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1

Analysis of the carbon sequestration costs of afforestation and reforestation agroforestry practices and the use of cost curves to evaluate their potential for implementation of climate change mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration in forest sinks is an important strategy to remove greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change; however its implementation has been limited under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol which has not created the incentives for widespread implementation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sequestration costs of agroforestry afforestation and reforestation projects (ARPs)

Arturo Balderas Torres; Rob Marchant; Jon C. Lovett; James C. R. Smart; Richard Tipper

2010-01-01

2

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Practices in Temperate North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry, an ecologically and environmentally sustainable land use, offers great promise to sequester carbon (C). The\\u000a objectives of this chapter are to (1) provide a review of C sequestration opportunities available under various agroforestry\\u000a practices in temperate North America, and (2) estimate C sequestration potential by agroforestry in the US. Since accurate\\u000a land area under agroforestry was not available, the

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Shibu Jose

3

The potential of biotechnology in temperate agroforestry practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies in forest molecular biology and tissue culture could play an increasing role in the choice of genotypes for successful establishment of agroforestry practices. Research areas such as micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, genetic engineering, marker-aided selection, and molecular diagnostics are merging with traditional forest biological studies to help identify and produce better-suited trees for agroforestry plantings. A combination of classical and

N. B. Klopfenstein; J. G. Kerl

1995-01-01

4

Agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impacts of agroforestry systems (AFS) on soil management in temperate, subtropical, and tropical biomes support the beneficial, holistic role of tree components in agricultural land-use systems. Compared to annual monocultures, AFS can enhance several soil physical properties improving soil resi...

5

Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry practices in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of various types of on-farm trials and methods for collecting and analysing data needed to assess the adoption potential of agroforestry practices. The review is based on farmers' and researchers' experiences in seven case studies in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa assessing the biophysical performance, profitability and acceptability of agroforestry practices. Assessments of adoption potential

S. Franzel; R. Coe; P. Cooper; S. J. Scherr

2001-01-01

6

Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

2003-01-01

7

An evaluation of the Acacia albida -based agroforestry practices in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.

Peter Poschen

1986-01-01

8

Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

2011-08-01

9

Agroforestry and Conservation Agriculture: Complementary practices for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of many current agricultural practices is having a deplorable effect on the world's soils, water resources and rural environments. Natural levels of annual soil loss are very small (Morgan, 2005) in the region of 0.0045 t ha -1 for areas of moderate relief and only rising to 0.45 tha -1 on steep slopes. This can be compared with

Brian Sims; Theodor Friedrich; Amir Kassam; Josef Kienzle

10

Variations in soil aggregate stability and enzyme activities in a temperate agroforestry practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry and grass buffers have been shown to improve soil properties and overall environmental quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates (WSA), soil carbon, soil nitrogen, enzyme activity, and microbial community DNA content. Treatments were row crop (RC), grass buffer (GB), agroforestry buffer (AG), and grass waterways (GWW). A

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Robert J. Kremer; Brandon W. Adamson; Stephen H. Anderson

2008-01-01

11

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

12

OSM's reforestation initiative  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) has discouraged reforestation in some situations where reforestation would be desirable. OSM is engaged in an initiative to increase the amount of mined land reclaimed to forest where appropriate. The authors are seeking to determine those elements of the Federal/State regulator programs that discourage reforestation and find ways to offset these impacts. Potential factors militating against reforestation are identified and possible solutions are discussed.

Boyce, J.S.

1999-07-01

13

Assessment and Comparison of Soil carbon pool under Silvo-pastoral Agroforestry system  

E-print Network

Abstract- As result of increased emission of green house gases, especially increased emission of Co2, Climate change is the main global challenges that many countries are facing. Increasing carbon sequestration through a forestation, reforestation and appropriate land use practices are considered as means to sink the atmospheric Co2 in terrestrial ecosystem. Agroforestry is recognized as a strategy for soil carbon sequestration (SCS) under the afforestation/reforestation activities in different parts of the world.However, little information is available on soil carbon dynamics under agroforestry systems. This study was aimed to determine the soil organic carbon pool under silvopastoral agroforestry system. The study was conducted at Henfeas research center in the north Wales, UK where Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Red alder (Alnus rubra) were planted in 1992 in integration with the grasslands. The soil samples were collected to the depth of 30cm at different depth intervals (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30cm) under five treatments: under and outside the canopy of both Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Red alder (Alnus rubra) and under the control grassland. The concentration of soil organic carbon (SOC %) under each treatment were analyzed using LOI (loss on ignition method) where soil samples were burned at 450 oc. The regression formula (Y = 0.458X-0.4 Where, Y = SOC (%) and X = SOM (%)) developed by Ball, 1964, was used to convert soil organic matter to SOC. It was identified that SOC concentration were significantly different at (P<0.05) between the treatments and along the soil profile.

In The North Wales; Kasahun Kitila H

14

Farmers’ perceptions of tree mortality, pests and pest management practices in agroforestry in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the

Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika

2008-01-01

15

Deforestation, agroforestry, and sustainable land management practices among the Classic period Maya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores evidence of deforestation and forest management practices in the Maya lowlands during the pre-Columbian period. In the early twentieth century, scholars first began to examine the role of the environment in the rise and collapse of the great southern Maya polities of the Classic period, proposing that deforestation was an important factor in their political fragmentation and

Cameron L. McNeil

16

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems  

PubMed Central

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-01-01

17

Impacts of climate change on soil erosion in Portuguese watersheds with contrasting Mediterranean climates and agroforestry practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in Mediterranean regions could lead to higher winter rainfall intensity and, due to higher climatic aridity, lower vegetation cover. This could lead to increasing soil erosion rates, accelerating ongoing soil degradation and desertification processes. Adaptation to these scenarios would have costs and benefits associated with soil protection but also agroforestry production and water usage. This presentation will cover project ERLAND, which is studying these impacts for two headwater catchments (<1000 ha) in Portugal, located in distinct climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate area, and their land-use practices are adapted to these conditions. The Macieira de Alcoba catchment in northern Portugal has a wet Mediterranean climate (1800 mm/yr, but with a dry summer season). The high rainfall allows the plantation of fast growing tree species (pine and eucalypt) in the higher slopes, and the irrigation of corn in the lower slopes. Forest fires are a recurring problem, linked with the high biomass growth and the occurrence of a dry season. Potential impacts of climate change include less favorable conditions for eucalypt growth, higher incidence of wildfires, and less available water for summer irrigation, all of which could lead to lower vegetation cover. The Guadalupe catchment in southern Portugal has a dry Mediterranean climate (700 mm/yr, falling mostly in winter). The land-use is montado, an association between sclerophyllous oaks (cork and holm oaks) and annual herbaceous plans (winter wheat or pasture). The region suffers occasional severe droughts; climate change has the potential to increase the frequency and severity of these droughts, leading to lower vegetation cover and, potentially, limiting the conditions for cork and holm oak growth. Each catchment has been instrumented with erosion measurement plots and flow and turbidity measurements at the outlet, together with surveys of vegetation and soil properties; measurements in Macieira began in 2010 and in Guadalupe they began in 2011. These datasets will be used to parameterize, calibrate and validate the SWAT ecohydrological model, in order to ensure the appropriate simulation of the most important hydrological, vegetation growth and erosion processes which could be impacted upon by climate change. The model will, in turn, be the main tool to study future climate and land-use scenarios. The presentation will focus on the data collected so far, the modeling structure, and preliminary results coming for the work.

Nunes, J. P.; Lima, J. C.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Veiga, S.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Sampaio, E.; Batista, D. P.; Zhang, R.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Moreira, M.; Santos, J. M.; Keizer, J. J.; Corte-Real, J.

2012-04-01

18

Tree gardening and taungya on Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry is a general concept for a land management system combining trees and agricultural crops. For application, various specific techniques can be chosen. Each of these techniques is adjusted to a specific set of environmental as well as socio-economic factors. Agroforestry cultivators or managers belonging to varying social strata and institutional groupings may practice different forms of agroforestry, even within

K. F. Weersum

1982-01-01

19

Paper birch competitive effects vary with conifer tree species and stand age in interior British Columbia forests: implications for reforestation policy and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) is considered the most important competitive threat to commercially valuable conifers in the highly productive interior cedar–hemlock forests of British Columbia. It is routinely removed from conifer plantations at high cost to increase conifer growth rates and meet reforestation policy regulations. Competitive effects of paper birch and other neighbours on conifer growth were measured in

Suzanne W Simard; Donald L Sachs; Alan Vyse; Leandra L Blevins

2004-01-01

20

Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett

2009-01-01

21

36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation —Establishment, maintenance, and renovation...forest buffers, silvopasture, alley cropping, or other agroforestry practices, including purposes for energy conservation...

2010-07-01

22

Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

2003-01-01

23

Parklands Partnership: Education through Reforestation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes New York City's Parklands Partnership Program, in which elementary and secondary students visit natural woodlands areas in their neighborhood, learn about forest ecology, and engage in restoration and reforestation activities that foster a connection between themselves and their local environment. (SV)

Scalia, Josephine A.

1992-01-01

24

Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

25

Agroforestry Systems and Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of enhancing human well-being and dignity for the communities surrounding Podocarpus National Park (PNP) is inexorably connected to the goal of protecting ecosystem health and integrity in the southern Andes. While these goals are often viewed as conflicting, one area where they clearly overlap is in agroforestry practices. Agroforestry has the potential to improve food security and economic

Kim M. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

26

Agroforestry in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early farming activity migrated originally from forests. A high rate of cultivation led to almost complete degradation of\\u000a Dutch forests. To conserve them it was necessary to prohibit grazing of forests. Since a few decades, grazing has been used\\u000a as a measure to improve the natural values of forests. An agroforestry system, which existed for a long period in the

A. Oosterbaan; A. T. Kuiters

2008-01-01

27

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

1991-01-01

28

Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

29

Agroforestry potential in the southeastern United States: perceptions of landowners and extension professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first steps in developing an agroforestry extension and training program involve compilation, synthesis, and analysis\\u000a of current knowledge on existing practices. Equally important is to understand the perceptions of landowners and professionals\\u000a of agroforestry as a land use option. No systematic effort has been made to assess these critical issues in the southeastern\\u000a United States. Therefore, needs assessment surveys

Sarah W. Workman; Michael E. Bannister; P. K. R. Nair

2003-01-01

30

Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

1995-12-01

31

Impacts of Afforestation, Deforestation, and Reforestation on  

E-print Network

Impacts of Afforestation, Deforestation, and Reforestation on Forest Cover in China from 1949­1981), (2) slow increase stage (1982­1993), and (3) rapid increase stage (1994­2003). Afforestation is the primary factor increasing forest cover in China. Cumulative areas of afforestation in China from 1949

Song, Conghe

32

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

33

Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1978-01-01

34

Reforesting "bare hills" in Vietnam: social and environmental consequences of the 5 million hectare reforestation program.  

PubMed

In recent years, forestry has been strongly promoted by the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam through large-scale projects to rehabilitate and reforest millions of hectares of land. One project to reforest 5 million hectares has received hundreds of millions of US dollars for implementation. Yet based on a case study in one area of northern Vietnam, this project appears to have had a number of unforeseen consequences. Large areas of land classified as "bare hills" have been targeted for reforestation, despite the fact that these lands already harbor a number of species that were used by local communities. The bare hills were especially economically important to poor households and to women who collected a variety of nontimber forest products there. Because the reforestation project focused most efforts on establishing new plantations rather than supporting natural regeneration, diverse sources of non-timber forest products were being replaced with monocrop exotic tree plantations. A strong inequity in the allocation of private lands for reforestation has characterized the regreening projects to date, and this may have continuing unwelcome social, environmental, and economic impacts into the future, particularly for the poor. PMID:19860156

McElwee, Pamela

2009-09-01

35

Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

1981-01-01

36

Farmer participation in reforestation incentive programs in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforestation programs are a common policy response among developing country governments in the tropics attempting to deal with environmental and economic problems caused by widespread deforestation. The objective of this paper is to examine participation by small-and medium-sized farms in two reforestation programs undertaken in recent years by one country, Costa Rica, which has been at the forefront of developing

T. Thacher; D. R. Lee; J. W. Schelhas

1996-01-01

37

Biotechnology and Agroforestry in Indian Arid Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to

Varsha Sharma; Shaily Goyal; K. G. Ramawat

38

Technology impact evaluation in agroforestry projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify appropriate methods for evaluating the impact of new agroforestry technologies, ICRAF in 1988–89 contacted 166\\u000a projects worldwide about their activities in agroforestry technology monitoring and evaluation. Of the 108 which responded,\\u000a 45% were involved in some type of impact evaluation.\\u000a \\u000a This review revealed common difficulties in selecting impact indicators and methods of evaluation. Emphasis to date has been

S. J. Scherr; E. U. Müller

1991-01-01

39

The future role of reforestation in reducing buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Among the options posed for mitigating the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2} is planting new forest areas to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Among the questions of interest in modeling the global carbon cycle is the extent to which reforestation is likely to succeed in providing physical removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are many strategies for using forest land to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of CO{sub 2}: decreasing the rate at which forests are cleared for other land uses, increasing the density of carbon storage in existing forests, improving the rate and efficiency at which forest products are used in the place of other energy intensive products, substitution of renewable wood fuels for fossil fuels, improved management of forests and agroforestry, and increasing the amount of land in standing forest. Because increasing the area of forests has social, political, and economic limitations; in addition to physical limitations; it is hard to envision a large increase in forest area except where there are associated economic benefits. The authors speculation is that, over the next several decades, the forest strategies most likely to be pursued for the express purpose of CO{sub 2} mitigation are those which provide more or more-efficient substitution of forest products for energy or energy-intensive resources and that the physical accumulation of additional carbon in forests will be of lesser importance.

Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1993-12-31

40

Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

2009-06-01

41

Test of the SHETRAN technology for modelling the impact of reforestation on badlands runoff and sediment yield at Draix, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically based distributed models, such as SHETRAN, have the ability to predict the impacts of land management changes in advance of any change taking place. It needs to be shown, though, that they can deliver practical results while accounting for uncertainty in parameter evaluation. As a demonstration, SHETRAN was used to simulate the impact of reforestation on runoff and erosion

B. T Lukey; J Sheffield; J. C Bathurst; R. A Hiley; N Mathys

2000-01-01

42

Agroforestry as an approach to minimizing nutrient loss from heavily fertilized soils: The Florida experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient buildup in the soil caused by increased animal manure and fertilizer use in agricultural and forestry practices may\\u000a increase the potential for their loss from the soil, leading to groundwater contamination and nonpoint source pollution. Studies\\u000a in the tropics have suggested that agroforestry practices can reduce such nutrient (especially nitrogen) losses because of\\u000a enhanced nutrient uptake by tree and

V. D. Nair; D. A. Graetz

2004-01-01

43

Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.  

PubMed

Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x? = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (?x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. PMID:25460423

Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

2015-03-01

44

Drivers of reforestation in human-dominated forests.  

PubMed

Tropical forest habitat continues to decline globally, with serious negative consequences for environmental sustainability. The small mountain country of Nepal provides an excellent context in which to examine trajectories of forest-cover change. Despite having experienced large-scale forest clearing in the past, significant reforestation has taken place in recent years. The range of biophysical and ecological environments and diversity of tenure arrangements provide us with a context with sufficient variation to be able to derive insight into the impact of a range of hypothesized drivers of forest change. This article draws on a dataset of 55 forests from the middle hills and Terai plains of Nepal to examine the factors associated with forest clearing or regeneration. Results affirm the central importance of tenure regimes and local monitoring for forest regrowth. In addition, user group size per unit of forest area is an important, independent explanator of forest change. These variables also can be associated with specific practices that further influence forest change such as the management of social conflict, adoption of new technologies to reduce pressure on the forest, and involvement of users in forest maintenance activities. Such large-N, comparative studies are essential if we are to derive more complex, nuanced, yet actionable frameworks that help us to plan better policies for the management of natural resources. PMID:17881576

Nagendra, Harini

2007-09-25

45

Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification  

PubMed Central

Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by ?75% and species richness of forest-using species by ?60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by ?40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends. PMID:17360392

Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G.; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

2007-01-01

46

CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

47

Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park; )

2006-05-01

48

Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

49

Using agroforestry to improve soil fertility: effects of intercropping on Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) plantations with Araucaria angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the use of agroforestry to improve soil nutrient properties in plantations containing Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire (yerba mate). Intercropping within tree plantation systems is widely practiced by farmers around the World, but\\u000a the influence of different species combinations on system performance still requires further investigation. I. paraguariensis is a major South American crop commonly cultivated in intensive

Tal IlanyMark; Mark S. Ashton; Florencia Montagnini; Constanza Martinez

2010-01-01

50

Monitoring of reforested areas using LANDSAT data. [Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1981-01-01

51

Effect of reforestation on streamflow in central New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic data have been collected since 1932 in central New York State to determine the effect of reforestation on streamflow. Data are available for three small partly reforested areas and for one nonreforested control area. From 35 to 58 percent of the 3 areas were reforested, mostly with species of pine and spruce. The trees were allowed to grow without thinning or cutting, and by 1958 these reforested areas had developed into dense coniferous woodlots. Intensive statistical analyses of the data from the four study areas were made in 1958. Analyses were made for three hydrologic periods: the dormant season represented by the 6-month period ending April 30, the growing season represented by the 6-month period ending October 31, and the year represented by the 12-month period ending April 30. Analyses of the hydrologic data using multiple correlation with time as a variable and analyses of covariance between early and late periods of record indicated that several significant changes had occurred in the streamflow from the partly reforested study areas. Based on correlation with precipitation, total runoff for the dormant season from the 3 study areas was reduced by annual rates of 0.17 to 0.29 inches per year. Based on correlations with streamflow from a control area, total runoff from the partly reforested Shackham Brook area was reduced by average rates of 0.14 inches per growing season, 0.23 inches per dormant season, and 0.36 inches per hydrologic year. Peak discharges on Shackham Brook during the dormant season were reduced by 1958 by an average of 41 percent for the season, with reductions ranging from an average of 66 percent for November to an average of 16 percent for April. No significant changes were found in the peak discharges for the growing season, rates of base-flow recession, volumes of direct runoff, or annual low flows of streams in the three partly reforested areas. The significant reductions in total runoff are attributed to increases in interception and transpiration in the reforested areas. The reductions in peak discharges during the dormant period are attributed largely to increased interception and sublimation of snowfall, and a gradual desynchronization of snowmelt runoff from the wooded and open areas of partly reforested watersheds. The changes in streamflow occurred gradually over the years; it could not be determined from the data whether changes in streamflow were still occurring in 1958, or whether they had reached a maximum.

Schneider, William Joseph; Ayer, Gordon Roundy

1961-01-01

52

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

SciTech Connect

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.

MacDicken, K.G.

1997-10-01

53

Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

2009-01-01

54

Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

55

Soil properties following reforestation or afforestation of marginal cropland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reforestation or afforestation of marginal agricultural lands offers opportunities to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and improve the quality of degraded soils. The objectives of this study were to identify the extent and distribution of marginally productive cropland that was originally under f...

56

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LARGE-SCALE REFORESTATION: PROCEEDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the workshop was to identify major operational and ecological considerations needed to successfully conduct large-scale reforestation projects throughout the forested regions of the world. Large-scale" for this workshop means projects where, by human effort, approx...

57

Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

Groninger, John W.

2012-04-01

58

Reforestation strategies amid social instability: lessons from Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts. PMID:22314681

Groninger, John W

2012-04-01

59

Climate change mitigation through reforestation in Godavari mangroves in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasise mangrove reforestation as a countermeasure for climate change mitigation and adaptation in the Godavari Delta in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Restoration of the mangrove forest in the Godavari Delta near Kakinada town in the south-eastern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh is carried out with participatory involvement of local communities depending for

Raghavendra G. Rao

2009-01-01

60

Screening Hydrolyzed Casein as a Deer Repellent for Reforestation Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three independent experiments were conducted to evaluate hydrolyzed casein deer repellent to minimize browse damage in reforestation efforts. In the first experiment, western redcedar seedlings were treated with 12% hydrolyzed casein and a latex sticker or one of two commercial deer repellents in the nursery prior to a 45-day cold storage period. Treated and control (sticker only) seedlings were then

Bruce A. Kimball; John H. Russell; Jeffrey P. DeGraan; Kelly R. Perry

2008-01-01

61

Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.  

PubMed

Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P?agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden. PMID:24790810

Linger, Ewuketu

2014-01-01

62

From Deforestation to Reforestation in New England, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper considers the reforestation of New England from the mid-19th to the early 20th century. While the historical data\\u000a are quite limited, I document a post-1850 flattening and eventual reversal of previous New England deforestation, even as\\u000a population was increasing. Also, within-region population concentration measures based on county data for 1790 to 1930 increase\\u000a each decade from 1830 —

Alexander S. P. Pfaff

63

Biochar application during reforestation alters species present and soil chemistry.  

PubMed

Reforestation of landscapes is being used as a method for tackling climate change through carbon sequestration and land restoration, as well as increasing biodiversity and improving the provision of ecosystem services. The success of reforestation activities can be reduced by adverse field conditions, including those that reduce germination and survival of plants. One method for improving success is biochar addition to soil, which is not only known to improve soil carbon sequestration, but is also known to improve growth, health, germination and survival of plants. In this study, biochar was applied to soil at rates of 0, 1, 3 and 6tha(-1) along with a direct-seed forest species mix at three sites in western Victoria, Australia. Changes in soil chemistry, including total carbon, and germination and survival of species were measured over an 18month period. Biochar was found to significantly increase total carbon by up to 15.6% on soils low in carbon, as well as alter electrical conductivity, Colwell phosphorous and nitrate- and ammonium-nitrogen. Biochar also increased the number of species present, and stem counts of Eucalyptus species whilst decreasing stem counts of Acacia species. Biochar has the potential to positively benefit reforestation activities, but site specific and plant-soil-biochar responses require targeted research. PMID:25679816

Drake, J A; Carrucan, A; Jackson, W R; Cavagnaro, T R; Patti, A F

2015-05-01

64

Sediment, nutrient and water losses by water erosion under agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate soil management practices adopted in the Brazilian semi-arid region contribute to erosive processes. Agroforestry\\u000a systems (AFs) have been considered an alternative to reduce water erosion. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two\\u000a alternatives AFs, a traditional and an intensive cropping system on the losses of sediments, water, organic carbon and nutrients\\u000a caused by water erosion in comparison

Maria Ivanilda de Aguiar; Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia; Francisco Alisson da Silva Xavier; Eduardo de Sá Mendonça; João Ambrósio Araújo Filho; Teógenes Senna de Oliveira

2010-01-01

65

Farmer perspectives on agroforestry opportunities and constraints in cape verde  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ?gua de Gato Watershed on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, 51 farmers were surveyed regarding their attitudes\\u000a and knowledge of agroforestry. The farmers identified eight constraints to agroforestry implementation, with virtually all\\u000a indicating that a source of loan funds was the major concern. Space or land constraints and availability of tree seedlings\\u000a were identified as constraints

James E. Johnson; Orlando J. Delgado

2003-01-01

66

Indigenous Agroforestry Systems in Amazonia: From Prehistory to Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the historical development of indigenous systems will provide valuable information for the design of ecologically\\u000a desirable agroforestry production systems. Such studies have been relatively few, especially in Amazonia. The agroforestry\\u000a systems in Amazonia follow a trail that begins with the arrival of the first hunter-gatherers in prehistoric times, followed\\u000a by the domestication of plants for agriculture, the development of

Robert Pritchard Miller; P. K. R. Nair

2006-01-01

67

A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

68

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China  

PubMed Central

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

69

Carbon Sequestration in Reforested Areas in China Since 1970  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since July 2002, a 3-year Canada-China joint project was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences to assess the current status of China's forests and the impacts of forestry activities on carbon sequestration. From 1973 to 2001, China's total forested area increased from 122 Mha to 159 Mha, owing to large-scale reforestations for the main purpose of soil erosion control. In this project, four local forest sites in Changbaishan, Heihe, Liping and Xingguo in various regions are chosen for intensive assessments of forest and soil stocks. Ground-based measurements of leaf area index (LAI), net primary productivity (NPP), soil texture, vegetation and soil carbon stocks are used to calibrate models. High-resolution remote sensing images from ASTER and ETM are used to map LAI and NPP of these sites and for upscaling to the whole China based on MODIS and VEGETATION images. Remote sensing techniques and carbon cycle models (BEPS, InTEC) developed in Canada are being adapted to China's ecosystems. Preliminary results suggest that new reforested areas since 1970 are now actively sequester carbon, making the overall forested area as a carbon sink in the last few decades. Efforts are being made to reduce uncertainties in the estimation through incorporating new nation-wide datasets of forest age, soil texture and organic matter, nitrogen deposition, etc. At Changbaishan, Liping and Heihe, integrated assessments are being conducted to investigate the impacts of reforestation (Grain-to-Green) programs on the social and economic status of farmers as well as the ecological environment and land use options to maximize carbon sequestraton.

Chen, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, S.; Sun, R.; Shi, X.; Tian, Q.; Xue, J.; Pan, J.; Kang, E.; Zhu, Q.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, L.; Liu, G.; Chen, M.; Thomas, S.; Bryan, R.; Yin, Y.; MacLaren, V.; Zhou, S.; Feng, X.; Wang, C.; Pan, J.

2004-05-01

70

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

71

Volunteer Notes on Reforestation. A Handbook for Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided in this document are descriptions of reforestation projects and techniques presented by Peace Corps volunteers from Chad, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, and Niger. The purpose of the document is to aid individuals in trying to find solutions to the problems facing forestry in the Sahel. These projects include: (1) reforestation of Ronier palm…

Seefeldt, Steve, Comp.

72

More than Just Trees: Assessing Reforestation Success in Tropical Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities in many parts of the tropics are dependent of forests for their livelihoods and for environmental services. Forest resources in the tropics have declined rapidly over the past century and therefore many developing countries in the tropics have reforestation programs. Although reforestation is a long-term process with long-term…

Le, Hai Dinh; Smith, Carl; Herbohn, John; Harrison, Stephen

2012-01-01

73

The future of reforestation programs in the tropical developing countries: insights from the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reforestation against the rapid rate of deforestation and forest degradation is common in most tropical developing countries. The main objective of reforestation programs is to restore and/or enhance the degraded landscapes depreciated in environmental value. However due to changing socio-political contexts and increasing awareness on sustainable development and environmental issues such programs are becoming more challenging, particularly in the developing tropics. Like most tropical developing countries substantial deforestation has occurred in the Philippines followed by massive logging and slash-and-burn agriculture, resulting in severe social and environmental problems. The country is also one of the pioneer countries that introduces reforestation program to restore its degraded forests. Most recently the government of the Philippines has launched the National Greening Program (NGP), one of the largest reforestation projects so far, with an aim to reforest 1.5 million hectares of degraded forest in critical watersheds over a five year time period. This paper highlights the key challenges that might hinder the success of the reforestation program through National Greening Program. We found that it is unlikely to achieve the desired project goals if rural communities dependent on upland landscapes are excluded from the reforestation program through plantation establishment. Bringing larger amount of areas and greater number of people under community based forest management (CBFM) initiatives for reforestation programs, with clearly defined rights and responsibilities, as well as securing timely access to timber harvesting permits to the communities involved in maintaining the plantations could enhance the long term reforestation success in the country. The paper also tries to provide a critical review of the past reforestation efforts in the Philippines, and direction of possible research and development in order to achieve a win-win situation that will benefits both the local livelihoods and the environment, not only in the Philippines but in other tropical developing countries with similar socio-political context.

Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J. L.

2013-12-01

74

[Africa and the environment. Desertification and the phenomenon of drought. Deforestation and reforestation].  

PubMed

Awareness is growing throughout the world of the grave environmental damage that has been caused by human activities ad of the disastrous consequences such damage may pose for human survival. The 1992 "Earth Summit" in Rio de Janeiro marked the culmination of a series of preliminary ministerial conferences in Africa and elsewhere that called attention to practices menacing the environment. Africa's underdevelopment is at the basis of practices leading to desertification, deforestation, and pollution. The summit was of great relevance for Africa because of its recognition of the links between the environment, development, and poverty. The phenomena of drought and desertification in the Sahel are insufficiently understood. The drought began in the 1960s and has persisted irregularly into later decades. Scant rainfall may cause the useful growing season to be shorter than the minimum of 2.5-3 months needed to assure harvests. Meager vegetation, drying of domestic water sources, and the danger of erosion from violent rainstorms are among the consequences of drought. Desertification occurs when the natural vegetation is exploited excessively, when agriculture is extended into marginal lands, and when inappropriate agricultural and herding practices make the land vulnerable to erosion. Populations beset by poverty and drought engage in practices for short-term survival whose longterm consequences may be very harmful. The Sahel Institute in Bamako has outlined a regional strategy to combat desertification that calls for improving collection and conservation of surface and subsoil water, reforestation and more careful management of land and other resources, motivating local populations to assist in preventing deforestation, fertility control to lessen population pressure, and development of a database to monitor the dynamics of desertification. The European Economic community and some conservation associations have also developed conservation programs for the Sahel. Degradation of the tropical forests must be considered irreversible because of climatic factors, erosion, and loss of fertility. Abusive exploitation of the tropical forests is a principal socioeconomic phenomenon of contemporary Africa. Forest policies must end the degradation, repair the decision making. 56% of the total energy consumed in Africa is from wood and charcoal. But the collection of firewood and deforestation are complexly linked. Deforestation results from numerous factors including imbalance between population growth and the system of natural resources, the need for new lands, and the expansion of cities. Several African countries are attempting to subsidize firewood needs through management of forests and reforestation with the collaboration of the rich countries. PMID:12286687

Samake, D

1993-04-01

75

Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.  

PubMed

The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach. PMID:21556936

Millard, Edward

2011-08-01

76

Eutrophication indices of an atlantic agroforestry catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main elements causing eutrophication in waters are nitrogen and phosphorus. It is admitted that surface waters productivity is limited by either phosphorus, in lakes, or nitrogen, in rivers. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the seasonal fluctuation of N and P concentrations and to assess the N/P ratio at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under atlantic climatic conditions in order to assess its eutrophication status. The studied catchment is located in A Coruña province (NW Spain). Water samples were collected at the catchment outlet from 2003 to 2007, amounting to a total of 555 samples. Total phosphorus contents were measured using ICP-MS whereas those of nitrogen were assessed by capilar electrophoresis. Maximum average values were registered in 2006 for nitrogen and 2005 for phosphorus. Nitrogen minimum average values were measured in 2003 and those of phosphorus in 2007. Coefficients of variation were higher for phosphorus than for nitrogen. The highest N/P ratios were observed in 2007 and the lowest ones in 2003. Usually, higher N/P values were related to base flow periods whereas lower values of this ratio occurred during floods. N/P values higher than 7 indicate eutrophication conditions caused by phosphorus and if the ratio is lower than this threshold, nitrogen is the limitant element. Our results indicated that, in this catchment, phosphorus was the limitant element for eutrophication. Moreover, eutrophication risk is higher during flood events with phosphorus supplies by runoff.

Sande-Fouz, P.; Miras-Avalos, J. M.

2009-04-01

77

Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

Millard, Edward

2011-08-01

78

Effects of reforesting degraded grassland on hydrological flow pathways on Leyte, the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reforestation of degraded land in the tropics is promoted for a wide range of expected benefits, including carbon sequestration and streamflow regulation. However, how reforestation of degraded land affects runoff generation mechanisms and catchment water yield is still poorly understood as most experimental work pertains to non-degraded terrain. We set out to study the differences in hydrological functioning of a small degraded grassland catchment and a similar catchment that was reforested 15 years ago. Both catchments are located near Tacloban, Leyte, the Philippines. Stream stage, EC and temperature are measured continuously since June 2013. Precipitation, soil moisture content, and groundwater levels are monitored as well. Samples are taken from streamflow, precipitation, groundwater, and soil water prior to and during rainfall events for geochemical and stable isotope analysis to elucidate source contributions to storm runoff. Streamflow and event water contributions increase rapidly during almost every rainfall event in the grassland. In the reforested catchment, event water contributions to streamflow are much smaller and only increase during large events. These tracer results suggest that overland flow occurs much less frequently and is much less widespread in the reforested catchment compared to the grassland catchment. Our results thus indicate that the dominant flow pathways have changed as a result of reforestation and suggest that reforestation can largely restore the hydrological functioning of degraded sites if the forest is allowed to develop over a sufficiently long period without subsequent disturbance.

van Meerveld, Ilja; Zhang, Jun; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno

2014-05-01

79

Order No. 0020 for the establishment of methods of reforestation, 19 March 1987.  

PubMed

In light of the "Green Movement" policy and the development of the Colombia Major National Reforestation Plan, this Order establishes the following methods of promoting reforestation: 1) advice and guidance to those concerned with tree planting; 2) forestry planning for farms; and 3) grants of trees whenever possible in the proportions indicated in the Order. The Order classifies beneficiaries into small-size tree farmers (up to 20 hectares, and 80% of whose income derives from that activity); and medium- and large-scale tree farmers (more than 20 hectares). Other provisions of the Order deal with applications, dates of completion of requirements, and the actual methods of promoting reforestation. PMID:12289472

1988-01-01

80

REVIEW PAPER Microbiological process in agroforestry systems. A review  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Microbiological process in agroforestry systems. A review Ademir Sérgio Ferreira a result of BNF. The successful use of legumes is dependent upon appropriate attention to the formation, Brazil M. V. B. Figueiredo Agronomical Institute of Pernambuco IPA/CARHP, 1371, Gen. San Martin Avenue

Boyer, Edmond

81

Cacau Cabruca Agroforestry System of Production in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Southern Bahia probably in the beginning of the 19th century. To establish such system, farmers in the Atlantic rain forest region selectively maintained around 75 adult individual native trees per hectare, removed the o...

82

Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

83

Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less

J. B. Raintree; K. Warner

1986-01-01

84

Economic principles to appraise agro-forestry projects  

SciTech Connect

Basic economic principles and the classical project evaluation technique can be satisfactorily used to solve investment decisions for agroforestry projects. Recommendations made for this type of appraisal are to: concentrate on the small farm participants; study the forestry component and risk diversification; detail the externalities; and consider the cultural environment. 15 references.

Harou, P.A.

1983-01-01

85

Discerning Fragmentation Dynamics of Tropical Forest and Wetland during Reforestation, Urban Sprawl, and Policy Shifts  

PubMed Central

Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940–2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr?1 in 1977–1991 versus 2.17% yr?1 in 1991–2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land planning to reduce future fragmentation. PMID:25409016

Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

2014-01-01

86

Waiting for trees to grow: nest survival, brood parasitism, and the impact of reforestation efforts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the forested wetlands that once covered the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, only -25% remain due to large-scale conversion to agriculture. Reforestation efforts are currently underway, but tracts planted with slow-growing oaks maintain the structure of a grassland for 5 yr or longer, and will require at least 40 yr to resemble a mature forest. Nonetheless, it is hoped that reforestation, even in early stages, can effectively increase core area in extant tracts of mature forest by reducing higher rates of nest failure and brood parasitism often associated with forest-agriculture interfaces. To test this, we monitored nests of a mature-forest specialist, the Acadian Flycatcher, in extensive bottomland forests adjacent to agricultural fields and reforested tracts (<20 yr-old). We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate alternative hypotheses regarding the relative impacts of agriculture and reforestation in the landscape. Controlling for year, season, and stand basal area, there was little evidence that landscape context significantly affected nest survival, although survival tended to increase with decreasing amounts of agriculture. The probability of brood parasitism increased with greater proportions of open habitats in the landscape. There was much stronger support for the hypothesis that parasitism rates depended on the sum of agricultural and reforested tracts, rather than on the amount of agriculture alone. Thus, reforested tracts are not expected to have the desired effect of reducing parasitism rates in the adjacent mature forest until several decades have passed.

Hazler, K.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Cooper, R.J.

2005-01-01

87

Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.  

PubMed

High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

2014-10-01

88

Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone  

PubMed Central

High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

2014-01-01

89

Propagation of trembling aspen and hybrid poplar for agroforestry: potential benefits of elevated CO2 in the greenhouse  

E-print Network

of Populus tremuloides Michaux aspen and hybrid poplars for agroforestry, afforestation, or rec- lamation to be considered in the context of using aspen and hybrid poplar for large- scale agroforestry, afforestation objectives relevant to the desired end use e.g. afforestation, agroforestry, reclamation . Physiological

Macdonald, Ellen

90

[Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].  

PubMed

As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time. PMID:25796917

Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

2014-10-01

91

Adoption of agroforestry in the hills of Nepal: a logistic regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as

Ramji P. Neupane; Khem R. Sharma; Gopal B. Thapa

2002-01-01

92

Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry…

Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

2008-01-01

93

Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract…

Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

2014-01-01

94

Growth and yield of coffee plants in agroforestry and monoculture systems in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research compared coffee plants (Coffea arabica L.) grown in an agroforestry and monoculture systems. Data were collected during two years, on vegetative growth, reproductive development, nutritional status and yield of coffee, besides monitoring air temperature and the tree growth. All trees in agroforestry system increased in growth, resulting in a reduction in the magnitude of the diurnal temperature variation

Mônica Matoso Campanha; Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos; Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas; Hermínia Emília Prieto Martinez; Silvana Lages Ribeiro Garcia; Fernando Luiz Finger

2004-01-01

95

Survival, growth, timber productivity and site index of Cordia alliodora in forestry and agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matching tree species to appropriate site conditions and stand management is crucial for sound agroforestry production. In this study, survival, growth and site index for laurel (Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pavón) Oken.) were measured between 1987–1999 in two forestry (line plantings and pure plantations) and four agroforestry systems (taungya and three laurel – cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems) in the

E. Somarriba; R. Valdivieso; W. Vásquez; G. Galloway

2001-01-01

96

Determining options for agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds in Alemaya Basin, Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.

Bishaw, B.

1993-01-01

97

Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

2007-03-01

98

Afforestation Reforestation and afforestation projects, such as these thousands of newly planted pine trees, reduced the annual  

E-print Network

Afforestation Reforestation and afforestation projects, such as these thousands of newly planted level, however, afforestation and reforestation have led to an increase in forest and tree cover in some and 2005. Afforestation refers to the planting of trees in areas that have not been forested in the last 50

Lopez-Carr, David

99

Riparian reforestation and channel change: A case study of two small tributaries to Sleepers River, northeastern Vermont, USA  

E-print Network

Riparian reforestation and channel change: A case study of two small tributaries to Sleepers River 2008 Keywords: Riparian reforestation Stream widening Channel morphology Large woody debris Conceptual had a diverse patchwork of forested and nonforested riparian vegetation. Nearly 40 years later, we

Vermont, University of

100

Agent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucatan, Mexico, and reforestation in  

E-print Network

in the Midwest United States Steven M. Manson* and Tom Evans *Department of Geography, University of Minnesota with integrated agent-based modeling to understand land change and economic decision mak- ing in the United StatesAgent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucata´n, Mexico, and reforestation

Evans, Tom

101

Reforestation in Arid Lands. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad subject of project implementation) includes…

Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

102

Riparian reforestation and channel change: How long does it take? Maeve McBride a,  

E-print Network

Riparian reforestation and channel change: How long does it take? Maeve McBride a, , W. Cully in revised form 13 August 2009 Accepted 12 November 2009 Available online 20 November 2009 Keywords: Riparian riparian vegetation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Riparian vegetation exerts

Vermont, University of

103

Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland with contrasting  

E-print Network

Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland, and weeds are strong competitors for resources, particularly water. We conducted a 3-year experiment of full-light versus artificial shading and weed presence versus weed mowing. We measured seedling

Espigares, Tíscar

104

The domestication and commercialization of indigenous trees in agroforestry for the alleviation of poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate into tropical farming systems indigenous trees whose products have\\u000a traditionally been gathered from natural forests. This is being done in order to provide marketable products from farms that\\u000a will generate cash for resource-poor rural and peri-urban households. This poverty-alleviating agroforestry strategy is at\\u000a the same time linked to one in which perennial,

R. R. B. Leakey; A. J. Simons

1997-01-01

105

Comparing common methods for assessing understory light availability in shaded-perennial agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulating the shade provided by overstory trees is important in the management of shaded-perennial agroforestry systems. In order to compare the merits of commonly used light-assessment techniques that could potentially be useful to farmers and extensionists and to quantify the extent of shading in multistrata agroforestry systems, understory photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured beneath 28 single-species and four mixed-species

J. G Bellow; P. K. R Nair

2003-01-01

106

Markets and marketing strategies for agroforestry specialty products in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agroforestry, marketing is unique for several reasons: many products typically lack established marketing institutions,\\u000a market information, and grade or quality standards. All that is known about the market for many agroforestry specialty products\\u000a is that someone is growing the product and consumers are buying it. What happens to the product as it moves through the value\\u000a chain from producer

M. A. Gold; L. D. Godsey; S. J. Josiah

2004-01-01

107

Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil and this leads to high levels of soil organic matter\\u000a content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and\\u000a macrofaunal communities in soil and litter under cacao agroforestry systems and in a natural forest in the southern Bahia\\u000a state of Brazil.

M. K. da Silva Moço; E. F. da Gama-Rodrigues; A. C. da Gama-Rodrigues; R. C. R. Machado; V. C. Baligar

2009-01-01

108

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

2010-05-01

109

The costs and benefits of reforestation in Liping County, Guizhou Province, China.  

PubMed

Reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is becoming a pressing issue for the global community. Afforestation and reforestation are promoted worldwide as an effective means of sequestering carbon. For its national interest and global concerns, China has made great efforts to protect its existing forests and develop programs of afforestation and reforestation. Based on two surveys recently conducted in Liping County, Guizhou province, this paper investigates the economic changes associated with the implementation of the "Grain For Green" policy. Based on the analytical framework of benefit cost analysis, this paper concludes that the implementation of the reforestation of sloping agricultural land policy would not be possible if there were no government subsidies for the peasants. The short term economic returns of land and labour from forestation are substantially lower than those generated from grain or cash crop production on the steep slope lands. The government subsidies provide great economic incentives for peasants to take part in the project. The subsidies in fact have elevated peasant income in rural Liping. The estimated potential economic returns of plantations over the long run indicate that the removal of the government financial subsidies would not create an economic crisis for the peasants if the current market conditions continue. PMID:17125905

Zhou, S; Yin, Y; Xu, W; Ji, Z; Caldwell, I; Ren, J

2007-11-01

110

Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.  

PubMed

Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-12-01

111

Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pin-Rodrigues, F.C.M.; Costa Jr, E.A. ; Gonalves, P.K. ; Podadera,  

E-print Network

Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pinã-Rodrigues, F.C.M.; Costa Jr AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN AGROFORESTRY ANDEMPOWERMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES, INSOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL. Eliana : France (2010)" #12;Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pinã-Rodrigues, F

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry  

E-print Network

Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry Publications on Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 2008 ­ 2011 (Contact: pknair@ufl.edu) #12;cacao

Hill, Jeffrey E.

113

Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

2013-08-01

114

Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

2013-08-01

115

Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.  

PubMed

Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

2015-01-01

116

Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used. PMID:25681794

Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

2015-04-01

117

Challenges of reforestation in a water limited world under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debate on the ecological benefits of planted forests at the sensitive lower edge of the closed forest belt (at the "xeric limits") is still unresolved. Forests sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide, control water erosion and dust storms, reduce river sedimentation, and mitigate small floods. However, planting trees in areas previously predominantly occupied by grassland or agriculture can dramatically alter the energy and water balance at multiple scales. The forest/grassland transition zone is especially vulnerable to projected drastic temperature and precipitation shifts under future climate change and variability due to its high ecohydrological sensitivity. The study investigates some of the relevant aspects of the ecological and climatic role of plantation forests and potential impacts at the dryland edges of the temperate zone, using case studies from three countries/regions on three continents. We found that, contrary to popular expectations, the effect of forest cover on regional climate might be limited and the influence of reforestation on water resources might turn into negative. Planted forests generally reduce stream flow and lower groundwater table level because of higher water use than previous land cover types. Increased evaporation potential due to global warming and/or extreme drought events likely reduce areas that are appropriate for tree growth and forest establishment. Ecologically conscious forest policy on management, silviculture and reforestation planning requires the consideration of local hydrologic conditions, future climatic conditions, and also of non-forest alternatives of land use. Keywords: drylands, xeric limits, trailing limits, ecohydrology, climate forcing, land use change, forest policy

Mátyás, Csaba; Sun, Ge

2014-05-01

118

Effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils. PMID:17574997

Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin R; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B; Macdonald, Catriona A; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin

2007-08-01

119

Reforestation as a post-mining land use in the Midwest  

SciTech Connect

With the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), some very stringent requirements for the successful establishment of trees and shrubs have come into effect. In response to these requirements, AMAX Coal Company is developing a reforestation program for seven surface mines in Indiana and Illinois using the best technology currently available. The program emphasizes obtaining good quality stock, the proper care and handling of stock, the proper planting of the stock, and an effective weed control program. The value of weed control for the establishment and growth of hardwoods has long been recognized in the forest industry, but has not been used extensively in the reforestation of surface mined lands. The improved survival of tree seedlings with the use of weed control justifies the additional cost. Weed control also enhances the growth of tree seedlings. However, the long term growth of seedlings is questionable due to the compaction resulting from the extensive grading required to achieve approximate original contour. To minimize compaction, a forest area in Illinois is being minimally graded only to the extent necessary for environmental stability. Minimal grading is designed to reduce compaction which in turn will promote the development of a more productive forest resource.

Parr, D.E.

1982-12-01

120

Tropical Forest Ecosystem and Agroforestry Management (Forest TEAM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.

121

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

2011-01-01

122

Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America  

PubMed Central

Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

123

Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

124

Agroforestry systems for the production of woody biomass for energy transformation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the temperate zone, agroforestry systems come increasingly into focus as they offer an approach for the production of fuelwood, thus matching the increasing demand for a self-supply with bioenergy in rural decentralized areas. Because of the large area potential of marginal land, research activities aimed at a reliable estimation of the minimum productivity of fast–growing tree species under most

Holger Gruenewald; Barbara K. V. Brandt; B. Uwe Schneider; Oliver Bens; Gerald Kendzia; Reinhard F. Hüttl

2007-01-01

125

Agroforestry Programs and Issues in the Northern Marianas Anthony Paul Tudela2  

E-print Network

wood products, shelter, medicines, recreation and seasonal hunting, and food. Agroforestry also adds (Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands) plays a key role in the lives of the island people. It provides the government and some environ- mentally-oriented private groups are working to conserve the forests, soil

Standiford, Richard B.

126

Paper presented at IRRDB, 2006, Vietnam. Rubber based Agroforestry Systems (RAS) as Alternatives for Rubber Monoculture  

E-print Network

Paper presented at IRRDB, 2006, Vietnam. Rubber based Agroforestry Systems (RAS) as Alternatives for Rubber Monoculture System. Gede Wibawa Lembaga Riset Perkebunan Indonesia Jalan Salak 1A, Bogor Eric Penot CIRAD BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier, Cedex 1, France ABSTRACT Smallholder rubber plantations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment  

E-print Network

Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment K for correspondence: E-mail: klaus@bgumail.bgu.ac.il) Key words: Acacia saligna, complementarity, cowpea, intercropping, resource capture, sorghum Abstract. Water is the most limiting factor for plant production

Lehmann, Johannes

128

Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil; and eventually, this leads to high levels of soil organic matter content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and macrofaunal communities in soil and litte...

129

AGROFORESTRY: FNR 5335 (Section 7638)/ FOR 4854 (Section 6303); 3 Credits  

E-print Network

Instructor: P.K. Nair (Ph.D., Dr.Sc., and four honorary Doctor of Science degrees) 330 N-Z, 846-0880; pknair:20 AM); 222 N-Z Hall Purpose of Course: To familiarize the students with: 1. The concepts and principles of agricultural and forestry production systems. Emphasis will be on the use of agroforestry as an option

Watson, Craig A.

130

Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System is Improved with Intercropped Kura Clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys of agroforestry systems provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover, m...

131

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

132

Changing human-ecological relationships and drivers using the Quesungual agroforestry system in western Honduras  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual Agroforestry System (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The his...

133

Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

134

A common framework for GHG assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: connecting via GRACEnet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are technical and financial advantages for pursuing agroforestry-derived mitigation and adaptation services simultaneously, with a recognition that carbon (C) payments could assist in supporting the deployment of adaptation strategies (Motocha et al. (2012). However, we lack the repeated/repea...

135

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

136

Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

137

Part 2, Chapter 2 From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber agroforestry  

E-print Network

Part 2, Chapter 2 From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber agroforestry systems (jungle rubber) in Indonesia: a history of innovations processes. Penot E (2004). From shifting agriculture production, other farmers became aware of the possibility of growing rubber in a very extensive way

Boyer, Edmond

138

Inorganic and organic soil phosphorus and sulfur pools in an Amazonian multistrata agroforestry system  

E-print Network

long-term nutrient availability. Therefore, tree species with rapid above-ground nutrient cyclingInorganic and organic soil phosphorus and sulfur pools in an Amazonian multistrata agroforestry. Fertilizer applications increased the less accessible nutrient pools more than the plant available pools

Lehmann, Johannes

139

Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.  

PubMed

Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

140

MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN AND WOODLAND  

E-print Network

Chapter MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN Research (CSIC) Pinar 25, 28006, Madrid, Spain. e-mail: pcampos@ieg.csic.es; acaparros@ieg.csic.es 2 University Complutense, Madrid, Spain. E-mail: ecerdate@ccee.ucm.es 3 College of Natural Resources

Standiford, Richard B.

141

Coffee Yield and Microenvironmental Factors in a Native Tree Agroforestry System in Southeast Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Minas Gerais State, Brazil, some shade coffee production systems presented extremely low yield and have become economically unsustainable for family coffee farmers. In this study, coffee yield and microenvironmental factors in the agroforestry system were associated with tree species and the number of trees at different distances from the coffee shrubs. Forty coffee shrubs were marked, and concentric circles

Ricardo Santos; Luisa Rodrigues; Carlos Lima; Catalina Jaramillo-Botero

2012-01-01

142

Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?  

PubMed Central

Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha?1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha?1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2012-01-01

143

Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was obtained on Dystric Lithosol.

Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

2009-04-01

144

Reboisement des Terres Arides. (Reforestation in Arid Lands. Manual M5A). Appropriate Technologies for Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the French translation for a manual which presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad…

Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

145

Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal: Effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance hydrological conditions but heavy usage of reforested land in the region has been shown to hamper full recovery of soil hydraulic properties. This paper investigates the effect of reforestation and forest usage on field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivities (Kfs) near Dhulikhel, Central Nepal, by comparing degraded pasture, a footpath within the pasture, a 25 year old pine reforestation, and little disturbed natural forest. The hillslope hydrological implications of changes in Kfs with land-cover change were assessed via comparisons with measured rainfall intensities over different durations. High surface and near-surface Kfs in natural forest (82-232 mm h-1) rule out overland flow occurrence and favor vertical percolation. Conversely, corresponding Kfs for degraded pasture (18-39 mm h-1) and footpath (12-26 mm h-1) were conducive to overland flow generation during medium- to high-intensity storms and thus to local flash flooding. Pertinently, surface and near-surface Kfs in the heavily used pine forest remained similar to those for degraded pasture. Estimated monsoonal overland flow totals for degraded pasture, pine forest, and natural forest were 21.3%, 15.5%, and 2.5% of incident rainfall, respectively, reflecting the relative ranking of surface Kfs. Along with high water use by the pines, this lack of recovery of soil hydraulic properties under pine reforestation is shown to be a critical factor in the regionally observed decline in base flows following large-scale planting of pines and has important implications for regional forest management.

Ghimire, Chandra Prasad; Bonell, Mike; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.

2013-12-01

146

The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.  

PubMed

In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals. PMID:22834068

Moon, Manyong

2012-01-01

147

Forest Protection and Reforestation in Costa Rica: Evaluation of a Clean Development Mechanism Prototype.  

PubMed

/ Costa Rica has recently established a program that provides funds for reforestation and forest protection on private lands, partly through the sale of carbon certificates to industrialized countries. Countries purchasing these carbon offsets hope one day to receive credit against their own commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica has used the proceeds of the sale of carbon offsets to Norway to help finance this forest incentive program, called the Private Forestry Project, which pays thousands of participants to reforest or protect forest on their lands. The Private Forestry Project is accompanied by a monitoring program conducted by Costa Rican forest engineers that seeks to determine net carbon storage accomplished on these lands each year. The Private Forestry Project, which is officially registered as an Activity Implemented Jointly, is a possible model for bundled projects funded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also serves as an interesting example for the CDM because it was designed by a developing country host-not by an industrialized country investor. Accordingly, it reflects the particular "sustainable development" objectives of the host country or at least the host planners. Early experience in implementing the Private Forestry Project is evaluated in light of the main objectives of the CDM and its precursor-Activities Implemented Jointly. It is concluded that the project appears to meet the criteria of global cost-effectiveness and financing from non-ODA sources. The sustainable development implications of the project are specific to the region and would not necessarily match the ideals of all investing and developing countries. The project may be seen to achieve additional greenhouse gas abatement when compared against some (although not all) baselines. PMID:10977882

Subak

2000-09-01

148

Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

2006-01-01

149

Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.  

PubMed

Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes. PMID:19000007

Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

2008-12-01

150

GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

151

SPATIAL VARIATION OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON POOLS IN TEMPERATE ALLEY CROPPING PRACTICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public concerns over the environmental effects of global warming has stimulated an interest in land use practices, such as agroforestry, which may promote sequestration of soil organic carbon (C). The objective of this study was to examine the spatial variability of soil organic C pools in establis...

152

Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article focuses on the role and techniques of effective ("distributed") practice that leads to full and fluent mastery of mental mathematics as well as conceptual growth around properties of arithmetic. It lists the essential mental math skills needed for fluent computation at grades 1, 2, and 3. The article describes a number of strategies for developing mental skills and links to pages with more details on others (some not yet complete). While this article refers to the Think Math! curriculum published by EDC, the methods generalize to any program. The Fact of the Day technique and a related video are cataloged separately.

Paul Goldenberg

2011-10-25

153

Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

154

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

155

Initial impacts of forest tree based agroforestry system on soil properties of a degraded watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial impacts of Forest Tree Based Agroforestry System (FTAS) on the characteristics of soils of a degraded pasture land were studied using a two factor factorial experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design. Factor A was combination of tree species (Gmelina arborea and Swietenia macrophylla) and spacing (2×2, 2×3, and 2×4 m) while Factor B consisted of three sampling periods

Loretto U. de la Cruz; Marco A. Galang

2006-01-01

156

Incorporating livelihoods in biodiversity conservation: a case study of cacao agroforestry systems in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, various organizations have promoted cacao agroforestry systems as a tool for biodiversity conservation\\u000a in the Bribri-Cabécar indigenous territories of Talamanca, Costa Rica. Despite these efforts, cacao production is declining\\u000a and is being replaced by less diverse systems that have lower biodiversity value. Understanding the factors that influence\\u000a household land use is essential in order to

R. M. Dahlquist; M. P. Whelan; L. Winowiecki; B. Polidoro; S. Candela; C. A. Harvey; J. D. Wulfhorst; P. A. McDaniel; N. A. Bosque-Pérez

2007-01-01

157

Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value

J. A. McNeely

2004-01-01

158

Interactions among phosphorus, pH and Eh in reforested mangroves, Vietnam: a three-dimensional spatial analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment reduction is frequently proposed to increase available phosphorus (P) but several studies found also decreases. Another\\u000a important factor for P liberation is the pH. We investigated the relative importance of Eh and pH on P cycling in reforested\\u000a mangroves. Sediment P compounds, pH and Eh were analysed over depth along five transects of two areas in the Saigon River

Julian F. Oxmann; Luitgard Schwendenmann; Rubén J. Lara

2009-01-01

159

Shoot water relations and gas exchange of western hemlock and western red cedar seedlings during establishment on a reforestation site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot water relations, summer gas exchange response and morphological development of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) seedlings were monitored over the first growing season on a coastal reforestation site in British Columbia. In March, osmotic potential (?s) at saturation [?s(sat)] was -1.98 MPa and turgor loss point [?s(tlp)] -2.38 MPa for western

Steven C. Grossnickle

1993-01-01

160

Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

1981-01-01

161

Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

1997-01-01

162

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

163

Reforestation with native mixed-species plantings in a temperate continental climate effectively sequesters and stabilizes carbon within decades.  

PubMed

Reforestation has large potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. Native mixed-species plantings have a higher potential to reverse biodiversity loss than do plantations of production species, but there are few data on their capacity to store carbon. A chronosequence (5-45 years) of 36 native mixed-species plantings, paired with adjacent pastures, was measured to investigate changes to stocks among C pools following reforestation of agricultural land in the medium rainfall zone (400-800 mm yr(-1) ) of temperate Australia. These mixed-species plantings accumulated 3.09 ± 0.85 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) in aboveground biomass and 0.18 ± 0.05 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) in plant litter, reaching amounts comparable to those measured in remnant woodlands by 20 years and 36 years after reforestation respectively. Soil C was slower to increase, with increases seen only after 45 years, at which time stocks had not reached the amounts found in remnant woodlands. The amount of trees (tree density and basal area) was positively associated with the accumulation of carbon in aboveground biomass and litter. In contrast, changes to soil C were most strongly related to the productivity of the location (a forest productivity index and soil N content in the adjacent pasture). At 30 years, native mixed-species plantings had increased the stability of soil C stocks, with higher amounts of recalcitrant C and higher C : N ratios than their adjacent pastures. Reforestation with native mixed-species plantings did not significantly change the availability of macronutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S) or micronutrients (Fe, B, Mn, Zn, and Cu), content of plant toxins (Al, Si), acidity, or salinity (Na, electrical conductivity) in the soil. In this medium rainfall area, native mixed-species plantings provided comparable rates of C sequestration to local production species, with the probable additional benefit of providing better quality habitat for native biota. These results demonstrate that reforestation using native mixed-species plantings is an effective alternative for carbon sequestration to standard monocultures of production species in medium rainfall areas of temperate continental climates, where they can effectively store C, convert C into stable pools and provide greater benefits for biodiversity. PMID:25230693

Cunningham, Shaun C; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Mac Nally, Ralph; Paul, Keryn I; Baker, Patrick J; Beringer, Jason; Thomson, James R; Thompson, Ross M

2015-04-01

164

Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and aggregates with carbonate, clay, ferrous and/or manganese oxides) indicates a low potential reserve of plant nutrients. The clay mineralogy, with the presence of 2:1 minerals, explains the high CEC (60.95 cmolc dm-3). Moderately alkaline pH is above the desirable range. P (282 mg kg-1) is high, while N (0.3 g kg-1) is low. ESP < 4% classifies the waste as non-sodium and the EC (60.95 cmolc dm-3) reflects mainly the Ca. The low values of soil organic matter (3,56 g kg-1) indicate the relevance of using organic amendments for the reconstruction of the soil for plant growth. Based on these data a forestation experiment (randomized block design) was done on a large waste heap preserved for scientific research, where 500 tree seedling were planted (9 different species) in a plot of 134 m x 60 m in size.Two substrates treatments were used: block with 1.4 kg organic matter per plant hole and blocks without organic matter. The preliminary statistical data show good responses to the treatments. This constitutes a way to transform gypsum mining wastes into soil. Application of these technologies for environmental rehabilitation can be used in other problems.

Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

2012-04-01

165

Long-term patterns in tropical reforestation: plant community composition and aboveground biomass accumulation.  

PubMed

Primary tropical forests are renowned for their high biodiversity and carbon storage, and considerable research has documented both species and carbon losses with deforestation and agricultural land uses. Economic drivers are now leading to the abandonment of agricultural lands, and the area in secondary forests is increasing. We know little about how long it takes for these ecosystems to achieve the structural and compositional characteristics of primary forests. In this study, we examine changes in plant species composition and aboveground biomass during eight decades of tropical secondary succession in Puerto Rico, and compare these patterns with primary forests. Using a well-replicated chronosequence approach, we sampled primary forests and secondary forests established 10, 20, 30, 60, and 80 years ago on abandoned pastures. Tree species composition in all secondary forests was different from that of primary forests and could be divided into early (10-, 20-, and 30-year) vs. late (60- and 80-year) successional phases. The highest rates of aboveground biomass accumulation occurred in the first 20 years, with rates of C sequestration peaking at 6.7 +/- 0.5 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Reforestation of pastures resulted in an accumulation of 125 Mg C/ha in aboveground standing live biomass over 80 years. The 80 year-old secondary forests had greater biomass than the primary forests, due to the replacement of woody species by palms in the primary forests. Our results show that these new ecosystems have different species composition, but similar species richness, and significant potential for carbon sequestration, compared to remnant primary forests. PMID:17494400

Marín-Spiotta, E; Ostertag, R; Silver, W L

2007-04-01

166

Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation  

SciTech Connect

The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

Scherer, G.; Everett, R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Wenatchee, WA (United States). Forestry Science Lab.

1998-12-31

167

Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1979-01-01

168

Effects of Syn-Pandemic Reforestation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide From 1500 to 1700 A.D.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent analysis of paleoclimate proxies suggests that biomass burning by humans during the past eight millennia produced quantities of CO2 sufficient to counteract the effects of decreasing insolation driven by orbital variations and thus prevented ice sheet expansion. Correlation between periods of declining population and biomass burning, such as implied by the synchroneity of the American pandemics and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 16th-18th centuries, provides an important test of the extent to which pre-industrial anthropogenic activity affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget. Numerous studies have attributed the ~5 ppm decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration, as well as the synchronous ~0.1 per mil increase of the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 between 1500 and 1700 A.D., to the effects of Little Ice Age cooling. However, this interpretation is not supported by recent multiproxy-based surface temperature reconstructions, which demonstrate a diminutive global temperature anomaly of ~0.1 C that was unlikely to have independently produced the distinct effect observed in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Alternatively, it is possible that a decline in CO2 concentration driven by massive reforestation produced cooling as a by-product. The timing and magnitude of changes in both the concentration and carbon-isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 recorded by globally distributed climate proxies from the tropics (sponges), temperate latitudes (tree rings), and polar regions (ice cores) are compatible with fixation of >10 Gt C due to reforestation. Reforestation, which explains pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 variations between 1500 and 1700 A.D. in a manner more consistent with the global surface temperature record than explanations requiring substantial cooling, presumably occurred on lands that were cultivated and seasonally burned, then subsequently abandoned, by indigenous Americans who perished in pandemics during European conquest. The present proxy data point to reforestation in the wake of the American pandemic, with its consequent affects on atmospheric CO2, as unique in human history. These findings redefine the duration and extent of human activities affecting composition of the atmosphere during the past millennium. The anthropogenic influence on the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 since ~1800 A.D. is well documented by the exponential rise in concentration and simultaneous decline in ?13C of atmospheric CO2, but these recent trends represent dramatic reversals in the behavior of atmospheric CO2 concentration and ?13C prior to the Industrial Revolution between 1500 and 1700. During this time the concentration of atmospheric CO2 decreased and its ?13C increased due to land use changes resulting from pandemics that killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~50 million people).

Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

2005-12-01

169

Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

170

Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

171

POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

172

An agroforestry practice for the development of salt lands using Prosopis juliflora and Leptochloa fusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

High salt concentration in the soil is a serious problem in vast areas of otherwise productive agricultural lands in India. Establishment of salt tolerant vegetation could be an effective way of ameliorating this problem. In an 8-year field trial on an alkali soil, growth and biomass production ofProsopis juliflora was greater in sole stand than when interplanted with the grassLeptochloa

G. Singh

1995-01-01

173

Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics G. Schroth1, *, J. Lehmann2  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 909 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; 3 Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, C.P. 319, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil cycling, spatial and temporal patterns, sustainability, tree crops Abstract Multistrata agroforestry

Lehmann, Johannes

174

The potential of agroforestry to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a critical evaluation of agroforestry systems as regards their potential to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. The suggestion that trees would always and everywhere be profitable for the region will be counterproductive, the basis for disappointments and a waste of money. One has to consider carefully which properties of woody

J. J. Kessler; H. Breman

1991-01-01

175

Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate agroforestry systems: a review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable productivity.

Maren Oelbermann; R. Paul Voroney; A. M. Gordon

2004-01-01

176

Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate agroforestry systems: a review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO 2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable

Maren Oelbermanna; R. Paul Voroney; A. M. Gordon

2004-01-01

177

Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming systems in the Nyando district  

E-print Network

.) intercropped with food crops in an agroforestry system, Kopere, Kenya. Photo: Ida Lindell Keywords for food, fuel, timber, fibre and fresh water has increased in East Africa. Because of this, the high information about the situation on the farm during the previous year (2009). In addition, soil pits were dug

178

Effect of the natural reforestation of an arable land on the organic matter composition in soddy-podzolic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the organic matter composition in soddy-podzolic soils during the natural reforestation of an arable land in the southern taiga zone have been discussed. It has been shown that the contents of the total and labile carbon in the old plow horizon increase with the age of the fallow in the chronosequence of soils established in the Parfen'evo district of Kostroma oblast. The parameters characterizing the labile soil organic matter include the contents of the carbon extractable by mild chemical extractants (distilled water, 0.1 M K2SO4 solution, 0.1 M neutral Na4P2O7 solution), the microbial biomass, and the light fraction. The granulo-densimetric fractionation has shown that the contents of carbon in the light and organomineral fractions of the soil vary in the course of the postagrogenic succession. The content of the clay-fraction carbon increases and its portion in the total carbon of the soil decreases at the transition from the plowland to the forest. The reforestation of agrosoddy-podzolic soils enhances the physical protection of the soil organic matter due to the increase in the portion of microaggregate carbon.

Erokhova, A. A.; Makarov, M. I.; Morgun, E. G.; Ryzhova, I. M.

2014-11-01

179

Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R. [Univ. of Agricultural Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Farm Forestry

1992-12-31

180

[Transpiration of Choerospondias axillaris in agro-forestrial system and its affecting factors].  

PubMed

Measurement of transpiration is essential to assess plant water use efficiency. Applying Grainer method, this paper measured the sap flow of Choerospondias axillaries in an agro-forestrial system, aimed to evaluate the effects of intercropping and pruning on the diurnal variation of transpiration, and to relate the transpiration rate with climatic factors. The results showed that the diurnal variation of Choerospondias arillaries transpiration rate appeared in parabola, low in the morning and evening, and high at noon. The transpiration rate was closely related to leaf stomatal conductivity and soil water potential, especially the water potential in 100 cm soil depth (R = 0.737). The transpiration rate of Choerospondias axillaries was increased by about 40% approximately 160% in agro-forestrial system through the changes in regional environment and in the deep soil water use by tree. Correlation analysis and multi-factor successive regression analysis indicated that the transpiration was controlled by ray radiation intensity, air temperature and ground temperature, followed by the difference between saturated and actual vapor pressure and the wind speed. A statistical model for calculating the sap flow rate by micrometeorological factors was also provided. PMID:16471335

Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Huachun; Wang, Mingzhu

2005-11-01

181

ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

182

Examining the utility of advance regeneration for reforestation and timber production in unsalvaged stands killed by the mountain pine beetle: Controlling factors and management implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In unsalvaged stands killed by the mountain pine beetle, the release and growth of shade-tolerant ad- vance regeneration may provide an important reforestation pathway. Stands developing from advance regeneration may restock quickly and provide short- to mid-term harvest opportunities, but the vari- ability in release and growth responses among these stands will create numerous management chal- lenges. This paper reviews

Hardy Griesbauer; Scott Green

183

[Effects of reforestation on soil chemical properties and microbial communities in a severely degraded sub-tropical red soil region].  

PubMed

Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670

Gong, Xia; Niu, De-kui; Zhao, Xiao-rui; Lu, Sun-bao; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Wei, Xiao-hua; Guo, Xiao-min

2013-04-01

184

Tree Roots in Agroforestry: Evaluating Biomass and Distribution with Ground Penetrating Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The root systems of five tree species (Populus deltoides x nigra clone DN-177, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Picea abies, and Thuja occidentalis) are described following non-intrusive imaging using ground penetrating radar (GPR). This research aimed to 1) assess the utility of GPR for in situ root studies and 2) employ GPR to estimate tree root biomass and distribution in an agroforestry system in southern Ontario, Canada. The mean coarse root biomass estimated from GPR analysis was 54.1 +/- 8.7 kg tree-1 (+/- S.E.; n=12), within 1 % of the mean coarse root biomass measured from matched excavations. The vertical distribution of detected roots varied among species, with T. occidentalis and P. abies roots concentrated in the top 20 cm and J. nigra and Q. rubra roots distinctly deeper. I evaluate these root systems based on their C storage potential and complementary root stratification with adjacent crops.

Borden, Kira Alia

185

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

186

Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.

Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

1999-07-01

187

Coffee agroforestry systems in Central America: II. Development of a simple process-based model and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on coffee agroforestry systems in Central America has identified various environmental factors, management strategies\\u000a and plant characteristics that affect growth, yield and the impact of the systems on the environment. Much of this literature\\u000a is not quantitative, and it remains difficult to optimise growing area selection, shade tree use and management. To assist\\u000a in this optimisation we developed a

Marcel van Oijen; Jean Dauzat; Jean-Michel Harmand; Gerry Lawson; Philippe Vaast

2010-01-01

188

Agroforestry tree selection in central Chile: biological nitrogen fixation and early plant growth in six dryland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate, resource partitioning, and several biological traits related to biological N2 fixation for six native or non-native tree species were compared using 15N isotope dilution techniques. The trees were field grown for six years in a semiarid mediterranean-climate region with five to six months a year of absolute drought. Trees were tested as candidates for new agroforestry systems being

James Aronson; C. Ovalle; J. Avendaño; L. Longeri; A. Del Pozo

2002-01-01

189

Methods for estimation, measurement, monitoring and reporting of LULUCF activities under Articles 3.3 & 3.4 IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF 4.51  

E-print Network

.3 & 3.4 IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF 4.51 4.2.5 Afforestation and Reforestation This section ISSUES AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Under the definitions of the Marrakesh Accords, both afforestation is considered a forest management activity. The distinction between the two activities is that afforestation

190

Responses of native legume desert trees used for reforestation in the Sonoran Desert to plant growth-promoting microorganisms in screen house  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three slow-growing legume trees used for desert reforestation and urban gardening in the Sonoran Desert of Northwestern Mexico\\u000a and the Southwestern USA were evaluated whether their growth can be promoted by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria\\u000a (Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), unidentified arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (mainly Glomus sp.), and supplementation with common compost under regular screenhouse cultivation common to

Yoav Bashan; Bernardo Salazar; Ma. Esther Puente

2009-01-01

191

Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower slope is influenced by accumulation of pyroclastic material. Theses soils can be characterized through a closer C:N ratio, higher pH (5.7-6.2) values, and plant available phosphorus reach values of 23 mg/kg. The mineralogical analyses illustrated less weathered volcanic material here and in the investigated samples zeolithe, smectite and a higher amount of plagioclase could be found. Cristobalite und pyroxene could be detected in all samples and indicate the influence of volcanic activity. Smectite und zeolithe are reason for the higher CEC values of these soils. Erosion and intensive tropical weathering processes including solutional weathering of limestones decline production potential at higher altitudes. Agroforestry systems are the most adapted systems for sustainable plant production systems in this area. Phosphorus release of soil is strongly influenced by the geomorphology of this landscape. Limiting parameters of this production system is the amount and the distribution of precipitation. The impact of global change to this specific area of Nicaragua will lead to extreme values of local precipitation events and an increase in temperature. If these events continue important production areas for optimum coffee production in agroforestry systems in Central America will be lost. Acknowledgement: This project was financed through the Austrian APPEAR program (OEAD).

Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

2013-04-01

192

Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

2013-01-01

193

Reforestation Sites Show Similar and Nested AMF Communities to an Adjacent Pristine Forest in a Tropical Mountain Area of South Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

2013-01-01

194

Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine ( Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia ( Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of forest restoration.

Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

2008-07-01

195

[Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].  

PubMed

By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

2012-11-01

196

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

197

The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, João do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

2009-07-01

198

Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment. PMID:25004755

Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

2014-07-01

199

Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-12-01

200

Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed. PMID:21628247

Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-05-01

201

The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

2011-08-01

202

Depletion of Stem Water of Sclerocarya birrea Agroforestry Tree Precedes Start of Rainy Season in West African Sudanian Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding water use by agroforestry trees in dry-land ecosystems is essential for improving water management. Agroforestry trees are valued and promoted for many of their ecologic and economic benefits but are often criticized as competing for valuable water resources. In order to understand the seasonal patterns of source water used by agroforestry trees, samples from rain, ground, and surface water were collected weekly in the subcatchment of the Singou watershed that is part of the Volta Basin. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from and under a Sclerocarya birrea agroforstry trees located in this catchment in sealed vials, extracted, and analyzed with a Picarro L2130-i CRDS to obtain both ?O18 and ?DH fractions. Meteorological measurements were taken with a network of wireless, autonomous stations that communicate through the GSM network (Sensorscope) and two complete eddy-covariance energy balance stations, in addition to intense monitoring of sub-canopy solar radiation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil moisture. Examination of the time series of ?O18 concentrations confirm that values in soil and xylem water are coupled, both becoming enriched during the dry season and depleted during the rainy season. Xylem water ?O18 levels drops to groundwater ?O18 levels in early March when trees access groundwater for leafing out, however soil water does not reach this level until soil moisture increases in mid-June. The relationship between the ?DH and ?O18 concentrations of water extracted from soil and tree samples do not fall along the global meteoric water line. In order to explore whether this was a seasonally driven, we grouped samples into an "evaporated" group or a "meteoric" group based on the smaller residual to the respective lines. Although more soil samples were found along the m-line during the rainy season than tree samples or dry season soil samples, there was no significant difference in days since rain for any group This suggests that xylem water is always under stress from evapotranspiration and soil water underwent evaporation soon after a rain event. Visual observation of tree confirms conclusion that trees access deep ground water in March and April, before rain begins and before soil is connected to groundwater. Results from the research are being integrated into a local outreach project to improve use of agroforestry.

Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Parlange, Marc B.

2013-04-01

203

Conversion of secondary forest into agroforestry and monoculture plantations in Amazonia: consequences for biomass, litter and soil carbon stocks after 7 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large areas of primary forest in Amazonia have been cleared for cropping or pasture, thereby releasing carbon into the atmosphere. Part of this carbon is re-assimilated by secondary forest after the land has been abandoned. Agroforestry and tree crop plantations are options for the economic valorization of previously cleared land in the humid tropics; however, for evaluating the consequences of

Götz Schroth; Sammya Agra D’Angelo; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Daniel Haag; Reinhard Lieberei

2002-01-01

204

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

205

Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents

B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya

1995-01-01

206

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

207

Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

2012-12-01

208

Agroforests: an original agro-forestry model from smallholder farmers for environmental conservation and sustainable development pp. 52-58 in Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforests are defined as complex agroforestry systems which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems, but are integrated into agricultural management systems. Their conception, their management and their economic and environmental qualities, clearly differentiate them from better known \\

G. Michon; H. de Foresta

209

REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

210

The rain-runoff response of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation in the Western Ghats of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe effects of forest degradation and use and establishment of tree-plantations on degraded or modified forest ecosystems at multi-decadal time-scales using tree-plantations on the streamflow response are less studied in the humid tropics when compared to deforestation and forest conversion to agriculture. In the Western Ghats of India (Uttar Kannada, Karnataka State), a previous soil hydraulic conductivity survey linked with rain IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) had suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess overland within the degraded forest and reforested areas and thus potentially higher streamflow (Bonell et al., 2010). We further tested these predictions in Uttar Kannada by establishing experimental basins ranging from 7 to 23 ha across three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen Forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest (DF) and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. In total, 11 basins were instrumented (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF) in two geomorphological zones, i.e., Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad) and at three sites (one Coastal, two Up-Ghat). The rainfall-streamflow observations collected (at daily and also at a 36 min time resolutions in the Coastal basins) over a 2-3 year period (2003-2005) were analysed. In both the Coastal and Up-Ghat basins, the double mass curves showed during the rainy season a consistent trend in favour of more proportion of streamflow in the rank order DF > AC > NF. These double mass curves provide strong evidence that overland flow is progressively becomes a more dominant stormflow pathway. Across all sites, NF converted 28.4 ± 6.41stdev% of rainfall into total streamflow in comparison to 32.7 ± 6.97stdev% in AC and 45.3 ± 9.61stdev% in DF. Further support for the above trends emerges from the quickflow ratio QF/Q for the Coastal basins. There are much higher values for both the DF and AC land covers, and their rank order DF > AC > NF. The quickflow response ratio QF/P is also the highest for the DF basin, and along with the QF/Q ratio, can exceed 90%. The corresponding delayed flow response ratios, QD/P clearly show the largest QD yields as a proportion of event precipitation from the Forest (NF1). The application of linear model supported these differences (e.g. 10-36% difference between NF and DF, p < 0.001) in the storm hydrologic response of the Coastal basins. The exception was QF/P where there was a higher uncertainty connected with inter-basin mean differences. Cross-correlation plots for rain-streamflow and corresponding lag regression models for three storm events in the Coastal basins suggested the existence of alternative stormflow pathways with multiple lags with peaks between ˜12 and 24 h in NF, compared to respective bimodal peaks at ˜1 and 16 h in AC and ˜1 and 12 h in DF. The long time lags for NF are suggestive of deep subsurface stormflow and groundwater as the contributing sources to the storm hydrograph. The short time lags in DF and AC are indicative of overland flow and so 'memory' of the previous degraded land cover is retained in AC as supported by previous hydraulic conductivity data. As potential and actual evapotranspiration is likely to be depressed during the monsoon, differences in streamflow and run-off responses between land-cover types is largely attributed to differences in soil infiltration and hydrologic pathways. Enhancing infiltration and reducing run-off in managed ecosystems should be explored in the terms of the context of other ecosystem services and biodiversity.

Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas; Rakesh, K. N.

2012-11-01

211

Effects of Syn-pandemic Fire Reduction and Reforestation in the Tropical Americas on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During European Conquest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reconstruction of the Late Holocene biomass burning history of the tropical Americas is consistent with expanding fire use by Mesoamerican and Amazonian agriculturalists from 2000-500 BP and a subsequent period of fire reduction due to indigenous demographic collapse. Our reconstruction synthesizes published data from 50 charcoal accumulation records obtained from stratified lacustrine sediments and from soils, including soil charcoal records recovered from archeological sites. Synthesis of stratigraphic charcoal records yields indexes of the mean rate of regional charcoal accumulation and of variability in charcoal accumulation among sites during 500-year increments since 3500 BP. The age distribution of dated soil charcoal particles from non-archeological sites provides an independent measure of variation in regional charcoal accumulation; whereas age distribution of soil charcoal dates from archeological sites records variation in charcoal accumulation related to anthropogenic biomass burning. We observe that the charcoal accumulation indexes derived from stratigraphic records begin to increase at 2000 BP, remain high until 500 BP, and then decline to near-minimum values during the 500-year period subsequent to European contact. Similarly, the age distributions of soil charcoal dated from both non-archeological and archeological sites indicate increases in charcoal accumulation from 2000 to 500 BP followed by decline. An index of the inter- site variability in charcoal accumulation obtained from the stratigraphic records attains a maximum during the time period between 1000 and 500 BP and a near-minimum value afterward. We interpret the covariation between measures of charcoal accumulation derived from archeological and non-archeological sites as a consequence of the expansive influence of anthropogenic activity on the regional fire regime. Increases in regional charcoal accumulation apparent in both the stratigraphic and soil charcoal records beginning at 2000 BP correlate with expanding indigenous population, agriculture, and fire use in the tropical Americas. The rise in inter-site variability in charcoal accumulation after 2000 BP is consistent with a demographic shift toward sedentary agrarian communities and localized increases in charcoal accumulation in densely populated centers. Declines in regional charcoal accumulation and inter-site variability after 500 BP suggest a correlative cause related to reduction in anthropogenic biomass burning resulting from pandemic-driven population collapse. Published reconstructions of Pre-Columbian demography indicate that during European conquest, pandemics killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~60 million), estimated to represent ~20% of the 16th century global population. Our predictive calculations suggest that fire reduction in the tropical Americas is associated with massive forest regeneration on ~5 x 105 km2 of land and sequestration of 5-10 Gt C into the terrestrial biosphere, which can account for 13- 50% of the ~2% global reduction in atmospheric CO2 levels and the 0.1‰ increase in ?13C of atmospheric CO2 from 1500 to 1700 CE recorded in Antarctic ice cores and tropical sponges. New archeological discoveries revealing extensive networks of geoglyphs and urban polities in Pre-Columbian Amazonia suggest that our estimates of reforestation, and consequent effects on atmospheric CO2, may be conservative.

Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

2008-12-01

212

Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.  

PubMed

Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929

Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

2014-01-01

213

Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2010-04-01

214

Evaluating the potential of reforestation as a mitigative measure for greenhouse gas induced global warming using an energy balance global climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of global warming due to the human addition of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere has been the subject of considerable attention and research in the last two decades. The principal GHG of concern related to human influence is carbon dioxide (CO2). Emissions of this gas have grown rapidly since the industrial revolution in response to the energy and agricultural demands of an increasing world population. Concern exists that the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs may rise sufficiently high so as to impose dangerous interference with the climate system. Numerous methods and measures for the sequestration and avoidance of GHGs have been proposed with the object of decreasing the growth and ultimately stabilizing atmospheric GHG concentrations. The purpose of this work is to examine the effectiveness of one such measure-that of the feasibiltiy of large-scale reforestation/afforestation efforts to mitigate projected global warming. An energy balance global climate model was selected to conduct this work. The model is based on previous work of Pease (1987) in the Annals of the AAG, (77), 450-461, which has been expanded to include dimensions of time and space. The assumed reforestation/afforestation activities are based on a World Resources Institute study by Trexler and Haugen (1995) entitled Keeping it Green Tropical Forest Opportunities for Mitigating Climate Change. The forestry activities are assumed to take place in the tropics where a year-round growing season, plentiful rainfall, and relatively low land development costs should provide the most economically favorable conditions for instituting such a program. The climate model simulations examine the effect of carbon absorption and sequestration in isolation, and then in a subsequent step, examine the combined effect of carbon absorption/sequestration and albedo changes attendant with increased forest cover. Results of the modeling show only small temperature benefits (an approximate 0.1 degree C cooling) associated with implementation of this large-scale reforestation program versus a CO2 doubling case with no forestry programs. Of the approximate 0.1 degree C temperature change, the largest effect was due to CO2 sequestration with the surface albedo effect being negligible (less than 0.01 degree C).

Starheim, Fred John

215

Effect of five tree crops and a cover crop in multi-strata agroforestry at two fertilization levels on soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal patterns of soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in a multi-strata agroforestry system with perennial\\u000a crops were analysed as indicators for the effects of crop species and management measures on soil conditions under permanent\\u000a agriculture in central Amazonia. The study was carried out in a plantation with locally important tree crop species and a\\u000a leguminous cover crop at

Götz Schroth; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Rosangela Seixas; Luciana Ferreira da Silva; Michaela Schaller; Jeferson L. V. Macêdo; Wolfgang Zech

2000-01-01

216

Climate change and tree genetic resource management: maintaining and enhancing the productivity and value of smallholder tropical agroforestry landscapes. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems\\u000a upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the\\u000a current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder\\u000a setting. Required measures to respond to

Ian K. Dawson; Barbara Vinceti; John C. Weber; Henry Neufeldt; Joanne Russell; Ard G. Lengkeek; Antoine Kalinganire; Roeland Kindt; Jens-Peter B. Lillesø; Jim Roshetko; Ramni Jamnadass

2011-01-01

217

Yield-SAFE: A parameter-sparse, process-based dynamic model for predicting resource capture, growth, and production in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) is the cultivation of trees and arable crops on the same parcel of land. SAF may contribute to modern diversified land use objectives in Europe, such as enhanced biodiversity and productivity, reduced leaching of nitrogen, protection against flooding and erosion, and attractiveness of the landscape. Long-term yield predictions are needed to assess long-term economic profitability of SAF.2.A

Wopke van der Werf; Karel Keesman; Paul Burgess; Anil Graves; David Pilbeam; L. D. Incoll; Klaas Metselaar; Martina Mayus; Roel Stappers; Herman van Keulen; João Palma; Christian Dupraz

2007-01-01

218

Phosphorus monthly losses at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate (NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus levels in runoff waters help to estimate the possible contamination associated with them and to know the existence of eutrophication conditions. The amounts of P transported from catchments depended on the hydrology, on soil P contents, and on the amount of P added as fertilizer and manure. The aim of this study was to monthly losses of total P (TP), sedimentary P (TSP), and dissolved P (TDP) at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate. This research was conducted at Valiñas River catchment in Coruña (NW Spain), a periurban area of 36.3 km2. Land use is as follows: 35% arable land, 20% grassland or pastures and 45% forest. This study reported data from January 1999 to September 2006. The total sample number was 872, varying from 53 in 1999 and 193 in 2003. Sampling time variability was related to rainfall distribution. The different P forms, TP and TDP, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The TSP was calculated from the difference between TP and TDP. To calculate the mass balance of these P forms, discharge data at the catchment outlet were estimated. Suspended solids were assessed by filtration. Relations between the three P forms and suspended solids were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concentrations of the three studied P forms varied widely during the whole study period. Total P yearly losses ranged from 0.350 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 to 1.199 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. From January to September 2006 they were 0.259 kg ha-1 month-1. TSP losses varied between 0.201 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 and 0.7315 kg ha-1 month-1 in 1999. Finally, TDP losses oscillated between 0.140 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2005 and 0.508 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. The main causes for these variations were rainfall and flow regimes, soil management, and wastewater discharges. Considering the different seasons, flow regime was low from July to September during the studied years, whereas the highest flows were registered in the period from January to March or from October to December, depending on the year. This fact is coincident with the highest rainfall records. Consequently, TP losses were higher during January to March and October to December than during the rest of the year. The period from July to September presented the lowest losses. TSP levels were always greater than those of TDP except in the period from July to September. Significant correlations between suspended solids and TP and TSP were observed throughout the whole study period. This fact indicates the erosive origin of the P exported to this catchment. A significant correlation between TDP and suspended solids was observed only in 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2005. These correlations would indicate that TDP concentrations in this catchment have different origins, not only erosion but wastewater discharges and manure applications. Rainfall was significantly correlated to TP and TSP along the studied period, whereas rainfall and TDP were significantly correlated only in some years, as the relation between flow and the different phosphorus forms. These results may indicate the influence on the season on the phosphorus concentrations although, due to the characteristics of the studied catchment, several origins are possible. For instance, runoff and erosion would increase TSP losses and manure application may increase TDP.

Sande-Fouz, Patricia; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

2010-05-01

219

Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land degradation remain.

Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

2014-09-01

220

FOREST MANAGEMENT AND AGROFORESTRY TO SEQUESTER AND CONSERVE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...

221

The impact of reforestation on discharge and sediment fluxes in drylands: long-term evidences from the Western Rift Valley Escarpment (Northern Ethiopia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation and land degradation have been common problems in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, including for the Western Rift Valley Escarpment. In particular, the rapid deforestation of the steep catchments (average slope gradient of 44% ± 10%) in the second half of 20th century, together with rainfall variability and over-cultivation, resulted in the development of dense gully and scar networks. Subsequently, huge amounts sediment were taken to the densely populated graben bottoms. In response, extensive reforestation interventions were carried out as of the 1980s, resulting in improvements of vegetation cover in many catchments. This study analyses the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover and rainfall variability and their impact on discharge and sediment transport in escarpment catchments. Degree of rehabilitation was examined in 20 adjacent catchments by correlating the density of scar networks incised down to the bed rock with Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and slope gradient. Based on these results, 11 contrasting catchments were selected for detailed investigation. To study the current spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and its relation with daily peak discharge, 7 rain gauges were installed at different locations and altitudes. Trendlines of decadal rainfall variability since 1996 will be established based on the analysis of NOAA's rainfall estimates, and long-term rainfall variability will be explored by correlating the field data to long-term rainfall measurements in nearby synoptic stations. The changes in land use and cover will be detected from aerial photos of the 1935, 1965 and 1986. Peak discharges were monitored using 11 crest stage gauges. Fixed boulders were painted in stream reaches to quantify the transport of bedload. This was done by photographing the stream reaches and by measuring the displacement of painted boulders after flood events. In a multiple regression analysis, scar density was negatively related with NDVI and positively with average gradient of very steep slopes (r2 = 0.53; p<0.01, n= 20). Data for the rainy season of 2012 showed no relationship between rainfall distribution and altitude. Average daily peak discharge in the 11 rivers was positively related with daily rainfall depth as well as with catchment size and negatively with NDVI (r2 = 0.83; p<0.01, n=11). Further analysis of the data will allow better understanding of past degradation phases and the impact of land use/cover changes and rainfall variability on the rehabilitation of mountain streams. Keywords: peak discharge; crest stage gauge; boulders; bed load; reforestation.

Asfaha, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

2014-05-01

222

[Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes. PMID:19086397

Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

2007-01-01

223

The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

2014-04-01

224

Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

2014-08-01

225

Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth  

PubMed Central

For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

2015-01-01

226

Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.  

PubMed

For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

2015-01-01

227

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

228

Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

229

Fuelwood, agro-forestry, and natural resource management: the development significance of land tenure and other resource management/utilization systems  

SciTech Connect

Using a systems approach and focusing on the social context, the study examines natural resource management in relation to fuelwood production and agroforestry. An initial section describing the use and interlinkage of the concepts of ecozone and ecosystem is followed by a discussion of problem ecozones, human use of ecozones, agricultural ecosystems, resource competition, uses of trees and forest products, and tree planting. Rural resource management strategies at the household, community, local, and state levels are discussed in the context of political economy, land tenure and rights, tenancy and sharecropping, group or public landholding, and acquisition and transfer of land.

Brokensha, D.; Castro, A.P.; Kundu, M.; Hewlett, B.

1984-04-01

230

36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230...Reforestation; (3) FLEP3—Forest Stand Improvement; (4) FLEP4—Agroforestry...Improvement; (7) FLEP7—Forest Health and Protection;...

2011-07-01

231

36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230...Reforestation; (3) FLEP3—Forest Stand Improvement; (4) FLEP4—Agroforestry...Improvement; (7) FLEP7—Forest Health and Protection;...

2012-07-01

232

36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230...Reforestation; (3) FLEP3—Forest Stand Improvement; (4) FLEP4—Agroforestry...Improvement; (7) FLEP7—Forest Health and Protection;...

2013-07-01

233

36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230...Reforestation; (3) FLEP3—Forest Stand Improvement; (4) FLEP4—Agroforestry...Improvement; (7) FLEP7—Forest Health and Protection;...

2014-07-01

234

36 CFR 230.44 - Cost-share assistance-reporting requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development; (2) FLEP2—Afforestation and Reforestation; (3) FLEP3—Forest Stand Improvement; (4) FLEP4—Agroforestry Implementation; (5) FLEP5—Water Quality Improvement and Watershed Protection; (6) FLEP6—Fish and Wildlife...

2010-07-01

235

Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

236

Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2009-12-01

237

Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

2014-05-01

238

Ensemble Composition and Activity Levels of Insectivorous Bats in Response to Management Intensification in Coffee Agroforestry Systems  

PubMed Central

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-01

239

The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

2014-01-01

240

Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-01

241

Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945

Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

2009-01-15

242

The groundwater recharge response and hydrologic services of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation: Support for the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off hypothesis”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic effects of forest use and reforestation of degraded lands in the humid tropics has implications for local and regional hydrologic services but such issues have been relatively less studied when compared to the impacts of forest conversion. In particular, the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off” hypothesis which predicts a net gain or loss to baseflow and dry-season flow under both, forest degradation or reforestation depending on conditions has not been tested adequately. In the Western Ghats of India, we examined the hydrologic responses and groundwater recharge and hydrologic services linked with three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest(DF), and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. Instrumented catchments ranging from 7 to 23 ha representing these three land-covers (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF, in total 11 basins), were established and maintained between 2003 and 2005 at three sites in two geomorphological zones, Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad). Four larger (1-2 km2) catchments downstream of the head-water catchments in the Malnaad with varying proportions of different land-cover and providing irrigation water for areca-nut and paddy rice were also measured for post-monsoon baseflow. Daily hydrological and climate data was available at all the sites. In addition, 36 min data was available at the Coastal site for 41 days as part of the opening phase of the summer monsoon, June-July 2005. Low potential and actual evapotranspiration rates during the monsoon that are similar across all land-cover ensures that the main control on the extent of groundwater recharge during the south-west monsoon is the proportion of rainfall that is converted into quick flow rather than differences in evapotranspiration between the different land cover types. The Flow duration curves demonstrated a higher frequency and longer duration of low flows under NF when compared to the other more disturbed land covers in both the Coastal and Malnaad basins. Groundwater recharge estimated using water balance during the wet-season in the Coastal basins under NF, AC and DF was estimated to be 50%, 46% and 35% respectively and in the Malnaad it was 61%, 55% and 36% respectively. Soil Water Infiltration and Movement (SWIM) based recharge estimates also support the pattern (46% in NF; 39% in AC and 14% in DF). Furey-Gupta filter based estimates associated with the Coastal basins also suggest similar groundwater recharge values and trends across the respective land-covers: 69% in NF, 49% in AC, and 42% in DF. Soil water potential profiles using zero flux plane methods suggest that during the dry-season, natural forests depend on deep soil moisture and groundwater. Catchments with higher proportion of forest cover upstream were observed to sustain flow longer into the dry-season. These hydrologic responses provide some support towards the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off” hypothesis in which differences in infiltration between land-cover rather than evapotranspiration determines the differences in groundwater recharge, low flows and dry-season flow. Groundwater recharge is the most temporally stable under natural forest, although substantial recharge occurs under all three ecosystems, which helps to sustain dry-season flow downstream in higher order streams that sustain local communities and agro-ecosystems. In addition to spatial scale effects, greater attention also needs to be given to the role of hydrogeology within the context of the above hypothesis and its implications for hydrologic services.

Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Rakesh, K. N.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas

2013-08-01

243

Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface and subsurface soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed, natural broadleaved forest; (ii) a 25-year-old, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to mainly reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broadleaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 mm year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

2014-12-01

244

Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

245

Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the ?13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

2012-04-01

246

The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

2012-04-01

247

Soil infiltration characteristics in agroforestry systems and their relationships with the temporal distribution of rainfall on the loess plateau in china.  

PubMed

Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

2015-01-01

248

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

249

The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (<15 cm) tillage. - Introducing cover crops in cropping systems: sown between two cash crops on arable farms, in orchards and vineyards (permanent or temporary cover cropping) . - Expanding agroforestry systems; planting of tree lines in cultivated fields and grasslands, and hedges around the field edges. - Increasing the life time of temporary sown grasslands: increase of life time to 5 years. The recent literature was reviewed in order to determine long term (>20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when associated with vineyards. Hedges (i.e 60 m ha-1) stored 0.15 (0.05-0.26) Mg C ha-1 y-1. Very few estimates were available for temperate agroforestry system, and we proposed a value of 1.01 (0.11-1.36) Mg C ha-1 y-1for C stored in soil and in the tree biomass for systems comprising 30-50 trees ha-1. Increasing the life time of temporary sown grassland increased C stocls by 0.11 (0.07-0.22) Mg C ha-1 y-1. In general, practices with increased C inputs to soil through additional plant biomass (agroforestry, hedges and cover crops) resulted in higher additional C storage rates, while the reduction of soil organic matter mineralisation through reduced tillage seemed less effective. When applied to the French agricultural sector, excluding areas with soils with major technical constraints or negative environmental consequences (e.g. poorly aerated soils with high N2O emissions), the measures considered here allowed to increase French soil C stocks by 0 to more than 1 Tg C y-1. However, our estimates are associated with high uncertainties, due to the high variability in soil C storage associated with pedo-climatic conditions and cropping systems, and on the very few studies available for some practices such as agroforestry under temperate conditions.

Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

2014-05-01

250

C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

2011-07-01

251

C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS. PMID:21387100

Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

2011-07-01

252

Theorizing Practice and Practicing Theory  

E-print Network

his paper describes the emerging field of practice theory as it is practiced in relation to organizational phenomena. We identify three approaches—empirical, theoretical, and philosophical—that relate to the what, the how, ...

Feldman, Martha S.

253

Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21751010

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-08-01

254

Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21359868

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-05-01

255

Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

2010-12-01

256

Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-05-01

257

Erratum: Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-08-01

258

Changing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue contains nine articles all on the subject of "changing practice," i.e., innovative practices of rural English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Byte-ing into Medieval Literature" (John Fyler) describes an online conference on medieval literature for rural high school students. "Literacy in Cattle Country" (Dan…

Benson, Chris, Ed.

1999-01-01

259

Silvopastoral practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazing of forested ecosystems has been practiced in North America since the beginning of recorded time. There has been increased interest in developing sustainable grazing practices for such ecosystems in recent years. Existing research data were summarized in the first edition of the book “North A...

260

Practical Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded over 40 years ago by an economist, Practical Action's aim is to help impoverished people "use technology to challenge poverty", to gain "access to technical options and knowledge", and "influence the social, economic and institutional systems for innovation and use of technology." The "Downloads" tab has a link to "Practical Answers" that cover almost two dozen themes and lets users browse the extensive library, submit technical questions to expert, and it also provides users with a section entitled "Share" which documents peoples' experience with Practical Action. Visitors will also find the "Featured Articles" section of the Downloads useful and full of such practical information as "Build Your Own Tippy Tap", for hand washing after toileting and a "Solar Voltaic System Design Info Sheet" that covers electrical design issues. Back on the homepage, visitors will find links to their social networking, e-newsletter, and the latest from their series of blogs.

261

Multiplication Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice Your Multiplication Skills! Watch These Fun Multiplication Videos *Need a review? Watch the Multiplication is Repeated Addition Video Four Legged Zoo I ve Got 6 Ready or Not Here I Come (5s) Twelve Toes Elementary My Dear 2s Figure 8 Lucky 7s Video My Hero Zero Naughty Number 9 Practice your multiplication skills with these fun games: Multiplication Facts Become the king of multiplication with Castle Quest Dish up some ice cream with Crazy Cone Multiplication. Earn disco moves to make a dinosaur dance with Disco Dino. Design your own granny and make her race in a ...

Miss Lerdahl

2010-02-23

262

Best Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Front-page articles in science and education periodicals and journals give voice to the growing concern that scores on nationwide science exams have either declined or, at best, have had a minute increase even after several years of pushing for better science learning. With this reality facing science education, being knowledgeable about some best practices in science instruction is important.

C. Jill Swango

2003-01-01

263

The Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consulting for a moment such luminaries as Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. King, Cesar Chavez--I would say that personal revelation is not less necessary to radical change than public revolution. Amen? "Backing Away From The Product" really has to be both a spiritual practice and a public embarrassment so extreme that its witnesses won't stop talking about it…

Billy, Reverend

2008-01-01

264

Practicing Evidence-Based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public education in the United States has a history of local control in the development of curriculum and instruction. Although\\u000a notable court decisions have led to more universal applications of educational policy and practices (Brown v. Board of Education\\u000a 1954, Oberti v. Clementon 1993), it has been federal law that has resulted in significant changes in instruction. The Individuals\\u000a with

Ruth Blennerhassett Eren; Pamela Owen Brucker

265

Good Practice case studies Interpreted practical  

E-print Network

Good Practice case studies Interpreted practical conservation Sherwood Forest District 1. Protected wellbeing. It is hoped 1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 #12;Good Practice case studies 2 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 the group

266

76 FR 9534 - Development of Technical Guidelines and Scientific Methods for Quantifying GHG Emissions and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...technologies, liming, water management, cover crops, agroforestry, wetland restoration, residue removal and alternatives...restoration, fertilization, and species selection. 2.3.3 Agroforestry practices and technologies to increase carbon...

2011-02-18

267

Angle Practice!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How well do you know your angles? Check out these games and put your knowledge to the test! They will stump you if you don't pay close attention to the different angles they give you! Alien Angles! - Use the protractor to guess where the alien has flown away to. If you pick the right spot, you can save all the aliens! Squirt the Dog! Angle practice - Move the hose using different measures of angles to try and squirt the dog. To what degree? - Think you're ready to challenge yourself? Check out ...

Ms. Hume

2012-11-02

268

Club practice  

PubMed Central

There were many forms of club or contract practice in the nineteenth century, but the friendly societies were the most important. A brief history of the friendly societies is given. As they grew in numbers and importance so did the dissatisfaction of the doctors who worked with them. Discontent among the doctors led at the end of the century to a battle between the medical profession and the clubs. The issues which divided the clubs and the doctors were clearly defined but, although the battle was protracted, the doctors did not win or manage to change the system of medical provision for the poor. The club system was ended by Lloyd George when he introduced his National Insurance Act, 1911. PMID:7050375

Bloor, D. U.

1982-01-01

269

REFORESTATION TECHNIQUES IN COGONGRASS-INFESTED AREAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cogongrass is a nonnative grass that is rapidly invading the gulf coast states, with projected spread into the interior of the Southeastern U.S. Cogongrass is particularly damaging to forested land as it decreases biodiversity and wildlife habitat, hinders plantation establishment, creates a wildfi...

270

Reforestation efforts reshape Hawaii's soil hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting with the arrival in Hawaii of Polynesian settlers in the fourth century and peaking in the mid-1800s, the destructive forces of wildfires and pests and the grazing of feral pigs, goats, and cattle reduced the native forests of Maui to just one tenth of their original extent. Maui's native vegetation was replaced largely by imported or invasive species. Over time, the invasive grasses that took root reshaped the hydrological properties of the soil, reducing the viability of native plant species, which had evolved to thrive under Hawaii's previous hydrological dynamics. Maui's ecosystem had been changed for so long that scientists were uncertain whether the region could actually again support the native flora

Schultz, Colin

2012-04-01

271

Practice Education: Teaching Instrumentalists to Practice Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To practice effectively, one must first know how to practice. The practice process is affected by one's ability to set goals, design strategies, self-assess, and to have an aural image of the music being learned. The author proposes a model reflecting the factors involved in practice and proposes a number of strategies that can be used to…

Oare, Steve

2011-01-01

272

Practical Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nuffield Foundation was created in 1943 by William Morris, the founder of Morris Motors. He wanted to contribute to improvements in society, primarily the "advancement of social well-being." According to the site, he "emphasised the importance of education, training and research in achieving that goal." This website, created by the Foundation, is a logical extension of his work, containing practical activities designed for use in the classroom with students in high school and college. The activities here are arranged into a dozen topics, including Astronomy, Atoms and nuclei, and Physics applications. The activities here include "Hearing a laser beam," "What's the frequency?," and 75 others that use video clips, interactive graphics, and other visual materials to make these concepts and principles come alive. The Forces and Motion area is one of the best, as it is host to activities that really delve into the concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration. Visitors can also use the search engine to look for specific items of interest.

2012-08-17

273

Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

Oblé Neya

2006-01-01

274

Theory into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of putting theory into practice can be addressed and advocated to educators and gifted students through the presentation of a Continuum of Practice. Articulating the sequence and phases of practice can underscore how practice can take place; it also can change the perspective and meaning of practice.

Kaplan, Sandra N.

2012-01-01

275

Faculty Practice Plan Faculty Practice Proposal  

E-print Network

and practice: Community Service: _____ Community Based _____ Improve Access to Care _____ Critical Service) ___________________________________________________________________________ _ Brief description of proposed practice: The Healthcare Network is a group of clinics that provide healthcare to patients in the greater New Orleans area. It also serves as the faculty practice site

276

Impact of land use practices on faunal abundance, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of desert pedoecosystem.  

PubMed

Increased dependence of resource-poor rural communities on soils of low inherent fertility are the major problem of desert agroecosystem. Agrisilviculture practices may help to conserve the soil biota for maintaining essential soil properties and processes in harsh climate. Therefore, the impacts of different land use systems on faunal density, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of soil were studied in agrisilviculture system of Indian desert. The selected fields had trees (Zizyphus mauritiana, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica) and crops (Cuminum cyminum, Brassica nigra, Triticum aestivum) in different combinations. Populations of Acari, Myriapoda, Coleoptera, Collembola, other soil arthropods and total soil fauna showed significant changes with respect to different land use practices and tree species, indicating a strong relation between above and below ground biodiversity. The Coleoptera exhibited greatest association with all agrisilviculture fields. The Z. mauritiana system indicated highest facilitative effects (RTE value) on all groups of soil fauna. Soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were greater under tree than that of tree plus cropping system. It showed accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen in tree field and more utilization by crops in cultivated lands. Positive and significant correlation among organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity clearly reflects increase in soil nutrients with the increase in microbial and other biotic activity. P. cineraria field was the best pedoecosystem, while C. cyminum was the best winter crop for cultivation in desert agroforestry system for soil biological health and soil sustainability. The increase in organic carbon, soil nutrients and microbial activity is associated with the increase in soil faunal population which reflect role of soil fauna in fertility building. This suggests that strategies may be developed for nurturing fertility-building soil fauna and managing degraded pedoecosystem in desert just by adopting suitable agricultural practices. PMID:16335596

Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

2005-11-01

277

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

2010-12-01

278

Professional Learning through Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practice article explores the relationship between practice and professional learning. Are these two distinctly separate activities, competing for the time of a staff member, or are practice and learning linked? If so, what is the nature of this link and how can we best align professional learning with practice outcomes? Using an example from…

Ford, Jill

2006-01-01

279

BIOSPECIMEN BEST PRACTICES FORUM  

Cancer.gov

BIOSPECIMEN BEST BIOSPECIMEN BEST PRACTICES FORUM PRACTICES FORUM Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Best Practices Best Practices June 18, 2007 June 18, 2007 Karen Smith Thiel, Ph.D., J.D. Karen Smith Thiel,

280

A Paradigm for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of consensus on a paradigm for practice inhibits the cumulative development of practical knowledge and skills. It also encourages devolution of these and other paradigm functions by default to the established paradigm in the policy movement, reductionism, which includes positive methodology. But reductionism is insufficient for practice. It tends to displace practical aims and expectations, and discount and delegitimize

Ronald D. Brunner

2006-01-01

281

Practice States and Capitals!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year we are learning the states and capitals of the United States. The best way to learn them is to practice, practice, practice! Use the following links to review and practice the states and capitals of the United States. Although you may prefer one website over another, try them all to see what they have to offer and to test your knowledge. Enjoy! Geospy USA State Capitals Quiz Sheppard Software States and Capitals Practice ...

Mr. Hoffman

2007-09-06

282

Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western andes of Colombia.  

PubMed

We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. PMID:25065287

Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

2014-10-01

283

www.ForestConnect.com Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation Northeastern Tree Planting & Reforestation  

E-print Network

Area State and Private Forestry NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Design and formatting............................................................................... 33 Chapter 5 ­ Obtaining seedling trees, wild transplants, and tree seeds ......... 35 Chapter 6 or tree enthusiast, you might have thought your homework days ended earlier in your life. But if you

Keinan, Alon

284

Representing Practice: Practice Models, Patterns, Bundles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critiques learning design as a representation for sharing and developing practice, based on synthesis of three projects. Starting with the findings of the Mod4L Models of Practice project, it argues that the technical origins of learning design, and the consequent focus on structure and sequence, limit its usefulness for sharing…

Falconer, Isobel; Finlay, Janet; Fincher, Sally

2011-01-01

285

Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

Quennerstedt, Mikael

2013-01-01

286

Practice Safer Sex  

MedlinePLUS

... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...

287

Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices submitted in the 2012 Training Top 125 application. Best practices: (1) Edward Jones: Practice Makes Perfect (sales training); (2) Grant Thornton LLP: Senior Manager Development Program (SMDP); (3) MetLife, Inc.: Top Advisor…

Training, 2012

2012-01-01

288

CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE  

E-print Network

public, patient groups and individuals must have confidence that the security and confidentialityREPORT TOWARDS CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE Use of patient records from general practice for research June 2009 #12;June 2009 1 TOWARDS CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE: Use of patient records from general

Rambaut, Andrew

289

CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE  

E-print Network

within patient records may be both sensitive and private, so security and confidentiality mustBRIEFING TOWARDS CONSENSUS FOR BEST PRACTICE Use of patient records from general practice Use of patient records from general practice for research Introduction Research is a core part

Rambaut, Andrew

290

Reflecting Reflective Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

Galea, Simone

2012-01-01

291

Best Environmental Management Practices  

E-print Network

Best Environmental Management Practices Farm Animal Production Comprehensive Nutrient Management What is a CNMP? A Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP) is a total planning tool that details's production practices, as well as the equipment and structure(s) used. It combines conservation practices

292

Contemporary Direct Practice Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model of direct social work practice including four categories of roles. Provides results of survey of schools of social work (N=40) and an examination of actual practice in one state which indicated that important roles are not taught to all direct practice students. Discusses need for research on the nondirect client intervention roles.…

Lister, Larry

1987-01-01

293

Nutrition Education and Practices Among Practicing Chiropractors  

E-print Network

.? Most chiropractors using nutrition in their practices base their findings and recommendations on a combination of patient history and clinical symptoms. Even though a large percentage of chiropractors use nutritional services in their practices... was defined as ?a regimen designed to provide for the patient?s continued well-being or for maintaining the optimum state of heath while minimizing recurrences of the clinical status.? (9,10) Initial speculation that chiropractors treat people only through...

Werner, Donna

2008-04-29

294

Practice management companies improve practices' financial position.  

PubMed

To maintain control over healthcare delivery and financial decisions, as well as increase access to capital markets, some group practices are forming their own physician practice management companies. These companies should be organized to balance the expectations of physicians with the values of capital markets. This organization should include retained earnings, financial reporting in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), predictable earnings and cash flow, physician ownership and leadership, and incentives for high-quality management. Three large, primary care and multispecialty clinics that merged to form a new physician practice management company increased their access to capital markets and improved their overall financial position, which will help them achieve long-term survival. PMID:10174772

Dupell, T

1997-11-01

295

Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?  

PubMed

Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

2010-09-01

296

Critically Reflective Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four perspectives that shape critically reflective practice: (1) one's autobiography as a learner; (2) learners' eyes; (3) colleagues' experiences; and (4) theoretical literature. Presents a critical incidents questionnaire, a structured way to reflect on and examine core assumptions in practice. (SK)

Brookfield, Stephen

1998-01-01

297

When Policy Joins Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy influences practice. Policy has the capacity to strengthen practice by demanding accountability for both process and results through clear expectations as well as deliberate sanctions for failure to meet those expectations. Policies can also provide resources to meet expectations. In this article, the authors discuss how several national…

Killion, Joellen; Davin, Linda

2009-01-01

298

Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…

Training, 2011

2011-01-01

299

Evaluation as Practical Hermeneutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges the view that the 'general logic' or 'logic of evaluation' is foundational for understanding what it means to do 'good' evaluation. It attempts to show that the general logic is indexed to the modernist paradigm of reason and that evaluation practice can be alternatively indexed to the discourse of practical hermeneutics. The paper aims to advance our

Thomas A. Schwandt

1997-01-01

300

Assessment That Informs Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is more than simply ascribing an 'A' or a 'B' to a particular student achievement. In an era of state-mandated proficiencies and alternative assessment strategies, educators need practical ideas they can use to meaningfully assess their students' learning and their own practice. This issue of "ENC Focus" centers on the topic of inquiry…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

2000-01-01

301

PDP: a practice perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALL new veterinary graduates in the UK are now required to keep a formal record of their progress towards achieving the clinical skills and procedures expected of someone who has worked in practice for about a year (so-called Year 1 competencies). This is the basis of the RCVS's professional development phase, or PDP, as discussed in a recent In Practice

Jill Hubbard

2007-01-01

302

Hypothyroidism in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease that was seen in the clinical practice especially for family physicians. Methods: This review article covered the important practical clinical issues for managing overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Conclusions: The clinical issues were addressed by clinical scenario followed by questions and stressed on the important clinical points. PMID:25161963

Qari, Faiza

2014-01-01

303

Toward practicing privacy  

PubMed Central

Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice. PMID:23243088

Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

2013-01-01

304

Best Practices in Intergenerational  

E-print Network

and communicating experiences. Facilitators document and communicate experiences to build on in future activitiesBest Practices in Intergenerational Programming: Practice 11 Document and communicate experiences are collected to demonstrate the relationship-building process of old and young together. Facilitators may post

Liskiewicz, Maciej

305

Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

Hildebrand, Gaell M.

306

Reflective Learning in Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

307

WETLAND SCIENCE AND PRACTICE  

E-print Network

International Law 27 ColoradoFloodingBringsFloodofAttentiontoVitalRegulatory PermittingProgram 31 ApplyWETLAND SCIENCE AND PRACTICE VOL. 30, NO. 4 December, 2013 Canada geese over Millbrook MarshNowforaSWSStudentResearchGrant Section 3 - Editors Choice 31 FromtheBog -Page2- WETLAND SCIENCE AND PRACTICE Vol. 30, No. 4 December 2013

Pasternack, Gregory B.

308

Wisconsin Community of Practice on Transition Practice Group on Health  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Community of Practice on Transition Practice Group on Health A Training Guide in Three The Wisconsin Community of Practice on Transition, Practice Group on Health And many thanks to Ben Schlicht Community of Practice on Transition is comprised of a statewide group of key stakeholders who join together

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

309

Transforming group practice governance.  

PubMed

Disruptions in the governance of a group practice can throw the organization into turmoil or paralyze its direction. Three case studies demonstrate how dysfunctional medical groups got back on track. PMID:15906813

Bohlmann, Robert C; Collins, Hobart; Hansen, Richard D

2005-04-01

310

Practical knowledge and abilities  

E-print Network

The thesis is an exploration of the relations between know-how, abilities, and ordinary knowledge of facts. It is shown that there is a distinctively practical sort of know-how and a corresponding interpretation of 'S knows ...

Glick, Ephraim N

2009-01-01

311

Practical Database Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter illustrates how the concepts and algorithms described earlier in this book can be used to build practical database\\u000a replication systems. This is achieved first by addressing architectural challenges on how required functionality is provided\\u000a by generally available software componentes and then how different components can be efficiently integrated. A second set\\u000a of practical challenges arises from experience on

José Pereira; Luís Rodrigues; Nuno Carvalho; Rui Carlos Oliveira

2010-01-01

312

Ten practice redesign approaches.  

PubMed

As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches. PMID:24228375

Slayton, Val

2013-01-01

313

Practicing like Thomas Edison.  

PubMed

For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices. PMID:23866659

Baum, Neil; Ornstein, Hal

2013-01-01

314

NCI Best Practices  

Cancer.gov

As part of the commitment to maintaining current and scientifically accurate best practices, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sought public comment on a revised version of the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources from July 28, 2010 to Sept. 21, 2010. Comments received during the public comment period were taken into consideration and edited into the final version which can be found below or here.

315

Teaching Engineering Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.

Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

2014-03-01

316

Emancipatory physiotherapy practice.  

PubMed

In physiotherapy, as with many other health-care practices, therapeutic interventions, based on scientific knowledge, may be at odds with patient experiences. Patients may understand what they need to do to improve their health condition, but feel that these requirements may be emotionally, socially, or culturally incompatible with their lifestyles, social behavior, or personal choices. To work in the best interest of their patients, physiotherapists need to engage with the tensions that exist between scientific reason and social reality to offer a meaningful and relevant service for their patients. The challenge for physiotherapists is to arrive at decisions and interventions together with their patients that enhance, for example, mobility, social function, and well-being. To achieve this, physiotherapists need to rethink their professional role and translate their technical knowledge and goals into the patient's 'lifeworld', and patients--for their part--need to engage with physiotherapy professional knowledge. Often, the most commonly used strategy for facilitating this reciprocal engagement is open dialogue between patients and therapists. Habermas, a prominent contemporary philosopher and critical theorist, has developed a communicative theory that may support physiotherapists in their efforts to arrive at more sustainable and shared decisions with their patients. In this paper, I examine what constitutes physiotherapists' practice knowledge and how Habermas's theory of knowledge, interest, and communication strengthens shared decision-making and can be used as a vehicle toward emancipatory practice. Drawing on data generated in an action research project, I examine how Habermas's ideas can be applied in emancipatory physiotherapy practice. The paper concludes that emancipatory practice is meaningful because it creates opportunities for reflection, evaluation, and choice for future physiotherapy practice. PMID:22765217

Trede, Franziska

2012-08-01

317

Safe Handling Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

1980-01-01

318

Good Practice Minotaur mountain trail  

E-print Network

Good Practice Minotaur mountain trail Coed y Brenin 1. Protected Characteristic category Age to the project to make it as inclusive as possible. For example: 1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 #12;Good Practice case studies 2 | Good practice case studies | Equality

319

Guided Metacognition in Instrumental Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ensemble directors have a special interest in helping students learn to practice effectively. Practice is also an essential component of musical development. Music educators need to both teach effective practice strategies and guide students toward meaningful, thoughtful practice. Metacognition strategies are one way to accomplish this. Current…

Hart, John T., Jr.

2014-01-01

320

Arthropod diversity in alley cropped black walnut ( Juglans nigra L.) stands in eastern Missouri, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the complex interactions among trees, crops and their associated fauna is necessary to determine the viability of a particular agroforestry practice. Information is lacking concerning these interactions, particularly in temperate agroforestry practices. We examined the effects of two forages on the growth, nut production, and arthropod communities of alley cropped eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra L. Experimental plots

W. Terrell Stamps; Terryl W. Woods; Marc J. Linit; Harold E. Garrett

2002-01-01

321

Practical Static Ownership Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many proposals for ownership type systems de- signed to control aliasing in object-oriented programs. Most systems re- quire signicant annotation eort and therefore it may be dicult to adopt these systems in software practice. Ownership inference has received less attention, while it is an impor- tant problem because it could ease the annotation eort and facilitate application of

Ana Milanova; Yin Liu

322

Practicing Science, Living Faith  

E-print Network

Practicing Science, Living Faith Columbia Series in Science and Religion #12;THE COLUMBIA SERIES IN SCIENCE AND RELIGION The Columbia Series in Science and Religion is sponsored by the Center for the Study of Science and Religion (CSSR) at Columbia University. It is a forum for the examination of issues that lie

Pollack, Robert

323

Best Environmental Management Practices  

E-print Network

are odor and flies. These are followed by spills on the road, run-off containing manure leaving the farm neighbors who may then be more sensitive to infractions of good farming practices. Manure spills, as well people can be toxic. Another concern is contamination by pathogens from manure. Unless manure is back

324

NCI Best Practices  

Cancer.gov

This informational publication issued by the NCI OBBR is designed to increase awareness and understanding among advocates and the interested public of the importance and role of biospecimens in cancer research. It outlines the need for and purpose of best practices for biospecimen resources.

325

Caring as Classroom Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When planning for the new school year, K-2 teachers might consider the benefits of creating a caring classroom. Caring has the potential to not only encourage thoughtful social studies practice, but to also enhance it. The best K-2 teachers also recognize the importance of caring in the development of responsible citizens. Such teachers plan and…

Johnson, Chrystal S.; Thomas, Adrian T.

2009-01-01

326

CURSIVE TIPS AND PRACTICE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Produce legible documents with cursive handwriting. . DATES: You can begin this activity on February 26. You should complete it by March 2. OBJECTIVE: We have learned how to write every lowercase and uppercase cursive letter. This activity is a chance to practice what you have learned. You will see an animation that ...

Mr. Hughes

2006-02-28

327

Education as Moral Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that interest in moral education has focused largely on the teaching of morality. Argues that failure to address education as a moral practice is damaging. Notes that programs of moral, personal, and social education are isolated from the moral context in which they make sense. (CAJ)

Pring, Richard

2001-01-01

328

Collecting Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices

Tedford, Jennifer

2008-01-01

329

Practical usability evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to eost- effeetive, low-skill, low-investement methods of usability assessment. The methods include (1) Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud protocols), (2) Program Instrumentation, and (3) Questionnaires and Checklists (including interviews and heuristic evaluation), The tutorial features many step-by- step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.

Gary Perlman

1994-01-01

330

Points and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of three articles represents the "Points and Practices" section of this month's issue of "Research in Drama Education." The first article, "'Fitting the Bill' for 'Helping Them.' A Response to 'Integrated Popular Theatre Approach in Africa' and 'Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in Pakistan,'" by Syed Jamil Ahmed,…

Ahmed, Syed Jamil; Heddon, Dee; Mackey, Sally

2007-01-01

331

Translating and Practice  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Population Health Service Fellowship 11 Community Engagement 12 Evidence Based Practice 13, Publications, Programs 17 Capitol Briefings by the Evidence-Based Health Policy Project 18 Publications 18 Rankings and Roadmaps, the Evidence Based Health Policy Project, and the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership

Sheridan, Jennifer

332

Veterinary practice marketeer.  

PubMed

Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. PMID:25614552

Phillips, Justin

2015-01-24

333

Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

MacKinnon, Mary Pat

2008-01-01

334

Practical SPI Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a practical procedure named P4SPI for planning, monitoring and closing an SPI. Planning activities are performed using PMBOK's process areas as a reference; monitoring activities using Six Sigma tools and techniques and closing activities using gathering qualitative and quantitative information about the SPI Implementation. These activities are supported by office templates.

Landaeta, José Francisco; García, Javier; Amescua, Antonio

335

Practicing Participatory Action Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of several core theoretical and practical aspects of participatory action research (PAR). An effort is made to define PAR and the types of work that fall under that rubric. Historical underpinnings, roles of the individuals involved, contexts, methods, and the challenges and benefits of this mode of inquiry are discussed. The authors argue that the

Sean A. Kidd; Michael J. Kral

2005-01-01

336

Coherent Career Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherent career practice is conceptualized as an integrated reciprocal system involving 4 core elements: (1) career literacy; (2) career gumption; (3) career context; and (4) career integrity. It also accounts for "career integration", or the process by which these elements are assembled and reassembled. The source of client difficulties may…

Magnusson, Kris; Redekopp, Dave

2011-01-01

337

Putting Politics into Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinctive feature of feminist therapy is its insistence on bringing power into discussions of therapy and mental health. Using the framework of discourse analysis, we ask how feminist therapists talk about power. What linguistic resources do they employ to construct accounts of power in therapy? Drawing on interviews with three experienced feminist therapists, we trace how their language practices

Jeanne Marecek; Diane Kravetz

1998-01-01

338

Small Business Pedagogic Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

2003-01-01

339

Creativity in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For anyone who has wondered about how creativity looks in practice, this article offers a picture of how creativity can be a powerful force in the classroom. The author provides three examples illustrating some alternatives that he has developed that work with pupils and teachers in many countries all over the world. The magic bucket activity…

Persson, Hans

2009-01-01

340

Water industry best practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the practices that make leading organizations efficient and at the same time able to provide high-quality services can identify enormous potential for improvement. The Sydney Water Board (SWB) has embraced a program for change based on a study of \\

Neville Green; Roger Patrick

1994-01-01

341

LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

342

No Penalties for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and administrators at Health Sciences High and Middle College in San Diego, California, wanted to create a grading system that reflected understanding while still encouraging students to practice. They developed course competencies, or performance assessments, that teachers use to measure what students know and can do with the concepts…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Pumpian, Ian

2011-01-01

343

PRACTICE OF Daily ETAPS  

E-print Network

The Newsletter of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2005 Number 5 mathematical approach for modeling computa- tional structures that emphasizes a combinato- rial perspective owner modified or added to it. Arthur's Seat Directly to the east of the Old Town is Holyrood Park

Fiore, Marcelo

344

Put Theory into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice

Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.

2013-01-01

345

The Practice of Solitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is only one practice of solitude: to make a choice and carry it out well. The particulars assemble around this simple principle. One may later regret the choice; one may end up reversing or abandoning it. The choice may consist of doing nothing or refraining from a decision until the time is right. But no matter what it entails, one must…

Senechal, Diana

2012-01-01

346

Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

Schaars, Marvin A.

347

Practice of Clinical Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinical supervision remained grounded in empirical inquiry as late as Morris Cogan's writings on the subject in 1973. With the acknowledgment of Thomas Kuhn's (1962) paradigm shift, educational theory and practice developed interpretive methodologies. An interpretive reflection on Cogan's rationale offers insights into the current, matured…

Holland, Patricia E.

1988-01-01

348

Poets in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the need to engage students and teachers in active poetry writing. The authors document a process of learning how to practice poetry--one that is equally effective for teacher professional development, teacher self-study, preservice teacher education, and classroom implementation. By actually writing poetry individually,…

Parr, Michelann; Campbell, Terry

2006-01-01

349

Soccer field Practice cricket  

E-print Network

Soccer field Basketball court Tennis court Practice cricket pitch Buchanan Park Key to car parking Teaching and Learning Space. A2 Building 903 Ground floor Computer Lab G63. A3 Facilities and Services and laundry. A3 Sporting facilities Basketball courts. A4 Beach volleyball court. A3 Soccer field. B2 #12;

Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

350

Practical Planning Systems Applications  

E-print Network

1 Practical Planning Systems #12;2 Applications · Space Craft ­ assembly ­ integration · Hierarchical Plans · Complex Conditions ­ Time ­ Resources ­ Constraints · Replanning #12;4 Hierarchical Decomposition · High level plans ­ [Go(Supermarket), Buy(Milk), Buy(Bananas), Go(Home)] ­ Easier to compute

Hawick, Ken

351

Turning Ideas into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

Adams, Caralee

2011-01-01

352

Sentence-Combining Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sample sentence-combining lessons developed to accompany the first-year A-LM German textbook are presented. The exercises are designed for language manipulation practice; they involve breaking down more complex sentences into simpler sentences and the subsequent recombination into complex sentences. All language skills, and particularly writing,…

Akin, Judy O'Neal

1978-01-01

353

Cultural practices updates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

354

Troubling Practices: Short Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

2012-01-01

355

Ethics in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

Medlin, E. Lander

2010-01-01

356

Sulfamethazine transport in agroforestry and cropland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of veterinary antibiotic transport and persistence is critical to understanding environmental risks associated with these potential contaminants. To understand mobility of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sorption processes involved during SMZ transport in soil, column leaching experiments were p...

357

Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving  

E-print Network

of labour and income, gender roles and gender power relations have not been properly addressed. Therefore the land uses change affects the lives of farm women and men, their gender roles and the gender power share and distribution of income, gender role of women and men, and the household gender power

358

How experts practice: a novel test of deliberate practice theory.  

PubMed

Performance improvement is thought to occur through engagement in deliberate practice. Deliberate practice is predicted to be challenging, effortful, and not inherently enjoyable. Expert and intermediate level Gaelic football players executed two types of kicks during an acquisition phase and pre-, post-, and retention tests. During acquisition, participants self-selected how they practiced and rated the characteristics of deliberate practice for effort and enjoyment. The expert group predominantly practiced the skill they were weaker at and improved its performance across pre-, post- and retention tests. Participants in the expert group also rated their practice as more effortful and less enjoyable compared to those in the intermediate group. In contrast, participants in the intermediate group predominantly practiced the skill they were stronger at and improved their performance from pretest to posttest but not on the retention test. Findings provide support for deliberate practice theory and give some insight into how experts practice and improve their performance beyond its current level. PMID:24001022

Coughlan, Edward K; Williams, A Mark; McRobert, Allistair P; Ford, Paul R

2014-03-01

359

Controversial practices in allergy.  

PubMed

The clinical practice of modern allergy has a sound foundation in a scientific understanding of the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity disorders. However, several practices continue to be regarded as controversial. Controlled studies have failed to establish the effectiveness of intracutaneous or low-level modified radioallergosorbent titration as a guide to immunotherapy. In addition, controlled studies do not support the clinical usefulness of provocative subcutaneous or sublingual testing procedures of the leukocytotoxicity assay for the diagnosis of food allergy. Food additives have not been clearly shown to influence hyperkinesis, and autogenous urine immunotherapy is without supporting evidence of effectiveness and is potentially harmful. Since allergic diseases are common and the economic impact of medical care for these patients is great, it is important for physicians to understand the basis for these procedures and to advise patients accordingly. PMID:7043014

Grieco, M H

1982-06-11

360

Managing a solo practice.  

PubMed

Our health care system has been facing significant changes over the past 20 years with the introduction of health maintenance organizations plus the seismic changes associated with the introduction of the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act and accountable care organizations. Lower reimbursements by health plans and the need for significant infrastructure investments in information technology such as electronic medical records have also put major financial and organizational strains on solo practices. Although it is unknown how these changes will have an impact on reproductive endocrinologists, consolidation and mergers seem to be on the rise in anticipation of the coming tsunami. Many solo physicians have cherished the freedom and opportunity of small practices, but it appears that the delivery system of the future will be dramatically different. PMID:23609152

Sharara, Fady I

2013-05-01

361

Communities of Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although being essentially a descriptive social theory, the communities of practice (CoP) idea has been frequently employed\\u000a to guide instructional design, in particular the design of online learning communities. The chapter sets out by relating CoP\\u000a as developed by Lave and Wenger (1991) to socio-cultural theories of learning. I then critically inspect the notion of an\\u000a online community, noting that

P. Reimann

362

Quotation Mark Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How well do you know your punctuation? Here is your chance to practice quotation marks in a fun and exciting way. Basic Quotation Mark Rules: Basic Quotation Mark Rules Quotation Mark Video: Quotation Marks? Huh? :) Go to this website to see a video about how to quotation marks. Punctuation Campground: Punctuation Campground: Have fun preparing your campground by correcting the sentences given to you. There will be multiple mistakes per sentence. Ms. Donaldson's Wiki Page: Ms. Donaldson s Wiki Page ...

Ms. Donaldson

2009-09-12

363

Practice with Similarity Proofs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this worksheet of eight questions, students practice their knowledge of similarity proofs. In the first four questions, students determine which postulate or theorem works to prove triangle similarity - AA, SAS, or SSS. In the last four questions, students are asked to work through the proof of various problems. The answers are embedded in the page, and this is a helpful resource for students to work with similarity proofs.

Donna Roberts

2000-01-01

364

Best practice wound care.  

PubMed

This article describes the barriers, changes and achievements related to implementing one element of a wound care programme being best practice care. With the absence of a coordinated approach to wound care, clinical practice within our Area Health Service (AHS) was diverse, inconsistent and sometimes outdated. This was costly and harmful, leading to overuse of unhelpful care, underuse of effective care and errors in execution. The major aim was to improve the outcomes and quality of life for patients with wound care problems within our community. A collaborative across ten sites/services developed, implemented and evaluated policies and guidelines based on evidence-based bundles of care. Key barriers were local resistance and lack of experience in implementing structural and cultural changes. This was addressed by appointing a wound care programme manager, commissioning of a strategic oversight committee and local wound care committees. The techniques of spread and adoption were used, with early adopters making changes observable and allowing local adaption of guidelines, where appropriate. Deployment and improvement results varied across the sites, ranging from activity but no changes in practice to modest improvement in practice. Evaluating implementation of the leg ulcer guideline as an exemplar, it was demonstrated that there was a statistically significant improvement in overall compliance from 26% to 84%. However, only 7·7% of patients received all interventions to which they were entitled. Compliance with the eight individual interventions of the bundle ranged from 26% to 84%. Generic performance was evaluated against the wound assessment, treatment and evaluation plan with an average compliance of 70%. Early results identified that 20% of wounds were healed within the target of 10 days. As more standardised process are implemented, clinical outcomes should continue to improve and costs decrease. PMID:21272244

O'Brien, Melissa L; Lawton, Joanna E; Conn, Chris R; Ganley, Helen E

2011-04-01

365

Training environment in General Practice and preparedness for practice   

E-print Network

This thesis explores the way General Practice trainees and early career General Practitioners describe their training environment in General Practice, the meaning they attach to the notion of preparedness and their ...

Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Ogilvie, Sharon Wiener

2014-07-04

366

Designing practice activities.  

PubMed

When selecting or devising practice activities on basic information for students, teachers should consider these guidelines: 1. Prevent memory overload by introducing new information cumulatively. 2. Build retention with delayed review and discriminated practice. 3. Reduce interference effects by separating confusing elements from one another over time. 4. Emphasize relationships between components of an algorithm and the algorithm itself, between familiar and new information, and between items and their location, if relevant. 5. Reduce processing demands by introducing components before the algorithm or strategy itself and by introducing easier information first. 6. Require quicker responses to foster automaticity. As noted in the introduction to this essay, these six guidelines have not been investigated across all topics or across all populations. Further research is needed. In the meantime, the guidelines serve as an initial response to Pellegrino and Goldman's (1987) question about the form practice should take for students with learning disabilities. The guidelines could be applied to a wide range of content for which automaticity is an ultimate goal--letter-sound correspondences, word reading, numeral identification, math facts, word meanings, geography facts, and so forth. PMID:2592862

Carnine, D

1989-12-01

367

Butterick's Practical Typography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While simple in its presentation, Butterickâ??s Practical Typography is perhaps the most clear and useful resource for understanding text as its own art form. Simply stated, typography is the visual component of the written word and this site is a wonderful tool for those who work with words on an everyday basis. It offers helpful reminders and even teaches those who may have never heard of the field before. We appreciate the straightforward prose, the option of a condensed 10-minute version, easy site navigation, and the numerous sample documents that put theory into practice.This website begins with an introductory statement that will ring true to most folks: "If you work with information and ideas, then writing plays a central role in your professional life." Butterick's Practical Typography offers up sage and thoughtful advice about how typography can be used to enhance and illuminate good prose. Visitors who might be pressed for time can look over the "Typography in Ten Minutes" area to get a sense of some bedrock principles introduced in the work. For those with more time, the complete work is also available here, along with a Summary of Key Rules and the all-important Why Typography Matters area. Visitors shouldn't miss the Sample Documents area which contains sample formatting suggestions and more for research papers, letterheads, resumes, and websites.

Butterick, Matthew

368

Best Practice No 174  

PubMed Central

Although most routine microbiology diagnostic laboratories process specimens for the diagnosis of parasitic infections, there are no best practice guidelines either for processing or for referral to specialist centres. Microscopy for parasites is most often requested on faecal samples, but urine, sputum, liver aspirates, duodenal aspirates, bile, corneal scrapings, contact lens fluid, and tissue are also encountered. Diagnosis of certain parasitic infections requires serology or polymerase chain reaction. These are undertaken in specialist laboratories, which should be consulted for expert advice on diagnosis and management of parasitic infections. Clinical Pathology Accreditation UK (CPA) has defined standards for assessing the quality of service provided by laboratories, but these do not include scientific and technical aspects. The Association of Medical Microbiologists has recently published Standards for laboratory practice in medical microbiology, which covers scientific and technical aspects, mainly bacteriological examination of specimens in routine diagnostic microbiology laboratories. These guidelines are complementary to the CPA standards and aim to ensure a consistent and high quality of service. This article provides best practice guidelines for the diagnosis of parasitic infections. PMID:14645344

Francis, J; Barrett, S P; Chiodini, P L

2003-01-01

369

Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

2010-01-01

370

HEALTH POLICY AND SYSTEMS Nurses' Practice Environments, Error Interception Practices,  

E-print Network

was positively associated with error interception practices among nurses in the sample of medical-surgical units. Importantly, nurses' interception practices were inversely associated with medication error rates. Conclusions environments, nurses employ practices that can assist in interrupting medication errors before they reach

Xie, Minge

371

Sintering Theory and Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal process all around us--in manufactured objects from metals, ceramics, polymers, and many compounds. From a vast professional literature, Sintering Theory and Practice emerges as the only comprehensive, systematic, and self-contained volume on the subject. Covering all aspects of sintering as a processing topic, including materials, processes, theories, and the overall state of the art, the book Offers numerous examples, illustrations, and tables that detail actual processing cycles, and that stress existing knowledge in the field Uses the specifics of various consolidation cycles to illustrate the basics Leads the reader from the fundamentals to advanced topics, without getting bogged down in various mathematical disputes over treatments and measurements Supports the discussion with critically selected references from thousands of sources Examines the sintering behavior of a wide variety of engineered materials--metals, alloys, oxide ceramics, composites, carbides, intermetallics, glasses, and polymers Guides the reader through the sintering processes for several important industrial materials and demonstrates how to control these processes effectively and improve present techniques Provides a helpful reference for specific information on materials, processing problems, and concepts For practitioners and researchers in ceramics, powder metallurgy, and other areas, and for students and faculty in materials science and engineering, this book provides the know-how and understanding crucial to many industrial operations, offers many ideas for further research, and suggests future applications of this important technology. This book offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore sintering in both practical and theoretical terms, whether at the lab or in real-world applications, and to acquire a broad, yet thorough, understanding of this important technology.

German, Randall M.

1996-01-01

372

Buddhists’ Religious and Health Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web survey of Buddhists’ religious practices and beliefs, and health history and practices was conducted with 886 Buddhist\\u000a respondents. Eighty-two percent were residents of the USA. Ninety-nine percent practiced Buddhist meditation and 70% had attended\\u000a a formal retreat for intensive meditation practice. Eighty-six percent were converts to Buddhism and had been a Buddhist for\\u000a a median of 9 years.

W. H. Wiist; B. M. Sullivan; D. M. St. George; H. A. Wayment

373

Consolidation guidelines for physician practices.  

PubMed

The trend of acquiring and consolidating physician practices is expected to continue for some time. The growth of physician practice management companies (PPMCs) has created accounting and financial reporting issues for these new physician organizations. The type of management arrangement ultimately affects the decision of whether or not to consolidate practices. In analyzing consolidation opportunities, PPMCs should consider the terms of the management agreement, which determine who controls the practice, and the advantages and disadvantages of consolidation. PMID:10177404

Bigalke, J T; Garbrecht, G H; McBee, D

1998-03-01

374

Todo K-2 Math Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app provides students in grades K-2 with practice counting, writing numerals, addition and subtraction. The user can select the grade level and adjust the time of practice; the app then generates a selection of activities from the base six activities of the app. At the end of the practice the app asks for feedback on the level of difficulty in order to make adjustments for the next practice session.

LocoMotive Labs, Inc

2013-08-15

375

Status of Reforested Mine Sites in Southwestern Indiana  

E-print Network

and Natural Resources Executive Summary The Need Current Indiana coal mine reclamation regulations require of all tallied trees and shrubs. Both black locust and green ash are still widely planted in reclamation of Reclamation's (INDOR) recommendation to reduce the amount of black locust in tree plantings has reduced

376

Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

. Virola kochnyi 13. Vochysia ferruginea 14. Pithecellobium elegans 15. Si marouba amara 16. Zanthoxylum mayanum 17 . Albi zi a guachapel e 18. Calophyl lum brasi li ense 19. Inga coruscans 20. Cordi a alii odora 21. Goethalsia meiantha 22...

Toness, Anna Sutherland

1993-01-01

377

Expanding options for reforestation of the Cumberland Plateau  

SciTech Connect

Stems of d.b.h. 4 inches or greater in a low quality stand in Tennessee dominated by white and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) were sheared in September-November 1976, chipped, and removed. Sawtimber quality trees (30) in the 37-acre area were felled separately by conventional methods. Residual trees (2-3 inches d.b.h., ht. over 4.5 ft) in some areas were injected with herbicide. One-acre plots were planted with 1+0 loblolly pine, 2+0 white pine (Pinus strobus), or 1+0 yellow poplar, or left to regenerate naturally. After 2 years, survival of all trees was good (83% or over) and average height of loblolly pine, yellow poplar and desirable natural stems (white, scarlet or black oak, Quercus velutina) was 3.3 ft, significantly different from that of white pine (1.5 ft). It is concluded that poor quality stands can be cheaply improved by this method, although release from competing vegetation may be necessary, especially in the case of white pine.

McGee, C.E.

1980-01-01

378

Promoting biodiversity: advances in evaluating native species for reforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the potential of native tropical hardwoods for forestry development, 84 timber species were tested in a species screening trial in Costa Rica; 17 were widely planted tropical exotics, 52 were locally indigenous, and 15 were native to other areas of Costa Rica. A complete randomized block design was used with single tree plots replicated 24 times per site.

Rebecca P. Butterfield

1995-01-01

379

Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

380

Reforesting degraded lands may not restore hydrological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the 1980s, forest lands in the Himalayas in central Nepal had become severely degraded as people cleared land for pastures. This led to lowered soil infiltration capacities, resulting in increased surface runoff, soil erosion, and flooding during the rainy season.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-12-01

381

MINISITE PREPARATION FOR REFORESTATION OF STRIP-MINED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that site preparation of a minisite (20x60 cm cylinder) would be effective in promoting seedling survival and growth and still save considerable cost compared to area-wide site preparation. Spoil within the cylinder was mixed wi...

382

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 2 Responsibilities Supervisors Identify research projects and experimentsCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas. It outlines responsibilities, safe

Machel, Hans

383

Code of Practice for Mentoring  

E-print Network

Code of Practice for Mentoring (on-campus students) Implementation with effect from: 3 October 2005 of Practice on Mentoring (on-campus students) 1 #12;Code of Practice for Mentoring (on-campus students) Contents 1. Introduction 2. The Current Mentoring System at HWU 3. Minimum Requirements of Mentoring

Painter, Kevin

384

BRIDGING ACADEMIA, PRACTICE, LAW AND  

E-print Network

INSIDE BRIDGING ACADEMIA, PRACTICE, LAW AND POLICY - MISSION CRITICAL FOR THE IISTL Page 2 team of experts from academia, industry and legal practice and provided a platform for its members figure both in legal practice and academia. On individual level, the members of the IISTL remain

Martin, Ralph R.

385

Does mental practice enhance performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental practice is the cognitive rehearsal of a task prior to performance. Although most researchers contend that mental practice is an effective means of enhancing performance, a clear consensus is precluded because (a) mental practice is often denned so loosely as to include almost any type of mental preparation and (b) empirical results are inconclusive. A meta-analysis of the literature

James E. Driskell; Carolyn Copper; Aidan Moran

1994-01-01

386

Best Management Practices Deanna Osmond  

E-print Network

and biological integrity of surface and ground water and the land resources. Best management practices management practices are generally designed to control a particular pollutant type from specific land usesBest Management Practices Deanna Osmond NC State University Soil Science Department Best management

387

Faculty Practice: Something for Everyone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty practice (a clinical practice based in the educational institution and staffed and directed by faculty who participate in that practice) is examined as it applies to nursing educators. Elements discussed include faculty responsibility and group functioning, director role, clinical secretary role, clinical setting, patient characteristics,…

Nichols, Carol

1985-01-01

388

Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.  

PubMed

Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

2013-08-01

389

Guide to good practices for shift routines and operating practices  

SciTech Connect

This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.

NONE

1998-12-01

390

Science in Social Practice  

E-print Network

to the public and all members of the university are invited. The DailY Kansan also carried a story reporting on Mead's talk on Saturday, March 4, 1911 (Vol. VII, No. 61, p. 1): PLEA FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE: Professor Meade Addresses Phi Beta Kappa in Chapel..., Professor Geo. B. Meade, of the department of philosophy at the University of Chicago, gave the annual Phi Beta Kappa address last evening in which he made a strong plea for scientific methods in social practices. He explained that while physical science has...

Mead, George Herbert

2000-04-01

391

Practical sedimentology, Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book is for technical professionals in mineral exploration, environmental management, agriculture or forestry, this new edition takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a lively and detailed overview of practical sedimentology. Emphasizing application over theory, the text is streamlined for comprehension, and it features many summary tables and graphs. The ideal companion to Analytical Sedimentology, this volume updates both methodology and applications, incorporates software information and extensively covers new technical developments. Specifically designed for students and cross-functional practitioners, it requires minimal geological background.

Lewis, D.W. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. (Southern Cross Univ., New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Coastal Management)

1994-01-01

392

Digitization Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

Xue, Fei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, Irma S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knudson, Frances L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

393

Evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

This article provides an insight into the philosophical assumptions underpinning evidence-based practice (EBP). Lois Goding and Keith Edwards believe that EBP has often been adopted within nursing, midwifery and health visiting without careful consideration of the nature of such evidence. This article explores the issues surrounding different research methodologies and methods, in particular the dichotomous relationships between positivism, constructivism and postmodernism. The authors believe that nursing involves complex, intangible human behaviour that demands an interpretative, holistic approach investigating perceptions rather than a reductionist approach. PMID:12149896

Goding, Lois; Edwards, Keith

2002-01-01

394

Field practice internship final report  

SciTech Connect

This field practice internship final report gives an overview of the field practice, which was completed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Management Department, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field practice focused on the completion of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312, Tier II Report. The field practice internship was conducted on a full-time basis between December 13, 1993 through February 18, 1994. Sheila Poligone, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Coordinator served as the field practice preceptor.

Foster, T.

1994-05-01

395

Retrofit Best Practices Guide  

SciTech Connect

Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

Stovall, T.K.

2004-01-13

396

Supporting students in practice.  

PubMed

This article reports a project aiming to assess the effectiveness of clinical nurses employed in support roles for students in clinical practice in one UK higher education institution and its linked NHS Trusts. Focus groups and telephone interviews were used to collect data from the clinical support nurses themselves, senior nurse managers and pre- and post-registration students. Findings show that personal commitment to the role was high and that these support staff made a valuable contribution to up-to-date clinical input into classroom teaching. Managers also valued the university-clinical link role fulfilled by these staff. Students had mixed opinions, pre-registration students having had little exposure to this kind of support and post-registration students often not regarding clinical support as necessary because of their own existing clinical experience and expertise. For clinical support staff themselves, the role was a busy one and they often experienced conflict and role overload in balancing the education and clinical sides of their work. Necessary improvements for functioning of the roles were identified, including having regular meetings between university and NHS managers and support teachers for liaison purposes, joint appraisal, and formal support mechanisms for role occupants. The overall conclusion drawn is that the roles were successful in bridging the theory-practice gap for the University and NHS Trust managers, but less so for students, and that they did this at some personal cost for role holders. PMID:11820350

Williamson, G R; Webb, C

2001-03-01

397

Practical methods for non-destructive measurement of tree leaf area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an agroforestry context, the knowledge of leaf area is an important parameter to take into consideration because tree foliage\\u000a shades the intercrop. Single leaf measurement (for example leaf length and width) is a widely used method to estimate leaf\\u000a area in a rapid non-destructive way. In this study, the objectives were to estimate the leaf area of different leaf

Céline Leroy; Laurent Saint-André; Daniel Auclair

2007-01-01

398

Practical quantum coin flipping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.

Pappa, Anna; Chailloux, André; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

2011-11-01

399

Passive research and practice  

SciTech Connect

Passive-solar applications in buildings are described and examples are given to illustrate how research in the field has been approached. The major emphasis of the research has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both various design parameters and the weather on system performance. Results from both test modules and monitored buildings are given. Simulation analysis, the development of simplified methods, and systems analysis are outlined. Passive-solar practice is described and the key elements that have led to successful passive-solar applications are discussed.

Balcomb, J.D.

1983-01-01

400

Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

401

Practicing the Protocols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab-based activity, students learn how to use scientific instruments used to take hydrological data. Students will rotate among measurement stations for each of the hydrology protocols that will be done by the class. They will practice using the field guide with the instrument or kit for that particular measurement, exploring sources of variation and error. The resource includes eight student activity sheets and an authentic assessment, and is part of the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. The activity is supported by the GLOBE hydrology protocols. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

402

TQM in dental practice.  

PubMed

Society now expects more from its doctors and dentists, and these increasing demands can be summed up in one relatively new term for the medical profession: "quality management" (QM). Doctors and dentists formerly took the view that their performance could be assessed solely on the basis of their technical skills, ethics and expertise, but are now confronted with a new social imperative, from outside the profession--quality management. The author, prize-winner of the European Quality Award 2000 describes his approach to introduce the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model in his dental practice. He shows that the EFQM model is well suited as a basis for a quality management system in healthcare. PMID:11436753

Harr, R

2001-01-01

403

Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits, is the ninth chapter in Volume III â??Semiconductors. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: ElectroStatic Discharge; Computational circuits; and Oscillator circuits. As of June 2009, a few of the subjects in this chapter were still incomplete, but the site is updated regularly and this chapter should soon be complete. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

404

Finance for practicing radiologists.  

PubMed

This article reviews basic finance for radiologists. Using the example of a hypothetical outpatient computed tomography center, readers are introduced to the concept of net present value. This concept refers to the current real value of anticipated income in the future, realizing that revenue in the future has less value than it does today. Positive net present value projects add wealth to a practice and should be pursued. The article details how costs and revenues for a hypothetical outpatient computed tomography center are determined and elucidates the difference between fixed costs and variable costs. The article provides readers with the steps used to calculate the break-even volume for an outpatient computed tomography center given situation-specific assumptions regarding staff, equipment lease rates, rent, and third-party payer mix. PMID:17411808

Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank James

2005-03-01

405

Practical Visual Copyright  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction at Maricopa Community College and John Gibson of Phoenix College, this page presents information about digital visual literacy (DVL), the "set of skills that enable students to function in an increasingly digital and visual workplace." In this module, visitors will find an instructors' guide, a PowerPoint presentation, copyright quiz, and quiz rubric. This module supports the DVL areas of Commerce and Cultural Context. Students learn how copyright law strives to balance the monetary value of visual materials with the need to share and communicate ideas visually. The module also emphasizes the development of practical skills for resolving common workplace challenges such as finding and assessing the copyright status of images, determining fair use, and licensing oneâ??s own images.

Gibson, John

406

Current tuberculosis screening practices.  

PubMed Central

Health department officials in all 50 states and 14 major cities responded to a survey questionnaire designed to obtain information about current tuberculosis screening practices. Persons being screened fell into the groups designated as high risk by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The methods used for screening were generally those advocated by ATS, CDC, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), although chest radiographs continue to be overused. Screening in about one-half of the groups is mandated by law or regulation. There appears to be some confusion about the circumstances in which "two-step" tuberculin testing should be used. Data on the productivity and costs of screening activities were very limited. We encourage those responsible for tuberculosis screening programs to evaluate them, discontinue those which are unproductive, and intensify those which are productive. PMID:6507687

Snider, D E; Anderson, H R; Bentley, S E

1984-01-01

407

Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,

Ross Iles; Megan Davidson

2006-01-01

408

Exotic animal corporate practice.  

PubMed

I have attempted to give insight into many of the aspects of a corporate veterinary job in the retail pet industry. Understand that these are my experiences, and corporate jobs are as diverse as the number of corporations in this field. My experiences have been positive because I have been fortunate enough to become an integral part of a company with an outstanding company ethic regarding animal care and business as a whole. This is a dream position for a veterinarian who wishes to make a far-reaching difference for animals. At PETCO I am the Animal Advocate and I do have the responsibility to look at every situation through the eyes of the animals. I take this responsibility very seriously and understand that every decision I make has a lasting impact on not only the animals we sell but also the associates who daily give their heart and soul as they care for the animals in our stores. This is the way I have chosen to make a difference in the world: by using my veterinary education as well as my life experiences in ways that are very different from the James Herriot of old-different from the advanced veterinary practices in this new millennium but steadfastly following the same principles we promised to uphold when we took the veterinary oath... Being admitted to the profession of veterinary medicine, I solemnly swear to use my scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through the protection of animal health, the relief of animal suffering,the conservation of livestock resources, the promotion of public health, and the advancement of medical knowledge. I will practice my profession conscientiously, with dignity, and in keeping with the principles of veterinary medical ethics. I accept as a lifelong obligation the continual improvement of my professional knowledge and competence. PMID:16129360

Edling, Thomas M

2005-09-01

409

Transfusion practices in trauma.  

PubMed

Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

2014-09-01

410

Are family practice trainers and their host practices any better? comparing practice trainers and non-trainers and their practices  

PubMed Central

Background Family Physician (FP) trainees are expected to be provided with high quality training in well organized practice settings. This study examines differences between FP trainers and non-trainers and their practices to see whether there are differences in trainers and non-trainers and in how their practices are organized and their services are delivered. Method 203 practices (88 non-training and 115 training) with 512 FPs (335 non-trainers and 177 trainers) were assessed using the “Visit Instrument Practice organization (VIP)” on 369 items (142 FP-level; 227 Practice level). Analyses (ANOVA, ANCOVA) were conducted for each level by calculating differences between FP trainees and non-trainees and their host practices. Results Trainers scored higher on all but one of the items, and significantly higher on 47 items, of which 13 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Training practices scored higher on all items and significantly higher on 61 items, of which 23 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Trainers (and training practices) provided more diagnostic and therapeutic services, made better use of team skills and scored higher on practice organization, chronic care services and quality management than non-training practices. Trainers reported more job satisfaction and commitment and less job stress than non-trainers. Discussion There are positive differences between FP trainers and non-trainers in both the level and the quality of services provided by their host practices. Training institutions can use this information to promote the advantages of becoming a FP trainer and training practice as well as to improve the quality of training settings for FPs. PMID:23433175

2013-01-01

411

At similar trunk diameters varieties of eastern black walnut have greater nut yields than native trees.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many landowners in the United States have little access to information on economic returns from agroforestry practices. Despite the existence of agroforestry economic simulators, data bases are lacking to predict returns from nuts produced by eastern black walnut (EBW), Julgans nigra L., a hardwood...

412

Stocking rate-mediated responses of mid-rotation loblolly pine in west-central Arkansas: Growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Relatively few studies have compared loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growth in a systematic array of plantation designs or stocking rates commonly used in temperate forestry and agroforestry practices. Our objective was to determine loblolly pine growth responses and agroforestry implications of 13 ...

413

Relationship between trunk diameter and nut yield of grafted named varieties of eastern black walnut is different from that of native trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many landowners in the United States have little access to information on economic returns from agroforestry practices. Despite the existence of agroforestry economic simulators, data bases are lacking to predict returns from nuts produced by eastern black walnut (EBW), Julgans nigra L., a hardwood...

414

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2014-07-01

415

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2010-07-01

416

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2012-07-01

417

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2011-07-01

418

29 CFR 1605.3 - Selection practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2013-07-01

419

Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 ?m) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

2015-03-01

420

Practice parameters in pediatric allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary role of practice parameter\\/guidelines and other boundaries developed for the field of medicine is to improve the\\u000a quality of patient care. Practice parameters\\/ guidelines are also important for education, interaction with managed care and\\u000a third-party payers, establishing appropriate variables for outcome assessment, reducing inappropriate variation in clinical\\u000a practice, and resolving medical-legal issues. National specialty organizations, the American Medical

Richard A. Nicklas

2003-01-01

421

Empowering Nurses for Professional Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empowering teaching strategies encourage leadership, critical thinking, problem solving, and collegiality and discourage passivity, isolation, and subordination. Empowerment prepares nurses for professional practice in hospitals. (SK)

Carlson-Catalano, Judy

1992-01-01

422

Education for Sustainability (EfS): Practice and Practice Architectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…

Kemmis, Stephen; Mutton, Rebecca

2012-01-01

423

A Practical Guide to Practice Analysis for Credentialing Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers recommendations for the conduct of practice analysis (i.e., job analysis) concerning these issues: (1) selecting a method of practice analysis; (2) developing rating scales; (3) determining the content of test plans; (4) using multi-variate procedures for structuring test plans; and (5) determining topic weights for test plans. (SLD)

Raymond, Mark R.

2002-01-01

424

Putting Theory to Practice and Practice to Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continuing educators have several options for practice: (1) being clear about the nature of their business; (2) adopting a holistic approach; (3) building better preprofessional programs; (4) moving to where learning occurs; (5) legitimizing practical knowledge; and (6) addressing contextual influences. (SK)

Baskett, H. K. Morris; And Others

1992-01-01

425

Negotiating Sexual Orientation and Classroom Practice(s) at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the classroom practice(s) of seven gay male teachers from four school districts within a large southeastern state. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, it examines two main issues they face: how and when to introduce and use gay-themed materials while teaching the curriculum and how to confront homophobic slurs heard…

Mayo, J. B., Jr.

2007-01-01

426

Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium  

E-print Network

Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium Amir Kamil, Jimmy Su, and Katherine Yelick, y , Titanium Group http://titanium.cs.berkeley.edu U.C. Berkeley November 15 2005November by another threadthread · Titanium, Java, UPC, and many other languages do not provide sequentiallanguages do

California at Berkeley, University of

427

Diagnostic Technologies in Practice  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

2015-01-01

428

[Regulation for contractual practice].  

PubMed

The use of contractualisation has greatly developed over the last years in the field of health care, with results that are often promising, but also with failures and sometime virulent criticism. Thus it has become more and more necessary to regulate contractual practices. In the framework of its mission of general administration, that is to say, protection of the general interest, it falls to the Ministry of Health to put in place this regulation. Several tools are available. Certain, such as standard contracts and master agreements, although useful, do not remain specific and ad hoc. On the other hand, the politics of contractualisation, fitting well in the general politics of Health Care, form, without doubt, the most globalised tool, since they allow contractualisation to be replaced in the management of the total health case system, and thus to be seen as a potential contribution in the framework of performance improvement. The conditions for success are not, however, automatically united. One must ensure that the mechanisms exist which bring about regulatory tools, and which ensure that the participants use correctly the framework defined by the Ministry of Health. PMID:19027694

Perrot, Jean

2008-12-01

429

Nutraceuticals in psychiatric practice.  

PubMed

Nutraceuticals can be defined as food components or active principles present in aliments which have positive effects for health and quality of life, including preventing or treating disorders. Herbal and "natural" food supplements are increasingly used to treat different psychiatric disorders, often as "self-prescribed" therapies. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, S-Adenosylmethionine, inositol, alfa-lactoalbumin and passionflower). There is evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, proved also by Cochrane's meta-analysis. However many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent using of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy is needed to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices. The article presents some promising patents on nutraceuticals in psychiatric practice. PMID:22472025

Chiappedi, Matteo; de Vincenzi, Silvia; Bejor, Maurizio

2012-08-01

430

Artful surfaces in design practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A largely overlooked aspect of innovative design practices is how workplace surfaces play a role in supporting designers' everyday work. In this paper we introduce the idea of artful surfaces. Artful surfaces (Figure 1) are full of informative, inspirational and creative artefacts that help designers accomplish their everyday design practices. The way these surfaces are created and used could provide

Dhaval Vyas

2009-01-01

431

How To Make Innovations Practical  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: A fundamental tension has long existed between school reform proposals and actual teaching practice. Despite a large literature on teacher change, the discontinuity between innovation and practice continues and many attempts to reform teaching fail to be enacted in most classrooms. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…

Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter; van Driel, Jan

2013-01-01

432

Advanced practice in neonatal nursing.  

PubMed

The participation of advanced practice registered nurses in neonatal care continues to be accepted and supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Recognized categories of advanced practice neonatal nursing are the neonatal clinical nurse specialist and the neonatal nurse practitioner. PMID:19482773

Wallman, Carol

2009-06-01

433

In Defense of a Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some athletics officials worry that, on many campuses, male practice players are taking opportunities away from female athletes. In an effort to try keeping second-string players off the sidelines, the NCAA's Committee on Women's Athletics has recommended banning male practice players in all women's sports. The proposal has touched off a fierce…

Lipka, Sara

2007-01-01

434

Including Identity in Clinical Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adds qualitative analyses to established practices in speech-language pathology to demonstrate how clinicians can work with identity. Interview material is used to illustrate established analytical practices. This same material is again analyzed from the perspective of identity using the Functional Individual Systems (FIS) framework,…

Hagstrom, Fran

2004-01-01

435

Hippocrates on Ethical Practice Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's society, it seems that there is a tension between successful practice management and ethical practice behavior. The doctor-patient relationship that is based on trust should be esteemed and preserved in our society. We should consider dedicating ourselves to the preservation of a trusted doctor-patient relationship. (J Chiropr Humanit 2004;11:44-48)

William E. Morgan

436

Deliberate Practice in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deliberate practice is increasingly recognised as necessary for professional development. This paper sets out to explore in what ways student teachers' learning activities in a teacher education programme can be characterised as deliberate practice. Based on an in-depth exploration of 574 learning activities, our results highlight the…

Bronkhorst, Larike H.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Koster, Bob; Vermunt, Jan D.

2014-01-01

437

UNITED NATIONS BEST PRACTICES IN  

E-print Network

related to foreign direct investment (FDI). This function was formerly carried out by the United Nations Practices in Investment for Development is a programme of case studies in making foreign direct investmentUNITED NATIONS BEST PRACTICES IN INVESTMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDIES IN FDI How to Utilize FDI

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

438

Best Practices in Supply Chain  

E-print Network

Best Practices in Supply Chain Management DESPITE THE TURMOIL OF U.S. ECONOMY, companies that have a winning strategy and a business model that utilizes best practices in supply chain management (SCM), will remain strong and continue to grow in marketplace. "Supply chain management encompasses the planning

439

Best Practices in Business Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended to give business teachers a few best practice ideas. Section 1 presents an overview of best practice and a chart detailing the instructional levels, curricular areas, and main competencies addressed in the 26 papers in Section 2. The titles and authors of the papers included in Section 2 are as follows: "A Software Tool…

Briggs, Dianna, Ed.

440

Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

Steinberg, Carola

2008-01-01

441

Wanted: Internationally Appropriate Best Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of international perspectives in designing and promoting educational innovation and reform, cultural and financial limitations of imposing western special education inclusion principles and practices on developing countries, and special education practices in China, Vietnam, and Costa Rica. (Contains 2…

Meyer, Luanna H.

2003-01-01

442

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

Supervisors · Identify research projects and experiments that use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or where H2S mayCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE Rev January 2013 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas or where hydrogen

Machel, Hans

443

Behavioural science in general practice.  

PubMed

Dr Peter Sowerby has written an important criticism of Michael Balint's work based on his understanding of Karl Popper's writings. I dispute Sowerby's interpretation of Popper and disagree with his conclusions, which I suggest would lead general practice into a retreat. I believe Balint made a major contribution to general practice and has helped us towards practising whole-person medicine. PMID:536971

Wood, D R

1979-10-01

444

Graduate Certificate in Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

, financial statements and reports, regulation and cost containment, financial analysis and management Practice Managers for the Complexities of Healthcare Practice SHRP School of Health Related Professions (UMDNJ)? UMDNJ is the state university of the health sciences. There are eight schools on four campuses

Garfunkel, Eric

445

PS MUSIC LAB PS PRACTICE  

E-print Network

) PS FACULTY (GP) PS LARGE RECORDING PS SMALL RECORDING SOUND LOCK PS CONTROL ROOM LACTATION ROOM SUPPORT PS INSTRUMENT STORAGE PS PRACTICE PS PRACTICE SOUND LOCK SOUND LOCK PS FACULTY (GP) PS FACULTY (UP COSTUME SHOP SOUND / LIGHT LOCK MEZZANINE ACCESS SOUND / LIGHT LOCK BLACK BOX THEATRE THAR SCENE SHOP

Bermúdez, José Luis

446

The practice of carbon markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pragmatism has recently taken up the ‘practice turn’ in order to overcome the neglect of agency in poststructuralist accounts. To explore potential advantages if such an approach is used for an analysis of carbon markets, it is first asked whether a practice approach could allow us to go beyond the dichotomy of agents vs. structures and thus lead to an

Markus Lederer

2012-01-01

447

where transformation happens global practice  

E-print Network

- sues of humanitarian aid, relief, social development and capacity building. Guiding principles WOR K #12;program overview The Global Practice Concentration teaches students in both clinical. The timing of the global practice field placements re- quires that students follow a modified program

Huang, Jianyu

448

The Practice of Transformative Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the practice of transformative pedagogy in an undergraduate teacher education program. The research was guided by two questions: What is the impact of transformative pedagogy on fostering preservice teachers' transformative learning? and What practices of transformative pedagogy impact student transformative learning?…

Ukpokodu, Omiunota

2009-01-01

449

Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

Hough, David L., Ed.

2010-01-01

450

Descriptive Inquiry as Contemplative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon and integrates a number of distinct but overlapping areas of inquiry in the literature on teaching: teacher inquiry, reflective practice, spirituality and education, and contemplative practice. In it, we examine the implementation of a particular phenomenological form of teacher inquiry, the Descriptive Review, in an urban…

Kesson, Kathleen; Traugh, Cecelia; Perez, Felix, III

2006-01-01

451

Assessment in Youth Sport: Practical Issues and Best Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Assessment is an important element to the present and future of sport psychology (McCann et al., 2002), both in science and in practice. Yet, there exist few resources addressing the unique developmental parameters facing sport scientists and sport practitioners when it comes to conducting sound assessment across the athletic lifespan. Indeed, this aspect of the literature remains particularly sparse with respect to youth sport assessment (Noble, 2011). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the practical issues and best practice guidelines pertaining to assessment during the provision of sport psychology services to children and adolescent athletes. PMID:24523567

Harris, Brandonn S.; Blom, Lindsey C.; Visek, Amanda J.

2013-01-01

452

Practice Experiences at a Single Institutional Practice Site to Improve Advanced Pharmacy Practice Examination Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance. PMID:24761021

Britton, Mark L.; Wheeler, Richard E.; Carter, Sandra M.

2014-01-01

453

Satellite Mission Operations Best Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort of compiling a collection of Best Practices for use in Space Mission Operations was initiated within a subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Space Operations and Support Technical Committee (SOSTC). The idea was to eventually post a collection of Best Practices on a website so as to make them available to the general Space Operations community. The effort of searching for available Best Practices began in the fall of 1999. As the search progressed, it became apparent that there were not many Best Practices developed that were available to the general community. Therefore, the subcommittee decided to use the SOSTC Annual Workshop on Reducing Space Mission Costs as a forum for developing Best Practices for our purpose of sharing them with a larger audience. A dedicated track at the April 2000 workshop was designed to stimulate discussions on developing such Best Practices and forming working groups made up of experienced people from various organizations to perform the development. These groups were solicited to help outside the workshop to bring this effort to fruition. Since that time, biweekly teleconferences have been held to discuss the development of the Best Practices and their posting.

Galal, Ken; Hogan, Roger P. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

454

Meaningful relationships in veterinary practice.  

PubMed

Although the veterinarian as a person is not traditionally seen as part of veterinary science research, perceptions are changing. The aim of this investigation was to analyse veterinary practice as a social system, by quantifying interaction within the practice. The veterinarians' biographical parameters of gender, residential area, home language, age and type of practice were taken as independent variables and questions regarding the other factors in practice as dependent variables. Relationships were considered to be statistically significant when p < 0.05 using the chi-square test. Results indicated that younger, female, urban, companion animal, English-speaking veterinarians are relatively more aware of their clients' and patients' needs, as well as the interaction between owner and animal. They are more orientated towards financial success and are more aware of opposition practices. They also ascribe more emotional behaviour to their clients. Rural practitioners in mixed or production animal practices, who are predominantly Afrikaans-speaking, saw their clients as more calculating and omniscient and they are more likely to take their clients' financial position into account. The study revealed the necessity of a new human orientation in successful practice management, from a social system perspective. PMID:9120857

Odendaal, J S

1996-09-01

455

Negotiating Sexual Orientation and Classroom Practice(s) at School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the classroom practice(s) of seven gay male teachers from four school districts within a large southeastern state. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, it examines two main issues they face: how and when to introduce and use gay-themed materials while teaching the curriculum and how to confront homophobic slurs heard at school. The participants also define and

J. B. Mayo

2007-01-01

456

Empowering a healthy practice environment.  

PubMed

This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. PMID:25680495

Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

2015-03-01

457

Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

458

Confrontational Teaching and Rhetorical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that rhetorical theory enables a constructivist critique of activist pedagogy. Considers two prominent formulations of activist teaching--by Dale Bauer and James Berlin--examining both the underlying assumptions and descriptions of practice in rhetorical terms. (PA)

Anderson, Virginia

1997-01-01

459

Clinical supervision and practice nurses.  

PubMed

practice nurses need clinical supervision to help them keep abreast of their expanding primary care role. Ali Farquharson, Gail Trotter and Sheila Nimmo report on a project that set out to provide a support model. PMID:9731148

Farquharson, A; Trotter, G; Nimmo, S

460

Implementation of Boiler Best Practices  

E-print Network

Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient, economical operation can significantly affect the reliability and profitability of the entire plant. Best Practices for Boilers include tools to determine where a plant...

Blake, N. R.

461

Documentation : a reflective practice approach  

E-print Network

The Center for Reflective Community Practice in MIT's Department of Urban studies is involved in projects helping community organizers working on social change. In order to foster reflection, they are currently utilizing ...

Ouko, Luke Odhiambo

2005-01-01

462

Advanced Policy Practice Spring 2014  

E-print Network

policies within the frameworks of evidence-based practice and critical thinking course that focuses on the theory and evidence-based skill sets of policy actions to accomplish evidence-based policy outcomes. V. Course Rationale

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

463

Positive and Negative Practical Reasons   

E-print Network

In this essay, I argue that positive and negative practical reasons have asymmetrical normative force. In other words, the negative reasons for one action, and the positive reasons for another action that they correspond ...

Adler, Daniel

2013-01-01

464

Simple Practical Investigations Using Invertase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three activities, substrate inhibition, product inhibition by fructose and glucose, and gel immobilization of invertase for use with undergraduate biochemistry classes. Discusses materials, methods, and results. Stresses the advantages of practical exercises in undergraduate classes. (CW)

Asare-Brown, Emma; Bullock, Clive

1988-01-01

465

GIS Guide to Good Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK's Arts and Humanities Data Service, a project of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), has recently made available the GIS Guide to Good Practice, the first of a series of Guides to Good Practice. These Guides are intended to "provid[e] the humanities research and teaching communities with practical instruction in applying recognized standards and good practice to the creation and use of digital resources." The first guide covers GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and its relationship to archaeology, as well as interdisciplinary studies. The guide is divided into six major topics, including types and documentation of data, structuring information, and archiving datasets. A substantial selected bibliography and glossary accompany the guide, making it an even more valuable resource.

466

Energy Efficiency Best Practice Guide©  

E-print Network

ENERGY EFFICIENCY BEST PRACTICE GUIDE@ Scott Rouse Manager Energy Efficiency Department Ontario Power Generation Inc. Toronto, Ontario, Canada (416) 592-8044 srouse@ontariopowergeneration.com ABSTRACT 'Setting the bar above mere... mediocrity!' The goal of the Energy Efficiency (EE) Best Practice Guide is to help business units meet and exceed their energy efficiency targets through continuous improvement using seven key criteria. The objectives are threefold: - to provide an easy...

Rouse, S.

467

Best Practices in Hotel Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide-ranging study conducted by researchers based at Cornell's School of Hotel Administration identified a diverse group of hotel companies that have implemented outstanding practices to improve operations. Some of the hotels and management companies selected as best-practice champions improved specific departments' operations, while others took a hotel-wide approach to improving operations. Several operators have sought out distressed properties with

Judy A. Siguaw; Cathy A. Enz

1999-01-01

468

School Food Policies and Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe food-related policies and practices in secondary schools in Minnesota.Design Mailed anonymous survey including questions about the secondary school food environment and food-related practices and policies.Subjects\\/Setting Members of a statewide professional organization for secondary school principals (n=610; response rate: 463\\/610=75%). Of the 463 surveys returned, 336 met the eligibility criteria (current position was either principal or assistant principal

SIMONE A FRENCH; MARY STORY; JAYNE A FULKERSON

2002-01-01

469

Reflective Practice: A New Agenda for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the concept of reflective practice within the framework of experiential learning theory. Discusses ways in which reflective practice advances professional practice for teachers and administrators. Explores the implications of these ideas for professional education and for school reform. (JS)

Osterman, Karen F.

1990-01-01

470

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2014-10-01

471

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2012-10-01

472

Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

2012-01-01

473

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2011-10-01

474

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2013-10-01

475

42 CFR 438.236 - Practice guidelines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards § 438.236 Practice guidelines. ...b) Adoption of practice guidelines. Each...PIHP and PAHP adopts practice guidelines that meet...requirements: (1) Are based on valid and reliable clinical evidence or a consensus...

2010-10-01

476

Emergency Room Practice among Family Physicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A self-report questionnaire of graduates of a family practice residency program obtained information on their practices, professional and emergency medicine experiences, and attitudes toward the practice of emergency medicine by family practioners. (Author/MLW)

Hansel, Nancy K.; And Others

1985-01-01

477

40 CFR 503.24 - Management practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Management practices. 503.24 Section...Surface Disposal § 503.24 Management practices. (a...24-hour, 25-year storm event. (h) The leachate...permitting authority that through management practices public health...

2010-07-01

478

12 CFR 225.4 - Corporate practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corporate practices. 225.4 Section 225...Regulations General Provisions § 225.4 Corporate practices. (a) Bank holding company...unsound practice, or would violate any law, regulation, Board order,...

2010-01-01

479

Integrating agile practices into critical software development  

E-print Network

Integrating agile practices into critical software development Katarzyna Lukasiewicz, Janusz Górski. In this text we describe our research towards introducing agile practices into critical software development processes Keywords-- safety-critical software; agile practices; software development; process improvement

Boyer, Edmond

480

Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice Center  

E-print Network

Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice Center In An Emergency: Equipment & Supplies List for Food Vietnamese.................................12 #12;Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice Center Funded Offsite cold storage options (contact info for truck, warehouse) #12;Twin Cities Metro Advanced Practice

481

Family practice physicians' beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding obesity.  

PubMed

This study examined 318 family practice physicians' beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding obese patients. Most physicians surveyed were aware of the health effects of obesity and that normal weight is important to the health of their patients. Beliefs, attitudes, and practices differed significantly based on the physicians' sex, weight, years in practice, and belief that counseling patients on weight loss is professionally gratifying and that most obese patients can lose significant amounts of weight. A notable number of respondents held negative or stereotypical attitudes toward obese patients (i.e., obese patients lack self-control, are lazy and sad). The most commonly recommended weight loss techniques were decreasing caloric consumption (92 percent), participating in Weight Watchers (84 percent), consulting a dietitian/nutritionist (76 percent), and aerobic exercise (75 percent). The two sources of weight control information most frequently cited were past experience (73 percent) and medical journals (71 percent). The results of this survey indicate that there is considerable room for improvement in the beliefs, attitudes, and practices of family physicians regarding obese patients. PMID:3452374

Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Krol, R A; Snyder, F F; O'Connell, J K

1987-01-01

482

1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 Good Practice case studies  

E-print Network

1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 Good Practice case studies Tika Limbu and Kishor Dangol of the Nepalese community #12;Good Practice case studies 2 | Good practice of different faiths and cultures. #12;Good Practice case studies 3 | Good practice case studies | Equality

483

Teaching Reflective Practice in Practice Settings: Students' Perceptions of Their Clinical Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice…

Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan

2012-01-01

484

Practical recommendations on incorporating new oral anticoagulants into routine practice.  

PubMed

The use of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is expected to rise significantly in upcoming years. Therefore, it is important to understand the potential uses, side effects, and management of these agents in routine practice. NOACs have major pharmacologic advantages over warfarin, including a rapid onset and offset of action, fewer drug interactions, and predictable pharmacokinetics. These agents are gaining popularity among both physicians and patients because of their ease of administration and the advantage of eliminating the requirement for regular coagulation monitoring. NOACs work to prevent and treat thrombosis by targeting either thrombin (as with dabigatran) or factor Xa (as with rivaroxaban and apixaban). In this review, we discuss practical recommendations for the use of NOACs and the risks and benefits of incorporating them into routine practice. PMID:25658892

Randhawa, Jaskirat; Thiruchelvam, Nirosshan; Ghobrial, Michael; Spiro, Timothy; Clark, Bernadette; Haddad, Abdo; Daw, Hamed

2014-10-01

485

Academic good practice a practical guide The principles of academic good practice go beyond understanding and avoiding plagiarism,  

E-print Network

Academic good practice ­ a practical guide The principles of academic good practice go beyond work. This section contains information and advice on attaining academic good practice, including managing your time efficiently, developing good reading and note taking skills and the importance

Oxford, University of

486

Medical practice and related insurance.  

PubMed

The liability of a doctor as regards medical negligence is now a well accepted eventuality. However still many doctors and hospitals are unaware of their liability on account of negligence on the part of their junior doctors and hospital staff. Indemnity insurance specifically protects you against your liability to pay compensation including legal costs, fees or expenses. If court orders to pay compensation for negligence of patient and you have a valid insurance cover, the insurance company is supposed to pay the money. In the present text we are highlighting the medical practice related insurance such as personal indemnity insurance, error and omission policy for hospital and nursing homes and insurance policy related to damage to hospital building, damage to electrical and electronics appliances and also insurance for doctor's kit, signboard, burglary, fidelity guarantee and loss of money in transit. All this medical practice related insurance is explained with its present charges, terms and conditions and its importance in today's practice. PMID:23029950

Chormunge, Vijay; Pawar, Vasantrao; Patil, Ajay

2012-03-01

487

Autism: From Research to Practice  

PubMed Central

Autism is the most commonly studied of a spectrum of developmental disorders that are believed to be neurobiologically based but which, at this point, for lack of good biomarkers, are defined purely by behavior. In the last 20 years, the definition of autism has shifted in emphasis from extreme aloofness and positive signs of abnormality in repetitive and sensori-motor behaviors to a greater awareness of the importance of more subtle reciprocal social-communication deficits as core features. Standard diagnostic instruments were developed for research purposes to acquire information both through caregiver interviews and direct clinical observation. Use of these instruments in clinical practice resulted in major improvements which in turn affected research results. These results yielded further improvements that led to changes in clinical practice over time. The synergism between research and clinical practice in the understanding of autism is discussed. PMID:21058793

Lord, Catherine

2010-01-01

488

Person-centred reflective practice.  

PubMed

Person-centred health and person-centred care have gained prominence across the UK following the publication of reports on public inquiries exploring failings in care. Self-awareness and participation in reflective practice are recognised as vital to supporting the person-centred agenda. This article presents an education framework for reflective practice, developed and used in one NHS board in Scotland, and based on the tenets of the clinical pastoral education movement. Providing an insight into the usefulness of a spiritual component in the reflective process, the framework provides an opportunity for nurses and other healthcare professionals to examine the spiritual dimensions of patient encounters, their own values and beliefs, and the effect these may have on their practice. PMID:24617403

Devenny, Bob; Duffy, Kathleen

489

What makes distributed practice effective?  

PubMed Central

The advantages provided to memory by the distribution of multiple practice or study opportunities are among the most powerful effects in memory research. In this paper, we critically review the class of theories that presume contextual or encoding variability as the sole basis for the advantages of distributed practice, and recommend an alternative approach based on the idea that some study events remind learners of other study events. Encoding variability theory encounters serious challenges in two important phenomena that we review here: superadditivity and nonmonotonicity. The bottleneck in such theories lies in the assumption that mnemonic benefits arise from the increasing independence, rather than interdependence, of study opportunities. The reminding model accounts for many basic results in the literature on distributed practice, readily handles data that are problematic for encoding variability theories, including superadditivity and nonmonotonicity, and provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding the effects of repetition and the effects of associative relationships on memory. PMID:20580350

Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan

2010-01-01

490

Mycorrhizal fungi + trees -- practical beneficial tools for mineland reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Successful consistent revegetation of drastically disturbed sites (i.e., acid coal spoils and mineral waste dumps) throughout the US and several foreign countries has been achieved by using the biological {open_quotes}tools{close_quotes} -- Mycor Tree {trademark} seedlings and native shrub and grass species. These unique plants are custom-grown in bareroot and container nurseries with selected mycorrhizal fungi. On disturbed sites, specific mycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus tinctorius (PT) or VAM provide significant benefits to the plant symbionts through increased water and nutrient absorption, decreased toxic materials absorption, and overall plant stress reduction. During the past 15 years, the Ohio Division of Reclamation--Abandoned Minelands Project (AML) has utilized the combination of the PT fungus and reforestation to significantly improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of AML projects. Since 1981, over 3.5 million PT-inoculated pine and oak seedlings have been planted on approximately 2,500 acres of unreclaimed AML sites. Tree survival has averaged over 85 percent in the PT-inoculated tree plantings with few failures as compared with less than 50% survival and over 75% failures in previous plantings with the same noninoculated tree species. From 1981 to 1995, the 2,348 acres reclaimed in Ohio have cost approximately $832,000.00. Traditional reclamation would have cost approximately $14 million and represents a 94% cost reduction. The total PT reforestation cost in 1995 was $354.00 per acre and the added cost of the PT-inoculated seedlings is approximately 13% ($45.00/acre) or $.03 per seedling. This is a minute expense when compared to conventional AML reclamation costs ($6,000/acre). Interest in the application of this natural environmentally-friendly technology to mineland reclamation programs throughout the US and abroad is expanding.

Cordell, C.E.; Marx, D.H.; Jenkins, B.

1996-12-31

491

Diversity Practice in Social Work: Examining Theory in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individualized care in children's services requires practitioners to move beyond individual worldviews to gain a cultural context for service planning and delivery to an increasingly diversifying U.S. population. As such, research is needed to empirically support diversity practice models used to prepare practitioners for cross-cultural work. This…

Davis, Tamara S.

2009-01-01

492

Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Some Practical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…

Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

493