a half-degree resolution.\\u000a For each grid-cell the model estimates forest growth using a global vegetation model and chooses forest management rules.\\u000a Land prices, cost of forest production and

Michael Obersteiner; G. Alexandrov; Pablo C. Benítez; Ian McCallum; Florian Kraxner; Keywan Riahi; Dmitry Rokityanskiy; Yoshiki Yamagata

2006-01-01

126

Pen culture of mud crab Scylla serrata in tidal flats reforested with mangrove trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and survival of mixed sex mud crabs Scylla serrata (Forskal), held in 200 m2 pens located in reforested mangrove tidal flats, were evaluated. The effects of stocking density (0.5 or 1.5 m?2) and feed (salted fish bycatch or a mixed diet of 75% salted brown mussel flesh and 25% salted fish bycatch) were determined in a replicated factorial experiment.

Avelino T Triño; Eduard M Rodriguez

2002-01-01

127

The Bioeconomic Potential for Agroforestry in Australia’s Northern Grazing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agriculture generates 16% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, it also has the potential to sequester large quantities\\u000a of emissions through land use management options such as agroforestry. Whilst there is an extensive amount of agroforestry\\u000a literature, little has been written on the economic consequences of adopting silvopastoral systems in northern Australia.\\u000a This paper reports the financial viability of adopting

Peter Donaghy; Steven Bray; Rebecca Gowen; John Rolfe; Michael Stephens; Madonna Hoffmann; Anne Stunzer

2010-01-01

128

Agroforestry research and development in southern Africa during the 1990s: Review and challenges ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) initiated in 1987 the Southern Africa Regional Agroforestry\\u000a Programme in partnership with the national research systems in Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania to address the problems\\u000a of low soil fertility and consequent low crop and livestock production, low cash income, and shortages of fuelwood and timber\\u000a that are common to most rural

F. Kwesiga; F. K. Akinnifesi; P. L. Mafongoya; M. H. McDermott; A. Agumya

2003-01-01

129

Agroforestry systems and soil surface management of a tropical alfisol: I: Soil moisture and crop yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted on a tropical Alfisol at Ibadan, Nigeria, to evaluate the effects on soil moisture and crop yields of three agroforestry systems. Effects of agroforestry treatments involving two perennial shrubs (Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium), each at 2-m and 4-m row spacings, were compared with no-till and plow-till systems of seedbed preparation. Measurements were made for soil

R. Lal

1989-01-01

130

The domestication and commercialization of indigenous trees in agroforestry for the alleviation of poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate into tropical farming systems indigenous trees whose products have\\u000a traditionally been gathered from natural forests. This is being done in order to provide marketable products from farms that\\u000a will generate cash for resource-poor rural and peri-urban households. This poverty-alleviating agroforestry strategy is at\\u000a the same time linked to one in which perennial,

R. R. B. Leakey; A. J. Simons

1997-01-01

131

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

2010-05-01

132

The tree\\/crop interface — or simplifying the biological\\/environmental study of mixed cropping agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key to understanding the biological potentials and restraints of agroforestry systems, and the environmental responses of plant components within them, is the ‘tree\\/crop’ interface. All agroforestry systems can be studied by separating the growth and yield characteristics of the three basic sets of variables (a) the sole agricultural crop (b) the effects of the tree\\/crop interface on the crop

Peter A. Huxley

1985-01-01

133

Challenges of reforestation in a water limited world under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debate on the ecological benefits of planted forests at the sensitive lower edge of the closed forest belt (at the "xeric limits") is still unresolved. Forests sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide, control water erosion and dust storms, reduce river sedimentation, and mitigate small floods. However, planting trees in areas previously predominantly occupied by grassland or agriculture can dramatically alter the energy and water balance at multiple scales. The forest/grassland transition zone is especially vulnerable to projected drastic temperature and precipitation shifts under future climate change and variability due to its high ecohydrological sensitivity. The study investigates some of the relevant aspects of the ecological and climatic role of plantation forests and potential impacts at the dryland edges of the temperate zone, using case studies from three countries/regions on three continents. We found that, contrary to popular expectations, the effect of forest cover on regional climate might be limited and the influence of reforestation on water resources might turn into negative. Planted forests generally reduce stream flow and lower groundwater table level because of higher water use than previous land cover types. Increased evaporation potential due to global warming and/or extreme drought events likely reduce areas that are appropriate for tree growth and forest establishment. Ecologically conscious forest policy on management, silviculture and reforestation planning requires the consideration of local hydrologic conditions, future climatic conditions, and also of non-forest alternatives of land use. Keywords: drylands, xeric limits, trailing limits, ecohydrology, climate forcing, land use change, forest policy

Mátyás, Csaba; Sun, Ge

2014-05-01

134

Assessing Effects of Native Reforestation on Soil Moisture Dynamics During Artificial and Natural Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of fire, introduced ungulates, and landscape-level invasion of non-native grasses, less than 10% of original dry forest still exists on leeward Haleakal?, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Native dry forest restoration at Auwahi has demonstrated the potential for dramatic revegetation, allowing experimental comparison of hydrologic function between tracts of restored forest and adjacent grasslands. We hypothesized that even relatively recent forest restoration can assist in the recovery of impaired hydrologic function, potentially increasing aquifer recharge. To simulate an intense storm event, we experimentally irrigated and measured soil moisture and temperature with subsurface instrumentation at 4 locations within the reforested area and 4 within the grassland, each a 2.5 by 2.5 m plot. Compared to grassland areas, water in reforested sites moved to depth faster with larger magnitude changes in water content. The median first arrival velocity of water was greater by a factor of about 13 in the forested sites compared to the grassland sites. Instruments remained in place for more than 1 year and natural storms showed similar responses. This rapid transport of water to depths of 1 m or greater suggests increased potential aquifer recharge. Improved characterization of how vegetation and soils influence recharge is crucial for understanding the long-term impacts of forest restoration on aquifer recharge and water resources, especially in moisture-limited regions.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A.; Szutu, D.; von Allmen, E.

2013-12-01

135

Reforestation as a post-mining land use in the Midwest  

SciTech Connect

With the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), some very stringent requirements for the successful establishment of trees and shrubs have come into effect. In response to these requirements, AMAX Coal Company is developing a reforestation program for seven surface mines in Indiana and Illinois using the best technology currently available. The program emphasizes obtaining good quality stock, the proper care and handling of stock, the proper planting of the stock, and an effective weed control program. The value of weed control for the establishment and growth of hardwoods has long been recognized in the forest industry, but has not been used extensively in the reforestation of surface mined lands. The improved survival of tree seedlings with the use of weed control justifies the additional cost. Weed control also enhances the growth of tree seedlings. However, the long term growth of seedlings is questionable due to the compaction resulting from the extensive grading required to achieve approximate original contour. To minimize compaction, a forest area in Illinois is being minimally graded only to the extent necessary for environmental stability. Minimal grading is designed to reduce compaction which in turn will promote the development of a more productive forest resource.

Parr, D.E.

1982-12-01

136

Effect of Afforestation and Reforestation of Pastures on the Activity and Population Dynamics of Methanotrophic Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils.

Singh, Brajesh K.; Tate, Kevin R.; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B.; Macdonald, Catriona A.; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J. Colin

2007-01-01

137

Climate change mitigation: A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Kyoto Protocol, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is an instrument intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development, with the multiple goals of poverty reduction, environmental benefits and cost-effective emission reductions. The CDM allows for a small percentage of emission reduction credits to come from afforestation and reforestation (CDM-AR) projects. We conducted

Robert J. Zomer; Antonio Trabucco; Deborah A. Bossio; Louis V. Verchot

2008-01-01

138

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

2011-01-01

139

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

140

Evaporation from soils below sparse crops in contour hedgerow agroforestry in semi-arid Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many agricultural systems in the semi-arid tropics, crops use only a small fraction of the total rainfall. Agroforestry can greatly reduce some losses, especially on hill slopes, where soil evaporation, runoff and soil losses are important. This paper reports on soil evaporation from a rotation of intercropped maize and cowpea between contour hedgerows of pruned Senna siamea trees as

J. M. Kinama; C. J. Stigter; C. K. Ong; J. K. Ng’ang’a; F. N. Gichuki

2005-01-01

141

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in neem-based agroforestry systems in Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study of traditional agroforestry systems in six districts of the arid and semiarid zones of Rajasthan was undertaken where annual rainfall varied from 140 to 1000mm and soil types ranged from coarse fine sand in Jaisalmer to clay loams in Kota. The field investigation showed that Glomus, Gigaspora and Sclerocystis were the genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi present

Manish Pande; J. C Tarafdar

2004-01-01

142

Financial returns, stability and risk of cacao-plantain-timber agroforestry systems in Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification of agroecosystems has long been recognized as a sound strategy to cope with price and crop yield variability, thus increasing farm income stability and lowering financial risk. In this study, the financial returns, stability and risk of six cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) – laurel (Cordia alliodora (R&P) Oken) – plantain (Musa AAB) agroforestry systems, and the corresponding monocultures, were

O. A. Ramírez; E. Somarriba; T. Ludewigs; P. Ferreira

2001-01-01

143

Root architecture in relation to tree-soil-crop interactions and shoot pruning in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desirable root architecture for trees differs between sequential and simultaneous agroforestry systems. In sequential systems extensive tree root development may enhance nutrient capture and transfer to subsequent crops via organic pools. In simultaneous systems tree root development in the crop root zone leads to competition for resources.Fractal branching models provide relationships between proximal root diameter, close to the tree stem,

M. Van Noordwijk; P. Purnomosidhi

1995-01-01

144

Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?  

PubMed Central

Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha?1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha?1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels.

Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jurgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Kohler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2012-01-01

145

Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),

Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

146

SOIL CARBON AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER CACAO AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil, cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) agroforestry systems (AFS) are established mostly in highly weathered soils with acidic pH and low fertility. The high amount of plant litter that is deposited (estimated to be ca 10 Mg ha-1 yr- 1) is believed to have an important role in maintaining nutrient cycling and microbial activity to support sustainable cacao production

Antonio Carlos Gama; Emanuela F. Gama; Rodrigues Rodrigues; Ramachandran Ramachandran; Nair Nair; V. C. Baligar Baligar; Regina Regina; Machado Machado; Norte Fluminense; Brazil Brazil

147

Nutritional Limitations in Multi-Strata Agroforestry System with Native Amazonian Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-strata agroforestry system is mentioned as the most promising option for the sustainable agricultural in infertile upland soils of Central Amazonian. However, studies showed that the sustainability of this land use does not exist. The aim of this work was to evaluate the soil fertility and nutritional state of native Amazon plant species cultivated in a Xanthic Ferralsol (dystrophic Yellow

A. Moreira; N. K. Fageria

2012-01-01

148

Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was obtained on Dystric Lithosol.

Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

2009-04-01

149

Reforestation of Frequently Flooded Agricultural Fields: A Compendium of Results from Research Conducted at the Lake George Wetland and Wildlife Restoration Project, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Lake George Bottomland Hardwood Wildlife and Wetland Restoration Project is to restore functioning bottomland hardwood wetland habitat by reforesting 3,600 ha of agricultural fields located in the Mississippi Delta. The Lake George Pr...

H. M. Williams M. H. Craft G. L. Young

1997-01-01

150

Forest villages: an agroforestry approach to rehabilitating forest land degraded by shifting cultivation in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forest village scheme was introduced by the Forest Industries Organisation (FIO) of Thailand in 1967 as an attempt to stop further spread of the fast increasing shifting cultivation and deforestation in the country. The underlying princple of the scheme is to relate reforestation with social welfare of the people involved. It is essentially a modification of the traditional taungya

S.-A. BOONKIRD; E. C. M. Fernandes; P. K. R. Nair

1985-01-01

151

A strategy for tree-perennial crop productivity: nursery phase nutrient additions in cocoa-shade agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shade tolerant species response to nutrient additions and light regulation by canopy trees in perennial agroforestry systems\\u000a has been well documented. However, accelerated early growth, particularly in cocoa-shade systems, may be offset by competition\\u000a for limited resources on nutrient poor sites. To date, few agroforestry management strategies focus on nutrient manipulation\\u000a of the shade tree component or strategies for precision

Marney E. IsaacEric; Eric O. Adjei; Roland N. Issaka; Vic R. Timmer

2011-01-01

152

Temporal changes in soil carbon and nitrogen in west African multistrata agroforestry systems: a chronosequence of pools and fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of forests to agroecosystems or agroforests comes with many changes in biological and chemical processes. Agroforestry,\\u000a a tree based agroecosystem, has shown promise with respect to enhanced system nutrient accumulation after land conversion\\u000a as compared to sole cropping systems. Previous research on tropical agroforestry systems has revealed increases in soil organic\\u000a matter and total organic nitrogen in the

M. E. Isaac; A. M. Gordon; N. Thevathasan; S. K. Oppong; J. Quashie-Sam

2005-01-01

153

Managing genetic variation in tropical trees: linking knowledge with action in agroforestry ecosystems for improved conservation and enhanced livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species in agroforestry ecosystems contribute to the livelihoods of rural communities and play an important role in the\\u000a conservation of biodiversity. Unless agroforestry landscapes are productive, however, farmers will not maintain or enhance\\u000a the range and quality of tree species in them, and both income opportunities and biodiversity will be lost. Productivity depends\\u000a on both tree species diversity and

Ian K. Dawson; Ard Lengkeek; John C. Weber; Ramni Jamnadass

2009-01-01

154

Climate change mitigation through afforestation\\/reforestation: A global analysis of hydrologic impacts with four case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implicit hydrologic dimensions of international efforts to mitigate climate change, specifically potential impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism-Afforestation\\/Reforestation (CDM-AR) provisions of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) on global, regional and local water cycles, are examined. The global impact of the redistribution of water use driven by agriculture and land use change, of which CDM-AR can be a contributing factor, is

Antonio Trabucco; Robert J. Zomer; Deborah A. Bossio; Oliver van Straaten; Louis V. Verchot

2008-01-01

155

Interactions among phosphorus, pH and Eh in reforested mangroves, Vietnam: a three-dimensional spatial analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment reduction is frequently proposed to increase available phosphorus (P) but several studies found also decreases. Another\\u000a important factor for P liberation is the pH. We investigated the relative importance of Eh and pH on P cycling in reforested\\u000a mangroves. Sediment P compounds, pH and Eh were analysed over depth along five transects of two areas in the Saigon River

Julian F. Oxmann; Luitgard Schwendenmann; Rubén J. Lara

2009-01-01

156

Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

1981-01-01

157

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

158

The biology, ecology and agroforestry potential of the raintree, Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. (syn. Albizia saman (Jacq.) F. v. Muell.) is a large tree, native to tropical America, which has now become widespread throughout the humid and\\u000a subhumid tropics. Although noted as a promising agroforestry species, there is little specific research that substantiates\\u000a this potential. On the basis of a review of its biology, ecology and recorded uses, it

P. A. Durr

2001-01-01

159

GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

160

Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

161

Local and landscape factors determine functional bird diversity in Indonesian cacao agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale intensification of smallholder cacao management is currently affecting the agroforestry landscapes of Sulawesi (Indonesia), the world’s third largest cacao producer. Little is known about how this shift from diverse plantations to full-sun cacao will affect functionally important biodiversity within the agroecosystem, and how this is related to landscape-wide patterns in land-use and natural ecosystems. We recorded birds in 43

Yann Clough; Dadang Dwi Putra; Ramadhanil Pitopang; Teja Tscharntke

2009-01-01

162

Ethnobotanical knowledge of Philippine lowland farmers and its application in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex agroforestry systems that mimic local forest structure, so-called ‘analogs’, are assumed to be of specific value to\\u000a rural people as well as the environment. The objective of this study was to document and evaluate the utilization of plant\\u000a resources by Philippine lowland farmers to identify native species suitable for integration in such a system. The interviewed\\u000a farmers maintain a

Gerhard Langenberger; Vanessa Prigge; Konrad Martin; Beatriz Belonias; Joachim Sauerborn

2009-01-01

163

Agroforestry systems for soil and water conservation and sustainable production from foothill areas of north India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some conservation based agroforestry systems (AFS) were developed for possible adoption in place of high risk rainfed farming on land capability classes Ito IV of a typical topo-sequence of foothill north India. The agri-silvi-horticulture system integrating leucaena, lemon, papaya and turmeric on class I irrigated land provided sustainable mean net returns of Rs. 17066 against Rs. 7852 ha.–1 yr.–1 from

S. S. Grewal; S. P. Mittal; Surjit Dyal; Y. Agnihotri

1992-01-01

164

Using 3D architectural models to assess light availability and root bulkiness in coconut agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 3D architectural models to assess light availability and root bulkiness in agroforestry systems. In many parts of the humid tropics, coconut trees are frequently intercropped with food crops, or tree crops such as cocoa.\\u000a The performance of such systems depends on planting patterns, but also on growing conditions for crops below the coconut canopy\\u000a throughout the development of the

Nathalie Lamanda; Jean Dauzat; Christophe Jourdan; Philippe Martin; Eric Malézieux

2008-01-01

165

Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multistrata agroforestry systems with tree crops comprise a variety of land use systems ranging from plantations of coffee, cacao or tea with shade trees to highly diversified homegardens and multi-storey tree gardens. Research on plant-soil interactions has concentrated on the former. Tree crop-based land use systems are more efficient in maintaining soil fertility than annual cropping systems. Certain tree crop

G. Schroth; J. Lehmann; M. R. L. Rodrigues; E. Barros; J. L. V. Macêdo

2001-01-01

166

Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropicsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multistrata agroforestry systems with tree crops comprise a variety of land use systems ranging from plantations of coffee,\\u000a cacao or tea with shade trees to highly diversified homegardens and multi-storey tree gardens. Research on plant-soil interactions\\u000a has concentrated on the former. Tree crop-based land use systems are more efficient in maintaining soil fertility than annual\\u000a cropping systems. Certain tree crop

G. Schroth; J. Lehmann; M. R. L. Rodrigues; E. Barros; J. L. V. Macêdo

2001-01-01

167

Changes in butterfly abundance in response to global warming and reforestation.  

PubMed

In the Republic of Korea, most denuded forest lands have been restored since the 1960s. In addition, the annual mean temperature in the Republic of Korea has increased approximately 1.0 degrees C during the last century, which is higher than the global mean increase of 0.74 degrees C. Such rapid environmental changes may have resulted in changes in the local butterfly fauna. For example, the number of butterflies inhabiting forests may have increased because of reforestation, whereas the number of butterflies inhabiting grasslands may have declined. Furthermore, the number of northern butterflies may have declined, whereas the number of southern butterflies may have increased in response to global warming. Therefore, we compared current data (2002 approximately 2007) regarding the abundance of butterfly species at two sites in the central portion of the Korean Peninsula to data from the late 1950s and early 1970s for the same sites. Changes in the abundance rank of each species between the two periods were evaluated to determine whether any patterns corresponded to the predicted temporal changes. The predicted changes in butterfly abundance were confirmed in this study. In addition, the results showed a different response to habitat change between northern and southern species. In northern butterfly species, butterflies inhabiting forests increased, whereas those inhabiting grasslands declined. However, the opposite was true when southern butterfly species were evaluated. Changes in the abundance indicate that habitat change may be one of the key factors related to the survival of populations that remain around the southern boundary of butterfly species. PMID:20388261

Kwon, Tae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Shin, Joon Hwan

2010-04-01

168

GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

169

Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1979-01-01

170

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

171

Dew as an Adaptation Measure to Meet Agricultural and Reforestation Water Demand in a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dew harvesting, believed to be an ancient technique, has recently re-emerged as a viable and sustainable water resource. Nightly yields are relatively low, yet non-negligible, and dew events occur more frequently than rainfall promoting its effectiveness, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate how dew can be harvested and subsequently used for small-scale irrigation to meet agricultural and reforestation water demand. Polyethylene dew harvesting systems were constructed and placed in the field. Dew was harvested as a result of the radiative cooling during the night, thus allowing dew formation under conditions of high humidity. Condensed dew formed upon the planar surface was collected by gravity. Water demand for selected crops and trees within a pilot study area (Lebanon) was estimated using a deficit irrigation model. Simulations of water demand requirements of various plants and surfaces were performed and compared to dew volumes to assess the ability of the system to meet all or in part the plant water demands across seasons. Data from the polyethylene low-cost dew condensers have shown that within the pilot study, average nightly dew yields were 0.1 L m-2 of condensing surface with a maximum yield of 0.4 L m-2. Dew events occurred generally more frequently than precipitation events, with an estimated 40% of nights producing dew condensate. This translates to 50 mm of equivalent rainfall on average (during dew nights), with a maximum of 200 mm in one night, if one assumes using drip irrigation over a seedling within a 20 cm2 area. Using a simple deficit irrigation model, it was demonstrated that crops such as the tomato plant, which typically has a growing season during the dry summer, can potentially be irrigated solely by dew, thus eliminating the need for traditional irrigation sources. Similarly, young tree seedlings, such as the cedar tree, can depend upon dew as a primary water resource. Moreover, based on similar deficit irrigation strategies, dew was found to be a suitable irrigation option with minimal adverse impact to crop yield or growth rates within our pilot area.

Tomaszkiewicz, Marlene; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El Fadel, Mutasem

2014-05-01

172

POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

173

Shade effects on forage crops with potential in temperate agroforestry practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty forages, including eight introduced cool-season grasses, four native warm-season grasses, one introduced warm-season\\u000a grass, eight introduced cool-season legumes, five native warm-season legumes, and four introduced warm-season legumes, were\\u000a grown in 7.6 L (two gallon) pots in full sun, 50%, and 80% shade created by shade cloth over a greenhouse frame. Experiments\\u000a were conducted during summer--fall 1994, spring--early summer 1995,

C. H. Lin; R. L. McGraw; M. F. George; H. E. Garrett

1998-01-01

174

[Effects of reforestation on soil chemical properties and microbial communities in a severely degraded sub-tropical red soil region].  

PubMed

Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670

Gong, Xia; Niu, De-kui; Zhao, Xiao-rui; Lu, Sun-bao; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Wei, Xiao-hua; Guo, Xiao-min

2013-04-01

175

The role of agroforestry in industrialized nations: the southern hemisphere perspective with special emphasis on Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry in Australia and New Zealand is dominated by silvopastoralism. Farmers may employ combinations of shelterbelts, shade trees, widely spaced trees over pasture, or more densely planted woodlots. In addition to wood production and shelter, erosion control, amenity and landscape planting, and conservation of natural forest are often important. Many farm forestry people show considerable innovation.In temperate wetter areas of

D. J. Mead

1995-01-01

176

Farmer costs and benefits from agroforestry and farm forestry projects in Central America and the Caribbean: implications for policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of an evaluation of the benefits provided by agroforestry and farm forestry projects in Central America and the Caribbean, and the policy implications. Tree planting provided financial benefits to farmers, as well as social, economic and environmental benefits. These justify policy interventions to explicitly recognize the potential of on-farm tree-planting efforts and provide a policy environment

S. J. Scherr

1995-01-01

177

Impact of residue quality on the C and N mineralization of leaf and root residues of three agroforestry species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory incubation experiment with 15N labeled root and leaf residues of 3 agroforestry species (Leucaena leucocephala, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla) was conducted under controlled conditions (25 C) for 56 days to quantify residue C and N mineralization and its relationship with residue quality.

B. Vanlauwe; O. C. Nwoke; N. Sanginga; R. Merckx

1996-01-01

178

The potential of agroforestry to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a critical evaluation of agroforestry systems as regards their potential to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. The suggestion that trees would always and everywhere be profitable for the region will be counterproductive, the basis for disappointments and a waste of money. One has to consider carefully which properties of woody

J. J. Kessler; H. Breman

1991-01-01

179

The effect of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs in sediment from different habitats in Guangdong, China.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs, the concentrations and homologue patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments from different mangrove forests and their adjacent mud flats in Guangdong Province were determined. The total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 3.03 to 46.62 ng g?¹ (dry weight). Differences in the accumulation and distribution of PCBs were found between the mangrove sites and the mud flats. Furthermore, the natural forests and restored mangrove forests of native species showed slight PCB contamination, whereas the exotic species Sonneratia apetala exacerbated the PCB pollution at certain sites. It was suggested that the native mangrove species Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum could represent good choices for the phytoremediation of PCB contamination. PMID:22704149

Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yan-Wu; Chen, Gui-Zhu

2012-08-01

180

Acacia nilotica and Medicago sativa, suitable plants for agro-forestry in southern coasts of Iran.  

PubMed

Habitats of the multipurpose tree, Acacia nilotica, were identified along the coastline of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, south of Iran. Four sites were randomly chosen and in each one, vegetation as well as climatic and soil characteristics were studied. Likewise, biometry of Acacia trees was conducted and compared in the sites. The fodder values in leaf and fruit of Acacia were determined and compared with those of in foliage of Medicago sativa being managed under an agro-forestry system. By analyzing data it was revealed that the biggest trees were found in Dashteyari region and the smallest in Bamani region (both in the Oman Sea coast). Values in most of nutritional elements were higher in foliage of Medicago than in leaf and fruit of Acacia, respectively. From this investigation it is concluded that in south of Iran where the site is favorable for Acacia plantation, cultivation of Medicago or other adaptable crops together with Acacia can be developed as agroforestry systems (such as undercropping and intercropping) if water is available. PMID:19086523

Emtehani, Mohammad Hassan; Tabari, Masoud

2007-05-15

181

ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

182

Decomposition and phosphorus release of agroforestry shrub residues and the effect on maize yield in acidic soils of Rubona, southern Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus release from decomposing leaf biomass of Calliandra\\u000a calothyrsus Meissner, Tithonia diversifolia Hensley A.Gray and Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. agroforestry species applied alone or combined with triple super phosphate (TSP) was studied at World Agroforestry\\u000a Centre (ICRAF) laboratory for 56 days using an incubation method. The effects of above treatments on maize yield were evaluated\\u000a in the field at Rubona, southern province

A. Mukuralinda; J. S. Tenywa; L. Verchot; J. Obua; S. Namirembe

2009-01-01

183

Measurement and modeling of canopy water partitioning in a reforested landscape: The Ganaraska Forest, southern Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA major hydrologic consequence of reforestation is an increase in canopy interception (Ic), with consequent effects on such processes as soil and groundwater recharge. This study examines the change in rainfall partitioning between throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and Ic in red pine plantations of different ages and in mature mixed hardwood forest stands in the Ganaraska Forest on the crest of the Oak Ridges Moraine in southern Ontario. It also tests the ability of the Liu interception model to predict Ic in these stands. Forest characteristics, TF, SF and Ic were either measured or estimated during the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons for three red pine stands 36-41 years old (as of 2009), three red pine stands 57-62 years old, and three mixed hardwood stands 74-107 years old. Despite considerable variability in total Ic in a given stand type in both years, there was a general increase in Ic as a fraction of above-canopy precipitation (Pg) from younger to older red pine stands and to mixed hardwood stands. This was accompanied by a decrease in SF depth as a fraction of Pg from younger to older red pine stands, followed by an increase in SF/Pg in mixed hardwoods. The Liu model provided good predictions of Ic in 2009 for eight of nine stands with canopy storage capacities optimized using the 2009 data. Model performance was almost as good when tested against the 2010 data using the 2009 model parameters. Adjustment of the parameter representing the ratio of mean evaporation rate to mean rainfall rate to account for greater evaporative demand in 2010 led to a modest improvement in model performance. The increase in growing season Ic/Pg ratios as red pine plantations in the Ganaraska Forest mature and undergo a managed transition to mature mixed hardwoods may have important implications for soil water and groundwater recharge that require further study. The Liu model is a promising means of estimating Ic in forest stands of differing age and type, which in turn will assist in understanding the hydrologic consequences of reforestation in this landscape.

Buttle, J. M.; Farnsworth, A. G.

2012-10-01

184

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

185

Responses of native legume desert trees used for reforestation in the Sonoran Desert to plant growth-promoting microorganisms in screen house  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three slow-growing legume trees used for desert reforestation and urban gardening in the Sonoran Desert of Northwestern Mexico\\u000a and the Southwestern USA were evaluated whether their growth can be promoted by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria\\u000a (Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), unidentified arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (mainly Glomus sp.), and supplementation with common compost under regular screenhouse cultivation common to

Yoav Bashan; Bernardo Salazar; Ma. Esther Puente

2009-01-01

186

Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.

Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

1999-07-01

187

Reforestation Sites Show Similar and Nested AMF Communities to an Adjacent Pristine Forest in a Tropical Mountain Area of South Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suarez, Juan Pablo

2013-01-01

188

Energy farming in Brazil: the role of agroforestry on the production of food and energy from biomass in southeast Bahia  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the problem of fuel production from plants, on the basis of information drawn from the literature and from case studies conducted in Brazil. Special reference is made to the production of charcoal and the production of alcohol and vegetable oils to replace gasoline and diesel fuel. The potential and socioeconomic implications of energy farming are discussed. Diversified plant communities are more stable than monocropping systems in terms of prevention of soil degradation by erosion and leaching, and consequently agroforestry is the safest and the most attractive system for the combined production of food and energy from plants in the humid tropics. Agroforestry is especially interesting in the establishment of perennial energy crops, because it provides earlier cash returns.

Alvim, R.

1983-01-01

189

Achieving food and nutritional security through agroforestry: a case of Faidherbia albida in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faidherbia albida is an ideal agroforestry tree commonly intercropped with annual crops like millet and groundnuts in the dry and densely populated\\u000a areas of Africa. With its peculiar reverse phenology, it makes growth demands at a different time from that of crops. In addition,\\u000a it deposits great amount of organic fertilizer on food crops. Leaves entering soils are comparable to

Neo C. Mokgolodi; Moffat P. Setshogo; Ling-ling Shi; Yu-jun Liu; Chao Ma

2011-01-01

190

Why tree-crop interactions in agroforestry appear at odds with tree-grass interactions in tropical savannahs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent research findings on resource sharing between trees and crops in the semiarid tropics and attempts\\u000a to reconcile this information with current knowledge of the interactions between savannah trees and understorey vegetation\\u000a by examining agroforestry systems from the perspective of succession. In general, productivity of natural vegetation under\\u000a savannah trees increases as rainfall decreases, while the opposite

C. K. Ong; R. R. B. Leakey

1999-01-01

191

Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in soils of smallholder agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems in southwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are associated with the root system of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants, but their distribution in smallholder agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems is not well known. This study\\u000a investigates the spatial distribution of AMF spores in a field study in southwestern Ethiopia. Soil samples from different\\u000a depths (0–50 cm) were collected under the tree canopies of Acacia

Diriba Muleta; Fassil Assefa; Sileshi Nemomissa; Ulf Granhall

2008-01-01

192

Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 promotes Pinus sylvestris reforestation of lead-contaminated mine tailing sites.  

PubMed

Vegetation is critical to stabilize and remediate mine tailing sites, but plant growth is often poor due to toxicity from heavy metal(loid)s (HMs). A non-symbiotic endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7, isolated from Pb-contaminated mine tailing soil, exhibited both high tolerance to HMs and desirable plant growth-promoting characteristics. PDR1-7 promoted HM solubilization in mine tailing soil and removed significant amounts of Pb and other HMs from liquid media containing single and multiple metals. Pb removal efficiency increased with initial pH from 4 to 6 and with Pb concentration from 100 to 125 mg L(-1). Inoculating soil with PDR1-7 significantly increased nutrient availability and seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein contents, as well as antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase) activity. A decrease in malondialdehyde indicated less oxidative stress. HM concentrations were much higher in Pinus sylvestris roots when PDR1-7 was present. These observations suggest the utility of Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 for pine reforestation and phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated mine soil. PMID:24496029

Babu, A Giridhar; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

2014-04-01

193

Appropriate technology sourcebook. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

The second in a 2 volume set of guides to practical books and plans for village and small community technology, with over 500 annotated references in print in 1980/1. The forestry section includes material on deforestation, conservation, reforestation, firewood crops, agroforestry, timber drying and the safe use of chain saws. Improved cooking stoves and charcoal kilns are covered in another section, and there is also a section on aquaculture. A glossary and a general index are included.

Darrow, K.; Keller, K.; Pam, R

1981-01-01

194

Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine ( Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia ( Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of forest restoration.

Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

2008-07-01

195

Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.  

PubMed

This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate. PMID:23810966

Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

2013-09-30

196

Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment. PMID:25004755

Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

2014-07-01

197

[Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].  

PubMed

By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

2012-11-01

198

The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, João do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

2009-07-01

199

[Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].  

PubMed

Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840

Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

2008-11-01

200

Transpiration rates and canopy conductance of Pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

We measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in Pinus radiata D. Don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in Canterbury, New Zealand. At the more fertile Lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. At the less fertile Eyrewell Forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. Tree xylem sap flux (F(d)') was measured by the heat pulse method. Total canopy conductance to diffusion of water vapor (G(t)) was calculated by inverting a simplified Penman-Monteith model. The different treatment effects were modeled by the simple decaying exponential relationship G(t) = G(tmax)e((-bD)), where D = air saturation deficit. At the Lincoln site, trees with an understory of cocksfoot had lower F(d)' and G(tmax) than trees with an understory of ryegrass, although the sensitivity of G(t) to increasing D (i.e., the value of b) did not differ between treatments. At the Eyrewell site, irrigation only increased F(d)' in the absence of an understory, whereas the presence of understory vegetation, or lack of irrigation, or both, significantly reduced G(tmax) and increased b. We conclude that the selection of understory species is critical in designing successful agroforestry systems for low rainfall areas. PMID:12651344

Miller, Blair J.; Clinton, Peter W.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Robson, A. Bruce

1998-01-01

201

Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed. PMID:21628247

Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-05-01

202

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

203

The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

2011-08-01

204

Depletion of Stem Water of Sclerocarya birrea Agroforestry Tree Precedes Start of Rainy Season in West African Sudanian Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding water use by agroforestry trees in dry-land ecosystems is essential for improving water management. Agroforestry trees are valued and promoted for many of their ecologic and economic benefits but are often criticized as competing for valuable water resources. In order to understand the seasonal patterns of source water used by agroforestry trees, samples from rain, ground, and surface water were collected weekly in the subcatchment of the Singou watershed that is part of the Volta Basin. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from and under a Sclerocarya birrea agroforstry trees located in this catchment in sealed vials, extracted, and analyzed with a Picarro L2130-i CRDS to obtain both ?O18 and ?DH fractions. Meteorological measurements were taken with a network of wireless, autonomous stations that communicate through the GSM network (Sensorscope) and two complete eddy-covariance energy balance stations, in addition to intense monitoring of sub-canopy solar radiation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil moisture. Examination of the time series of ?O18 concentrations confirm that values in soil and xylem water are coupled, both becoming enriched during the dry season and depleted during the rainy season. Xylem water ?O18 levels drops to groundwater ?O18 levels in early March when trees access groundwater for leafing out, however soil water does not reach this level until soil moisture increases in mid-June. The relationship between the ?DH and ?O18 concentrations of water extracted from soil and tree samples do not fall along the global meteoric water line. In order to explore whether this was a seasonally driven, we grouped samples into an "evaporated" group or a "meteoric" group based on the smaller residual to the respective lines. Although more soil samples were found along the m-line during the rainy season than tree samples or dry season soil samples, there was no significant difference in days since rain for any group This suggests that xylem water is always under stress from evapotranspiration and soil water underwent evaporation soon after a rain event. Visual observation of tree confirms conclusion that trees access deep ground water in March and April, before rain begins and before soil is connected to groundwater. Results from the research are being integrated into a local outreach project to improve use of agroforestry.

Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Parlange, Marc B.

2013-04-01

205

Potential impact of land use change on future regional climate in the Southeastern U.S.: Reforestation and crop land conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

impact of future land use and land cover changes (LULCC) on regional and global climate is one of the most challenging aspects of understanding anthropogenic climate change. We study the impacts of LULCC on regional climate in the southeastern U.S. by downscaling the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model E to the regional scale using a spectral nudging technique with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Climate-relevant meteorological fields are compared for two southeastern U.S. LULCC scenarios to the current land use/cover for four seasons of the year 2050. In this work it is shown that reforestation of cropland in the southeastern U.S. tends to warm surface air by up to 0.5 K, while replacing forested land with cropland tends to cool the surface air by 0.5 K. Processes leading to this response are investigated and sensitivity analyses conducted. The sensitivity analysis shows that results are most sensitive to changes in albedo and the stomatal resistance. Evaporative cooling of croplands also plays an important role in regional climate. Implications of LULCC on air quality are discussed. Summertime warming associated with reforestation of croplands could increase the production of some secondary pollutants, while a higher boundary layer will decrease pollutant concentrations; wintertime warming may decrease emissions from biomass burning from wood stoves.

Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, K.; Hu, Y.; Nenes, A.; Stone, B.; Russell, A. G.

2013-10-01

206

Root system characteristics with agroforestry relevance of nine leguminous tree species and a spontaneous fallow in a semi-deciduous rainforest area of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of tree root characteristics as criteria in the selection of agroforestry tree species is hampered both by uncertainties in the definition of an ideal tree root system and by the scarcity of information which relates tree root properties to the effects of the trees on the soil and associated plant species. In the present study, carbon and nitrogen

Götz Schroth; Dorothee Kolbe; Balle Pity; Wolfgang Zech

1996-01-01

207

Size structure and regeneration of Spanish holm oak Quercus ilex forests and dehesas: effects of agroforestry use on their long-term sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most evergreen oak forests growing in the flat areas of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula have been gradually transformed into a unique kind of pastoral woodland, the Spanish dehesas and Portuguese montados, by means of an agroforestry use. The opening of dehesas by clearing and ploughing closed forest to obtain savannah-like landscapes with a density of some 40 trees per ha

Fernando J Pulido; Mario D??az; Sebastián J Hidalgo de Trucios

2001-01-01

208

Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents

B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya

1995-01-01

209

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

210

Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

Karki, M.B.

1992-01-01

211

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

212

Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

2012-12-01

213

The rain-runoff response of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation in the Western Ghats of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe effects of forest degradation and use and establishment of tree-plantations on degraded or modified forest ecosystems at multi-decadal time-scales using tree-plantations on the streamflow response are less studied in the humid tropics when compared to deforestation and forest conversion to agriculture. In the Western Ghats of India (Uttar Kannada, Karnataka State), a previous soil hydraulic conductivity survey linked with rain IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) had suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess overland within the degraded forest and reforested areas and thus potentially higher streamflow (Bonell et al., 2010). We further tested these predictions in Uttar Kannada by establishing experimental basins ranging from 7 to 23 ha across three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen Forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest (DF) and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. In total, 11 basins were instrumented (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF) in two geomorphological zones, i.e., Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad) and at three sites (one Coastal, two Up-Ghat). The rainfall-streamflow observations collected (at daily and also at a 36 min time resolutions in the Coastal basins) over a 2-3 year period (2003-2005) were analysed. In both the Coastal and Up-Ghat basins, the double mass curves showed during the rainy season a consistent trend in favour of more proportion of streamflow in the rank order DF > AC > NF. These double mass curves provide strong evidence that overland flow is progressively becomes a more dominant stormflow pathway. Across all sites, NF converted 28.4 ± 6.41stdev% of rainfall into total streamflow in comparison to 32.7 ± 6.97stdev% in AC and 45.3 ± 9.61stdev% in DF. Further support for the above trends emerges from the quickflow ratio QF/Q for the Coastal basins. There are much higher values for both the DF and AC land covers, and their rank order DF > AC > NF. The quickflow response ratio QF/P is also the highest for the DF basin, and along with the QF/Q ratio, can exceed 90%. The corresponding delayed flow response ratios, QD/P clearly show the largest QD yields as a proportion of event precipitation from the Forest (NF1). The application of linear model supported these differences (e.g. 10-36% difference between NF and DF, p < 0.001) in the storm hydrologic response of the Coastal basins. The exception was QF/P where there was a higher uncertainty connected with inter-basin mean differences. Cross-correlation plots for rain-streamflow and corresponding lag regression models for three storm events in the Coastal basins suggested the existence of alternative stormflow pathways with multiple lags with peaks between ˜12 and 24 h in NF, compared to respective bimodal peaks at ˜1 and 16 h in AC and ˜1 and 12 h in DF. The long time lags for NF are suggestive of deep subsurface stormflow and groundwater as the contributing sources to the storm hydrograph. The short time lags in DF and AC are indicative of overland flow and so 'memory' of the previous degraded land cover is retained in AC as supported by previous hydraulic conductivity data. As potential and actual evapotranspiration is likely to be depressed during the monsoon, differences in streamflow and run-off responses between land-cover types is largely attributed to differences in soil infiltration and hydrologic pathways. Enhancing infiltration and reducing run-off in managed ecosystems should be explored in the terms of the context of other ecosystem services and biodiversity.

Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas; Rakesh, K. N.

2012-11-01

214

Evaluating the potential of reforestation as a mitigative measure for greenhouse gas induced global warming using an energy balance global climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of global warming due to the human addition of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere has been the subject of considerable attention and research in the last two decades. The principal GHG of concern related to human influence is carbon dioxide (CO2). Emissions of this gas have grown rapidly since the industrial revolution in response to the energy and agricultural demands of an increasing world population. Concern exists that the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs may rise sufficiently high so as to impose dangerous interference with the climate system. Numerous methods and measures for the sequestration and avoidance of GHGs have been proposed with the object of decreasing the growth and ultimately stabilizing atmospheric GHG concentrations. The purpose of this work is to examine the effectiveness of one such measure-that of the feasibiltiy of large-scale reforestation/afforestation efforts to mitigate projected global warming. An energy balance global climate model was selected to conduct this work. The model is based on previous work of Pease (1987) in the Annals of the AAG, (77), 450-461, which has been expanded to include dimensions of time and space. The assumed reforestation/afforestation activities are based on a World Resources Institute study by Trexler and Haugen (1995) entitled Keeping it Green Tropical Forest Opportunities for Mitigating Climate Change. The forestry activities are assumed to take place in the tropics where a year-round growing season, plentiful rainfall, and relatively low land development costs should provide the most economically favorable conditions for instituting such a program. The climate model simulations examine the effect of carbon absorption and sequestration in isolation, and then in a subsequent step, examine the combined effect of carbon absorption/sequestration and albedo changes attendant with increased forest cover. Results of the modeling show only small temperature benefits (an approximate 0.1 degree C cooling) associated with implementation of this large-scale reforestation program versus a CO2 doubling case with no forestry programs. Of the approximate 0.1 degree C temperature change, the largest effect was due to CO2 sequestration with the surface albedo effect being negligible (less than 0.01 degree C).

Starheim, Fred John

215

Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) (Teiidae) in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29A females). Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%), coleopterans (23.9%) and arachnids (10.9%); termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%). There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length) between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga. PMID:20552149

Santana, G G; Vasconcellos, A; Gadelha, Y E A; Vieira, W L S; Almeida, W O; Nóbrega, R P; Alves, R R N

2010-05-01

216

Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land degradation remain.

Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

2014-09-01

217

Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2010-04-01

218

Performance evaluation of various agroforestry species used in short duration improved fallows to enhance soil fertility and sorghum yields in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general soil fertility and crop yield decline constraints have guided the Malian agricultural research institute (Institut\\u000a d’ Economie Rurale, IER), the Sahel Program of the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and the International Crops Research\\u000a Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) to join efforts and undertake research activities aimed at mitigating the constraints\\u000a in Mali. Thus, from the year

Bocary Kaya; Amadou Niang; Ramadjita Tabo; André Bationo

219

Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of the leaf biomass of the wild sunflower ( Tithonia diversifolia ): a comparative study with four leguminous agroforestry species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection and use of appropriate plant materials to maintain a sufficiently high nutrient supply to meet crop needs remains\\u000a a major challenge of nutrient management under low input systems. Therefore, research on plant biomass quality as it relates\\u000a to decomposition and nutrient release has become imperative. This research was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Station\\u000a of the Kwame Nkrumah

S. T. Partey; S. J. Quashie-Sam; N. V. Thevathasan; A. M. Gordon

2011-01-01

220

Root length dynamics in agroforestry with Gliricidia sepium as compared to sole cropping in the semi-deciduous rainforest zone of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree root systems may improve soil fertility through carbon inputs, uptake of leachable nutrients and maintenance of soil\\u000a biomass, but can at the same time reduce crop yields by competition for water and nutrients. Quantitative information about\\u000a the positive and negative effects of tree roots and their changes in space and time are necessary for the optimization of\\u000a agroforestry associations.

Götz Schroth; Wolfgang Zech

1995-01-01

221

Modelling agroforestry systems of cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) with laurel ( Cordia alliodora ) and poro ( Erythrina poeppigiana ) in Costa Rica III. Cycles of organic matter and nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for cycles for organic matter and nutrients element (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) are presented for the agroforestry systems\\u000a of cacao (Theobroma cacao) withCordia alliodora orErythrina poeppigiana in Turrialba, Costa Rica.\\u000a \\u000a For the models, system reserves (soil, humus, vegetation divided into leaves, branches, stems, fine roots, fruits) and transference\\u000a between compartments (production and decomposition of litter residues) inputs

H. W. Fassbender; L. Alpízar; J. Heuveldop; H. Fölster; G. Enríquez

1988-01-01

222

Phosphorus monthly losses at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate (NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus levels in runoff waters help to estimate the possible contamination associated with them and to know the existence of eutrophication conditions. The amounts of P transported from catchments depended on the hydrology, on soil P contents, and on the amount of P added as fertilizer and manure. The aim of this study was to monthly losses of total P (TP), sedimentary P (TSP), and dissolved P (TDP) at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate. This research was conducted at Valiñas River catchment in Coruña (NW Spain), a periurban area of 36.3 km2. Land use is as follows: 35% arable land, 20% grassland or pastures and 45% forest. This study reported data from January 1999 to September 2006. The total sample number was 872, varying from 53 in 1999 and 193 in 2003. Sampling time variability was related to rainfall distribution. The different P forms, TP and TDP, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The TSP was calculated from the difference between TP and TDP. To calculate the mass balance of these P forms, discharge data at the catchment outlet were estimated. Suspended solids were assessed by filtration. Relations between the three P forms and suspended solids were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concentrations of the three studied P forms varied widely during the whole study period. Total P yearly losses ranged from 0.350 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 to 1.199 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. From January to September 2006 they were 0.259 kg ha-1 month-1. TSP losses varied between 0.201 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 and 0.7315 kg ha-1 month-1 in 1999. Finally, TDP losses oscillated between 0.140 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2005 and 0.508 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. The main causes for these variations were rainfall and flow regimes, soil management, and wastewater discharges. Considering the different seasons, flow regime was low from July to September during the studied years, whereas the highest flows were registered in the period from January to March or from October to December, depending on the year. This fact is coincident with the highest rainfall records. Consequently, TP losses were higher during January to March and October to December than during the rest of the year. The period from July to September presented the lowest losses. TSP levels were always greater than those of TDP except in the period from July to September. Significant correlations between suspended solids and TP and TSP were observed throughout the whole study period. This fact indicates the erosive origin of the P exported to this catchment. A significant correlation between TDP and suspended solids was observed only in 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2005. These correlations would indicate that TDP concentrations in this catchment have different origins, not only erosion but wastewater discharges and manure applications. Rainfall was significantly correlated to TP and TSP along the studied period, whereas rainfall and TDP were significantly correlated only in some years, as the relation between flow and the different phosphorus forms. These results may indicate the influence on the season on the phosphorus concentrations although, due to the characteristics of the studied catchment, several origins are possible. For instance, runoff and erosion would increase TSP losses and manure application may increase TDP.

Sande-Fouz, Patricia; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

2010-05-01

223

The impact of reforestation on discharge and sediment fluxes in drylands: long-term evidences from the Western Rift Valley Escarpment (Northern Ethiopia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation and land degradation have been common problems in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, including for the Western Rift Valley Escarpment. In particular, the rapid deforestation of the steep catchments (average slope gradient of 44% ± 10%) in the second half of 20th century, together with rainfall variability and over-cultivation, resulted in the development of dense gully and scar networks. Subsequently, huge amounts sediment were taken to the densely populated graben bottoms. In response, extensive reforestation interventions were carried out as of the 1980s, resulting in improvements of vegetation cover in many catchments. This study analyses the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover and rainfall variability and their impact on discharge and sediment transport in escarpment catchments. Degree of rehabilitation was examined in 20 adjacent catchments by correlating the density of scar networks incised down to the bed rock with Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and slope gradient. Based on these results, 11 contrasting catchments were selected for detailed investigation. To study the current spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and its relation with daily peak discharge, 7 rain gauges were installed at different locations and altitudes. Trendlines of decadal rainfall variability since 1996 will be established based on the analysis of NOAA's rainfall estimates, and long-term rainfall variability will be explored by correlating the field data to long-term rainfall measurements in nearby synoptic stations. The changes in land use and cover will be detected from aerial photos of the 1935, 1965 and 1986. Peak discharges were monitored using 11 crest stage gauges. Fixed boulders were painted in stream reaches to quantify the transport of bedload. This was done by photographing the stream reaches and by measuring the displacement of painted boulders after flood events. In a multiple regression analysis, scar density was negatively related with NDVI and positively with average gradient of very steep slopes (r2 = 0.53; p<0.01, n= 20). Data for the rainy season of 2012 showed no relationship between rainfall distribution and altitude. Average daily peak discharge in the 11 rivers was positively related with daily rainfall depth as well as with catchment size and negatively with NDVI (r2 = 0.83; p<0.01, n=11). Further analysis of the data will allow better understanding of past degradation phases and the impact of land use/cover changes and rainfall variability on the rehabilitation of mountain streams. Keywords: peak discharge; crest stage gauge; boulders; bed load; reforestation.

Asfaha, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

2014-05-01

224

FOREST MANAGEMENT AND AGROFORESTRY TO SEQUESTER AND CONSERVE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...

225

Understanding why farmers plant trees in the homestead agroforestry in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because trees cover only 6.4% of the total land area of Bangladesh, while agricultural expansion continues to massively deplete the natural forests, a well-managed homestead forestry practice is vital for reversing the existing trend and promoting the ecological balance of the country. An understanding of the decision-making process of the farmers who practice homestead forestry is important in expanding and

M. A. Salam; T. Noguchi; M. Koike

2000-01-01

226

The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

2014-04-01

227

Analysis of soil water dynamics in an agroforestry system based on detailed soil water records from time-domain reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time domain reflectometry [TDR] was used to investigate the spatial and temporal variation in surface soil water dynamics under a number of types of vegetation, including both trees and crops grown in isolation, and grown together as an agroforestry system. The installation and operation of this technique are presented, and discussed in terms of its suitability to monitor rapid fluctuations in soil-water content in a spatially heterogeneous system such as that described in this experiment. The relatively small sampling volume of each of the TDR waveguides permitted discrete measurements to be made of soil water content (?v). In the tree-only and tree+crop treatments, this revealed considerable variation in ?v resulting from spatial redistribution of rainfall under the tree canopies, with a significant input to soil close to the base of the trees being made by stemflow, i.e. water intercepted by the tree canopy and channelled down the stem. Over the experimental period (one rainy season) the TDR data suggested that net recharge to the soil profile in the sole crop system was 53 mm, almost 75% more than occurred in either of the two treatments containing trees, reflecting greater rainfall interception by the tree canopies.

Jackson, N. A.; Wallace, J. C.

228

[Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes. PMID:19086397

Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

2007-01-01

229

Fuelwood, agro-forestry, and natural resource management: the development significance of land tenure and other resource management/utilization systems  

SciTech Connect

Using a systems approach and focusing on the social context, the study examines natural resource management in relation to fuelwood production and agroforestry. An initial section describing the use and interlinkage of the concepts of ecozone and ecosystem is followed by a discussion of problem ecozones, human use of ecozones, agricultural ecosystems, resource competition, uses of trees and forest products, and tree planting. Rural resource management strategies at the household, community, local, and state levels are discussed in the context of political economy, land tenure and rights, tenancy and sharecropping, group or public landholding, and acquisition and transfer of land.

Brokensha, D.; Castro, A.P.; Kundu, M.; Hewlett, B.

1984-04-01

230

Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

231

Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

2014-05-01

232

Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2009-12-01

233

Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945

Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

2009-01-15

234

Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the ?13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

2012-04-01

235

Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

236

The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

2012-04-01

237

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

238

The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (<15 cm) tillage. - Introducing cover crops in cropping systems: sown between two cash crops on arable farms, in orchards and vineyards (permanent or temporary cover cropping) . - Expanding agroforestry systems; planting of tree lines in cultivated fields and grasslands, and hedges around the field edges. - Increasing the life time of temporary sown grasslands: increase of life time to 5 years. The recent literature was reviewed in order to determine long term (>20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when associated with vineyards. Hedges (i.e 60 m ha-1) stored 0.15 (0.05-0.26) Mg C ha-1 y-1. Very few estimates were available for temperate agroforestry system, and we proposed a value of 1.01 (0.11-1.36) Mg C ha-1 y-1for C stored in soil and in the tree biomass for systems comprising 30-50 trees ha-1. Increasing the life time of temporary sown grassland increased C stocls by 0.11 (0.07-0.22) Mg C ha-1 y-1. In general, practices with increased C inputs to soil through additional plant biomass (agroforestry, hedges and cover crops) resulted in higher additional C storage rates, while the reduction of soil organic matter mineralisation through reduced tillage seemed less effective. When applied to the French agricultural sector, excluding areas with soils with major technical constraints or negative environmental consequences (e.g. poorly aerated soils with high N2O emissions), the measures considered here allowed to increase French soil C stocks by 0 to more than 1 Tg C y-1. However, our estimates are associated with high uncertainties, due to the high variability in soil C storage associated with pedo-climatic conditions and cropping systems, and on the very few studies available for some practices such as agroforestry under temperate conditions.

Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

2014-05-01

239

C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

2011-07-01

240

Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21359868

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-05-01

241

Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21751010

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-08-01

242

Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-05-01

243

Erratum: Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-08-01

244

Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

2010-12-01

245

Substrate type, temperature, and moisture content affect gross and net N mineralization and nitrification rates in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of soil N availability requires a sound understanding of the effects of environmental conditions and management practices on the microbial activities involved in N mineralization. We determined the effects of soil temperature and moisture content and substrate type and quality (resulting from long-term pasture management) on soluble organic C content, microbial biomass C and N contents, and the

M. Zaman; S. X. Chang

2004-01-01

246

Soil organic carbon (SOC) management for sustainable productivity of cropping and agro-forestry systems in Eastern and Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Eastern and Southern Africa, the shifting from the no-external input agriculture (shifting cultivation through slash and\\u000a burn) to intensified agricultural systems has resulted in widespread agro-ecosystems with high soil organic carbon and nutrient\\u000a depletion. This is quite evident in farming systems with reduced fallow period or those that practice continuous cropping\\u000a without or with little inputs. Long-term experiments indicate

Stephen M. Nandwa

2001-01-01

247

Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

2001-01-01

248

Personal preferences and intensification of land use: their impact on southern Cameroonian slash-and-burn agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where long forest-fallows are no longer practiced, productivity declines in the absence of input substitution, as does the\\u000a ability of subsistence farmers to earn an adequate livelihood from shifting cultivation. Land availability, population density\\u000a and productivity-related factors such as soil fertility and labour requirements are not the only factors that affect fallow\\u000a length and land use intensification in shifting cultivation

Douglas R. Brown

2006-01-01

249

Practice management.  

PubMed

The practicing orthopaedic traumatologist must have a sound knowledge of business fundamentals to be successful in the changing healthcare environment. Practice management encompasses multiple topics including governance, the financial aspects of billing and coding, physician extender management, ancillary service development, information technology, transcription utilization, and marketing. Some of these are universal, but several of these areas may be most applicable to the private practice of medicine. Attention to each component is vital to develop an understanding of the intricacies of practice management. PMID:24918826

Althausen, Peter L; Mead, Lisa

2014-07-01

250

Changing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue contains nine articles all on the subject of "changing practice," i.e., innovative practices of rural English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Byte-ing into Medieval Literature" (John Fyler) describes an online conference on medieval literature for rural high school students. "Literacy in Cattle Country" (Dan…

Benson, Chris, Ed.

1999-01-01

251

Practical Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded over 40 years ago by an economist, Practical Action's aim is to help impoverished people "use technology to challenge poverty", to gain "access to technical options and knowledge", and "influence the social, economic and institutional systems for innovation and use of technology." The "Downloads" tab has a link to "Practical Answers" that cover almost two dozen themes and lets users browse the extensive library, submit technical questions to expert, and it also provides users with a section entitled "Share" which documents peoples' experience with Practical Action. Visitors will also find the "Featured Articles" section of the Downloads useful and full of such practical information as "Build Your Own Tippy Tap", for hand washing after toileting and a "Solar Voltaic System Design Info Sheet" that covers electrical design issues. Back on the homepage, visitors will find links to their social networking, e-newsletter, and the latest from their series of blogs.

252

Multiplication Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice Your Multiplication Skills! Watch These Fun Multiplication Videos *Need a review? Watch the Multiplication is Repeated Addition Video Four Legged Zoo I ve Got 6 Ready or Not Here I Come (5s) Twelve Toes Elementary My Dear 2s Figure 8 Lucky 7s Video My Hero Zero Naughty Number 9 Practice your multiplication skills with these fun games: Multiplication Facts Become the king of multiplication with Castle Quest Dish up some ice cream with Crazy Cone Multiplication. Earn disco moves to make a dinosaur dance with Disco Dino. Design your own granny and make her race in a ...

Lerdahl, Miss

2010-02-23

253

The Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consulting for a moment such luminaries as Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. King, Cesar Chavez--I would say that personal revelation is not less necessary to radical change than public revolution. Amen? "Backing Away From The Product" really has to be both a spiritual practice and a public embarrassment so extreme that its witnesses won't stop talking about it…

Billy, Reverend

2008-01-01

254

Best Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Front-page articles in science and education periodicals and journals give voice to the growing concern that scores on nationwide science exams have either declined or, at best, have had a minute increase even after several years of pushing for better science learning. With this reality facing science education, being knowledgeable about some best practices in science instruction is important.

Swango, C. J.; Steward, Sally B.

2003-01-01

255

Manual de Reforestacion. Nivel Medio (Reforestation Manual).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present 'Manual', written by the Forestry Section of INTECAP, is a compilation of forest and wood management techniques. Its contents include: soil selection and preparation, seed handling, tree planting and care, economy and care of machinery, and se...

1979-01-01

256

The causes of the reforestation in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test an emerging theory of the forest transition using the case of Vietnam. In the early 1990s, decollectivisation of agriculture, allocation of forestry land to households, and the development of market networks transformed land use in the mountains of Vietnam, leading to an increase in forest area. We used census and geographic data covering the whole country at a

Patrick Meyfroidt; Eric F. Lambin

2008-01-01

257

Practical model \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors have developed a clinical model of limited cone-beam X-ray CT for dental use and started to use the model in clinical practice. It is called “3DX multi image micro CT” (3DX, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan). Presented here is a report about the result. Method: We made a design of limited cone-beam X-ray CT so that it could

Yoshinori Arai; Kazuya Honda; Kazuo Iwai; Koji Shinoda

2001-01-01

258

36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest Stand Improvement...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

2010-07-01

259

36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forest establishment and carbon sequestration. (3) Forest Stand Improvement...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation...for energy conservation and carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

2009-07-01

260

Clinical practice  

PubMed Central

The most important goal of introducing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been to decrease the need for intubation and, therefore, mechanical ventilation in newborns. As a result, this technique may reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In addition to nasal CPAP, improvements in sensors and flow delivery systems have resulted in the introduction of a variety of other types of NIV. For the optimal application of these novelties, a thorough physiological knowledge of mechanics of the respiratory system is necessary. In this overview, the modern insights of noninvasive respiratory therapy in newborns are discussed. These aspects include respiratory support in the delivery room; conventional and modern nCPAP; humidified, heated, and high-flow nasal cannula ventilation; and nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Finally, an algorithm is presented describing common practice in taking care of respiratory distress in prematurely born infants.

de Vries, Machteld A. G.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.

2010-01-01

261

36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development; (2) FLEP2âAfforestation and Reforestation; (3) FLEP3âForest Stand Improvement; (4) FLEP4âAgroforestry Implementation; (5) FLEP5âWater Quality Improvement and Watershed Protection; (6) FLEP6âFish and Wildlife...

2010-07-01

262

36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development; (2) FLEP2âAfforestation and Reforestation; (3) FLEP3âForest Stand Improvement; (4) FLEP4âAgroforestry Implementation; (5) FLEP5âWater Quality Improvement and Watershed Protection; (6) FLEP6âFish and Wildlife...

2009-07-01

263

PUTTING PARTICIPATORY DOMESTICATION INTO PRACTICE IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working in the African Humid Tropics (AHT) since 1987. Despite its natural wealth, small-scale farmers of AHT are among the poorest people in the world and have relied on extractive harvesting of forest products and traditional shifting cultivation for their food and other needs. After years of severe deforestation, alternatives now have to

Z. TCHOUNDJEU; E. K. ASAAH; P. ANEGBEH; A. DEGRANDE; P. MBILE; C. FACHEUX; A. TSOBENG; A. R. ATANGANA; M. L. NGO-MPECK; A. J. SIMONS

2006-01-01

264

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

2010-12-01

265

Impact of land use practices on faunal abundance, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of desert pedoecosystem.  

PubMed

Increased dependence of resource-poor rural communities on soils of low inherent fertility are the major problem of desert agroecosystem. Agrisilviculture practices may help to conserve the soil biota for maintaining essential soil properties and processes in harsh climate. Therefore, the impacts of different land use systems on faunal density, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of soil were studied in agrisilviculture system of Indian desert. The selected fields had trees (Zizyphus mauritiana, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica) and crops (Cuminum cyminum, Brassica nigra, Triticum aestivum) in different combinations. Populations of Acari, Myriapoda, Coleoptera, Collembola, other soil arthropods and total soil fauna showed significant changes with respect to different land use practices and tree species, indicating a strong relation between above and below ground biodiversity. The Coleoptera exhibited greatest association with all agrisilviculture fields. The Z. mauritiana system indicated highest facilitative effects (RTE value) on all groups of soil fauna. Soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were greater under tree than that of tree plus cropping system. It showed accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen in tree field and more utilization by crops in cultivated lands. Positive and significant correlation among organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity clearly reflects increase in soil nutrients with the increase in microbial and other biotic activity. P. cineraria field was the best pedoecosystem, while C. cyminum was the best winter crop for cultivation in desert agroforestry system for soil biological health and soil sustainability. The increase in organic carbon, soil nutrients and microbial activity is associated with the increase in soil faunal population which reflect role of soil fauna in fertility building. This suggests that strategies may be developed for nurturing fertility-building soil fauna and managing degraded pedoecosystem in desert just by adopting suitable agricultural practices. PMID:16335596

Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

2005-11-01

266

A Paradigm for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of consensus on a paradigm for practice inhibits the cumulative development of practical knowledge and skills. It also encourages devolution of these and other paradigm functions by default to the established paradigm in the policy movement, reductionism, which includes positive methodology. But reductionism is insufficient for practice. It tends to displace practical aims and expectations, and discount and delegitimize

Ronald D. Brunner

2006-01-01

267

Management Practices and Unemployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible impact of management practices on unemployment has been little explored. Normally, those practices voluntarily adopted by competitive firms are considered likely to improve their performance and thus their long termscope to provide jobs. Yet there are a number of areas where such management practices could adversely affect jobs. The paper starts by examining management practices and wage rigidity,

David Marsden

1995-01-01

268

Practice States and Capitals!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year we are learning the states and capitals of the United States. The best way to learn them is to practice, practice, practice! Use the following links to review and practice the states and capitals of the United States. Although you may prefer one website over another, try them all to see what they have to offer and to test your knowledge. Enjoy! Geospy USA State Capitals Quiz Sheppard Software States and Capitals Practice ...

Hoffman, Mr.

2007-09-06

269

Educating advanced practice nurses for practice reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the current health care environment ethically mandates advanced practice nursing (APN) educators to prepare graduates with a clear understanding of APN roles and professional and regulatory issues for them to make a reasonable transition to the marketplace. Integrating both clinical content needed for APN practice and APN role issues can be a difficult balance. This article describes

Ann B Hamric; Charlene M Hanson

2003-01-01

270

EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…

Glenn, Joanne M. Lozar

2006-01-01

271

Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

Quennerstedt, Mikael

2013-01-01

272

Representing Practice: Practice Models, Patterns, Bundles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critiques learning design as a representation for sharing and developing practice, based on synthesis of three projects. Starting with the findings of the Mod4L Models of Practice project, it argues that the technical origins of learning design, and the consequent focus on structure and sequence, limit its usefulness for sharing…

Falconer, Isobel; Finlay, Janet; Fincher, Sally

2011-01-01

273

Practice Safer Sex  

MedlinePLUS

... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...

274

Research in Health Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to stimulate inter-disciplinary action-oriented research in the field of medical education and health practices, the Indian Council of Medical Research constituted an Expert Committee on Research in Health Practices, and the present report embodi...

K. N. Rao D. Anand B. G. Prasad B. G. Tiwari T. R. Pareek

1970-01-01

275

Reflecting Reflective Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

Galea, Simone

2012-01-01

276

Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices submitted in the 2012 Training Top 125 application. Best practices: (1) Edward Jones: Practice Makes Perfect (sales training); (2) Grant Thornton LLP: Senior Manager Development Program (SMDP); (3) MetLife, Inc.: Top Advisor…

Training, 2012

2012-01-01

277

Higher level practice: degree of specialist practice?  

PubMed

Higher level practice (HLP) is the determinant characteristic of any maturing profession. Nursing should make a quantum leap with the development of HLP if the patient, the nurse, the context of caring and the acquisition of expertise are at the forefront of such growth. This study shows the matching of nursing concepts with nursing context is at the heart of HLP. It also shows that nurses are developing their own understanding of HLP which is different from the UKCC functional criteria. The intention here is to contribute to the development and understanding of HLP. Seven key concepts emerge in the definition of HLP. These concepts are unpacked to reflect the possible criteria, which could be used in the practice, teaching, assessment, and further refinement of HLP. A series of thought provoking recommendations are made for the Nursing and Midwifery Council to consider.A learning module entitled "Higher Level Practice" anchored in the epistemology of practice has been developed and successfully implemented by the author within the MSc Nursing Practice course attended by senior and consultant nurses. PMID:12672387

Durgahee, Taleb

2003-04-01

278

Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?  

PubMed

Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

2010-09-01

279

Practical NMR imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following chapters: General principles; Siting and installation of x-ray equipment; Practical testing; The image slice; NMR in clinical practice; Development of tissue contrast in magnetic resonance imaging; The clinical use of contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging; Advanced imaging techniques; In vivo spectroscopy; and Safety considerations.

Foster, M.A.; Hutchison, J.M.S.

1987-01-01

280

Resilience in Practice Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resilience is normally sought in the child, family and the community. It is a complex term that needs to be understood in context. This paper seeks to locate and trace resilience in the practitioner. It also examines how practitioners foster resilient interventions. A number of practice examples, taken from the author's own practice experience,…

Phillips, Gerard

2008-01-01

281

Practical Reason and Positioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that an emerging framework for studying social episodes known as "positioning theory" is a rich tool for practical reasoning. After giving an outline of the Aristotelian conception of practical reason, recently developed by Alasdair MacIntyre, it is argued that positioning theory should be seen not as a detached, scientific…

Brinkmann, Svend

2007-01-01

282

Supporting Inclusive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written to support all teaching and learning staff in developing good inclusive practice, this book provides knowledge and understanding about a range of inclusion issues, such as what an inclusive school might look like and practical guidance on supporting the development of such a school. It also explores issues surrounding: (1) Ethnicity; (2)…

Knowles, Gianna

2006-01-01

283

Toward practicing privacy  

PubMed Central

Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice.

Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

2013-01-01

284

Playful Teaching Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In physical education, playful teaching practices are essential to relationship building and creating "connections" for successful group dynamics. Perhaps most importantly, playful teachers develop positive attitudes in their students and help students understand that learning can be fun and joyful. Playful teaching practices also greatly enhance…

Michaelis, Bill

2005-01-01

285

Research, Practice and Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three issues concerning the relationship between research and practice are addressed. (1) A certain 'prototype mathematics classroom' seems to dominate the research field, which in many cases seems selective with respect to what practices to address. I suggest challenging the dominance of the discourse created around the prototype mathematics classroom. (2) I find it important to broaden the school-centred discourse

Ole Skovsmose

286

Neurology Practice Study Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report of a study on the practice of Neurology in the United States. The study, is intended to provide practice-relevant information to guide decision making in both educational program development and manpower planning. This report describes th...

R. C. Mendenhall

1979-01-01

287

Reflective Learning in Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

288

Benefits of Reflective Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses what she was able to learn from an exercise in self-reflection regarding her teaching. She also discusses the advantages of reflection for administrators: First, a reflective practice is data-driven, making it a more valid way to evaluate administrators' knowledge and skills. Second, a reflective practice

Wagner, Kathi

2006-01-01

289

Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…

Training, 2011

2011-01-01

290

Theorizing collaboration practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the theory of collaborative advantage. This is a practice-oriented theory concerned with enhancing practical understanding of the management isssues involved in joint working across organizations. Two contrasting concepts are central to it: collaborative advantage which is concerned with the potential for synergy from working collaboratively; and, collaborative inertia which relates to the often disappointing

Chris Huxham

2003-01-01

291

Practice uncertainty: changing perceptions.  

PubMed

Practice uncertainty is inevitable in health care, and there are many contextual factors that can lead to either good or bad outcomes for patients and health care providers. Practice uncertainty is not a well-established concept in the literature, perhaps because of the predominant empirical paradigm and the high value placed on certainty within current health care culture. This study was conducted to explore practice uncertainty and bring this topic into the foreground as a first step toward practice evolution. A shift in the perception of practice uncertainty may change the way in which practitioners experience this phenomenon. This process must start with nursing educators recognizing and acknowledging this phenomenon when it occurs. PMID:23875604

Vaid, Patrycja R; Ewashen, Carol; Green, Theresa

2013-10-01

292

Personhood and the practical.  

PubMed

Traditionally, it has been assumed that metaphysical and practical questions about personhood and personal identity are inherently linked. Neo-Lockean views that draw such a link have been problematic, leading to an opposing view that metaphysical and ethical questions about persons should be sharply distinguished. This paper argues that consideration of this issue suffers from an overly narrow conception of the practical concerns associated with persons that focuses on higher-order capacities and fails to appreciate basic practical concerns more directly connected to our animality. A more inclusive alternative is proposed. PMID:20607613

Schechtman, Marya

2010-08-01

293

Practicing Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Practicing Fireworks Safety Tweet Fireworks eye injuries common in young people, bystanders Nearly ... to avoid the risk of serious eye injury." Fireworks Safety Tips The Academy advises that the best ...

294

Instructors' Teaching Practice Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve instructors' reflections lead to engagement and proactivity in pedagogical knowledge, thus building an analytical approach which is fundamental to the development of university professional practice. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

Angulo, Luis Miguel Villar; de la Rosa, Olga Maria Alegre

2006-01-01

295

Gastroenterology Practice Study Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Descriptive and statistical analyses of the characteristics of gastroenterologists' practices in the United States are provided by this University of Southern California medical research study. Data reveal an overrepresentation of gastroenterologists in l...

1977-01-01

296

Theory, Experiment of Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The scope of scientific work and the role of the Scientist-organizer; Assimilating (Mastering) the achievements of science and technology; Theory, experiment and practice; The unity of science and technology; The efficiency of scientific work; Q...

P. L. Kapitsa

1967-01-01

297

Practical Photochemistry: General Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Practical aspects of laboratory-scale preparative photochemistry are discussed under the following headings: Lamps: dimensions, power ratings, spectral distributions and output intensities of different lamp types; The reaction mixture: factors involved in...

J. Hutchison

1986-01-01

298

Practical Streambank Bioengineering Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Practical Stream Bioengineering Guide is a users guide to natural stream stabilization techniques for the arid and semi-arid Great Basin and Intermountain West. Bioengineering can simply be defined as increasing the strength and structure of the soil ...

1998-01-01

299

Practical Work and Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on progressivism, the author attacks the way in which teaching media was seen as an opportunity for students to give vent to their own experiences. Calls for practical work which concentrates on cognitive rather than experiential development. (PD)

Ferguson, Bob

1981-01-01

300

Psychiatry Practice Study Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Southern California School of Medicine's Division of Research in Medical Education (USC/DRME) is conducting a nationwide study of practicing physicians in more than 20 medical and surgical specialties. The study's purpose is to provide a...

R. C. Mendenhall

1979-01-01

301

Champions of best practice.  

PubMed

The student quality ambassador (SQA) scheme is an initiative in universities in the NHS North West region to encourage students to champion and share best practice and to contribute to improvements in patient care (see box ). PMID:24593116

Wimpenny, Sharon; Sheen, Julie

302

Hematology Practice Study Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Southern California School of Medicine's Division of Research in Medical Education (USC/DRME) is conducting a nationwide study of practicing physicians in more than 20 medical and surgical specialties. The study's purpose is to provide a...

R. C. Mendenhall

1979-01-01

303

Research into Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two aspects of instructional practice in mathematics are discussed: the process of developing instructional activities and the importance of engaging students in mathematical discussion. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards are evaluated based on this discussion. (CW)

Yackel, Erna; And Others

1990-01-01

304

Ten practice redesign approaches.  

PubMed

As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches. PMID:24228375

Slayton, Val

2013-01-01

305

Practicing like Thomas Edison.  

PubMed

For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices. PMID:23866659

Baum, Neil; Ornstein, Hal

2013-01-01

306

Cultural practices in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

Alabi, E M

1990-05-01

307

Translating learning into practice  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM ADDRESSED The need for effective and accessible educational approaches by which family physicians can maintain practice competence in the face of an overwhelming amount of medical information. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM The practice-based small group (PBSG) learning program encourages practice changes through a process of small-group peer discussion—identifying practice gaps and reviewing clinical approaches in light of evidence. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The PBSG uses an interactive educational approach to continuing professional development. In small, self-formed groups within their local communities, family physicians discuss clinical topics using prepared modules that provide sample patient cases and accompanying information that distils the best evidence. Participants are guided by peer facilitators to reflect on the discussion and commit to appropriate practice changes. CONCLUSION The PBSG has evolved over the past 15 years in response to feedback from members and reflections of the developers. The success of the program is evidenced in effect on clinical practice, a large and increasing number of members, and the growth of interest internationally.

Armson, Heather; Kinzie, Sarah; Hawes, Dawnelle; Roder, Stefanie; Wakefield, Jacqueline; Elmslie, Tom

2007-01-01

308

Promoting biodiversity: advances in evaluating native species for reforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the potential of native tropical hardwoods for forestry development, 84 timber species were tested in a species screening trial in Costa Rica; 17 were widely planted tropical exotics, 52 were locally indigenous, and 15 were native to other areas of Costa Rica. A complete randomized block design was used with single tree plots replicated 24 times per site.

Rebecca P. Butterfield

1995-01-01

309

Sowing Rates for Reforestation By the Seed-spotting Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents guides to detefimine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Edsed o n theoretical probabilities, these guides were found t 0 b e reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. T 0 compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the

GILBERT H. SCHUBERT; HARRY A. FOWELLS

310

Best Practice in Education Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experts in school design discuss what constitutes best practice in educational facilities planning and design. Their discussions include examples of schools that illustrate these best practices. (EV)

School Planning & Management, 2002

2002-01-01

311

Role of woody perennials in animal agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main roles are identified in the review: the productive one, where woody perennials yield a material output (fuel, fodder, etc.), and the ‘service’ type, with no tangible product (shelter, nutrient recycling, etc.). In their productive role trees and shrubs may supply fodder in browsing systems, or industrial material, wood products and food in forest and plantation grazing systems. Service

Filemon Torres

1983-01-01

312

Below-ground interactions in dryland agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effects of intercropping and tree pruning on root distribution and soil water depletion in an alley cropping system with Acacia saligna and Sorghum bicolor in northern Kenya. Root distribution was determined by destructive sampling, and the soil water suction was measured with tensiometers and gypsum blocks, both up to 150cm depth. The root systems of the

Johannes Lehmann; Inka Peter; Claudia Steglich; Gerhard Gebauer; Bernd Huwe; Wolfgang Zech

1998-01-01

313

Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the

Alain Albrecht; Serigne T Kandji

2003-01-01

314

Provenance: Promise and Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capturing provenance is one of the fundamental principles of archive theory. Provenance consists of information about the creation of an object, its ownership, and how this information has changed over time. The data management community has been discussing how to apply the concepts of provenance to science data. Considerable attention has been paid to developing mechanisms to record how data were created, since this is key to reproducing research results. Less attention has been paid to the other elements of provenance, even though data and the organizations that archive data are dynamic and ever changing. Some practice is coming into play; but there is a large gap between theory and practice. This talk will review the current state of the art, discuss the gap between theory and practice, and describe what could be done to close the gap.

Duerr, R. E.

2008-12-01

315

Teaching Engineering Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.

Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

2014-03-01

316

[Developing better practices].  

PubMed

This editorial consists in a review of the literature describing the expansion of the movement promoting "Best practices." Still partly unknown among practitioners, this movement is nevertheless sufficiently important to warrant a literature review, all the more so given the French language literature on the subject is practically inexistant. After formulating an economic and political hypothesis explaining their emergence, the article describes the principal models underlying their development: the evidence-based model as well the expert-consensus model. The author then suggests two ways of presenting best practices in order to facilitate their use: guidelines and algorithms, as well as interventions favoring their expansion with practitioners and administrators. The author concludes with a critical analysis of this approach. PMID:15368009

Lecomte, Yves

2003-01-01

317

Kairos and practice wisdom in social work practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practice wisdom is a form of practical moral reasoning when social workers face the complexity and uncertainty encountered in practice. Following a literature review on practice wisdom in social work, its essential features are discussed, identifying a neglected element in the literature—the element of time. The element of time is found to be implicitly considered in models of social work

Nai Ming Tsang

2008-01-01

318

Restaurant food cooling practices.  

PubMed

Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

2012-12-01

319

Safe Handling Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

1980-01-01

320

Practice patterns of licensed practical nurses in North Carolina.  

PubMed

In the United States, state laws develop basic practices to define the scopes of practice for registered nurses and licensed practical nurses (LPNs). The purpose of the study was to describe the actual practice patterns of LPNs working in North Carolina. The results of the study convey an unfavorable pattern regarding LPN scope of practice. Indications are that a paradigm shift might be required in order to reverse the pattern of overpractice by LPNs. PMID:22367015

Parnell, Elizabeth R; Kring, Daria L

2012-01-01

321

Getting Practical with Primary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Getting Practical--Improving Practical Work in Science programme offers professional development for primary teachers across England. During the 2009/2010 academic year, 237 primary teachers attended a Getting Practical training course, giving themselves the opportunity to reflect upon their own teaching practices and consider ways to make…

Chetwood, Janet; Smith, Melanie; Chapman, Georgina

2011-01-01

322

Auctions: Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a non-technical introduction to auction theory; its practical application in auction design (including many examples); and its uses in other parts of economics. It can be used for a graduate course on auction theory, or – by picking selectively – an advanced undergraduate or MBA course on auctions and auction design. Part A introduces the basic theory.

Paul Klemperer

2004-01-01

323

Troubling Practices: Short Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

2012-01-01

324

Differentiated Staffing and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of the positions of nurse practitioner and physician assistant is a good example of differentiating staffing and practice to meet individual needs in an effective and cost-efficient way. This type of differentiation has been confined to the healthcare industry, principally to health maintenance organizations, but perhaps those in…

Christie, Kathy

2005-01-01

325

Coherent Career Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherent career practice is conceptualized as an integrated reciprocal system involving 4 core elements: (1) career literacy; (2) career gumption; (3) career context; and (4) career integrity. It also accounts for "career integration", or the process by which these elements are assembled and reassembled. The source of client difficulties may…

Magnusson, Kris; Redekopp, Dave

2011-01-01

326

Educational Researchers and Practicality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, an attempt to identify further directions in research designs that researchers can use to contribute to the relevance of educational research findings, by including teachers' practicality issues, is presented. Sixty experienced teachers in secondary education read the reporting of modified experimental research findings about…

Van Velzen, Joke H.

2013-01-01

327

No Penalties for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and administrators at Health Sciences High and Middle College in San Diego, California, wanted to create a grading system that reflected understanding while still encouraging students to practice. They developed course competencies, or performance assessments, that teachers use to measure what students know and can do with the concepts…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Pumpian, Ian

2011-01-01

328

Alternative Instructional Grouping Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternatives to the current system of graded classes and ability grouping are examined that would allow teachers to balance individual student needs with practical considerations in instructional delivery. In addition to reviewing the alternatives, the research that has examined these approaches is reviewed and synthesized. The three alternative…

McGurk, Erin K.; Pimentle, Jodi A.

329

Gerontological advance practice nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gerontological advance practice nurses (GAPNs) are ideal providers to assist elderly patients with advanced chronic illness and their families as they experience the final phase of life. The goal of this individualized process is for the patient to experience a “good death”—one that is comfortable and self-determined. This article proposes a model in which the GAPN offers 5 essential services

Martha L. Henderson

2004-01-01

330

Ethics in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

Medlin, E. Lander

2010-01-01

331

Gastroscopy in surgical practice.  

PubMed

We reviewed the records of 100 consecutive patients who had gastroscopy. All endoscopic work was done by our four-man surgical group. Roentgenographic and endoscopic diagnoses are compared with reference to degree of accuracy. The expanded uses of gastroscopy in surgical practice are illustrated and a plea is made for increased involvement of surgeons in the rapidly expanding field of endoscopy. PMID:622620

Futch, C B; Jennings, E R; Egan, R W; Addison, B A

1978-02-01

332

Put Theory into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…

Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.

2013-01-01

333

Collecting Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices.…

Tedford, Jennifer

2008-01-01

334

Good Laboratory Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) in conjunction with the principles of Total Quality Management (see chapter 6) ensure the quality and reliability of the laboratory results, which in turn help to ensure the protection of the environment and human health and safety. A step further is the accreditation of laboratories to ISO 17025 (see chapter 2) to perform specified activities.

Hadjicostas, Evsevios

335

Small Business Pedagogic Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

2003-01-01

336

DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT IN PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic assessment embeds interaction within the framework of a test- intervene-retest approach to psychoeducational assessment. This book offers an introduction to diagnostic assessors in psychology, education, and speech\\/ language pathology to the basic ideas, principles, and practices of dynamic assessment. Most important, the book presents an array of specific procedures developed and used by the authors that can be applied

H. Carl Haywood; Carol S. Lidz

337

Creating a Lean Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

magine a practice in which your patients get exactly what they want and need exactly when they want and need it. The quality of care you provide is demonstrably high, with no errors, no waiting and no hassles, and your office delivers all of the services rec - ommended for disease management and health mainte- nance, as well as effective

Scott Endsley; Michael K. Magill; Marjorie M. Godfrey

2006-01-01

338

Practical software reliability modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is increasingly dependent upon software in systems critical to the success of NASA's mission. The capability to accurately measure the reliability of the software in these systems is essential to ensuring that NASA systems will meet mission requirements. The Software Assurance Technology Center at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center explored software reliability modeling as a practical measurement technique.

Dolores R. Wallace

2001-01-01

339

Ease of Long Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes the New Zealand approach to outdoor leadership, which relies on teaching risk assessment and management from manuals and checklists and which asserts that risk-management skills are transferable between risky sports. Suggests that sound outdoor practice involves more than "legal duty of care," and recommends reliance on experienced…

McDonald, Peter

1997-01-01

340

Points and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of three articles represents the "Points and Practices" section of this month's issue of "Research in Drama Education." The first article, "'Fitting the Bill' for 'Helping Them.' A Response to 'Integrated Popular Theatre Approach in Africa' and 'Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in Pakistan,'" by Syed Jamil Ahmed,…

Ahmed, Syed Jamil; Heddon, Dee; Mackey, Sally

2007-01-01

341

Toward Scholarship in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Over the past decade, scholars of teaching and teacher education have concluded that the field lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to undergird systematic investigation of practice. Absent a shared language, we can neither articulate common questions nor establish common tools--essential elements for building knowledge and…

Singer-Gabella, Marcy

2012-01-01

342

Implementing Sustainable Institutional Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…

Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis

2009-01-01

343

Caring as Classroom Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When planning for the new school year, K-2 teachers might consider the benefits of creating a caring classroom. Caring has the potential to not only encourage thoughtful social studies practice, but to also enhance it. The best K-2 teachers also recognize the importance of caring in the development of responsible citizens. Such teachers plan and…

Johnson, Chrystal S.; Thomas, Adrian T.

2009-01-01

344

Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon’s entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

2011-04-01

345

Vocabulary Practice Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates games that can be used for developing vocabulary in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom. The games are intended to be integrated into the general language syllabus and can be an important and enjoyable way of practicing vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

Shaptoshvili, Shalva

2002-01-01

346

Applying Transfer in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the chapters in this issue, the authors have cited various definitions for learning transfer. For educators, in its simplest form, transfer of learning occurs when students put to practical use the knowledge and skills they gained in the classroom (near transfer). Chapter 1 defines near transfer and then goes into detail on the levels…

Kaminski, Karen; Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.

2013-01-01

347

Turning Ideas into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

Adams, Caralee

2011-01-01

348

Practical Quality Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: This practice-based research entails an assessment of efficacy of MNT, implementation of a MNT protocol and development of a critical pathway for outpatients with NIDDM.A retrospective record review was conducted for 21 out of 74 (28%) outpatients attending the diabetes nutrition class between August and October 1993. Thirteen (62%) were referred to the dietitian within one month of

J. E. Heetderks-Cox; D. A. Grudzielanek

1996-01-01

349

LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

350

Research into Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the articles presented in this issue with respect to their implications for classroom practices. Stresses that in this issue, the researchers describe how social context factors (such as adult viewpoints and adult-child interaction patterns) and physical context factors (such as variations in classroom space-time organization and…

Bergen, Doris

1994-01-01

351

Traffic control: nursing practice calendar.  

PubMed

Educating nurses on the multitude of new and updated best practices, changes in regulatory standards, new equipment, and enhanced technology creates an "information traffic jam." Multiple practice changes occurring simultaneously pose challenges for nurses to retain information to practice safely and effectively. An absence of coordination between various nursing and allied health teaching initiatives compounds this problem. A nursing practice calendar was developed to facilitate the prioritization, communication, and education of hospital-wide initiatives affecting nursing practice. PMID:23657036

Rus, Linda; Cheesebro, Kathy; Nagra, Erica; Neff, Alaina

2013-01-01

352

Human resource management in general practice: survey of current practice.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The organization and management of general practice is changing as a result of government policies designed to expand primary health care services. One aspect of practice management which has been underresearched concerns staffing: the recruitment, retention, management and motivation of practice managers. AIM: A study set out to find out who is routinely involved in making decisions about staffing matters in general practice, to establish the extent to which the human resource management function is formalized and specialized, and to describe the characteristics of the practice managers. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was sent to a stratified random sample of 750 general practices in England and Wales in February 1994 enquiring about the practice (for example, the fundholding status and number of general practitioner partners), how the practice dealt with a range of staffing matters and about the practice manager (for example, employment background and training in human resource management). Practices were classed as small (single-handed and two or three general practitioner partners), medium (four or five partners) or large (six or more partners). RESULTS: Replies were received from 477 practices (64%). Practice managers had limited authority to make decisions alone in the majority of practices although there was a greater likelihood of them taking independent action as the size of practice increased. Formality in handling staffing matters (as measured by the existence and use of written policies and procedures) also increased with practice size. Larger practices were more likely than smaller practices to have additional tiers in their management structure through the creation of posts with the titles assistant practice manager, fund manager and senior receptionist. Most practice managers had been recruited from within general practice but larger practices were more likely than smaller practices to recruit from outwith general practice. Three quarters of practice managers reported having received some type of formal training in staff management. CONCLUSION: This study shows that practice size is a major factor associated with differences in the organization and management of staffing. Any initiatives which increase the scale of primary care functions and services would have to address the issues of communication and coordination that might be associated with such a change.

Newton, J; Hunt, J; Stirling, J

1996-01-01

353

Integrating clinical practice guidelines into the routine of everyday practice.  

PubMed

For years, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, along with other professional organizations, have produced clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of cardiovascular care. Producing these comprehensive documents has required extraordinary effort, primarily from volunteer professionals. Quality improvement efforts based on these guidelines, however, have not fully engaged practicing physicians, as evidenced by studies of guideline adherence. The translation of the guidelines into routine practice remains a persistent challenge.Practitioners work in a complex and fast paced environment. In the routine of everyday practice, physicians, like all decision-makers, use cognitive shortcuts to help make rapid decisions under conditions of uncertainty. How practicing physicians package information in their working memory and use shortcuts called "heuristics" has implications for how clinical practice guidelines can most directly influence practice. Current guidelines are written as comprehensive review documents, but are not formatted to allow easy incorporation into the heuristics of everyday practice. Improving the interface between guidelines and routine practice may result in more rapid and appropriate translation of scientific evidence into practice.We describe the routine of everyday practice as a repetitive cycle where new scientific evidence is incorporated into the heuristics that drive daily medical decisions. Examining this cycle suggests ways to communicate guideline information more effectively and to improve practice routines. Recognizing the intuitive approaches that practicing physicians use to make rapid decisions may yield opportunities for responsive professional organizations and reflective practicing physicians to improve the quality of care. PMID:18340202

Brush, John E; Radford, Martha J; Krumholz, Harlan M

2005-09-01

354

Clinical Guidelines and Practice  

PubMed Central

Subjective tinnitus is an enigmatic and chronic condition that is predominantly managed as symptomatic. Little high-level evidence exists for the efficacy and specificity of the various tinnitus management strategies currently used, and this is reflected in documents that aim to guide clinicians. As a consequence, there are clear gaps in evidence-based practice linking diagnosis to the most effective management strategies as well as a general lack of consensus about which are appropriate strategies for assessment and management. Several guidelines have been produced from research efforts and from expert opinion. All recommend standardization of assessment and a range of management options but do not yet provide a means to link the two. The authors call for clinicians, scientists, and policy makers to work together to address this barrier to good practice.

Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

355

Stigma in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Much more is known about attitudes toward mental illness and social stigma, the viscious cycle of its consequences and how to fight the social stigma in public, but much less is known about how to combat the stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. Stigma theories have not been enough to understand the feelings and experience of people with mental illness. Conceptual framework that understands stigma as consisting of difficulties of knowledge (ignorance or misinformation), problems of attitudes (prejudice), and problems of behaviour (discrimination) have not o been enough to understand stigma dynamics in the patient therapist interaction. Understanding the psychodynamic aspects of internalized stereotype of mental illness in the patient- therapist relationship may improve our competency to deal with stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. PMID:23995176

Štrkalj-Ivezi?, Sla?ana

2013-09-01

356

Quality in clinical practice.  

PubMed

This paper reports the proceedings of the discussion panel assigned to look at clinical aspects of quality in emergency medicine. One of the seven stated objectives of the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on quality in emergency medicine was to educate emergency physicians regarding quality measures and quality improvement as essential aspects of the practice of emergency medicine. Another topic of interest was a discussion of the value of information technology in facilitating quality care in the clinical practice of emergency medicine. It is important to note that this is not intended to be a comprehensive review of this extensive topic, but instead is designed to report the discussion that occurred at this session of the consensus conference. PMID:12414456

Cone, David C; Nedza, Susan M; Augustine, James J; Davidson, Steven J

2002-11-01

357

Compendium of Practical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmophere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular, the Milky Way and Galaxies. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library.

Roth, Günter D.; Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.

358

Marketing your equine practice.  

PubMed

The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner. PMID:19945641

Magnus, Robert P

2009-12-01

359

Is chemoprevention practical?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer chemoprevention is practical only if 1) it reduces the incidence of cancer and overall mortality in a cost-effective\\u000a manner, and 2) an easily identified target population is willing to undergo treatment. In the past decade, it was demonstrated\\u000a that breast cancer risk reduction is possible with tamoxifen and raloxifene and is cost effective on the higher end of

Carol J. Fabian; Bruce F. Kimler

2009-01-01

360

Zonisamide in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Zonisamide is currently licensed in Europe and the USA for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures (with or without secondary generalization) in adults, based on the results of four pivotal, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. It is also licensed in Europe as monotherapy for adults with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy, based on the results of a randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Because clinical trials are conducted under tightly controlled conditions, using rigid dosing schedules and employing strict exclusion/exclusion criteria, there is a need for 'real-world' evidence of an antiepileptic drug's effectiveness and tolerability in clinical practice, where patients are much more diverse in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment is tailored to the individual's specific needs. Several studies have demonstrated that adjunctive treatment with zonisamide is effective when administered under everyday clinical practice conditions, with a favourable safety/tolerability profile similar to that observed in clinical trials. In the Zonisamid im Alltag Der Epilepsiepatienten (ZADE) study, almost 80% of patients showed a reduction in seizure frequency of ?50% over a median follow-up of 18 weeks, and over one-third of patients became seizure free. Data from these clinical practice studies also indicate that zonisamide is effective and generally well tolerated when administered as a first-line adjunctive treatment and is associated with high retention rates and improvements in quality of life. Evidence from these clinical practice studies therefore complements data from zonisamide's clinical trial programme, providing pragmatic information on the likely benefits and risks of treatment under real-life conditions. PMID:23106523

Dupont, S; Stefan, H

2012-01-01

361

Practical Statistics for Astronomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presenting the most relevant statistical and probabilistic technology in observational astronomy, this practical handbook covers classical parametric and non-parametric methods. There is also, however, a strong emphasis on Bayesian solutions and the importance of probability in experimental inference. The book contains many solved examples, and includes over fifty problems, with solutions available on the web via http:\\/\\/books.cambridge.org\\/0521454166.htm.

J. V. Wall; C. R. Jenkins

2003-01-01

362

Practice with Similarity Proofs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this worksheet of eight questions, students practice their knowledge of similarity proofs. In the first four questions, students determine which postulate or theorem works to prove triangle similarity - AA, SAS, or SSS. In the last four questions, students are asked to work through the proof of various problems. The answers are embedded in the page, and this is a helpful resource for students to work with similarity proofs.

Roberts, Donna

2000-01-01

363

Perimeter & Area Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following games are super fun ways to practice area and perimeter concepts! They will challenge your knowledge in formulas for different shapes like rectangles, circles, and squares. Area of Rectangles Baseball! - Time to play ball! Try and score a home run by solving for the unknown areas of rectangles. If you solve it correctly, you will earn three balls to hit! Don't forget to get help from your "coach" so he can show you different strategies to get you ...

Hume, Ms.

2012-11-02

364

Practical Algebraic Renormalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical approach is presented which allows the use of a non-invariant regularization scheme for the computation of quantum corrections in perturbative quantum field theory. The theoretical control of algebraic renormalization over non-invariant counterterms is translated into a practical computational method. We provide a detailed introduction into the handling of the Slavnov-Taylor and Ward-Takahashi identities in the standard model both in the conventional and the background gauge. Explicit examples for their practical derivation are presented. After a brief introduction into the Quantum Action Principle the conventional algebraic method which allows for the restoration of the functional identities is discussed. The main point of our approach is the optimization of this procedure which results in an enormous reduction of the calculational effort. The counterterms which have to be computed are universal in the sense that they are independent of the regularization scheme. The method is explicitly illustrated for two processes of phenomenological interest: QCD corrections to the decay of the Higgs boson into two photons and two-loop electroweak corrections to the process B?Xs?.

Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Hurth, Tobias; Steinhauser, Matthias

2001-02-01

365

Butterick's Practical Typography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While simple in its presentation, ButterickâÂÂs Practical Typography is perhaps the most clear and useful resource for understanding text as its own art form. Simply stated, typography is the visual component of the written word and this site is a wonderful tool for those who work with words on an everyday basis. It offers helpful reminders and even teaches those who may have never heard of the field before. We appreciate the straightforward prose, the option of a condensed 10-minute version, easy site navigation, and the numerous sample documents that put theory into practice.This website begins with an introductory statement that will ring true to most folks: "If you work with information and ideas, then writing plays a central role in your professional life." Butterick's Practical Typography offers up sage and thoughtful advice about how typography can be used to enhance and illuminate good prose. Visitors who might be pressed for time can look over the "Typography in Ten Minutes" area to get a sense of some bedrock principles introduced in the work. For those with more time, the complete work is also available here, along with a Summary of Key Rules and the all-important Why Typography Matters area. Visitors shouldn't miss the Sample Documents area which contains sample formatting suggestions and more for research papers, letterheads, resumes, and websites.

Butterick, Matthew

366

Practical Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides something of a manual or “how-to” guide to the derivation of stratigraphic and structural information from multichannel seismic reflection profiles. Its emphasis is, as the title suggests, the practical business of just how one goes about extracting this information. I believe the intent is that one should be able to first read the book, then place it on the work table next to a reflection profile to be interpreted, and by examining the profile while thumbing through the book, find interpreted examples of features similar to those to be interpreted and hence be guided toward a geological interpretation of the data. The book is replete with examples—I counted more than 130 individual reflection profile segments illustrating commonly observed structural and stratigraphic features. Beyond this, the reader also gets a large amount of practical advice, such as the type of colored pencils and eraser to use, what phase of the reflecting event should be marked, how to fold the profiles to check for ties at line intersections, how to mark faults, the various types of unconformity, and many, many other intensely practical aspects of data interpretation.

Mutter, John C.

367

Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

2010-01-01

368

Good Practices for Hood Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes safety practices for laboratory fume hoods based on certain assumptions of hood design and performance. Also discusses the procedures in preparing to work at a hood. A checklist of good hood practices is included. (JM)

Mikell, William G.; Drinkard, William C.

1984-01-01

369

Resistance Training: Identifying Best Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resistance training increases muscle strength. Muscle strength gains are influenced by program design. This review attempted to identify design choices that would be best practices. A best practice is a design option that produces significantly better res...

A. C. Barnard J. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig

2010-01-01

370

Todo K-2 Math Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app provides students in grades K-2 with practice counting, writing numerals, addition and subtraction. The user can select the grade level and adjust the time of practice; the app then generates a selection of activities from the base six activities of the app. At the end of the practice the app asks for feedback on the level of difficulty in order to make adjustments for the next practice session.

Locomotive Labs, Inc

2013-08-15

371

Practical photochemistry: General considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical aspects of laboratory scale preparative photochemistry are discussed under the headings of: (1) lamps: dimensions, power ratings, spectral distributions and output intensities of different lamp types; (2) the reaction mixture: factors involved in establishing the most suitable wavelength region to use to carry out a particular reaction; the selection of the appropriate solvents, filters, and glassware; concentration of the photoactive component; (3) preparative photoreactions: immersion well, falling film, external irradiation and elliptical configurations; (4) apparatus for quantitative work: carousel and optical bench arrangements; (5) hazards: effects of ultraviolet radiation on eyes and skin and precautions to be taken.

Hutchison, J.

1986-05-01

372

Digitization Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

Xue, Fei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, Irma S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knudson, Frances L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

373

Practical sedimentology, Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book is for technical professionals in mineral exploration, environmental management, agriculture or forestry, this new edition takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a lively and detailed overview of practical sedimentology. Emphasizing application over theory, the text is streamlined for comprehension, and it features many summary tables and graphs. The ideal companion to Analytical Sedimentology, this volume updates both methodology and applications, incorporates software information and extensively covers new technical developments. Specifically designed for students and cross-functional practitioners, it requires minimal geological background.

Lewis, D.W. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. (Southern Cross Univ., New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Coastal Management)

1994-01-01

374

Scope of practice.  

PubMed

Physicians, paramedical personnel, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, aides, technicians, therapists, and many other specialists deliver health care in the current system. The uncertainty is the division of authority and responsibility, the right of dominion and control, and the appropriate legal manner in which quality assurance can be achieved. The public needs to know to whom they may look for the purpose of response to needs, and responsibility for actions outside the scope of licensed and permitted activities. Practitioners also need to know--in order to avoid prosecution, conviction, fine, imprisonment, and loss of livelihood through loss of license. PMID:7121184

Fish, M S

1982-01-01

375

Sustainable Building Practices Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will help students learn the practical applications of sustainable building practices. Students will work in pairs to research a sustainable building method and develop a statement of support for the building practice. The class will work to compile the building methods that would be the most beneficial and cost effective. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Cox, Jim

2011-12-09

376

Education Policy, Practice, and Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, drawing especially but not exclusively on Bourdieu's work on practice and its relationships with habitus, capital, and field, argues for a perspective on policy, as informed by and as practice, and applies it across all elements of the policy cycle. It is argued that a practice perspective captures well the economies of power in…

Heimans, Stephen

2012-01-01

377

Formal Practice: Buddhist or Christian  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I write from a Mahayana perspective and take up seven Buddhist practices and the views that bring them into being, together with Christian practices that may be analogous, in turn with their inspiration. The Buddhist practices sometimes tend to blend and take on another’s attributes and functions. I name them according to their usage in Western Buddhism.

CHRISTIAN SPIRITUAL PRACTICE; Diamond Sangha

2002-01-01

378

Journalism, change and listening practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theoretical account of listening as the ‘anchoring practice’ for change in all types of contemporary journalism. It contests the technological determinism implied in claims that citizen journalism will ‘naturally’ help us to listen. Instead, the paper makes the case for theorizing media as practice, attending to the practical and symbolic dimensions of the work needed to

Penny ODonnell

2009-01-01

379

Learning-Centered Grading Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research on grading practice over two decades is clear: grading practices are firmly held beliefs that are near and dear to the teaching professional. At a time when government, business and industry, and the general public are calling for an accountability of student knowledge and abilities, classroom assessment practices could be…

Campbell, Conni

2012-01-01

380

Scaffolding student learning inclinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years the profession has acknowledged a schism between theories taught in the classroomand the practice of clinicians. This tends to arise from beliefs that knowledge which has been generalized (formalized) can be readily transferred to informal settings (practice). Whilst apprehension of formalized knowledge is crucial to professional development, a mediator is necessary to demonstrate its relevance to practice.

Jenny Spouse

1998-01-01

381

Guide to good practices for shift routines and operating practices  

SciTech Connect

This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.

NONE

1998-12-01

382

Community health promotion nursing practice.  

PubMed

Evolving definitions of community and health promotion require the examination of community nursing practice. This article critically explores how the meanings of community may influence community nursing practice. In nursing, the most common definitions of community are of community as context/resource and community as client. The authors postulate that these definitions of community influence the nature of community practice. Moreover, if nurses are to practice within the context of health promotion, focusing on community as a relational experience, new patterns of community health promotion practice will need to emerge. This pattern of practice must honor people's experiences of community including power relations present in community. A new pattern of community health promotion nursing practice encompasses the four components of listening and critical reflection; participatory dialogue and critical questioning; pattern emergence and recognition; and movement to action. PMID:9595172

Sheilds, L E; Lindsey, A E

1998-06-01

383

Houston AANCART Best Practices  

PubMed Central

The theme for the 2004 AANCART Academy, “Community Partnerships for Cancer Control: From Vision to Synergy to Reality”, characterizes Best Practices for the Houston AANCART site. Researchers and community members share a common vision for addressing the cancer and health disparities that exist in our Asian community. They banded together synergistically to bring to reality the programs and projects that are enabling more Asian Americans to understand their risks for cancer, receive screening and education, and access treatment and survivorship support. Along the way, Houston AANCART was also able to conduct meaningful and relevant community-based participatory research and to train young Asian and other investigators in how to reach out to this community in a culturally sensitive and appropriate manner.

Gor, Beverly J.; Jones, Lovell A.; Hwang, Jessica; Wei, Qingyi; Hoang, TruongSon

2006-01-01

384

Practical Physics: Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of more than 50 classroom experiments introducing users to geometric optics and the ray model of light. Developed for use in high school science classrooms, each experiment focuses on practical applications of ray optics and is supplemented with full instructional procedures, safety guidelines, drawings/photos, and tips for teachers. Background information accompanies each activity, as well. **Note: Most of the experiments require the use of a ray box or bright lamp, concave and convex lenses, and an optical bench. Items are readily available at scientific supply houses, with costs ranging from $300 to $1,500, depending upon the capabilities of the item purchased. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre. SEE RELATED ITEMS BELOW for a link to the full collection.

Centre, Nuffield C.

2009-05-15

385

Practicing the Protocols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab-based activity, students learn how to use scientific instruments used to take hydrological data. Students will rotate among measurement stations for each of the hydrology protocols that will be done by the class. They will practice using the field guide with the instrument or kit for that particular measurement, exploring sources of variation and error. The resource includes eight student activity sheets and an authentic assessment, and is part of the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. The activity is supported by the GLOBE hydrology protocols. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

386

Practical Visual Copyright  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction at Maricopa Community College and John Gibson of Phoenix College, this page presents information about digital visual literacy (DVL), the "set of skills that enable students to function in an increasingly digital and visual workplace." In this module, visitors will find an instructors' guide, a PowerPoint presentation, copyright quiz, and quiz rubric. This module supports the DVL areas of Commerce and Cultural Context. Students learn how copyright law strives to balance the monetary value of visual materials with the need to share and communicate ideas visually. The module also emphasizes the development of practical skills for resolving common workplace challenges such as finding and assessing the copyright status of images, determining fair use, and licensing oneâÂÂs own images.

Gibson, John

2011-09-16

387

Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits, is the ninth chapter in Volume III âÂÂSemiconductors. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: ElectroStatic Discharge; Computational circuits; and Oscillator circuits. As of June 2009, a few of the subjects in this chapter were still incomplete, but the site is updated regularly and this chapter should soon be complete. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-09

388

Finance for practicing radiologists.  

PubMed

This article reviews basic finance for radiologists. Using the example of a hypothetical outpatient computed tomography center, readers are introduced to the concept of net present value. This concept refers to the current real value of anticipated income in the future, realizing that revenue in the future has less value than it does today. Positive net present value projects add wealth to a practice and should be pursued. The article details how costs and revenues for a hypothetical outpatient computed tomography center are determined and elucidates the difference between fixed costs and variable costs. The article provides readers with the steps used to calculate the break-even volume for an outpatient computed tomography center given situation-specific assumptions regarding staff, equipment lease rates, rent, and third-party payer mix. PMID:17411808

Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank James

2005-03-01

389

Feeding Practices and NEC  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous over intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant preterm infant without any other clinical and radiological evidence of NEC, minimal enteral nutrition rather than complete suspension of enteral feeding may be an alternative. Human milk-based fortifier as compared to bovine-based fortifier may reduce the incidence of NEC but additional studies are required.

Ramani, Manimaran

2012-01-01

390

Practical quantum coin flipping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.

Pappa, Anna; Chailloux, André; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

2011-11-01

391

CDL Online Practice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspiring truck drivers and those who seek a commercial driving license will appreciate this website a great deal, as it features a number of practice questions that may be found on the test that is required for such certifications. The site features over a dozen self-assessment modules that cover such topics as air brakes, hazardous materials, and of course, transporting passengers. Within each section, visitors will find both âÂÂtrue-falseâÂÂ-style questions and their equally well-known counterpart, the multiple choice query. Also, for those getting acquainted with teaching others how to prepare for this exam, this site may be most handy. Whether one is on their way to Bangor, Maine, or just in need of this certification to meet up with a midnight train, this site will get them on their way.

392

Practical Physics: Measuring Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of nine experiments that introduce students to the concept of density and provide practice in measuring it. Many students have difficulty understanding density as a quantity derived from mass and volume. Learners often enter college with deeply-entrenched misconceptions, such as the erroneous idea that gases have no mass. These classroom labs were developed to promote correct ideas of density, and to demonstrate differing techniques for measuring density in solids, liquids, and gases. Specific topics include: density of regular solid shapes, measuring density and weight of liquids, measuring the average density of a student, weighing a sample of air, and more. This item is part of a much larger collection of physics/astronomy experiments, sponsored by the UK's Institute of Physics and funded by the Nuffield Curriculum Centre. SEE RELATED ITEMS BELOW for a link to the full collection.

Centre, Nuffield C.

2011-02-09

393

48 CFR 203.170 - Business practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS...203.170 Business practices. To ensure the...adhere to the following best practice policies: ...improve acquisition and management processes, roles,...

2013-10-01

394

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

395

Are family practice trainers and their host practices any better? comparing practice trainers and non-trainers and their practices  

PubMed Central

Background Family Physician (FP) trainees are expected to be provided with high quality training in well organized practice settings. This study examines differences between FP trainers and non-trainers and their practices to see whether there are differences in trainers and non-trainers and in how their practices are organized and their services are delivered. Method 203 practices (88 non-training and 115 training) with 512 FPs (335 non-trainers and 177 trainers) were assessed using the “Visit Instrument Practice organization (VIP)” on 369 items (142 FP-level; 227 Practice level). Analyses (ANOVA, ANCOVA) were conducted for each level by calculating differences between FP trainees and non-trainees and their host practices. Results Trainers scored higher on all but one of the items, and significantly higher on 47 items, of which 13 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Training practices scored higher on all items and significantly higher on 61 items, of which 23 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Trainers (and training practices) provided more diagnostic and therapeutic services, made better use of team skills and scored higher on practice organization, chronic care services and quality management than non-training practices. Trainers reported more job satisfaction and commitment and less job stress than non-trainers. Discussion There are positive differences between FP trainers and non-trainers in both the level and the quality of services provided by their host practices. Training institutions can use this information to promote the advantages of becoming a FP trainer and training practice as well as to improve the quality of training settings for FPs.

2013-01-01

396

Practice parameters in pediatric allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary role of practice parameter\\/guidelines and other boundaries developed for the field of medicine is to improve the\\u000a quality of patient care. Practice parameters\\/ guidelines are also important for education, interaction with managed care and\\u000a third-party payers, establishing appropriate variables for outcome assessment, reducing inappropriate variation in clinical\\u000a practice, and resolving medical-legal issues. National specialty organizations, the American Medical

Richard A. Nicklas

2003-01-01

397

Policy Manual - General Safety Practices  

Cancer.gov

It is a goal of each laboratory to ensure that safe work practices are established and followed. All laboratory personnel receive formal training in laboratory safety procedures and are familiar with and annually review the safety manual, which specifies practices and techniques designed to minimize hazards. Safety practices and techniques must be supplemented by appropriate facility design and engineering features, safety equipment and management policies.

398

Advanced practice registered nurse certification.  

PubMed

Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in nephrology began to be certified through the Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission (NNCC) in 2006. Since that time, the APRN Consensus Model has been developed, which addresses licensure, accreditation, certification, and education and which strongly recommends specialty certification for advanced practice nurses. This article discusses NNCC certification for advanced practice in nephrology nursing and describes the major components of the APRN Consensus Model. PMID:23923801

Alleman, Kim; Houle, Katherine

2013-01-01

399

The Practice of Organization Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article about the men who are doing organization Development (O.D.) work is presented. It is divided into the following sections: (1) The Elements of O.D. Practice; (2) Interrelationships of the Elements of O.D. Practice; (3) Sources of Data on O.D. Practice; (4) The O.D. Practitioner and the Client; (5) The O.D. Practitioner and the Evaluator;…

Vaill, Peter B.

400

Practical Innovations Mark the 2011 Effective & Innovative Practices Award Winners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

APPA's Effective & Innovative Practices Award continues to highlight the best of the most creative and practical programs and processes that enhance and transform service delivery, lower costs, increase productivity, improve customer service, generate revenue, or otherwise benefit an educational institution. This article features five 2011…

Facilities Manager, 2011

2011-01-01

401

Education for Sustainability (EfS): Practice and Practice Architectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…

Kemmis, Stephen; Mutton, Rebecca

2012-01-01

402

Clinical practice guideline use by oncology advanced practice nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are utilized and the effects of their implementation on outcomes is an important goal. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if oncology advanced practice nurse (APN) interventions provided to men with prostate cancer were consistent with Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research CPGs regarding pain [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Regina S. Cunningham

2006-01-01

403

Practicing Psychologists’ Reflections on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An American Psychological Association (APA) policy definition of evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) states that practice based on evidence must consider the best available research, use clinical expertise, and consider client contextual variables (APA Presidential Task Force, 2006). The researchers qualitatively examined clinical and counseling psychologists’ attitudes toward EBPP using grounded theory. The study explored the extent to which the

Jennifer L. Wilson; Erin Armoutliev; Elena Yakunina; James L. Werth

2009-01-01

404

Practice Makes Perfect?: Effective Practice Instruction in Large Ensembles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping young musicians learn how to practice effectively is a challenge faced by all music educators. This article presents a system of individual music practice instruction that can be seamlessly integrated within large-ensemble rehearsals. Using a step-by-step approach, large-ensemble conductors can teach students to identify and isolate…

Prichard, Stephanie

2012-01-01

405

Monitoring mindfulness practice quality: an important consideration in mindfulness practice.  

PubMed

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is an experientially based group intervention empirically supported to reduce psychological symptomology. Although MBSR has shown to be an effective intervention, little is known about which facets of the intervention are important in producing positive outcomes. This study tested several aspects of mindfulness practice (total practice duration, practice frequency and practice quality) with the primary focus being on validating (i.e., predictive and convergent validity) a new measure of mindfulness practice quality (PQ-M). The PQ-M fit a two-factor solution via a Maximum Likelihood Exploratory Factor Analysis (n=99). Using longitudinal multilevel modeling on a smaller subsample (n=19), preliminary support was found for changes in practice quality over the course of the MBSR intervention. Further, change in practice quality was associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. While this study was exploratory, these findings suggest that practice quality is a relevant factor to promote positive outcomes and may guide mindfulness instructors in providing highly tailored interventions. PMID:23046287

Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Goldberg, Simon Benjamin; Hoyt, William T

2013-01-01

406

Changing Habits of Practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose The majority of health care, both for acute and chronic conditions, is delivered in the ambulatory setting. Despite repeated proposals for change, the majority of internal medicine residency training still occurs in the inpatient setting. Substantial changes in ambulatory education are needed to correct the current imbalance. To assist educators and policy makers in this process, this paper reviews the literature on ambulatory education and makes recommendations for change. Methods The authors searched the Medline, Psychlit, and ERIC databases from 2000 to 2004 for studies that focused specifically on curriculum, teaching, and evaluation of internal medicine residents in the ambulatory setting to update previous reviews. Studies had to contain primary data and were reviewed for methodological rigor and relevance. Results Fifty-five studies met criteria for review. Thirty-five of the studies focused on specific curricular areas and 11 on ambulatory teaching methods. Five involved evaluating performance and 4 focused on structural issues. No study evaluated the overall effectiveness of ambulatory training or investigated the effects of current resident continuity clinic microsystems on education. Conclusion This updated review continues to identify key deficiencies in ambulatory training curriculum and faculty skills. The authors make several recommendations: (1) Make training in the ambulatory setting a priority. (2) Address systems problems in practice environments. (3) Create learning experiences appropriate to the resident's level of development. (4) Teach and evaluate in the examination room. (5) Expand subspecialty-based training to the ambulatory setting. (6) Make faculty development a priority. (7) Create and fund multiinstitutional educational research consortia.

Bowen, Judith L; Salerno, Stephen M; Chamberlain, John K; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Chen, Helen L; Brandenburg, Suzanne

2005-01-01

407

Ethics in Telehealth Nursing Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telehealth nurses frequently encounter ethical issues in practice. The ability to identify moral dimensions of practice concerns is an important first step in resolving such issues. In this article, some common ethical terms are explained, and typical ethical problems for Telehealth nurses described. A conceptual model applicable to Telehealth nursing is presented and discussed as a framework for ethical reflection.

Carol Rutenberg; Kathleen Oberle

2008-01-01

408

Including Identity in Clinical Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adds qualitative analyses to established practices in speech-language pathology to demonstrate how clinicians can work with identity. Interview material is used to illustrate established analytical practices. This same material is again analyzed from the perspective of identity using the Functional Individual Systems (FIS) framework,…

Hagstrom, Fran

2004-01-01

409

Best Practices in Business Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended to give business teachers a few best practice ideas. Section 1 presents an overview of best practice and a chart detailing the instructional levels, curricular areas, and main competencies addressed in the 26 papers in Section 2. The titles and authors of the papers included in Section 2 are as follows: "A Software Tool…

Briggs, Dianna, Ed.

410

Learning Participation as Systems Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning participation only makes sense if it is purposeful. From our perspective its primary purpose is to achieve more effective managing in situations of complexity and change. We describe our evolving understandings and practices (a praxeology) for Systems Practice for managing complexity, built on 30 years of developing supported open…

Ison, Ray; Blackmore, Chris; Armson, Rosalind

2007-01-01

411

An Observation on Shelving Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Molesworth Institute conducted a year long experiment on the shelving practices of two academic libraries of comparable size, with similar user populations. Results show that the practice of leaving the middle two shelves empty for future expansion cannot be recommended. Measurements include accumulation of dirt; usage; and incidents of…

Stevens, Norman D.

1978-01-01

412

Wanted: Internationally Appropriate Best Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of international perspectives in designing and promoting educational innovation and reform, cultural and financial limitations of imposing western special education inclusion principles and practices on developing countries, and special education practices in China, Vietnam, and Costa Rica. (Contains 2…

Meyer, Luanna H.

2003-01-01

413

The Practice of Transformative Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the practice of transformative pedagogy in an undergraduate teacher education program. The research was guided by two questions: What is the impact of transformative pedagogy on fostering preservice teachers' transformative learning? and What practices of transformative pedagogy impact student transformative learning?…

Ukpokodu, Omiunota

2009-01-01

414

Best Practices, 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains descriptions of 34 best practices of North Carolina high school/community college Tech Prep (TP) consortia from a 2000 review. All consortia were allowed to choose their best effort or accomplishment completed or in operation at the end of 1999-2000. Among the practices described were: a comprehensive career development…

North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

415

Research, practice, uncertainty and responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three issues concerning the relationship between research and practice are addressed. (1) A certain ‘prototype mathematics classroom’ seems to dominate the research field, which in many cases seems selective with respect to what practices to address. I suggest challenging the dominance of the discourse created around the prototype mathematics classroom. (2) I find it important to broaden the school-centred discourse

Ole Skovsmose

2006-01-01

416

Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

Steinberg, Carola

2008-01-01

417

Getting Practical--The Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from the Improving Practical Work in Science (IPWiS) evaluation suggest that the project can, and did, bring about noticeable improvements in the effectiveness of practical work in school science. However, the extent of these improvements varied widely and appeared to be dependent on the departmental seniority of the person…

Abrahams, Ian; Reiss, Michael J.; Sharpe, Rachael

2011-01-01

418

Spiritual capital and practical wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to show the connection between spiritual capital and practical wisdom with moral virtue as the link of both concepts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The concept of spiritual capital will be explained using the well known concept of social capital and practical examples for virtues. Findings – Spiritual capital has an impact on business like

Theodore Roosevelt Malloch

2010-01-01

419

ERP Software Implementation Best Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the perceptions of chief financial and information officers of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software implementation best practices. Usable responses from 159 respondents show consensus for the most part between the perceptions of the two groups and describe some best practices that represent common ground. (SLD)

Frantz, Pollyanne S.; Southerland, Arthur R.; Johnson, James T.

2002-01-01

420

Transpersonalism and Social Work Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes and advocates integration of a transpersonal model into clinical social work practice as a logical extension of the profession's inclusive perspective. The theory and practice of a transpersonal approach to psychotherapy and its applicability to social work are investigated, especially for use with marginalized populations. Transpersonalism is examined as an opportunity to enhance the worker's ability to

Arlen Keith Leight

2001-01-01

421

Holism in Mental Health Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, holistic medicine has rapidly emerged as a visible and controversial force in American medicine. Because the practice of medicine is influenced by technology and its imperatives toward specialization, it has become fertile ground for holistic practice. Many professionals, including occupational therapists, claim to be practitioners of holistic health. There is evidence in the literature of the

Barbara J. Hemphill-Pearson; Margaret Hunter

1997-01-01

422

How To Make Innovations Practical  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: A fundamental tension has long existed between school reform proposals and actual teaching practice. Despite a large literature on teacher change, the discontinuity between innovation and practice continues and many attempts to reform teaching fail to be enacted in most classrooms. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…

Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter; van Driel, Jan

2013-01-01

423

Mental Practice for Skill Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All learning takes place through the unification of body and mind. Within the realm of motor skill learning, the term mental practice has been used to explain this phenomenon. It has been found that individuals can use their imaginations to learn and to improve upon their performance. Mental practice can be used by teachers who have too little…

Johnson, Candine E.

424

Determinants of Management Practices (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the determinants of management practices by using an interview survey on organizational and human resource management of Japanese firms. We found that the management practices at foreign-owned firms tend to be of high quality. This suggests that promoting foreign direct investment in Japan helps Japanese firms improve management quality. In addition, management quality tends to be higher

ASABA Shigeru

2011-01-01

425

Kansas Rural Practice Research Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kansas Practice Research Network (KSPRN) is a rural practice-based network. It is a collaboration between the KU School of Medicine-Wichita (KUSM-W), the Great Plains Health Alliance, the Kansas Academy of Family Physicians, the Kansas chapter of the ...

K. J. Kallail

2002-01-01

426

Special Education Student Teaching Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings of our nationwide study of undergraduate special education student teaching practices. The authors were especially interested in grading systems, assignments, supervision practices, and unique challenges. Results indicated variability in grading systems, use of traditional assignments such as lesson plans, use of…

Conderman, Greg; Morin, Joe; Stephens, J. Todd

2005-01-01

427

In Defense of a Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some athletics officials worry that, on many campuses, male practice players are taking opportunities away from female athletes. In an effort to try keeping second-string players off the sidelines, the NCAA's Committee on Women's Athletics has recommended banning male practice players in all women's sports. The proposal has touched off a fierce…

Lipka, Sara

2007-01-01

428

Assessment in Youth Sport: Practical Issues and Best Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Assessment is an important element to the present and future of sport psychology (McCann et al., 2002), both in science and in practice. Yet, there exist few resources addressing the unique developmental parameters facing sport scientists and sport practitioners when it comes to conducting sound assessment across the athletic lifespan. Indeed, this aspect of the literature remains particularly sparse with respect to youth sport assessment (Noble, 2011). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the practical issues and best practice guidelines pertaining to assessment during the provision of sport psychology services to children and adolescent athletes.

Harris, Brandonn S.; Blom, Lindsey C.; Visek, Amanda J.

2013-01-01

429

Practice Experiences at a Single Institutional Practice Site to Improve Advanced Pharmacy Practice Examination Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance.

Britton, Mark L.; Wheeler, Richard E.; Carter, Sandra M.

2014-01-01

430

Practice experiences at a single institutional practice site to improve advanced pharmacy practice examination performance.  

PubMed

Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance. PMID:24761021

Dennis, Vincent C; Britton, Mark L; Wheeler, Richard E; Carter, Sandra M

2014-04-17

431

Satellite Mission Operations Best Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort of compiling a collection of Best Practices for use in Space Mission Operations was initiated within a subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Space Operations and Support Technical Committee (SOSTC). The idea was to eventually post a collection of Best Practices on a website so as to make them available to the general Space Operations community. The effort of searching for available Best Practices began in the fall of 1999. As the search progressed, it became apparent that there were not many Best Practices developed that were available to the general community. Therefore, the subcommittee decided to use the SOSTC Annual Workshop on Reducing Space Mission Costs as a forum for developing Best Practices for our purpose of sharing them with a larger audience. A dedicated track at the April 2000 workshop was designed to stimulate discussions on developing such Best Practices and forming working groups made up of experienced people from various organizations to perform the development. These groups were solicited to help outside the workshop to bring this effort to fruition. Since that time, biweekly teleconferences have been held to discuss the development of the Best Practices and their posting.

Galal, Ken; Hogan, Roger P. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

432

Oncology practice trends from the national practice benchmark.  

PubMed

In 2011, we made predictions on the basis of data from the National Practice Benchmark (NPB) reports from 2005 through 2010. With the new 2011 data in hand, we have revised last year's predictions and projected for the next 3 years. In addition, we make some new predictions that will be tracked in future benchmarking surveys. We also outline a conceptual framework for contemplating these data based on an ecological model of the oncology delivery system. The 2011 NPB data are consistent with last year's prediction of a decrease in the operating margins necessary to sustain a community oncology practice. With the new data in, we now predict these reductions to occur more slowly than previously forecast. We note an ease to the squeeze observed in last year's trend analysis, which will allow more time for practices to adapt their business models for survival and offer the best of these practices an opportunity to invest earnings into operations to prepare for the inevitable shift away from historic payment methodology for clinical service. This year, survey respondents reported changes in business structure, first measured in the 2010 data, indicating an increase in the percentage of respondents who believe that change is coming soon, but the majority still have confidence in the viability of their existing business structure. Although oncology practices are in for a bumpy ride, things are looking less dire this year for practices participating in our survey. PMID:23277766

Barr, Thomas R; Towle, Elaine L

2012-09-01

433

Midwives' practices and beliefs about discharging clients from their practice.  

PubMed

Discharging a client from a practice is a choice clinicians may need to make when conflicts arise that cannot be resolved. The legal and ethical considerations before discharging a client are presented. This preliminary survey of 111 certified nurse-midwives was conducted to determine their practices and beliefs about discharging clients. Most (83.7%) participants had discharged five or fewer clients from their practice throughout their careers, including 36.9% who had never discharged a client from their practice. In contrast, 77.5% of participants said that midwives should definitely discharge clients from their practice under some circumstances. Antepartum care was the most frequent period during which clients were discharged, and 59% of those discharged were for noncompliance with the therapeutic regimen, obnoxious or abusive behavior as subjectively identified by the midwife and her colleagues, or failure to keep appointments. When asked why they might not discharge a client from their practice, 60% identified empathy or sympathy for the client as the reason. When asked why they did not discharge clients in the past, 23 (21%) respondents selected "colleagues disagreed" as the reason. PMID:17826709

Schorn, Mavis N

2007-01-01

434

Temperature Transformations, a 'Practical' Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different viewpoints regarding the transformation of temperature are discussed and compared. The author finds that there is a very practical argument in favor of the older temperature law of Mosengeil, Planck and Einstein. He concludes that even though th...

J. H. Eberly

1967-01-01

435

Scientific Visualisation: A Practical Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provides a practical introduction to scientific visualisation. The list of topics discussed include the Application Visualisation Systems (AVS), representation of graphical data, visualisation of volume data, and visualisation of vector data.

Elspeth Minty, Peter Maccallum, John Fisher, Anna Hondroudakis

436

Astronauts Practice Station Spacewalk Underwater  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Robert Satcher Jr. and Rick Sturckow conduct an underwater practice spacewalk session at Johnson Space Center?s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The session was used to help International Sp...

437

Irrigation Practices in Illinois, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biweekly and total irrigation amounts and irrigation scheduling practices were monitored at representative sites in central Illinois during the 1988 and 1989 growing seasons. The purpose was to gather baseline information on average quantities of irrigati...

J. A. Bowman B. C. Kimpel

1991-01-01

438

Preparation for Advanced Nursing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lehman College's graduate nursing program uses theory-based courses to prepare advanced nurse practitioners. Students increase scholarly inquiry skills and clinical decision making; use of nursing conceptual models helped them plan and evaluate their practice. (SK)

Frik, Seigina M.; Pollock, Susan E.

1993-01-01

439

GIS Guide to Good Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK's Arts and Humanities Data Service, a project of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), has recently made available the GIS Guide to Good Practice, the first of a series of Guides to Good Practice. These Guides are intended to "provid[e] the humanities research and teaching communities with practical instruction in applying recognized standards and good practice to the creation and use of digital resources." The first guide covers GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and its relationship to archaeology, as well as interdisciplinary studies. The guide is divided into six major topics, including types and documentation of data, structuring information, and archiving datasets. A substantial selected bibliography and glossary accompany the guide, making it an even more valuable resource.

1998-01-01

440

Policy Manual - Safety Practice References  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists General Safety Practices Introduction Standard

441

Prototype HEMP Design Practice Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Prototype HEMP Design Practice Handbook provides a systematic approach to protection of the DCS. The handbook is based on a generalized protection procedure which parallels the programed development cycle of systems. This protection procedure employs ...

L. Duncan

1978-01-01

442

Behavior Modification: Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to give some idea of how reinforcement and other learning principles work in practice with students in ordinary schools by using as reference three workshops for teachers run by educational psychologists in Birmingham in 1975. (Author/RK)

Presland, John

1978-01-01

443

Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice  

MedlinePLUS

... all in half. This might seem like a smart money-saving strategy, but the practice can be ... Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local Officials Consumers Industry Health Professionals FDA Archive Links on this page:

444

Practice theory for clinical social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that practice theory for clinical social work practice is in a state of disarray. Six new books on clinical social work practice are reviewed, with an identification of their contributions to the development of clinical practice theory. The expanded societal functions of clinical social work have resulted in major changes in method and in practice activities, without

Max Siporin; David Brandon; Kegan Paul; Joel Fischer; Naomi Golan; William J. Reid; Laura Epstein; Herbert S. Strean

1979-01-01

445

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

446

Best practices in newborn injections.  

PubMed

Many long-held practices surrounding newborn injections lack evidence and have unintended consequences. The choice of needles, injection techniques, and pain control methods are all factors for decreasing pain and improving the safety of intramuscular injections. Using practices founded on the available best evidence, nurses can reduce pain, improve the quality and safety of care, and set the stage for long-term compliance with vaccination schedules. PMID:23403493

Hensel, Desiree; Morson, Gwyndolen Leigh; Preuss, Elizabeth A

2013-01-01

447

Trial of integrated laboratory practice.  

PubMed

In most laboratory practices for students in medical schools, a laboratory guidebook is given to the students, in which the procedures are precisely described. The students merely follow the guidebook without thinking deeply, which spoils the students and does not entice them to think creatively. Problem-based learning (PBL) could be one means for the students themselves to actively learn, find problems, and resolve them. Such a learning attitude nurtures medical students with lifelong learning as healthcare professionals. We merged PBL and laboratory practices to promote deep thinking habits and developed an integrated laboratory practice. We gave a case sheet to groups of students from several schools. The students raised hypotheses after vivid discussion, designed experimental protocols, and performed the experiments. If the results did not support or disproved the hypothesis, the students set up another hypothesis followed by experiments, lasting for 4 or 5 consecutive days. These procedures are quite similar to those of professional researchers. The main impact achieved was the fact that the students developed the experimental design by themselves, for the first time in their college lives. All students enjoyed the laboratory practice, which they had never experienced before. This is an antidote to the guidebook-navigated traditional laboratory practice, which disappoints many students. As educators in basic medical sciences stand on the edge in terms of educating the next generation, there is a need to provide a strong foundation for medical students to design and perform scientific experiments. The integrated laboratory practice may provide the solution. PMID:21652510

Matsuo, Osamu; Takahashi, Yuzo; Abe, Chikara; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nakashima, Akira; Morita, Hironobu

2011-06-01

448

Changing practice: use of audit to change oral care practice.  

PubMed

Although oral problems are common in palliative care, oral care can be a neglected area of practice. This article discusses the introduction of an oral care protocol and standard in one palliative care unit. The project used audit tools developed by Lee et al (2001) and involved a survey of the oral care knowledge of nursing and medical staff, and a retrospective survey of current practice using 50 sets of patients' notes. A standard and documentation were developed with the aim of ensuring oral care was both consistent and in line with best practice. Training was provided to all staff within the unit. Three months later oral care practice was audited. The results suggested improvement in all aspects of oral care practice. Dissemination of oral care documentation and training across the trust is underway. This article describes the processes used, highlighting the importance of assessment in oral care and the need for teamwork in rolling out changes both within and beyond a single unit. PMID:15750518

Kinley, Julie; Brennan, Sonya

2004-12-01

449

76 FR 14826 - Antidisruptive Practices Authority  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rules and regulations to implement the disruptive practices set forth in section 4c...CEA to add a new section entitled ``Disruptive Practices...prohibits certain trading practices that are disruptive of fair and equitable trading....

2011-03-18

450

Reflective Practice: A New Agenda for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the concept of reflective practice within the framework of experiential learning theory. Discusses ways in which reflective practice advances professional practice for teachers and administrators. Explores the implications of these ideas for professional education and for school reform. (JS)

Osterman, Karen F.

1990-01-01

451

Solicitors and enduring documents: current practice and best practice.  

PubMed

Queensland's guardianship legislation requires that a witness to an enduring power of attorney or advance health directive not only certify that the principal signed the document in their presence, but also that the principal appeared to have the capacity necessary to make the enduring document. This article examines how solicitors fulfil this obligation to certify the principal's capacity when witnessing these documents, drawing on empirical research and a review of publicly available court and tribunal decisions. The article concludes that the current practice of solicitors when certifying the capacity of principals to complete these documents falls short of best practice. PMID:19205309

Willmott, Lindy; White, Ben

2008-12-01

452

Good pharmacovigilance practices: technology enabled.  

PubMed

The assessment of spontaneous reports is most effective it is conducted within a defined and rigorous process. The framework for good pharmacovigilance process (GPVP) is proposed as a subset of good postmarketing surveillance process (GPMSP), a functional structure for both a public health and corporate risk management strategy. GPVP has good practices that implement each step within a defined process. These practices are designed to efficiently and effectively detect and alert the drug safety professional to new and potentially important information on drug-associated adverse reactions. These practices are enabled by applied technology designed specifically for the review and assessment of spontaneous reports. Specific practices include rules-based triage, active query prompts for severe organ insults, contextual single case evaluation, statistical proportionality and correlational checks, case-series analyses, and templates for signal work-up and interpretation. These practices and the overall GPVP are supported by state-of-the-art web-based systems with powerful analytical engines, workflow and audit trials to allow validated systems support for valid drug safety signalling efforts. It is also important to understand that a process has a defined set of steps and any one cannot stand independently. Specifically, advanced use of technical alerting methods in isolation can mislead and allow one to misunderstand priorities and relative value. In the end, pharmacovigilance is a clinical art and a component process to the science of pharmacoepidemiology and risk management. PMID:12071777

Nelson, Robert C; Palsulich, Bruce; Gogolak, Victor

2002-01-01

453

Responsibility and autonomous nursing practice.  

PubMed

In this paper, the consequences were there greater autonomy in nursing practice, are considered. Autonomous practice implies accountability which entails both personal and professional responsibility: a personal responsibility to endorse ethical conduct consistent with professional practice; and a professional responsibility to exercise discretionary powers to the ultimate benefit of the patient. In this context, discretionary responsibility implies: recognizing a patient's wants may not be consistent with a patient's needs; abstaining from collusion with noncompliant patients; supporting the patient's right to refuse treatment only after full psychological exploration; understanding the psychological ramifications of informed consent from a practitioner and recipient point of view; maintaining appropriate personal and professional boundaries; and fostering collegiate relationships with the medical fraternity grounded on egalitarian principles. The author provides a philosophical and psychological analysis of responsibility in an effort to achieve a deeper understanding of the relationship this has with the concepts of 'freedom' and 'accountability'. PMID:2061502

Holden, R J

1991-04-01

454

Customer service and practice profitability.  

PubMed

Customer service, one of the major dental practice business systems, is critical to your short- and long-term success. The world will keep changing, but customer service is not a fad that can go out of style. If anything, it becomes even more important, year after year, as your customers expect more service and better treatment. Your goal is to provide extensive customer service, with 100% of patients enjoying a great experience every single time they interact with your practice. The "Wow" experience helps your practice grow. You want your patients to become your friends. Why? Because friends refer friends. When your patients become your friends, higher profitability is the inevitable result. PMID:15301220

Levin, Roger P

2004-06-01

455

Autism: From Research to Practice  

PubMed Central

Autism is the most commonly studied of a spectrum of developmental disorders that are believed to be neurobiologically based but which, at this point, for lack of good biomarkers, are defined purely by behavior. In the last 20 years, the definition of autism has shifted in emphasis from extreme aloofness and positive signs of abnormality in repetitive and sensori-motor behaviors to a greater awareness of the importance of more subtle reciprocal social-communication deficits as core features. Standard diagnostic instruments were developed for research purposes to acquire information both through caregiver interviews and direct clinical observation. Use of these instruments in clinical practice resulted in major improvements which in turn affected research results. These results yielded further improvements that led to changes in clinical practice over time. The synergism between research and clinical practice in the understanding of autism is discussed.

Lord, Catherine

2010-01-01

456

Medical practice and related insurance.  

PubMed

The liability of a doctor as regards medical negligence is now a well accepted eventuality. However still many doctors and hospitals are unaware of their liability on account of negligence on the part of their junior doctors and hospital staff. Indemnity insurance specifically protects you against your liability to pay compensation including legal costs, fees or expenses. If court orders to pay compensation for negligence of patient and you have a valid insurance cover, the insurance company is supposed to pay the money. In the present text we are highlighting the medical practice related insurance such as personal indemnity insurance, error and omission policy for hospital and nursing homes and insurance policy related to damage to hospital building, damage to electrical and electronics appliances and also insurance for doctor's kit, signboard, burglary, fidelity guarantee and loss of money in transit. All this medical practice related insurance is explained with its present charges, terms and conditions and its importance in today's practice. PMID:23029950

Chormunge, Vijay; Pawar, Vasantrao; Patil, Ajay

2012-03-01

457

Practicing Identity: A Crafty Ideal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the materialization of technological practices as a form of identity expression. Contextual analyses of a Mycenaean workshop area in the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns (Argolis, Greece) are presented to investigate the interaction of different artisans under changing socio-political and economic circumstances. The case study indicates that although certain technological practices are often linked to specific crafts, they do not necessarily imply the separation of job tasks related to the working of one specific material versus another. Shared technological practices and activities, therefore, may be a factor in shaping cohesive group identities of specialized artisans. Since tracing artisans' identities is easier said than done on the basis of excavated materials alone, we employ the concepts of multiple chaînes opératoires combined with cross-craft interactions as a methodology in order to retrieve distinctive sets of both social and technological practices from the archaeological remains. These methodological concepts are not restricted to a specific set of steps in the production cycle, but ideally encompass reconstructing contexts of extraction, manufacture, distribution and discard/reuse for a range of artefacts. Therefore, these concepts reveal both technological practices, and, by contextualising these technological practices in their spatial layout, equally focus on social contacts that would have taken place during any of these actions. Our detailed contextual study demonstrates that the material remains when analysed in their entirety are complementary to textual evidence. In this case study they even form a source of information on palatial spheres of life about which the fragmentary Linear B texts, so far, remain silent.

Brysbaert, A.; Vetters, M.

458

Optimizing Distributed Practice: Theoretical Analysis and Practical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary,…

Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Mozer, Michael C,; Pashler, Harold

2009-01-01

459

Understanding PRACTICE: An Acronym for the Holistic Approach to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide a mnemonic device that when incorporated into practice behavior is shown through case study to help students develop an understanding of the relationship between exercises, new and old, and the music that they are preparing. I developed the mnemonic "Preparation of Relevant Activities Causes Technical…

Townsend, Brendan

2012-01-01

460

Practice improvement, part II: trends in employment versus private practice.  

PubMed

A growing percentage of physicians are selecting employment over solo practice, and fewer family physicians have hospital admission privileges. Results from surveys of recent medical school graduates indicate a high value placed on free time. Factors to consider when choosing a practice opportunity include desire for independence, decision-making authority, work-life balance, administrative responsibilities, financial risk, and access to resources. Compensation models are evolving from the simple fee-for-service model to include metrics that reward panel size, patient access, coordination of care, chronic disease management, achievement of patient-centered medical home status, and supervision of midlevel clinicians. When a practice is sold, tangible personal property and assets in excess of liabilities, patient accounts receivable, office building, and goodwill (ie, expected earnings) determine its value. The sale of a practice includes a broad legal review, addressing billing and coding deficiencies, noncompliant contractual arrangements, and potential litigations as well as ensuring that all employment agreements, leases, service agreements, and contracts are current, have been executed appropriately, and meet regulatory requirements. PMID:24261436

Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Roett, Michelle A

2013-11-01

461

Compliance of hand washing practices: Theory versus practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand washing remains an important preventative method for making the transmission of nosocomial infections redundant. Despite awareness by health workers of the practices required and of the legislation governing hand washing, the study reported here found that compliance to these procedures was quite poor. The results of two surveys distributed to health workers and direct observation by clinical staff in

Lorette Roberts; Patrick Bolton; Sonia Asman

1998-01-01

462

Practice Forum: Self Psychology in Child Welfare Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of self-psychology, a theory first developed by Heinz Kohut, is discussed and illustrated with case examples from child welfare practice. The cases demonstrate that self-psychology can enhance an ecological model. The ways in which self-psychology can enrich the social worker's therapeutic role in permanency planning are emphasized.…

Goldmeier, John; Fandetti, Donald V.

1991-01-01

463

AHDS Guides to Good Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service Project, this Guide to Good Practice covers computer-aided design (CAD). It is a free online handbook "for individuals and organisations involved in the creation, maintenance, use, and long-term preservation of CAD-based digital resources in the humanities." Rather than focusing on a specific software application and situation, the guide discusses a wide range of CAD tools and practices, offering an introduction upon which CAD users can build. The seven chapters describe hardware and software choices, data capturing and documentation, and archiving processes.

Eiteljorg, Harrison.; Fernie, Kate.; Huggett, Jeremy.; Robinson, Damian.

2002-01-01

464

Conservation and sequestration of carbon: The potential of forest and agroforest management practices  

SciTech Connect

Forests play a major role in the Earth's carbon cycle through assimilation, storage, and emission of CO2. Establishment and management of boreal, temperate, and tropical forest and agroforest systems could potentially enhance sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. A biologic and economic analysis of forest establishment and management options from 94 nations revealed that forestation, agroforestry, and silviculture could be employed to conserve and sequester one gigaton (Gt) of carbon annually over a 50 year period. The marginal cost of implementing these options to sequester 55 Gt of carbon would be approximately $10/ton.

Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.; Schroeder, P.E.

1993-01-01

465

Ecological Approach to on-Farm Experimentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to increased demand for in situ bio-physical data on agroforestry systems and components, the paper discusses two methodologies for collecting such data. Presented first are practical guidelines for using a grid transect method to collect info...

P. A. Huxley R. Mead

1988-01-01

466

A Framework for Teaching Community Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent attention on community organizing in national politics provides an opportunity for social work educators to revisit and enhance community practice as a core practice of the profession. Drawing from social work's rich tradition of community practice this article provides a practical aid to understand the variety of strategies currently used…

Thomas, M. Lori; O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

2011-01-01

467

Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced that…

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

2010-01-01

468

Evidence-based practice and orthopaedic nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice has become part of the language of health care. This article illustrates the professional implications for orthopaedic nurses and the challenges it raises for current and future practice development. The article suggests steps for developing an evidence-based approach to orthopaedic practice, the necessary skills nurses need to develop, and the benefits of a multidisciplinary view in developing practice.

Julia Kneale

2000-01-01

469

Theory into Practice: A Matter of Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a new approach to taking theory into practice--one that offers a direct route from research to practice. Traditionally, theory makes its way to practice cloaked in particular curriculum interventions. We argue that taking theory into practice is essentially a matter of transfer--applying teaching and learning principles in…

Randi, Judi; Corno, Lyn

2007-01-01

470

Organising communities-of-practice: facilitating emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The notion of communities of practice (CoP) has received great attention in educational and organisational practice and research. Although the concept originally refers to collaborative practices that emerge naturally, educational and HRD practitioners are increasingly searching for ways to create these practices intentionally in order to stimulate learning and professional development in specific fields. This paper aims to

Sanne Akkerman; Christian Petter; Maarten de Laat

2008-01-01

471

Generating Leading Practices through Professional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we show how practices of professional learning and practices of leading can be understood as related in ecologies of practices. We will present findings from an international empirical research project that directs us to the connectivity between professional learning and leading practices that emerged as "adventitious",…

Edwards Groves, Christine; Ronnerman, Karin

2013-01-01

472

Practice-as-Inquiry in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practice-as-inquiry refers to the blending of instructional practice with systematic curricular inquiry. College and university teachers, while experts in their disciplines, typically are not specialists in instructional practice. Practice-as-inquiry (also referred to as teacher-as-researcher) may function as a mechanism of continuous teaching…

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2007-01-01

473

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) enforcement activity is currently at its highest level since enactment of the statute in 1977. There were more enforcement actions brought in 2007 than in the years from 2004 to 2006 combined. The message is clear - the U.S. Government is committed to FCPA compliance and there is no evidence enforcement activity will slow any

Jessica Tillipman

2008-01-01

474

Political ecology as ethical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedagogy is not an issue generally addressed in discussions of ethics in political ecology. These discussions commonly focus upon research agendas and methodology and do not consider teaching and learning political ecology as ethical and political practice. This paper argues that public scholarship can make political ecology's approach more concrete for students, because it focuses upon problems of inequality and

Lucy Jarosz

2004-01-01

475

Teaching Rhetorica: Theory, Pedagogy, Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their breakthrough anthology of women's rhetoric, "Available Means," Kate Ronald and Joy Ritchie presented the first comprehensive collection of women's rhetorical theory and practice from the third century B.C. to 2001. With that expansive gathering of women's rhetoric, they raised questions about gender, difference, and the rhetorical canon,…

Ronald, Kate, Ed.; Ritchie, Joy, Ed.

2006-01-01

476

Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

Meyerholz, G. W.

1974-01-01

477

Ethical Practices for College Presidents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A policy statement on ethical practices for college presidents developed by the Committee on Governance of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) is presented. Presidents of AASCU member institutions recognize the special responsibilities that pertain to them by virtue of the public trust they hold. To fulfill that…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

478

Artists Comment on Museum Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three works of art that examine issues of exhibition, display, culture, and access in contemporary museum practices. The works include four black mannequins dressed as security guards, a room-size installation consisting solely of objects related to the artist, and a poster highlighting the general exclusion of women artists. (MJP)

Kanatani, Kim; Prabhu, Vas

1996-01-01

479

Tutoring. Educational Practices Series--5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet examines principles for effective tutoring. An introduction defines tutoring. Ten sections present research findings and practical applications. Section 1, "Real-Life Goals," includes making consistent, regular time; targeting real- life goals; and exploring understanding. Section 2, "Question and Prompt," discusses avoiding lectures,…

Topping, Keith

480

Stories, cases, and practical wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss in this journal what we hope will engage readers in a range of questions about the potential uses of cases and stories in initiating and maintaining reflections about teaching practice. By beginning with an event description and then watching as it is transformed into a story with commentary and then again into a case with commentary we attempt

Michael L. Gillespie

1996-01-01

481

The Immersion Grating: Practical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical questions concerning the immersion grating, such as constructional details and maintenance, are considered. The sensitivity of the apparatus to changes in temperature is discussed and it is concluded that it is not more sensitive than any large glass prism spectrograph.

T. Larsson; H. Neuhaus

1970-01-01

482

Metrics for Licensed Practical Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in licensed practical nursing, this instructional package is one of five for the health occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

483

Best Practices in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the best practices for distance learning programs in higher education. Highlights include the planning stage, including institutional mission, business planning and financial issues, needs assessment, collaboration with other schools and businesses, and technology feasibility; and the implementation stages, including faculty support,…

Hezel, Richard T.; Nanjiani, Nader

1997-01-01

484

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

1987-01-01

485

Practical bit loading for DMT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work by Campello (see International Symposium on Information Theory, p.193, p.12-16, 1998), necessary and sufficient conditions for a discrete bit assignment to be the solution to the discrete bit loading problems were derived. In the present work, we make use of these results to derive fast algorithms that can be efficiently implemented in practice

Jorge Campello

1999-01-01

486

Practical Parallelism using Transputer Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores methods for extracting parallelism from a wide variety of numerical applications. We investigate communications overheads and load-balancing for networks of transputers. After a discussion of some practical strategies for constructing occam programs, two case studies are analysed in detail.

David J. Pritchard; C. R. Askew; D. B. Carpenter; Ian Glendinning; Anthony J. G. Hey; Denis A. Nicole

1987-01-01

487

Apportionment in Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apportionment in Theory and Practice Mark Beumer Abstract: Apportionment is the problem of translating an election outcome to a number of seats in fixed-size political house. Mathematically, the problem consists of translating a sequence of reals to a sequence of integers, while ensuring that the sum of the sequence sums to a pre-determined number. The problem arises because seats are

Mark Beumer

2010-01-01

488

Educational Management: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides the reader with principal theories and practices of management in educational organizations. It attempts to widen both the breadth and depth of the body of knowledge in this area of specialization. The work provides useful reference material for students and scholars at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in universities…

Okumbe, J. A.

489

Exploring into Teacher's Specialized Practicality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher specialization is a subject with very strong practicality as regards its essence. This paper analyzes the main problems of the existing teacher professionalism, poses and argues the 3 hypotheses of teacher professionalism. Around the reality of teacher professionalism, the author brings forward and establishes a new teacher evaluation…

Tian, Lian-jin

2010-01-01

490

Open Educational Resources and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at what constitutes an open educational resource and considers the issues and benefits to an educational institution that is moving to participate in open educational resource development and to adopt more open educational practices. It describes the initial steps in these directions being made by the Educational Development…

Blackall, Leigh

2008-01-01

491

Paraeducators: Legal and Practice Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the impact of legal issues associated with the use of paraeducators in special education, provides practice considerations for state and local agencies and universities in regard to training and preparation of paraeducators, and discusses future directions related to paraeducators in the field of special education. (Contains…

Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hodge, Janie; Lanford, Allyson

2000-01-01

492

Educational Economics: Some Practical Thoughts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a practical viewpoint of the economic necessities of funding education and a general model for restoring economic stability. This involves a fixed "Basic Education Budget" not subject to voter approval, an "Index for Fixed School Costs" based on socioeconomic status of the community, and increased community involvement. (TE)

Schmidt, Gene