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Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestrypractices can\\u000a make them effective carbon
Agroforestry concepts are applicable to both small-scale (family farm) and microscale (e.g., home garden) cultivation. However, there is little research on the relevance of gardening practices in temperate zones to agroforestry and vice versa. In Russia, microscale ecofarming is an extremely widespread, time-tested practice. Despite the minuscule size (600 m2) of individual plots and absence of machinery, cultivators have demonstrated
Land tenure has long been considered a critical factor in determining the adoption and long-term maintenance of agroforestry\\u000a practices. Empirical evidence from non-US settings has consistently shown that secure land tenure is positively associated\\u000a with agroforestry adoption. In the US, over 40% of private agricultural land is farmed by someone other than the owner. Given\\u000a the importance of land tenure
J. Gordon Arbuckle; Corinne Valdivia; Andrew Raedeke; John Green; J. Sanford Rikoon
|Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…
Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne
Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.
Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestrypractices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.
Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.
The impact of many current agricultural practices is having a deplorable effect on the world's soils, water resources and rural environments. Natural levels of annual soil loss are very small (Morgan, 2005) in the region of 0.0045 t ha -1 for areas of moderate relief and only rising to 0.45 tha -1 on steep slopes. This can be compared with
Brian Sims; Theodor Friedrich; Amir Kassam; Josef Kienzle
In 2004, Staphylinid beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages were studied via pitfall trapping to examine the effects of reforestation in southwestern China forests. Sites included two 100-yr-old mature forest types (hemlock-spruce forest and birch forest), and three 40-yr-old forest types established after harvesting (spruce plantation, larch plantation, and natural broad-leaved forest). Staphylinid species richness was greater in natural broad-leaved forests than those in hemlock-spruce forests and spruce plantations, but no significant difference was found in abundance among the five forest types. Beetle assemblages from young forest stands were significantly different from those in older forest stands, and some environmental characteristics, i.e., elevation, proportion of broad-leaved trees, and coarse woody debris, significantly affected species abundances. Moreover, some staphylinid species predominantly found only in older forest stands indicate that mature forest specialists might be threatened by loss of habitat. So it is necessary to retain adequate patches of older successional stages for conserving these beetle assemblages. PMID:23339781
Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestrypractices and to assess their potential to store ca...
Agroforestry and grass buffers have been shown to improve soil properties and overall environmental quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates (WSA), soil carbon, soil nitrogen, enzyme activity, and microbial community DNA co...
Greenhouse gas (GHG) removals by afforestation and reforestation project activities under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are vulnerable to a variety of risks and uncertainties, resulting in the partial or total reversal of such removals. Hence, GHG removals from these sink activities are considered to be of temporary nature and non-permanent. Specific modalities related to non-permanence will need
Pest management research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the
Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika
The main direction of current research on Agroforestry systems in Europe has been summarised in this book. These have included\\u000a general descriptions of the different areas where there are good examples of how agroforestrypractices are currently being\\u000a implemented or could be implemented from farm to landscape level and, as a land use option, at a local level. The book
M. R. Mosquera-Losada; J. H. McAdam; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez
\\u000a Agroforestry can raise carbon (C) stocks of agricultural systems, and such increases can potentially be sold as CO2 emission offsets. We assembled information on the biophysical, technical, economic, and practical potential of agroforestry\\u000a to sequester C for the West African Sahel, East Africa, and Southern Africa. Agroforestry systems (AFS) such as parklands,\\u000a live fences, and homegardens had substantial C stocks,
Eike Luedeling; Gudeta Sileshi; Tracy Beedy; Johannes Dietz
This article explores evidence of deforestation and forest management practices in the Maya lowlands during the pre-Columbian period. In the early twentieth century, scholars first began to examine the role of the environment in the rise and collapse of the great southern Maya polities of the Classic period, proposing that deforestation was an important factor in their political fragmentation and
The coast of the Gulf of Mexico is characterized as a region with high variation in climatic conditions and rich in drought-tolerant or subhumid species. The species that are potentially useful for reforestation, regreening, agroforestry activities and the production of timber and fuelwood have been overexploited, resulting in a gradual decrease and degradation of their populations. In order to restore
R. Foroughbakhch; M. A. Alvarado-Vázquez; J. L. Hernández-Piñero; A. Rocha-Estrada; M. A. Guzmán-Lucio; E. J. Treviño-Garza
Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.
Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073
In southeastern Idaho, half the homes in major cities are heated with wood and 70% of those in outlying communities. The source of this firewood is beetle-killed timber in the Targhee National Forest. The problem in reforesting this area while still meeting the demand for firewood is discussed. Key elements of a new program which employs clearcutting techniques is presented.
Agroforestry is a general concept for a land management system combining trees and agricultural crops. For application, various specific techniques can be chosen. Each of these techniques is adjusted to a specific set of environmental as well as socio-economic factors. Agroforestry cultivators or managers belonging to varying social strata and institutional groupings may practice different forms of agroforestry, even within
Agroforestry has been a way of life in India for many years now. Information on packages, practices and system of agroforestry is very scattered and scanty, thus not readily available to the end user, a farmer or extension worker. With the rapid development of information technology, it is possible to put the information in electronic format, so that, it can
A. K. Handa; P. Rai; Sudhakar Choudhari; Ajay Babu Pilli; Sanjay Srivastava
Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) is considered the most important competitive threat to commercially valuable conifers in the highly productive interior cedar–hemlock forests of British Columbia. It is routinely removed from conifer plantations at high cost to increase conifer growth rates and meet reforestation policy regulations. Competitive effects of paper birch and other neighbours on conifer growth were measured in
Suzanne W Simard; Donald L Sachs; Alan Vyse; Leandra L Blevins
As agroforestry technologies are developed and promoted, there is a need to integrate indigenous knowledge about pest identification and management techniques into the scaling-up process in order to improve farmers' pest management practices. This paper documents farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management practices against termites in agroforestry in Tororo District, Uganda. The applicability and implications of such information in the development
Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification.
This review encompasses results of fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems—alley cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens—in which fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the overriding factor in
Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...
One of the approaches towards managing atmospheric CO2 concentration is the planting of trees on former agricultural land, but it is uncertain whether soil carbon stocks will increase or decrease after reforestation. A modelling analysis was carried out to assess what changes in soil organic carbon are possible upon reforesting former grassland. It was based on runs with the whole-system
The agroforestry garden system in Maninjau in West Sumatra is characterized by an intensive integration of forest species and commercial crops, forming a forest-like system. The intimate association of different species provides both subsistence and commercial products which supplement rice production. This complex agroforest is managed by the combination between cultural practices and respect of natural processes of vegetation production
Successful design of agroforestrypractices hinges on the ability to pull together very diverse and sometimes large sets of\\u000a information (i.e., biophysical, economic and social factors), and then implementing the synthesis of this information across\\u000a several spatial scales from site to landscape. Agroforestry, by its very nature, creates complex systems with impacts ranging\\u000a from the site or practice level up
\\u000a Agroforestry systems distinguish themselves from other forms of agriculture through their ability to store higher amounts\\u000a of carbon (C) in their biomass, and often also to conserve more biodiversity. However, in both regards they are generally\\u000a inferior to forests. Therefore, the impact of agroforestrypractices on landscape C stocks and biodiversity needs to be analyzed\\u000a both in terms of the
Götz Schroth; Maria do Socorro Souza da Mota; Terry Hills; Lorena Soto-Pinto; Iwan Wijayanto; Candra Wirawan Arief; Yatziri Zepeda
This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.
This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.
E. A. Nelson N. J. Dulohery C. S. Bunton C. C. Trettin W. H. McKee
The populous upland region of this island in the Indian Ocean is heavily dependent on firewood and charcoal to meet its domestic energy requirements. Rural folk collect firewood; city dwellers buy mostly charcoal. Both are used overwhelmingly for cooking. The main wood source is fast-growing but maladaptive eucalyptus and pine planted in reforestation schemes since the turn of the century.
Land use change can affect global atmospheric carbon (C) concentrations by changing the quantity and residence time of C stored in plant biomass and in soils. Currently, large areas of agricultural and pastureland in the Neotropics are being abandoned and replaced by secondary forests. The prevalence of secondary forests has focused attention on reforestation as a potential C sink. Our
The issues of biological and genetic diversity management in agroforestry are extremely complex. This paper focuses on genetic\\u000a diversity management and its implications for sustainable agroforestry systems in the tropics, and presents an analysis of\\u000a the role and importance of inter- and intra-specific diversity in agroforestry. Diversity within and between tree species\\u000a in traditional agroforestry systems and modern agroforestry technologies
As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.
Various issues pertaining to artificial reforestation using coniferous plant- ing stock are presented in the ques- tion\\/answer format. The discussed topics include: planting into organic soil substrates, microsite selection, planting depth, and closing the plant- ing hole. These topics are viewed in the context of different site-related or climate-associated factors that may limit the successful establishment and growth of planted
\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to
This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which unsustainable beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agroforestry tree species in bee endemic parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), community fora, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and semi-structured interview schedules) were used
Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.
Summary The ongoing loss of pristine tropical rainforests increases the potential im- portance of agroforestry systems for the conservation of tropical arthropod diversity. Shaded agroforestry systems can still support high levels of biodiver- sity, even resembling those supported by undisturbed forests, but intensively managed open agroforestry systems may cause severe losses in insect diver- sity. In this study we evaluate
Merijn M. Bos; Patrick Hohn; Shahabuddin Saleh; Boris Buche; Damayanti Buchori; Ingolf Stean-Dewenter
Reforestation programs are a common policy response among developing country governments in the tropics attempting to deal with environmental and economic problems caused by widespread deforestation. The objective of this paper is to examine participation by small-and medium-sized farms in two reforestation programs undertaken in recent years by one country, Costa Rica, which has been at the forefront of developing
Reforestation is a mitigation option to reduce increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as its predicted climate change. As a result, several forestry-based carbon storage projects have been introduced in many countries. To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different forest management practices, we measured the above- and belowground biomass accumulation over 14 years, as
Nutrient buildup in the soil caused by increased animal manure and fertilizer use in agricultural and forestry practices may\\u000a increase the potential for their loss from the soil, leading to groundwater contamination and nonpoint source pollution. Studies\\u000a in the tropics have suggested that agroforestrypractices can reduce such nutrient (especially nitrogen) losses because of\\u000a enhanced nutrient uptake by tree and
Science.gov - We Participate ... Source: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 148-153. Description: Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create diverse, profitable, and sustainable land-use systems ( Rietveld, 1995). ... innovations needed to meet food demands for a growing global population.
In the Mamlay watershed of south Sikkim, India, about 80% of the population depend on land for their livelihood. The agricultural land-use activity includes agroforestry, horticulture and animal husbandry besides growing crops in irrigated or unirrigated fields. Trees are maintained in the farms mainly for fodder and rarely for fuel purposes. Cropping system is characterised by cultivation of cereals and
Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.
Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park;)
Mechanized methods of planting trees for reforestation are investigated and the system studied from the nursery through field planting operations. Concepts for planting machines are presented and compared using a mathematical model and a computer program ...
... can greatly enhance reforestation success through increased survival and growth ... trial using stocktypes of equal quality can ensure results lead to the best choice. ... and become more limited by current environmental and genetic factors.
Reforestation is one of the most important and efficient measures of water and soil conservation. Based on field investigations\\u000a in the Shangyang Soil Conservation and Reforestation Station in Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, we studied the variation\\u000a in vegetation development, vegetation succession processes and soil erosion. The regional vegetation consists mainly of monsoon\\u000a evergreen broad-leaved forests (MEBF). The area was deforested
Feixin Wang; Zhaoyin Wang; Zhengming Yang; Xining Ji
Agroforestry systems have often been neglected in Europe because administrative structures within many national governments\\u000a have considered that only agriculture or forestry are legitimate within their remit. This has resulted in the loss of agroforestry\\u000a systems in European countries and an impoverishment of the benefits that they provide. This paper argues that agroforestry\\u000a systems are a complex interaction of agricultural
J. H. McAdam; P. J. Burgess; A. R. Graves; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez; M. R. Mosquera-Losada
Tropical forest habitat continues to decline globally, with serious negative consequences for environmental sustainability. The small mountain country of Nepal provides an excellent context in which to examine trajectories of forest-cover change. Despite having experienced large-scale forest clearing in the past, significant reforestation has taken place in recent years. The range of biophysical and ecological environments and diversity of tenure arrangements provide us with a context with sufficient variation to be able to derive insight into the impact of a range of hypothesized drivers of forest change. This article draws on a dataset of 55 forests from the middle hills and Terai plains of Nepal to examine the factors associated with forest clearing or regeneration. Results affirm the central importance of tenure regimes and local monitoring for forest regrowth. In addition, user group size per unit of forest area is an important, independent explanator of forest change. These variables also can be associated with specific practices that further influence forest change such as the management of social conflict, adoption of new technologies to reduce pressure on the forest, and involvement of users in forest maintenance activities. Such large-N, comparative studies are essential if we are to derive more complex, nuanced, yet actionable frameworks that help us to plan better policies for the management of natural resources.
Integrated ecosystem and landscape approaches to conservation are moving from concept to practice in many parts of the developing\\u000a world. Agroforestry – the deliberate management of trees on farms and in agricultural landscapes – is emerging as one of the\\u000a most promising approaches to enhance and stabilize rural livelihoods, while reducing pressure on protected areas, enhancing\\u000a habitat for some wild
Steeply sloping lands are widespread in the tropics. An estimated 500 million people practice subsistence agriculture in these\\u000a marginal areas. Continued population growth has led to the intensified cultivation of large areas of the sloping lands, exacerbating\\u000a the problem of soil erosion. Although research shows that alley cropping and other contour agroforestry systems can stabilize\\u000a the sloping lands, these systems
E. T. Craswell; A. Sajjapongse; D. J. B. Howlett; A. J. Dowling
The shade environment produced in agroforestrypractices affects the morphology, anatomy and chemical composition of intercropped\\u000a forages and, therefore, may affect forage quality. During the summer-fall growing season of 1994 and 1995, 30 forage cultivars\\u000a were grown in 7.6 L (two gallon) pots in full sun, 50%, and 80% shade created by placing shade cloth over a greenhouse frame.\\u000a Fifteen
C. H. Lin; M. L. McGraw; M. F. George; H. E. Garrett
|The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…
Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.
India has been in the forefront of agroforestry research ever since organized research in agroforestry started worldwide about\\u000a 25 years ago. Considering the country's unique land-use, demographic, political, and sociocultural characteristics as well\\u000a as its strong record in agricultural and forestry research, India's experience in agroforestry research is important to agroforestry\\u000a development, especially in developing nations. Agroforestry has received much
Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts. PMID:22314681
The preliminary results of a trial plantation with major bee food trees in El Salvador (Central America) will be shortly discussed. The 20 neotropical bee food trees will be presented and their characteristics for which they are selected in the reforestation will be highlighted. The trees are selected for the stingless bee Melipona beecheii, and planted on the land of
... the social and environmental problems associated with modern agriculture, particularly ... This paper is an overview of the agroforestry systems of Micronesia . ... We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the ...
\\u000a This paper considers the reforestation of New England from the mid-19th to the early 20th century. While the historical data\\u000a are quite limited, I document a post-1850 flattening and eventual reversal of previous New England deforestation, even as\\u000a population was increasing. Also, within-region population concentration measures based on county data for 1790 to 1930 increase\\u000a each decade from 1830 —
Inadequate soil management practices adopted in the Brazilian semi-arid region contribute to erosive processes. Agroforestry\\u000a systems (AFs) have been considered an alternative to reduce water erosion. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two\\u000a alternatives AFs, a traditional and an intensive cropping system on the losses of sediments, water, organic carbon and nutrients\\u000a caused by water erosion in comparison
Maria Ivanilda de Aguiar; Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia; Francisco Alisson da Silva Xavier; Eduardo de Sá Mendonça; João Ambrósio Araújo Filho; Teógenes Senna de Oliveira
Southern Research Station ... Reasons for this include the limited information base and tools agroforestry can currently offer compared to ... Enhanced communication of agroforestry's carbon cobenefit, as well as the other benefits afforded by ...
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is applied in the context of Finnish non-industrial private forest owners’ (NIPF) decision-making. Forest owners’ choice of reforestation method, i.e. choice between natural reforestation and seeding\\/planting, is investigated empirically on the basis of mail inquiry data from two regions in Finland (n=154). The choice of natural reforestation is predicted from forest owners’ attitude, subjective
Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some
This literature review presents information about the role of tree root systems for the functioning of agroforestry associations and rotations and attempts to identify root-related criteria for the selection of agroforestry tree species and the design of agroforestry systems. Tree roots are expected to enrich soil with organic matter, feed soil biomass, reduce nutrient leaching, recycle nutrients from the subsoil
Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestrypractices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and tall fescue (Fesctua arundinacea Schreb.) are common warm- and cool-season forage species in the transition zone and are recommended for use in pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) agroforestrypractices. Productivity of such agroforestrypractices, ...
The main objective of this study was to assess how mangrove reforestation has influenced litter degradation and concomitant nutrient dynamics in previously deforested plantations. Dynamics of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen and C:N ratios) in decomposing leaves of conspecific species were investigated with litterbags in Sonneratia alba and Rhizophora mucronata reforested treatments using appropriate bare and natural less disturbed treatments as controls.
J. O. Bosire; F. Dahdouh-Guebas; J. G. Kairo; J. Kazungu; F. Dehairs; N. Koedam
Large extents of cropland have been abandoned in recent decades and more may be abandoned in the near future. These may undergo secondary succession or reforestation. We experimentally tested the response of soil chemical properties to secondary succession (old field) and to Quercus ilex plantation (reforested cropland) in a Mediterranean cropland that was abandoned 13 years ago. We also evaluated
B. Cuesta; J. M. Rey Benayas; A. Gallardo; P. Villar-Salvador; M. González-Espinosa
|Rural communities in many parts of the tropics are dependent of forests for their livelihoods and for environmental services. Forest resources in the tropics have declined rapidly over the past century and therefore many developing countries in the tropics have reforestation programs. Although reforestation is a long-term process with long-term…
Le, Hai Dinh; Smith, Carl; Herbohn, John; Harrison, Stephen
BackgroundCommercial forestry programs normally use locally collected seed for reforestation under the assumption that tree populations are optimally adapted to local environments. However, in western Canada this assumption is no longer valid because of climate trends that have occurred over the last several decades. The objective of this study is to show how we can arrive at reforestation recommendations with
Rural communities in many parts of the tropics are dependent of forests for their livelihoods and for environmental services. Forest resources in the tropics have declined rapidly over the past century and therefore many developing countries in the tropics have reforestation programs. Although reforestation is a long-term process with long-term…
Le, Hai Dinh; Smith, Carl; Herbohn, John; Harrison, Stephen
The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach. PMID:21556936
New conservation approaches challenge us to go beyond parks and protected areas to conservation in a matrix of land uses. Promoting the use of trees and woody species in landscapes and on farms is a frequently used but under-studied aspect of this approach. This article synthesizes recent field research at six sites in Africa on agroforestry in and around protected
Diane Russell; Rebecca A. Asare; J. Peter Brosius; Rebecca C. Witter; Meredith L. Welch-Devine; Kirsten Spainhower; Robin Barr
The agroforestry program of the AMISCONDE Initiative was implemented in 13 buffer zone communities of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve. This program introduced citrus (Citrus spp.) and promoted the widespread inclusion of poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) shade trees, ground story vegetation, and soil conservation techniques to the local cultivation of coffee (Coffea arabica var caturra). This program sought long-term socioeconomic and ecological
The interdisciplinary program in agroforestry was established at the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Science in 1987 in response to the growing interest in the subject among students and faculty members from different units of the university. It is now an internationally recognized center for education, training, and research in the subject. Pursuant to the overwhelming student
Source control is one way to address salinity and drainage problems in irrigated agriculture, and reuse of drainage flows on salt-tolerant crops or trees in agroforestry production is another. A regional model of agricultural production with drainwater reuse and disposal is developed. Deep percolation flows are controlled through choice of crop areas, irrigation systems, and applied-water quantities. Crop drainwater may
A major tenet of agroforestry, that trees maintain soil fertility, is based primarily on observations of higher crop yields near trees or where trees were previously grown. Recently objective analyses and controlled experiments have addressed this topic. This paper examines the issues of tree prunings containing sufficient nutrients to meet crop demands, the timing of nutrient transfer from decomposition to
\\u000a Carbon (C) is a new commodity that is now traded in financial markets and there is potential for farmers adopting agroforestry\\u000a to sell C in addition to traditional timber and non-timber agroforestry commodities. Implementing agroforestry C offset projects\\u000a is a challenging task, however, and it requires new, market-approved, C accounting methods that reduce transaction costs.\\u000a This paper describes the Inpang
Jay H. Samek; David L. Skole; Chetphong Butthep; Charlie Navanugraha; Pornchai Uttaruk; Teerawong Laosuwan
A fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is the complementary use of soil resources. However, productivity of many agroforestry\\u000a systems has been lower than expected due to net competition for water, highlighting the need for a mechanistic understanding\\u000a of belowground interactions. The goal of this study was to examine root–root interactions for water in a temperate semiarid\\u000a agroforestry system, based on ponderosa
María Elena Fernández; Javier Gyenge; Julian Licata; Tomás Schlichter; Barbara J. Bond
The Khasia ethnic community of Bangladesh has been a population of forest villagers in the north-eastern hill forests of Bangladesh\\u000a since the early 1950s, practicing a betel leaf-based agroforestry system on land granted by the Forest Department. Taking\\u000a a sample forest village of the Sylhet forest division as a case study, this article examines the sustainability attributes\\u000a of betel leaf
Despite increasing efforts to re-establish forest cover in landscapes that have been previously cleared, the relative ability\\u000a of different styles of reforestation to contribute to conservation and support forest biota is poorly known, particularly\\u000a for invertebrates. We investigated the use of different types of reforested habitat by ground-active rainforest beetle assemblages\\u000a on land, which had been previously cleared of rainforest,
Peter S. Grimbacher; Carla P. Catterall; John Kanowski; Heather C. Proctor
Of the forested wetlands that once covered the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, only -25% remain due to large-scale conversion to agriculture. Reforestation efforts are currently underway, but tracts planted with slow-growing oaks maintain the structure of a grassland for 5 yr or longer, and will require at least 40 yr to resemble a mature forest. Nonetheless, it is hoped that reforestation, even in early stages, can effectively increase core area in extant tracts of mature forest by reducing higher rates of nest failure and brood parasitism often associated with forest-agriculture interfaces. To test this, we monitored nests of a mature-forest specialist, the Acadian Flycatcher, in extensive bottomland forests adjacent to agricultural fields and reforested tracts (<20 yr-old). We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate alternative hypotheses regarding the relative impacts of agriculture and reforestation in the landscape. Controlling for year, season, and stand basal area, there was little evidence that landscape context significantly affected nest survival, although survival tended to increase with decreasing amounts of agriculture. The probability of brood parasitism increased with greater proportions of open habitats in the landscape. There was much stronger support for the hypothesis that parasitism rates depended on the sum of agricultural and reforested tracts, rather than on the amount of agriculture alone. Thus, reforested tracts are not expected to have the desired effect of reducing parasitism rates in the adjacent mature forest until several decades have passed.
To understand endogenous agroforestry knowledge and the processes behind the generation of such knowledge, multiple methods are needed. In this paper, the identification and characterization of farmer agroforestry experts will illustrate the necessity of multiple methods. Nonformal, participatory methods were employed to identify the research subjects (farmer agroforestry experts) and to gain insights into the emic conception and understanding of
The long history of civilization and the passage of several different cultures have produced slow changes in the Italian landscape.\\u000a Changes in land use have created a large number of agroforestry systems, comprising natural or planted tree stands and shrub\\u000a species with different densities in which botanical composition, productivity and management are much diversified. The traditional\\u000a integration of pasture and
Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers
Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm
\\u000a Traditional arid and semi-arid agroforestry systems serve as models for the ‘protective-productive’ rehabilitation strategies\\u000a of agrarians. The nature of the organic materials present and their decomposition governs nutrient availability in soil systems.\\u000a Indian desert vegetation has various non-fodder plants in and around farms that can well be used, along with diverse microbes,\\u000a for improving soil biological fertility. The higher percentage
S. Sundaramoorthy; Santosh Kumar Mehar; Manohar Singh Suthar
ABSTRACT An institutionalanalysis of“ agro-forestry”syste ms is necessaryto evaluatesoci al, economic,and ecological sustainability of these systems,a nd this requires an institutionalanalysis framework thatincorporates the specific features of agro-forestrysy stems. The main characteristics of agro-forestry systems are the integration of agriculture and forestry systems, the provision as well as the appropriation of resources, sequential stages in production, the relevance of macro-level
Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production.\\u000a In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm\\u000a development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework\\u000a to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators
Marney E. Isaac; Evans Dawoe; Krystyna Sieciechowicz
Nepal's Middle Hill regions have been excessively deforested. The government has launched a community-based reforestation project with help of international donors. However, results have been far from satisfactory. Plantation targets have not been met and survival rates of the planted trees are poor averaging around 60%. Social factors are given more blame than technical ones for these failures. However, an analysis of the available information indicates, rather, that about two-thirds of the failures were due to technical and administrative reasons. Only about 13% of the failures could be attributed to social causes. Poor quality seeds are used to raise undersized seedlings which are planted improperly during the wrong time of the year. Species selected are not appropriate for the site or the people for whom the plantations are being created; rather they are selected for the ease of planting and to meet administrative targets. The overall trend has been to plant conifers (mainly pinus roxburghii) and to plant on relatively easy sites. The result has been the creation of forest plantations which often do not have any management plant, while the few which often do not have any management plan, while the few which do are without any committed managers. There is a tremendous lack of information regarding user demand, growth, yield, and harvesting and utilization techniques. This paper stresses that research to improve practical methods in plantation establishment and training to produce competent, and dedicated resource managers be immediately initiated.
Karki, M.B.; Dickmann, D.I. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))
Coffee is a very important product in the State of Espírito Santo, and most of it is planted as unshaded coffee monocultures, with few growers managing shaded coffee agroforestry systems (AFS). To analyze the opportunities and challenges associated with coffee agroforestry management we conducted 58 semi-structured interviews with coffee growers. In addition, we conducted a field investigation that tested production
Eduardo Ferreira Sales; V. Ernesto Méndez; Francisco Roberto Caporal
A study of agroforestry adoption by 3,000 project participants in Siaya and South Nyanza Districts in Kenya supports three hypotheses. 1.(1) Historical increases in tree domestication and management intensity are responses to declining supply of uncultivated tree resources, increased subsistence and commercial demand for tree products, and perceived risks of ecological degradation. Adoption of agroforestry is most likely where consistent
Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as
Agroforestry (the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs in rural lands) is being promoted in the United States as an alternative resource management system that can bring landowners economic benefits and provide environmental services such as reduced soil erosion, improved water quality and wildlife habitat. Landowners, farmers and extension agents need to be better informed about different agroforestry opportunities and
E. A. Ellis; P. K. R. Nair; P. E. Linehan; H. W. Beck; C. A. Blanche
Investigations were carried out on the temporal variations in organic carbon and nutrient availability in arid zone agroforestry systems. Organic carbon, extractable P, NO3-N and NH4-N were determined in top 20 cm soil layer under three year old agroforestry systems comprising Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Hardwickia binata Roxb. and Colophosper- mum mopane (Kirk ex Benth.) Kirk ex J. Leonard tree species
Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accu- mulated in the agricultural landscape of southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the interactions between trees, crops and their below
|Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry…
Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry…
In agroforestry systems on Ferralsols in the tropics, maize crop yields are low owing to a lack of P. However, some agroforestry tree species adapted to P-fixing soils may be able to utilize less available P sources and concurrently increase P availability to adjacent crops. Adaptations for enhanced P acquisition from P-fixing soils include exudation of low molecular weight (LMW)
Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.
An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.
Increasing carbon (C) storage in soils of degraded lands, such as surface coal mines, is of interest because of its potential role in mitigating increases in atmospheric CO2. While it has been shown that reforesting degraded lands can significantly increase C storage in soils, there are limited studies addressing what processes control soil C in these systems. A study was initiated with the following objectives: 1) quantify the amount of soil C accumulating on reforested mine lands; and 2) examine several biological processes that govern the amount of C sequestered into soil (decomposition, soil respiration and microbial dynamics). A chronosequence approach was used to examine C changes with time in reforested mine lands (years 1, 3, and 8) and unmined regenerating clear-cuts (years 4, 12 and 20). From a C perspective, our results indicated that the young reforested mines (ages 1 and 3) differed significantly from the older mines (age 8) and all regenerating clear-cuts for all parameters examined. However, after 8years litterfall, microbial biomass C and nitrogen (N), microbial activity, litter decomposition and CO2 efflux were similar on the mine as that found on the 12-year-old naturally regenerating clear-cut. Although soil organic C (SOC) content was lower on the reforested mines than the regenerating forests, rates of SOC accumulation were greater on the mine sites, likely because the young mine lands were initially devoid of SOC and conditions were suitable for rapid sequestration. PMID:23332715
Littlefield, Tara; Barton, Chris; Arthur, Mary; Coyne, Mark
To evaluate the long-term effects of reforestation types on soil erosion on degraded land, vegetation and soil properties under conventional sloping farmland (CSF) and three different reforestation types including a Pinus massoniana secondary forest (PSF), an Eucommia ulmoides artificial economic forest (EEF) and a natural succession type forest (NST), were investigated at runoff plot scale over a six-year period in
Zhigang Huang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Fengrui Li; Hua Zheng; Xiaoke Wang
In this paper we discuss various aspects of global climate change as related to forests: the rate of deforestation; CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from deforestation; and reforestation as a means to control atmospheric CO/sub 2/. We also include for perspective a discussion of current policy considerations related to methods for reducing deforestation or promoting reforestation. 68 refs.
Attempts to accelerate reforestation in tropical montane forests have been ineffective. One of the greatest obstacles to reforestation is the restoration of depleted nutrient capital to facilitate forest growth. A natural source of allochthonous nutrients was sought to enhance the soil nutrient budget of the secondary forest and facilitate plant growth. Epiphytes catalyze the deposition of allochthonous nutrients in the
A mid altitude (700–1200 m amsl.) village in Garhwal Himalaya was analysed in terms of energy and economic efficiency of different\\u000a land use-land cover types constituting the landscape. Simultaneous agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, home garden and\\u000a community forests accounted for 27.47%, 27.47%, 1.1% and 43.96% of the total geographical area of the village. Simultaneous\\u000a agroforestry is the traditional land use involving
S. Nautiyal; R. K. Maikhuri; R. L. Semwal; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena
With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened
George R. Robinson; Steven N. Handel; Victoria R. Schmalhofer
The area occupied by Pinus pinaster in Portugal is rapidly diminishing because of forest fires. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form obligate, mutually beneficial associations with P. pinaster which improve plant growth and resistance to adverse conditions. The aim of this work was to assess whether native ectomycorrhizal fungi could be a useful tool in the reforestation of burned areas. The work was conducted
Nadine R. Sousa; Albina R. Franco; Miguel A. Ramos; Rui S. Oliveira; Paula M. L. Castro
Methanotrophs use methane (CH4) as a carbon source. They are particularly active in temperate forest soils. However, the rate of change of CH4 oxidation in soil with afforestation or reforestation is poorly understood. Here, soil CH4 oxidation was examined in New Zealand volcanic soils under regenerating native forests following burning, and in a mature native forest. Results were compared with
Loïc Nazaries; Kevin R Tate; Des J Ross; Jagrati Singh; John Dando; Surinder Saggar; Elizabeth M Baggs; Peter Millard; J Colin Murrell; Brajesh K Singh
Cultivation of black truffle, Tuber melanosporum Vitt., has become an important agricultural alternative in rural Mediterranean regions due to its success in relatively harsh conditions, its high market value and diminishing production in natural areas. In addition, truffle cultivation requires relatively low agricultural inputs, promotes reforestation and economic restoration of rural lands and land-use stability. However, there remain major issues
This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (...
The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) initiated in 1987 the Southern Africa Regional Agroforestry\\u000a Programme in partnership with the national research systems in Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania to address the problems\\u000a of low soil fertility and consequent low crop and livestock production, low cash income, and shortages of fuelwood and timber\\u000a that are common to most rural
F. Kwesiga; F. K. Akinnifesi; P. L. Mafongoya; M. H. McDermott; A. Agumya
Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accumulated in the agricultural landscape of\\u000a southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry\\u000a systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the\\u000a interactions between trees, crops and their below ground
The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.
Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.
The compatibility of using LANDSAT data for pastureland and reforestation studies was studied. The degradation of pastureland after deforestation was identified automatically using four indicators: the percentages of exposed soil, lateritic soil, types of...
P. H. Filho A. P. Dossantos E. M. L. Demoraesnovo Y. E. Shimabukuro V. Duarte
With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills\\u000a into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees\\u000a and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest.\\u000a However, among woody species that have been screened
George R. Robinson; Steven N. Handel; Victoria R. Schmalhofer
Growth and survival of mixed sex mud crabs Scylla serrata (Forskal), held in 200 m2 pens located in reforested mangrove tidal flats, were evaluated. The effects of stocking density (0.5 or 1.5 m?2) and feed (salted fish bycatch or a mixed diet of 75% salted brown mussel flesh and 25% salted fish bycatch) were determined in a replicated factorial experiment.
In the early 1980s, the province of Guangdong, China implemented a 10-year, large-scale reforestation program to counter environment degradation as a result of rapid economic development. Quantification of the contribution of this forest restoration program to carbon storage will provide critical information and guidance for designing future forest restoration and management strategies at the provincial level.The Guangdong Provincial Forest Inventory
The future of the agriculture in mountain areas constitutes an important stake for sustainable development in relation to\\u000a landscape functions and their role in local economies. This future depends highly on its ability to develop innovative and\\u000a multifunctional agricultural systems and to preserve its attractiveness for future generations. Encroachment and reforestation\\u000a of landscapes, which comes from land abandonment and extensification
C Monteil; C Simon; S Ladet; D Sheeren; M Etienne; A Gibon
Under the influence of socio–economic changes in many regions in Europe, a trend of decreasing agricultural activity has been observed since the Second World War. The resulting reforestation profoundly changes water and sediment supply to river channels, deposition rates on the floodplains and erosion rates on the hillslopes. We studied these changes in the 91 km2 Dragonja catchment in southwestern Slovenia.With
S. D. Keesstra; O. van Dam; G. Verstraeten; J. van Huissteden
Financial appraisal of agroforestry is not different in kind from appraisals applied to pure forestry. Existing techniques for valuing non-market effects may also be applied. Effects on hydrological and carbon fluxes might be less favourable than those of pure forests. In the confusing field of biodiversity valuation too, only limited and specific claims can be made for agroforestry. Amenity valuation
Reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is becoming a pressing issue for the global community. Afforestation and reforestation are promoted worldwide as an effective means of sequestering carbon. For its national interest and global concerns, China has made great efforts to protect its existing forests and develop programs of afforestation and reforestation. Based on two surveys recently conducted in Liping County, Guizhou province, this paper investigates the economic changes associated with the implementation of the "Grain For Green" policy. Based on the analytical framework of benefit cost analysis, this paper concludes that the implementation of the reforestation of sloping agricultural land policy would not be possible if there were no government subsidies for the peasants. The short term economic returns of land and labour from forestation are substantially lower than those generated from grain or cash crop production on the steep slope lands. The government subsidies provide great economic incentives for peasants to take part in the project. The subsidies in fact have elevated peasant income in rural Liping. The estimated potential economic returns of plantations over the long run indicate that the removal of the government financial subsidies would not create an economic crisis for the peasants if the current market conditions continue. PMID:17125905
Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205
The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.
In simultaneous agroforestry systems trees can compete with crops for water, especially in semi-arid areas. However, in the (sub)humid tropics, on P-fixing Oxisols\\/Ferralsols small decreases in soil water content caused a decrease in P-transport to roots and therewith a soil-drying induced P-deficiency.The aim of this study was to assess the spatial distribution of soil water content in crop fields bordering
An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil water extraction by trees in agroforestry systems has long been seen as an important step towards understanding their functioning. Traditional methods of soil moisture monitoring have been employed with some success but limitations in utilising them efficiently across both time and space have led to restrictions in their use. An
|Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…
Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in re...
Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...
Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems provides income until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops or intensive herbicidal control of vegetation in the alleys decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial...
A preliminary survey of seven coffee producing Awrajas (Provinces) in eastern Ethiopia revealed that there is a traditional tree crop based agroforestry system being practised by the farmers. Coffee (C. arabica) was found to grow under the shade of several trees, 16 species, usually intercropped by one or several, a total of 15, important grain, fruit, vegetable, stimulant, oil-seed and
Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),
Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke
|Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize…
Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569
The sustainability of agroforestry systems in Amazonia was assessed from their litter dynamics and decomposition. Litter fall and litter stocks were determined from July 1997 to March 1999 in four sites in central Amazonia: a primary rainforest, a 13-year-old secondary forest, and two sites of a polyculture forestry system which consisted of four planted tree species of commercial use amidst
Christopher Martius; Hubert Höfer; Marcos V. B. Garcia; Jörg Römbke; Werner Hanagarth
Water is the most limiting factor for plant production in arid to semiarid regions. In order to overcome this limitation surface runoff water can be used to supplement seasonal rainfall. During 1996 we conducted a runoff irrigated agroforestry field trial in the Turkana district of Northern Kenya. The effects of two different Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. Wendl. tree planting densities
K. J. DROPPELMANN; J. LEHMANN; J. E. EPHRATH; P. R. BERLINER
In the temperate zone, agroforestry systems come increasingly into focus as they offer an approach for the production of fuelwood, thus matching the increasing demand for a self-supply with bioenergy in rural decentralized areas. Because of the large area potential of marginal land, research activities aimed at a reliable estimation of the minimum productivity of fast–growing tree species under most
Holger Gruenewald; Barbara K. V. Brandt; B. Uwe Schneider; Oliver Bens; Gerald Kendzia; Reinhard F. Hüttl
The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.
Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.
Methanotrophs use methane (CH4) as a carbon source. They are particularly active in temperate forest soils. However, the rate of change of CH4 oxidation in soil with afforestation or reforestation is poorly understood. Here, soil CH4 oxidation was examined in New Zealand volcanic soils under regenerating native forests following burning, and in a mature native forest. Results were compared with data for pasture to pine land-use change at nearby sites. We show that following soil disturbance, as little as 47 years may be needed for development of a stable methanotrophic community similar to that in the undisturbed native forest soil. Corresponding soil CH4-oxidation rates in the regenerating forest soil have the potential to reach those of the mature forest, but climo-edaphic fators appear limiting. The observed changes in CH4-oxidation rate were directly linked to a prior shift in methanotrophic communities, which suggests microbial control of the terrestrial CH4 flux and identifies the need to account for this response to afforestation and reforestation in global prediction of CH4 emission.
Nazaries, Loic; Tate, Kevin R; Ross, Des J; Singh, Jagrati; Dando, John; Saggar, Surinder; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin; Singh, Brajesh K
We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils.
Singh, Brajesh K.; Tate, Kevin R.; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B.; Macdonald, Catriona A.; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J. Colin
This paper describes a multi-disciplinary project to examine the changing interactions between trees and crops as the trees in semi-arid agroforestry systems establish and mature; the project is one of the most detailed and highly instrumented long-term studies of tree and crop growth, system performance, resource capture, hydrology and microclimate ever carried out within an agroforestry context. Its primary objective
C. K. Ong; C. R. Black; J. S. Wallace; A. A. H. Khan; J. E. Lott; N. A. Jackson; S. B. Howard; D. M. Smith
Live fencing, an age old and traditional agroforestrypractice, remains relatively less understood and least documented at least in India. Exploratory surveys conducted in the northern part of the Eastern ghat region of India covering five districts of three states (Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Chhatisgarh), indicated that traditional farmers have vast knowledge about their live fencing practices and the species
There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are
Large areas of abandoned cropland in the world can be reforested with native shrubs and trees to gain a number of environmental benefits. In abandoned Mediterranean croplands, establishment and growth of woody plants are limited by high radiation and low water availability during summer, and weeds are strong competitors for resources, particularly water. We conducted a 3-year experiment in central
José M. Rey Benayas; Javier Navarro; Tíscar Espigares; José M. Nicolau; Miguel A. Zavala
Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds was matched up to fog occurrence and fog water yields. Additionally, a simple methodology was also found to transform fog water yields from the cylindrical collector into cumulative large flat-panel collector water catches by using wind sensor data. The method found allows an estimation of bulk fog-water catches at any single station of our fog collection network and the use of that information in future potential applications.
Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.
In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals. PMID:22834068
Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes. PMID:19000007
Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L
Both second-growth and agroforestry systems (AFs) have the potential for recovering thousands of abandoned pasturelands in\\u000a Amazon. The AFs may do it faster and, at the same time, produce direct economic benefits for farmers. Improved nutrient recycling\\u000a may be expected due to distinctive litter production in AFs, but lacks experimental data yet. The stocks of carbon and nutrients\\u000a of the
Sandra C. Tapia-Coral; Flávio J. Luizão; Elisa Wandelli; Erick C. M. Fernandes
Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value
\\u000a Agroforestry systems (AFS) based on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) may play an important role in capturing carbon (C) aboveground and storing it belowground (soil) through continuous deposition\\u000a of plant residues. Cacao AFS in Bahia, Brazil, are comprised of cacao planted either with woody species such as Erythrina spp. and Gliricidia spp. or under tree canopies in natural forest, the latter
E. F. Gama-Rodrigues; A. C. Gama-Rodrigues; P. K. Ramachandran Nair
Issues of food security, environmental degradation and global climate change underscore the need for the improved understanding of sustainable agricultural systems around the globe. The Quesungual slash-and-mulch agroforestry system (QSMAS) of western Honduras offers a promising alternative to traditional slash-and-burn (SB) agriculture for the mountainous tropical dry forest zones of Central America, but the overall influence of this system on
The hypothesis that temporal separation of resource use between trees and crops minimises competition for wa ter in agroforestry\\u000a systems during the cropping period and increases utilisation of annual rainfall was tested at Machakos in semi-arid Kenya.\\u000a Four popular tree species were chosen to provide a range of leafing phenologies. These included Melia volkensii, which sheds\\u000a its leaves twice a
This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.
During the 1980s, land- and labor-intensive simultaneous agroforestry systems (SAFS) were promoted in the tropics, based on\\u000a the optimism on tree-crop niche differentiation and its potential for designing tree-crop mixtures using high tree-densities.\\u000a In the 1990s it became clearer that although trees would yield crucial products and facilitate simultaneous growing of crops,\\u000a they would also exert strong competitive effects on
\\u000a While the biological and ecological role of agroforestry (AF) on climate change mitigation has received considerable research\\u000a attention lately, the role of socio-psychological factors in this context has been left largely unexplored. Socio-psychological\\u000a variables such as culture, demography, economy, and social values play important roles in farmers’ decision making with the\\u000a land management, which in turn influence the ability of
Subhrajit K. Saha; Taylor V. Stein; P. K. Ramachandran Nair; Michael G. Andreu
Large-scale intensification of smallholder cacao management is currently affecting the agroforestry landscapes of Sulawesi (Indonesia), the world’s third largest cacao producer. Little is known about how this shift from diverse plantations to full-sun cacao will affect functionally important biodiversity within the agroecosystem, and how this is related to landscape-wide patterns in land-use and natural ecosystems. We recorded birds in 43
In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect
Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe
As the population pressures in the upland increase, agroforestry is inevitably the most appropriate technology to enhance the productive and protective functions of farming systems to benefit both the people living inside and outside the watersheds in a suitable manner. Contour hedgerow is one of the agroforestry systems suitable for sloping uplands where farmers grow tree crops as hedgerows and
Crispina M. Rosales; Agustin R. Mercado; Charmaine Pailagao; Alfonso O. Garfia; Faye G. Rivera
Tree–understory competition is one of the most important aspects that control tree growth after reforestation. The relationship\\u000a between trees and the understory can be modified by improving acidic soils with lime and by fertilisation. This experiment\\u000a aims to evaluate the effect of soil improvements on the pasture–tree relationship by liming and fertilisation on different\\u000a dates in a Pinus radiata-reforested area.
M. R. Mosquera-Losada; R. Cuiña-Cotarelo; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez
Changes in land cover type can have significant impacts on regional climate responses through changes in biophysical surface properties, such as albedo. Global changes in surface albedo, or reflectivity, have played a dominant role in mid-latitude climate responses to land cover change in snow-covered regions during winter months. While many regions in the world have experienced a cooling effect from increased wintertime surface albedo over deforested snow-covered crop and pastureland, the region-wide reforestation of the northeastern US from 1850-2005 may have had a strong wintertime warming effect by decreasing regional snow-covered surface albedo. In this study, mean snow-covered surface albedo is calculated for sixteen land cover types in the northeastern US using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua 500-meter resolution annual land cover data and 500-meter daily snow cover and snow albedo datasets for winters 2001-2005. Mixed forest and deciduous broadleaf have the lowest surface snow-covered surface albedo of 0.19±0.11 and 0.19±0.10, respectively. Cropland and open shrubland have the highest snow-covered surface albedo of 0.55±0.16 and 0.55±0.21, respectively. Two land cover scenarios, (1) historical and (2) present-day, are used to estimate the change in the wintertime surface radiation budget over the period 1850-2005. In the historical land cover-scenario, all present-day (2005) MODIS mixed forest and deciduous broadleaf land cover types are converted to cropland, which represents a conservative upper limit (45%) to regional deforestation in 1850. Other studies estimate regional deforestation may have exceeded 80% of the total land area. The present-day land cover scenario utilizes the 2005 MODIS land cover types. The land cover change from predominantly deforested crop and pastureland in the mid-1800s to predominantly reforested mixed and deciduous broadleaf forest in 2005 led to a 35% regional decrease in snow-covered surface albedo from 0.41 in the historical land cover scenario to 0.27 in the present-day scenario. The decrease in surface albedo amounts to an average radiative forcing of +35 W/m2. A regional climate model informed by MODIS surface albedo values and land cover types could be used to estimate the regional climate responses to the 35% regional decrease in surface albedo.
Sediment reduction is frequently proposed to increase available phosphorus (P) but several studies found also decreases. Another\\u000a important factor for P liberation is the pH. We investigated the relative importance of Eh and pH on P cycling in reforested\\u000a mangroves. Sediment P compounds, pH and Eh were analysed over depth along five transects of two areas in the Saigon River
Julian F. Oxmann; Luitgard Schwendenmann; Rubén J. Lara
The Three Gorges Project (TGP) in the mountainous middle reach of the Yangtze River entailed large dam construction and farmland inundation by reservoir. Concurrently, national policy mandated defarming and reforesting extensive erosion-prone slope farmlands in the region. This study evaluated social-ecological impacts of two parallel land-cover change projects on farmland supply, carrying capacity, resettlement, and alternative employment. The integrated research
After a dramatic decrease in the 1950s, the forest area in China has been greatly increased. The forest coverage in China has rocketed from about 8.6% in 1950 to 18.21% at present. Most of the increased forest area are either afforested or reforested plantations. Forest plantation accounts for about 29% of the total forest area in 2000 and the total area ranks the first throughout the world. There are currently no national analyses on the impacts of afforestation and reforestation on carbon sequestration in China. In this study, we made a complete assessment to the changing carbon sequestration induced by forest plantation from 1950 to 2005 in China by using a Dynamic Land Ecosystem model (DLEM), which is a process-based model with coupled carbon, nitrogen and water cycling and is extensively validated in Asia and North America. Six experiments were designed: plantation area change only, environmental (Climate, nitrogen deposition and tropospheric ozone) change only, land use and land cover change (including plantation area change) only, and land use and land cover change and environmental change. The model simulation results were evaluated against the field data from five long-term monitoring sites in China. The simulated carbon storage under these experiments was compared. In addition, we have examined how water availability might limit the capacity of carbon sequestration in the afforested and reforested areas of China.
Public concerns over the environmental effects of global warming has stimulated an interest in land use practices, such as agroforestry, which may promote sequestration of soil organic carbon (C). The objective of this study was to examine the spatial variability of soil organic C pools in establis...
With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened for use on landfills, these ecological potentials have not yet been investigated. We examined a 14-yr-old landfill plantation in New Jersey, USA, established to test tolerance of 19 species of trees and shrubs to landfill environments. We measured survivorship, reproduction, and recruitment within and around the experimental installation. Half of the original 190 plants were present, although survival and growth rates varied widely among species. An additional 752 trees and shrubs had colonized the plantation and its perimeter, as well as 2955 stems of vines. However, the great majority (>95%) of woody plants that had colonized were not progeny of the planted cohort, but instead belonged to 18 invading species, mostly native, bird-dispersed, and associated with intermediate stages of secondary plant succession. Based on this evidence, we recommend that several ecological criteria be applied to choices of woody species for the restoration of municipal landfills and similar degraded sites, in order to maximize rapid and economical establishment of diverse, productive woodlands.
Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.; Schmalhofer, Victoria R.
The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.
Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950-53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982-2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r?=?0.54) and spatially (r?=?0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade(-1), perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development. PMID:23520541
Primary tropical forests are renowned for their high biodiversity and carbon storage, and considerable research has documented both species and carbon losses with deforestation and agricultural land uses. Economic drivers are now leading to the abandonment of agricultural lands, and the area in secondary forests is increasing. We know little about how long it takes for these ecosystems to achieve the structural and compositional characteristics of primary forests. In this study, we examine changes in plant species composition and aboveground biomass during eight decades of tropical secondary succession in Puerto Rico, and compare these patterns with primary forests. Using a well-replicated chronosequence approach, we sampled primary forests and secondary forests established 10, 20, 30, 60, and 80 years ago on abandoned pastures. Tree species composition in all secondary forests was different from that of primary forests and could be divided into early (10-, 20-, and 30-year) vs. late (60- and 80-year) successional phases. The highest rates of aboveground biomass accumulation occurred in the first 20 years, with rates of C sequestration peaking at 6.7 +/- 0.5 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Reforestation of pastures resulted in an accumulation of 125 Mg C/ha in aboveground standing live biomass over 80 years. The 80 year-old secondary forests had greater biomass than the primary forests, due to the replacement of woody species by palms in the primary forests. Our results show that these new ecosystems have different species composition, but similar species richness, and significant potential for carbon sequestration, compared to remnant primary forests. PMID:17494400
Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950–53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982–2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r?=?0.54) and spatially (r?=?0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade?1, perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development.
We examined the usefulness of elevated CO2 in the greenhouse to aid in early selection of genotypes and in the propagation of Populus tremuloides Michaux (aspen) and hybrid poplars for agroforestry, afforestation, or reclamation. Growth in elevated (800 ppm) vs ambient (375 ppm) CO2 for 95 days resulted in greater height (14%), stem caliper (16%), overall biomass, and proportional allocation
Kendall A. Tupker; Barb R. Thomas; S. Ellen Macdonald
In Minas Gerais, Brazil, Eucalyptus plantation agroforestry techniques for small farms appear to be an adequate alternative to small-scale plantations, and by integrating timber and food production, they can meet local demands for aliment and wood. Intercropping of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with rice and beans was studied to compare yields of intercropping and monocultures over 2 years. In the first year,
The shade impact by Inga densiflora on water use and drainage in a coffee agroforestry system (AFS) was compared to coffee monoculture (MC) in Costa Rica. Rainfall interception, transpiration, runoff and soil water content were monitored during 3 years. Runoff was lower in AFS than MC (5.4 and 8.4% of total rainfall, respectively) and a higher water infiltration was observed
P. Cannavo; J. Sansoulet; J.-M. Harmand; P. Siles; E. Dreyer; P. Vaast
Agroforestry in Australia and New Zealand is dominated by silvopastoralism. Farmers may employ combinations of shelterbelts, shade trees, widely spaced trees over pasture, or more densely planted woodlots. In addition to wood production and shelter, erosion control, amenity and landscape planting, and conservation of natural forest are often important. Many farm forestry people show considerable innovation.In temperate wetter areas of
Coconut (Cocos nucifera)-based agroforestry systems hold promise as a sustainable land use activity in the Melanesian islands, where food dependency on foreign sources and land shortages are increasing dramatically. This chapter describes the dynamics of these smallholder production systems in the Malo Island of northern Vanuatu (Melanesia), where a dual economy operates in which resources are dedicated to both subsistence
Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...
Water content reflectometers allow temporal and continuous assessment of spatial differences in soil water dynamics. We hypothesized\\u000a that volumetric soil water content estimated by the water content reflectometers (CS616 Campbell Sci. Inc., Logan, UT) is\\u000a influenced by clay content and temperature and therefore site- and or soil-specific equations are required for accurate estimations\\u000a of soil water. Objectives of the study
Ranjith P. UdawattaStephen; Stephen H. Anderson; Peter P. Motavalli; Harold E. Garrett
Measurement of transpiration is essential to assess plant water use efficiency. Applying Grainer method, this paper measured the sap flow of Choerospondias axillaries in an agro-forestrial system, aimed to evaluate the effects of intercropping and pruning on the diurnal variation of transpiration, and to relate the transpiration rate with climatic factors. The results showed that the diurnal variation of Choerospondias arillaries transpiration rate appeared in parabola, low in the morning and evening, and high at noon. The transpiration rate was closely related to leaf stomatal conductivity and soil water potential, especially the water potential in 100 cm soil depth (R = 0.737). The transpiration rate of Choerospondias axillaries was increased by about 40% approximately 160% in agro-forestrial system through the changes in regional environment and in the deep soil water use by tree. Correlation analysis and multi-factor successive regression analysis indicated that the transpiration was controlled by ray radiation intensity, air temperature and ground temperature, followed by the difference between saturated and actual vapor pressure and the wind speed. A statistical model for calculating the sap flow rate by micrometeorological factors was also provided. PMID:16471335
Recent analysis of paleoclimate proxies suggests that biomass burning by humans during the past eight millennia produced quantities of CO2 sufficient to counteract the effects of decreasing insolation driven by orbital variations and thus prevented ice sheet expansion. Correlation between periods of declining population and biomass burning, such as implied by the synchroneity of the American pandemics and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 16th-18th centuries, provides an important test of the extent to which pre-industrial anthropogenic activity affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget. Numerous studies have attributed the ~5 ppm decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration, as well as the synchronous ~0.1 per mil increase of the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 between 1500 and 1700 A.D., to the effects of Little Ice Age cooling. However, this interpretation is not supported by recent multiproxy-based surface temperature reconstructions, which demonstrate a diminutive global temperature anomaly of ~0.1 C that was unlikely to have independently produced the distinct effect observed in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Alternatively, it is possible that a decline in CO2 concentration driven by massive reforestation produced cooling as a by-product. The timing and magnitude of changes in both the concentration and carbon-isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 recorded by globally distributed climate proxies from the tropics (sponges), temperate latitudes (tree rings), and polar regions (ice cores) are compatible with fixation of >10 Gt C due to reforestation. Reforestation, which explains pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 variations between 1500 and 1700 A.D. in a manner more consistent with the global surface temperature record than explanations requiring substantial cooling, presumably occurred on lands that were cultivated and seasonally burned, then subsequently abandoned, by indigenous Americans who perished in pandemics during European conquest. The present proxy data point to reforestation in the wake of the American pandemic, with its consequent affects on atmospheric CO2, as unique in human history. These findings redefine the duration and extent of human activities affecting composition of the atmosphere during the past millennium. The anthropogenic influence on the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 since ~1800 A.D. is well documented by the exponential rise in concentration and simultaneous decline in ?13C of atmospheric CO2, but these recent trends represent dramatic reversals in the behavior of atmospheric CO2 concentration and ?13C prior to the Industrial Revolution between 1500 and 1700. During this time the concentration of atmospheric CO2 decreased and its ?13C increased due to land use changes resulting from pandemics that killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~50 million people).
In order to understand the effects of landscape heterogeneity induced by habitat restoration and landform change on the biodiversity in degraded landscapes, an investigation by using light trap was conducted on the geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) diversity in the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats in three villages at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau in 2006 and 2007. There existed significant differences in the species richness and individual number of geometrid moth between cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats and in the species richness of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes, but no significant differences in the individual number of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes and in the standardized sparseness index and Fisher' s alpha index between the villages and between the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats within each village. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) indicated that the community structure of geometrid moth in different habitats and at different altitudes differed significantly. This study indicated that the landscape heterogeneity induced by land-form change had significant effects on the community structure and diversity of geometrid moth on Bashang Plateau, and, both cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats were the important habits for geometrid moth. It was suggested that to protect the landscape mosaics containing cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats across the varied landform of Bashang Plateau would have significances in the conservation of high gamma-diversity of geometrid moth, but whether the reforestation and creation of semi-natural habitats could improve the biodiversity of geometrid moth should be monitored in long term. PMID:22720626
Many environmental benefits have been attributed to agroforestry systems in various ecosystems around the world. However,\\u000a there is a limited amount of information to evaluate this agricultural system in the semi-arid region, specifically in the\\u000a region of Ceará, Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate five agricultural (four agroforestry and one conventional)\\u000a systems in order to test the
Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia; Francisco Alisson S. Xavier; Teógenes Senna Oliveira; Eduardo Sá Mendonça; João A. Araújo Filho
Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.<\\/i><\\/div>
The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI)
We applied CP MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy and radiocarbon modeling to soil C density fractions to track changes in the quality and turnover of C with forest regrowth on former pasturelands. Our results showed that inter-aggregate, unattached particulate organic C (free light fraction) and C located inside soil aggregates (occluded light fraction) represent distinct soil C pools. The signal intensity of the O-alkyl region, representing cellulose, decreased with mineral-association, while alkyl C, attributed to waxy compounds and microbially resynthesized lipids, increased from the free to the occluded light fractions. The alkyl/O-alkyl ratio changed consistently with changes in C-to-N and ?15N across different land cover types, and thus appears to be a reliable index of humification. In contrast to cellulose, proteins, lipids and lignin did not show any consistent trends, suggesting different controls on their decomposition. Greater variability in the chemical makeup of the occluded light fraction suggests that it represents material in different stages of decay. Mean residence times (MRT) of the free light C were significantly shorter (4.3 ± 0.5 yrs) than for the occluded fraction (7.3 ± 0.8 yrs). The occluded fraction in active pastures and secondary forests in the earliest stage of succession had shorter MRT than in primary forests and older secondary forests, which would be explained by lower aggregate stability and faster cycling rates in disturbed versus undisturbed soils. The mineral associated C in the disturbed soils had slower cycling C (MRT = 98.9 ± 10.6 yrs) than the undisturbed sites (65.8 ± 2.1 yrs), most likely due to a preferential loss of labile C in the first. Incorporation of C into soil aggregates afforded some protection from decomposition, but the main mechanism of stabilization was direct mineral association. As the sorptive capacity of a soil is dependent on its mineral composition, it appears that the Oxisols at our sites have reached their maximum C storage capacity. This may explain their resiliency to land-use change and why we have observed no significant accumulation of soil C despite large increases in aboveground biomass with reforestation.
Marín-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Swanston, C. W.; Torn, M. S.; Burton, S. D.
Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.
Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.
The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...
Unique data on hydrologic effects of tropical reforestation and human-use.Clear evidence for the "infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off hypothesis" in relation to hydrologic services.Comprehensive paper on hydrology of Western Ghats, a globalbiodiversity hotspot.Hydrologic processes and recharge to ground-water across land-coveranalyzed using multiple approaches and spatial scales.
A health hazard evaluation determination performed at the Klamath Reforestation tree farm facility revealed that the Thiram levels in the breathing zone air levels of tree planters, during the actual planting of Thiram-treated trees were lower than the le...
Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670
Enhancement of root development helps to improve soil physical properties, carbon sequestration, and water quality of streams.\\u000a The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in root length density (RLD) and root and soil carbon content within\\u000a grass buffer (GB), agroforestry buffer (AgB), rotationally grazed pasture (RG) and continuously grazed pasture (CG) treatments.\\u000a Pasture and GB areas included red
Sandeep KumarRanjith; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Stephen H. Anderson
A ten-year-study (1983 to 1992) conducted on nine 15 90 m runoff plots at 4% slope compared production efficiency of Leucaena\\u000a leucocephala and Eucalyptus hybrid based agroforestry as well as monocropping landuse systems in the warm, subhumid climate\\u000a of the western Himalayan region of India. Treatments for the first sequence were: monocropping systems of leucaena, eucalyptus,\\u000a Chrysopogon fulvus grass and
Pratap Narain; R. K. Singh; N. S. Sindhwal; P. Joshie
Soil erosion in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin is a serious concern over sustainable crop production and sound ecosystem.\\u000a A 3-year experiment was conducted using the method of runoff plots to examine the effects of terracing and agroforestry in\\u000a farmland systems on soil and water conservation of slope fields in the hilly areas in Jianyang County, Sichuan Province, Southwestern
Faidherbia albida is an ideal agroforestry tree commonly intercropped with annual crops like millet and groundnuts in the dry and densely populated\\u000a areas of Africa. With its peculiar reverse phenology, it makes growth demands at a different time from that of crops. In addition,\\u000a it deposits great amount of organic fertilizer on food crops. Leaves entering soils are comparable to
Neo C. Mokgolodi; Moffat P. Setshogo; Ling-ling Shi; Yu-jun Liu; Chao Ma
The Australian Master TreeGrower Porgram is a comprehensive outreach and extension package that aims to ensure that the development of agroforestry is driven by the aspirations and opportunities of farmers and supported by the interests of industry, governments and community groups. By the end of 2004, sixty-three regional Master TreeGrower landholder education programs had been conducted involving over 1240 participants
The decomposition of leaves from Cordia africana Lam. and Albizia gummifera G. F.Gmel was investigated during the wet and dry seasons at Wondo Genet (Ethiopia). Litterbags of leaves were buried in\\u000a soils under farmland and shaded-coffee agroforestry systems. Residual matter was recovered after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks and\\u000a analysed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), cellulose, lignin, soluble
Biodiversity in Eastern Madagascar is threatened by slash and burn agriculture, which is resulting in species extinction,\\u000a land and soil degradation and rural impoverishment. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken to determine the domestication\\u000a potential of indigenous fruit tree species as components of agroforestry systems. Four major selection criteria were used:\\u000a nutritional and income needs of the population, diversification of the
E. Styger; J. E. M. Rakotoarimanana; R. Rabevohitra; E. C. M. Fernandes
The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have important implications for the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., C sequestration, soil fertility, and plant production) by tropical agroforestry systems. PMID:20597290
The second in a 2 volume set of guides to practical books and plans for village and small community technology, with over 500 annotated references in print in 1980/1. The forestry section includes material on deforestation, conservation, reforestation, firewood crops, agroforestry, timber drying and the safe use of chain saws. Improved cooking stoves and charcoal kilns are covered in another section, and there is also a section on aquaculture. A glossary and a general index are included.
Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840
Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.
By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778
The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.
The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)--an individual-based model--to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation. PMID:20967444
This research refers to an object-based automatic method combined with a national expert validation to produce regional and national forest cover change statistics over Congo Basin. A total of 547 sampling sites systematically distributed over the whole humid forest domain are required to cover the six Central African countries containing tropical moist forest. High resolution imagery is used to accurately estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and regeneration. The overall method consists of four steps: (i) image automatic preprocessing and preinterpretation, (ii) interpretation by national expert, (iii) statistic computation and (iv) accuracy assessment. The annual rate of net deforestation in Congo Basin is estimated to 0.09% between 1990 and 2000 and of net degradation to 0.05%. Between 2000 and 2005, this unique exercise estimates annual net deforestation to 0.17% and annual net degradation to 0.09%. An accuracy assessment reveals that 92.7% of tree cover (TC) classes agree with independent expert interpretation. In the discussion, we underline the direct causes and the drivers of deforestation. Population density, small-scale agriculture, fuelwood collection and forest's accessibility are closely linked to deforestation, whereas timber extraction has no major impact on the reduction in the canopy cover. The analysis also shows the efficiency of protected areas to reduce deforestation. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on the reduction in CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and serve as reference for the period. PMID:23504894
Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.
Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine
Between October 1988 and August 1992, field experiments were carried out in West Kenya to evaluate the suitability of Leucaena leucocephala, L. collinsii, Gliricidia sepium, Calliandra calothyrsus, Sesbania sesban, S. grandiflora, Senna siamea and S. spectabilis to provide a range of agroforestry products and services. The initial objective was to establish the growth rates and wood and leaf yields of
A. M Heineman; H. J. O Otieno; E. K Mengich; B. A Amadalo
In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents
B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya
We report the case of a landslide of hydrocarbon exploration well "Sunuapa 401" located in Chiapas, Mexico. First were identified the determinants and triggers factors (morphology, geology, rain, seismic and volcanic activity, human activity, etc); second we assessed the threat, vulnerability and risk from geotechnical stability analysis (safety factor and critical failure surface); third, by using the methodology of valuation factors, stabilization processes were selected and designed, and finally they were built by Petróleos Mexicanos, in order to avoid a disaster (environmental, ecological and social). These construction processes included drainage elements, flattening and benching of slopes, piles barrier and anchors, shotcrete and reforestation.
Simultaneous cropping of maize withGliricidia<\\/span>sepium<\\/span> and relay cropping of maize withSesbania<\\/span>sesban<\\/span> are the twoagroforestry<\\/span>systems for soil fertility improvement which fit well within the small land holdings in the densely populated southern part of<\\/span>Malawi<\\/span><\\/st1:place><\\/st1:country-region>, in Sub Saharan Africa. These systems have been promoted because of their postulated beneficial effects,i.c<\\/span>. provision of
Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.
van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.
Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...
\\u000a Abstract Agroforestry systems using Eucalyptus for biomass production are important alternatives for small farms in the southeast of Brazil because they integrate timber\\u000a and food production while reducing the environmental impact of large plantations. In this article, I studied the intercropping\\u000a of Eucalyptus urophylla with rice and beans for two years to compare yields using intercropping versus monocultures. During the first
Coffea arabica F1 hybrids derived from crosses between wild Sudan-Ethiopian and American cultivars and propagated by somatic embryogenesis\\u000a have been obtained in Central America. These new hybrids considerably enhanced the genetic diversity of coffee in the region.\\u000a We conducted 15 trials to assess whether using hybrids represents substantial genetic progress in terms of productivity in\\u000a agroforestry and full-sun cropping systems.
B. Bertrand; E. Alpizar; L. Lara; R. SantaCreo; M. Hidalgo; J. M. Quijano; C. Montagnon; F. Georget; H. Etienne
The selection and use of appropriate plant materials to maintain a sufficiently high nutrient supply to meet crop needs remains\\u000a a major challenge of nutrient management under low input systems. Therefore, research on plant biomass quality as it relates\\u000a to decomposition and nutrient release has become imperative. This research was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Station\\u000a of the Kwame Nkrumah
S. T. Partey; S. J. Quashie-Sam; N. V. Thevathasan; A. M. Gordon
Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems\\u000a upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the\\u000a current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder\\u000a setting. Required measures to respond to
Ian K. Dawson; Barbara Vinceti; John C. Weber; Henry Neufeldt; Joanne Russell; Ard G. Lengkeek; Antoine Kalinganire; Roeland Kindt; Jens-Peter B. Lillesø; Jim Roshetko; Ramni Jamnadass
The relationship of branch cross sectional area (CS) to leaf biomass (LM) and leaf area (LA) was studied in three agroforestry tree species,Calliandra calothyrsus Maissn.,Erythrina berteroana Urban andErythrina poeppigiana (Walpers) O.F. Cook, to develop a non-destructive method for the estimation of LM and LA for trees managed with periodic pruning. Variation in these relationships was observed according to the bifurcation
1.Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) is the cultivation of trees and arable crops on the same parcel of land. SAF may contribute to modern diversified land use objectives in Europe, such as enhanced biodiversity and productivity, reduced leaching of nitrogen, protection against flooding and erosion, and attractiveness of the landscape. Long-term yield predictions are needed to assess long-term economic profitability of SAF.2.A
Wopke van der Werf; Karel Keesman; Paul Burgess; Anil Graves; David Pilbeam; L. D. Incoll; Klaas Metselaar; Martina Mayus; Roel Stappers; Herman van Keulen; João Palma; Christian Dupraz
Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...
Although traditional farming systems in southern Africa encompassed a remarkable agro- biodiversity, this has been eroded over time through national and international policies that promoted monocultures and chemical inputs. Such policies have served as disincentives for adoption of low-input agricultural practices. Deforestation, overgrazing and cultivation of land unsuitable for agriculture are increasing at an alarming rate. As a result land
G. Sileshi; P. W. Matakala; F. K. Akinnifesi; O. C. Ajayi
Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...
The potential of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) to impact human and environmental health requires the development and evaluation\\u000a of land management practices that mitigate VA loss from manure-treated agroecosystems. Vegetative buffer strips (VBS) are\\u000a postulated to be one management tool that can reduce VA transport to surface water resources. The objectives of this study\\u000a were to (1) investigate oxytetracycline (OTC) and
Bei Chu; Keith W. Goyne; Stephen H. Anderson; Chung-Ho Lin; Ranjith P. Udawatta
Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059
Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.
Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.
van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.
The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…
This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945
Despite the abundance and diversity of timber tree legumes in the West African rainforest, their ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules in symbiosis with rhizobia, and their response to rhizobial inoculation, remain poorly documented. In the first part of this study the occurrence of nodulation was determined in 156 leguminous species growing in six natural forest areas in Guinea, mostly mature trees. In the second part, an in situ experiment of rhizobial inoculation was performed on eight selected tree species belonging to three genera: Albizia, Erythrophleum and Millettia. Of the 97 plant species and 14 genera that had never been examined before this study, 31 species and four genera were reported to be nodulated. After 4 months of growing in a nursery and a further 11 months after transplantation of plants to the field, we observed a highly significant (P < 0.001) and positive effect of inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. strains on the growth of the eight tree species tested. The importance of determining the nodulation ability of unexplored local trees and subsequently using this information for inoculation in reforestation programmes was demonstrated. PMID:15760366
Diabate, Moussa; Munive, Antonio; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Ba, Amadou; Dreyfus, Bernard; Galiana, Antoine
Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.
Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.
Abstract Sumatra holds extremely high biodiversity, yet its biodiversity is some of the most endangered on Earth, threatened by rapid deforestation. Despite their protected status, some national parks in Indonesia are under severe threatof deforestation due to lack of support from local governments,and communities. Batang Gadis National Park (BGNP) is one of the first national parks established through a “bottom-up”
Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy
Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.
Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.
Losses of carbon (C) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are challenges that scientists and policy makers have been facing in the recent past. Intensified agricultural practices lead to a reduction in ecosystem carbon stocks, mainly due to removal of aboveground biomass as harvest and loss of carbon as CO2 through burning and\\/or
Patrick K. Mutuo; G. Cadisch; A. Albrecht; C. A. Palm; L. Verchot
The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms
A participatory process approach in research and scholarship is proposed in the context of the postmodern movement and a disciplinary emphasis on practice. Two sequential studies are presented to illustrate praxis in nursing in which health is expanding consciousness. A framework of personal practice was developed from the first study and reconceptualized in the second as a process of modeling practice involving partnership, dialogue, pattern recognition, and health as dialectic. This praxis illustrates the merging of theory, practice and research as practice wisdom. Health and caring can be seen as the same process. PMID:10634188
|This serial issue contains nine articles all on the subject of "changing practice," i.e., innovative practices of rural English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Byte-ing into Medieval Literature" (John Fyler) describes an online conference on medieval literature for rural high school students. "Literacy in Cattle Country" (Dan…
|Suggests that those who work with collegiate student publications must understand and practice freedom of the press on their campuses. Provides evidence for this argument from a survey of college publications advisers. (RL)|
Results are presented of a survey of the state of the art of camouflage, comprising examination of literature on the subject and interviews with persons working in the field. The practice of camouflage is reviewed under seven headings: principles, locatio...
Laser treatment is now state-of-the-art in many disciplines of dentistry and is rapidly being recognized as the standard of care for many procedures. Seamless, efficient, and successful integration of lasers into a dental practice takes time and effort on the part of the dentist. Restructuring of fee schedules to reflect superior laser-based care and an internal and external marketing plan are essential for the dentist to recoup his or her investment in this new technology. Training the staff in laser technology and becoming familiar with new reimbursement codes (for medical and dental insurance) may become necessary. The mission statement and practice philosophy of providing superior care with less discomfort now can be realized with the integration of lasers into a dental practice. PMID:11048279
Front-page articles in science and education periodicals and journals give voice to the growing concern that scores on nationwide science exams have either declined or, at best, have had a minute increase even after several years of pushing for better science learning. With this reality facing science education, being knowledgeable about some best practices in science instruction is important.
Consulting for a moment such luminaries as Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. King, Cesar Chavez--I would say that personal revelation is not less necessary to radical change than public revolution. Amen? "Backing Away From The Product" really has to be both a spiritual practice and a public embarrassment so extreme that its witnesses won't stop talking about it…
The Proceedings of a Comminution Practices Symposium held February 24-27, 1997 in Denver Colorado are presented. The symposium covered such topics as: grinding circuits; comminution process control and instrumentation; high pressure grinding rolls; fine grinding; recycling; and mill design. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Currently, in those four states` primary coal counties, some 5,000 to 6,000 acres are surface-mined each year. Since 1977, when Congress passed the landmark Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA), coal-mining companies have been required to refill the cuts they make and return the earth`s surface to approximately its original contours. Reclamation here means to aggressively-and literally-lay the groundwork for future cultivation of these lands. SMCRA calls for detailed reclamation plans before mining takes place, backed later by evaluations of how vegatation progresses up until the time of bond release-five years after mining ends. And though SMCRA has succeeded in improving the aesthetic appeal of post-mined sites, it does nothing to ensure that the most appropriate land use will be implemented for the long run.
The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying
This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about the practice of interdisciplinary research. We explore the practical difficulties of interdisciplinary research in the context of a regional- or local-scale project. We posit four barriers to interdisciplinarity that are common across many disciplines and draw on our own experience and on other sources to explore how these barriers are manifested. Values enter into scientific theories and data collection through scientists' hidden assumptions about disciplines other than their own, through the differences between quantitative and interpretive social sciences, and through roadblocks created by the organization of academia and the relationship between academics and the larger society. Participants in interdisciplinary projects need to be self-reflective about the value judgments embedded in their choice of variables and models. They should identify and use a core set of shared concerns to motivate the effort, be willing to respect and to learn more about the other, be able to work with new models and alternative taxonomies, and allow for plurality and incompleteness.
SHARACHCHANDRA LÃÂÃÂLÃÂÃÂ and RICHARD B. NORGAARD (;)
Mindful practitioners attend in a nonjudgmental way to their own physical and mental processes during ordinary, everyday tasks. This critical self-reflection enables physicians to listen attentively to patients' distress, recognize their own errors, refine their technical skills, make evidence-based decisions, and clarify their values so that they can act with compassion, technical competence, presence, and insight. Mindfulness informs all types of professionally relevant knowledge, including propositional facts, personal experiences, processes, and know-how, each of which may be tacit or explicit. Explicit knowledge is readily taught, accessible to awareness, quantifiable and easily translated into evidence-based guidelines. Tacit knowledge is usually learned during observation and practice, includes prior experiences, theories-in-action, and deeply held values, and is usually applied more inductively. Mindful practitioners use a variety of means to enhance their ability to engage in moment-to-moment self-monitoring, bring to consciousness their tacit personal knowledge and deeply held values, use peripheral vision and subsidiary awareness to become aware of new information and perspectives, and adopt curiosity in both ordinary and novel situations. In contrast, mindlessness may account for some deviations from professionalism and errors in judgment and technique. Although mindfulness cannot be taught explicitly, it can be modeled by mentors and cultivated in learners. As a link between relationship-centered care and evidence-based medicine, mindfulness should be considered a characteristic of good clinical practice. PMID:10478689
The most important goal of introducing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been to decrease the need for intubation and, therefore, mechanical ventilation in newborns. As a result, this technique may reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In addition to nasal CPAP, improvements in sensors and flow delivery systems have resulted in the introduction of a variety of other types of NIV. For the optimal application of these novelties, a thorough physiological knowledge of mechanics of the respiratory system is necessary. In this overview, the modern insights of noninvasive respiratory therapy in newborns are discussed. These aspects include respiratory support in the delivery room; conventional and modern nCPAP; humidified, heated, and high-flow nasal cannula ventilation; and nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Finally, an algorithm is presented describing common practice in taking care of respiratory distress in prematurely born infants.
The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) has been working in the African Humid Tropics (AHT) since 1987. Despite its natural wealth, small-scale farmers of AHT are among the poorest people in the world and have relied on extractive harvesting of forest products and traditional shifting cultivation for their food and other needs. After years of severe deforestation, alternatives now have to
Z. TCHOUNDJEU; E. K. ASAAH; P. ANEGBEH; A. DEGRANDE; P. MBILE; C. FACHEUX; A. TSOBENG; A. R. ATANGANA; M. L. NGO-MPECK; A. J. SIMONS
This paper analyses the relationship between the theory and practice of the art of teaching as experienced by the author during a period of teaching practice in a school of nursing. It examines such concepts as 'aims', 'objectives', 'scheme of work' and 'lesson plans' and sets these in the context of practical classroom teaching. PMID:3639891
|This practice article explores the relationship between practice and professional learning. Are these two distinctly separate activities, competing for the time of a staff member, or are practice and learning linked? If so, what is the nature of this link and how can we best align professional learning with practice outcomes? Using an example…
Lack of consensus on a paradigm for practice inhibits the cumulative development of practical knowledge and skills. It also encourages devolution of these and other paradigm functions by default to the established paradigm in the policy movement, reductionism, which includes positive methodology. But reductionism is insufficient for practice. It tends to displace practical aims and expectations, and discount and delegitimize
Social workers whose practice models are not empirically based rely on a large store of practice wisdom in treating their clients. Single-system research can be used to begin testing, and perhaps validating, much of this practice wisdom. This article considers why such a research strategy is desirable. It then suggests a generic structure and language for practice that could help
|Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…
Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…
... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...
Literate Statistical Practice (LSP) is an method for statistical practice which suggests that documentation and specication occur at the same time as statistical coding. It applies literate programming Knuth (1992) to the practice of statistics. We discuss 2 dierent approaches for LSP, one currently implemented using Emacs with Noweb and Emacs Speaks Statistics (ESS), and the other developed based on
Theories of social practice point to a wide domain of largely tacit social accommodations as the source from which the dynamic structures of social practices are sedimented. The strategy-as-practice initiative seeks to use these insights to widen our appreciation of the origins and evolution of strategy in organizations. This ar ticle suggests that this domain, and its components, can be
|This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…
|In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices submitted in the 2012 Training Top 125 application. Best practices: (1) Edward Jones: Practice Makes Perfect (sales training); (2) Grant Thornton LLP: Senior Manager Development Program (SMDP); (3) MetLife, Inc.: Top Advisor…
|Explains why content related to role acquisition and transition is critical in preparing advanced practice nurses. Recommends teaching strategies and timing and placement options for role content in graduate education. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)|
With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website YouTube. YouTube can be understood as a disordered public video archive
The subtle biases women face in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields have been the subject of many studies and initiatives in recent years. Many programs hoping to increase the numbers of women in these fields and to contribute to women's advancement have focused on identifying and remedying gendered institutional barriers and practices that ultimately disadvantage women. This dissertation
By constructing a weighted soil quality index that also incorporates measures of soil ... profit function to directly relate agricultural profits and soil quality. ... intensity, private ownership, land fragmentation, and familiarity with soil conservation as ...
Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the
|Action research changes people's practices, their understandings of their practices, and the conditions under which they practice. It changes people's patterns of "saying", "doing" and "relating" to form new patterns--new ways of life. It is a meta-practice: a practice that changes other practices. It transforms the sayings, doings and relating…
The fast-growing Central American tree Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Le- guminosae: Mimosoidaeae) has been widely planted in the tropics since the 1970s for agro-forestry, reforestation, and fodder. Since the mid-1980s the tree has suffered serious damage throughout its exotic range from the psyllid Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, which is also native to Central America. This article summarizes field studies on
|Resilience is normally sought in the child, family and the community. It is a complex term that needs to be understood in context. This paper seeks to locate and trace resilience in the practitioner. It also examines how practitioners foster resilient interventions. A number of practice examples, taken from the author's own practice experience,…
|This paper argues that an emerging framework for studying social episodes known as "positioning theory" is a rich tool for practical reasoning. After giving an outline of the Aristotelian conception of practical reason, recently developed by Alasdair MacIntyre, it is argued that positioning theory should be seen not as a detached, scientific…
|This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice"…
This paper discusses some of the causes of boredom in psychiatric practice. It also describes how many psychiatric conditions can have boring facets to them, which can lead to difficulties in treatment and "burn-out" in the therapist. Finally, some practical suggestions are given to help avoid and deal with boredom. PMID:6478389
Nurses’ informal teaching practices have been viewed as secondary to formal teaching. This article places them at the centre of professional nursing practice. On the basis of extended observation of 12 experienced surgical nurses, I assert they teach inexperienced physicians as well as patients, that their teaching is planned but more often informal and embedded in other work, and that
This chapter explores the discovery of new or enhanced theory within the action research process. Action research is an empirical research method with two purposes: (1) to solve an immediate practical problem, and (2) to develop new scientific knowledge. Action research projects sometimes succeed at the first, but fail at the second. The highly practical nature of action research sometimes
Three issues concerning the relationship between research and practice are addressed. (1) A certain 'prototype mathematics classroom' seems to dominate the research field, which in many cases seems selective with respect to what practices to address. I suggest challenging the dominance of the discourse created around the prototype mathematics classroom. (2) I find it important to broaden the school-centred discourse
Resilience is normally sought in the child, family and the community. It is a complex term that needs to be understood in context. This paper seeks to locate and trace resilience in the practitioner. It also examines how practitioners foster resilient interventions. A number of practice examples, taken from the author's own practice experience,…
This paper is an edited transcript of a panel discussion on ‘Landscape, Mobility and Practice’ which was held at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Annual Conference in September 2006. In the paper the panel engage with the work of geographers and others who have been drawing upon theories of practice to explore issues of mobility
Peter Merriman; George Revill; Tim Cresswell; Hayden Lorimer; David Matless; Gillian Rose; John Wylie
Abstract This study examines the findings from 174 case studies of innovative pedagogical practices using technology from 28 participatingcountries. The study looks at how classrooms world- wide are using technology to change the practices of teachers and students. Within many of these classrooms, the use of technologicaltools and resources supports students as they search for information, design products, and publish
|Assessment is more than simply ascribing an 'A' or a 'B' to a particular student achievement. In an era of state-mandated proficiencies and alternative assessment strategies, educators need practical ideas they can use to meaningfully assess their students' learning and their own practice. This issue of "ENC Focus" centers on the topic of inquiry…
The role of sibutramine as an effective adjunct to diet and exercise in weight management programmes has been proven in clinical trials. Although the reality of managing obesity in clinical practice is very different from that of a controlled clinical trial, there is good evidence that sibutramine is an easy-to-use and highly effective additional therapy when used in everyday practice
This article explores the possibility of a new paradigm of media research which understand media, not as texts or structures of production, but as practice. Drawing on recent moves towards a theory of practice in sociology, this paradigm aims to move beyond old debates about media effects and the relative importance of political economy and audience interpretation, at the same
|"Do what's best for kids!" The author's former principal said this often when they discussed media program needs. Media specialists can make media centers places where students and teachers want to be. This article looks at everyday, attainable, common sense best practices. These everyday best practices require time, energy, new ways of thinking,…
It is questionable whether the Evidence-Based Healdi Care model, whereby end users appraise all potentially pertinent information, is sustainable. A shift to an Evidence-Based Practice model, featuring a new medical knowledge base infrastructure facilitating rapid translation of clinical research into practice should be embraced. This shift would offer new opportunities for health sciences librarians. In this article, the authors: (1)
The term “Best Practice” is a key term for all educators to know. There are many facets to “Best Practice” at every level dealing with student learning, student behavior, student development, student motivation, and much, much more. The educational research giving the evidences of what works and what doesn’t work in classrooms is substantial. This workshop will give teachers and
In September 2009, OC LC Re search in San Mateo, California, USA, commissioned environmental impact consultants fro m California Environmental Associates to conduct a three-month study of current interlibrary lending practices. Their assignment was to det ermine the greenhouse gas emissions associated with specific ILL practices and recommend affordable improvements that will lessen the system-wide impact of resource sh aring
This is a report of a study on the practice of Neurology in the United States. The study, is intended to provide practice-relevant information to guide decision making in both educational program development and manpower planning. This report describes th...
|In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…
This pair of videos (8 min and 10 min) and accompanying text illustrate various strategies for providing mental skills practice that is brief, interesting, useful, and effective. They include examples of teachers working with their students in group settings as well as narrative elaboration by Paul Goldenburg. Two related articles (Practice and Fact of the day) are cataloged separately.
This session is for students to practice the physics subject matter GRE exam. Guidance on taking the exam will be given. The students will be furnished a collection of problems taken from previous exams. Students will practice a couple problems and discuss the underlying physics knowledge and strategies that relate to these problems.
|Policy influences practice. Policy has the capacity to strengthen practice by demanding accountability for both process and results through clear expectations as well as deliberate sanctions for failure to meet those expectations. Policies can also provide resources to meet expectations. In this article, the authors discuss how several national…
Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment
Descriptive and statistical analyses of the characteristics of gastroenterologists' practices in the United States are provided by this University of Southern California medical research study. Data reveal an overrepresentation of gastroenterologists in l...
... Attachment B: Clinical Safety Review of an NDA or BLA of the Good Review Practice: Clinical Review Template (MAPP 6010.3 Rev. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances
The University of Southern California School of Medicine's Division of Research in Medical Education (USC/DRME) is conducting a nationwide study of practicing physicians in more than 20 medical and surgical specialties. The study's purpose is to provide a...
Policies and procedures established to insure equitable and uniform treatment of employees are set forth by the North Shore Health Planning Council, Peabody, Massachusetts. Recruitment and hiring practices are described relative to qualifications for empl...
It is time to challenge the issue of pleasure associated with the core of medical practice. Its importance is made clear through\\u000a its opposite: unhappiness—something which affects doctors in a rather worrying way. The paper aims to provide a discussion\\u000a on pleasure on reliable grounds. Plato’s conception of techne is a convenient model that offers insights into the unique practice
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To provide a picture of the unique role and competencies of family practice registered nurses (FP-RNs). DESIGN Case-study approach using interviews and focus groups. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven FP-RNs identified as exemplary by family medicine and nursing peers. METHODS An e-mail was sent to 9200 health care providers from nursing and family medicine, asking them to identify names of exemplary family practice nurses. Using a purposive sampling methodology, 7 exemplary FP-RNs were selected, taking into consideration the number of years in practice as a nurse, location of practice, length of practice as an FP-RN, and type of family practice. Individual interviews were held, and focus groups were organized with colleagues. Narratives were analyzed iteratively by the project team. MAIN FINDINGS Four main themes emerged: The first theme relates to the relationship-centred approach to care delivered by FP-RNs, founded upon trust. The second theme highlights the FP-RN’s unique skills in balancing the priorities of patients, colleagues, and the clinic as a whole. The third theme capitalizes on the nurses’ commitment to advancing their learning to enhance their abilities to be FP-RNs. The fourth theme illuminates the perspectives shared by FP-RNs that family practice is uniquely different from acute care in the manner in which care is delivered. We draw attention to the approach and role of FP-RNs in Ontario. The 4 themes that emerged have striking similarities to stories shared by family physicians and to the evolutionary development of the discipline of family medicine. CONCLUSION We believe the findings from this paper can help shape the role of the FP-RN within clinical practice and that they will propagate discussion among nursing educators to consider the necessary educational preparation required to develop the FP-RNs needed in this country.
Health Issue There are differences in health practices and self-rated health among different socio-demographic groups of women. The relationship between socio-demographic status and a) a range of health behaviours and b) a combination of multiple risk and multiple health promoting practices were examined. The relationship between self-rated health and health practices was also assessed. Key Findings There were geographic differences in health practices with women in British Columbia having the highest odds of engaging in multiple health promoting practices, while women in Quebec had the lowest. Reports of engaging in multiple risk behaviours were most common in Ontario. Women from Ontario had the highest odds of reporting very good/excellent health and women from British Columbia had among the lowest odds. The data supported a strong social gradient between an increase in income/education and healthy practices, especially those that are health promoting. However, women with higher education were more likely to be overweight and those with higher incomes were more likely to drink alcohol regularly. Immigrant women were less likely to engage in multiple health risk practices compared to Canadian-born women. However, they were less likely to report very good/ excellent health than non- immigrants. While marriage appeared to have a generally protective effect on women's health practices, single women were more likely to be physically active and have a normal weight. Data Gaps and Recommendations More sensitive indicators need to be developed to better understand possible reasons for the socioeconomic gradient. Data collection should focus on both rural and Aboriginal populations.
Maclean, Heather; Glynn, Keva; Cao, Zhenyuan; Ansara, Donna
It is time to challenge the issue of pleasure associated with the core of medical practice. Its importance is made clear through its opposite: unhappiness--something which affects doctors in a rather worrying way. The paper aims to provide a discussion on pleasure on reliable grounds. Plato's conception of techne is a convenient model that offers insights into the unique practice of medicine, which embraces in a single purposive action several heterogeneous dimensions. In Aristotle's Ethics, pleasure appears to play a central role for action's assessment and intensification. Pleasure is also tightly associated with the Kantian faculty of reflective judgment, which operates at the heart of clinical reasoning. Indeed, practicing medicine means to deal with the particular and the manifold, requiring clinical judgment, but also relying on embodied habitus. With Bourdieu's notion of habitus, pleasure is the mark of a happy practice, which presupposes a deep involvement in one's field. Throughout our inquiry, the question of pleasure comes to offer a critical reappraisal of real medical practice and leads to consider ethics more as a component of techne than as a separate realm of concern. PMID:21728071
To explore the potential of native tropical hardwoods for forestry development, 84 timber species were tested in a species screening trial in Costa Rica; 17 were widely planted tropical exotics, 52 were locally indigenous, and 15 were native to other areas of Costa Rica. A complete randomized block design was used with single tree plots replicated 24 times per site.
In northwest China, an area of more than 11?000km2 is covered by Pisha Sandstone, a kind of loosely bonded sandstone formed during the Tertiary period. Pisha Sandstone is hard when it is dry but becomes loose when it is wet. Due the nature of this sandstone, this area of northwest China is plagued with a high erosion rate (over 20?000t\\/km2yr)
The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that site preparation of a minisite (20x60 cm cylinder) would be effective in promoting seedling survival and growth and still save considerable cost compared to area-wide site preparation. Spoil within the cylinder was mixed wi...
... come from federal cost share programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program and ... as a nurse crop for Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer), (2) planting bareroot ... A former farmland in Sharkey County, MS, was chosen as the study area ... definitive conclusion on their feasibility and attractiveness to landowners.
... and new equipment development to Federal, State, and private forest nurseries . ... at MTDC include a nursery soil moisture meter, remote data collection systems, ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ...
Capturing provenance is one of the fundamental principles of archive theory. Provenance consists of information about the creation of an object, its ownership, and how this information has changed over time. The data management community has been discussing how to apply the concepts of provenance to science data. Considerable attention has been paid to developing mechanisms to record how data were created, since this is key to reproducing research results. Less attention has been paid to the other elements of provenance, even though data and the organizations that archive data are dynamic and ever changing. Some practice is coming into play; but there is a large gap between theory and practice. This talk will review the current state of the art, discuss the gap between theory and practice, and describe what could be done to close the gap.
Which business practices set successful firms apart from others? We address this question using data from an official survey of almost 3,000 New Zealand firms. Questions cover: leadership, planning practices, customer and supplier focus, employee practices, quality and process monitoring, benchmarking, community and social responsibility, innovation, IT use, business structure and the competitive environment. Some of these are internal practices
Practice wisdom is a form of practical moral reasoning when social workers face the complexity and uncertainty encountered in practice. Following a literature review on practice wisdom in social work, its essential features are discussed, identifying a neglected element in the literature—the element of time. The element of time is found to be implicitly considered in models of social work
Brought to you by DMV.org, these tests help new drivers and those studying to get their commercial drivers' license practice for the real thing. Simply click on your state of residence and select the kind of test you'd like to practice: Drivers' License, Motorcycle License, or Commercial Drivers' License. Each test has twenty-five multiple-choice questions on the traffic rules and general safety guidelines for each state. This site is also helpful for students and teachers in commercial vehicle training programs as each state's commercial driver's guide is linked as a PDF document. Some states have special handbooks of guidelines for school bus drivers as well.
Because today's amateur astronomical telescopes are both powerful and affordable, spectroscopy - once the province of professionals - is becoming more and more popular. Various spectroscopes, at prices to suit everyone, are now available "off the shelf". Practical Amateur Spectroscopy contains everything an amateur needs to grasp the basic principles, to begin observing, and to understand just what the spectra show. Contributions by leading practical amateurs from America and Europe cover a very wide range of amateur equipment and techniques. One even describes how an audio CD can be used to show solar emission and absorption lines!
Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…
|The Getting Practical--Improving Practical Work in Science programme offers professional development for primary teachers across England. During the 2009/2010 academic year, 237 primary teachers attended a Getting Practical training course, giving themselves the opportunity to reflect upon their own teaching practices and consider ways to make…
Students can practice solving equations on several sites. Use one of the sites below to solve 10 or more equations. Record the solution for at least 2 'difficult' problems. 1) interactive algebra: solving equations 2) interactive: solving pre-set equations 3) solving linear equations: nlvm ...
|There is only one practice of solitude: to make a choice and carry it out well. The particulars assemble around this simple principle. One may later regret the choice; one may end up reversing or abandoning it. The choice may consist of doing nothing or refraining from a decision until the time is right. But no matter what it entails, one must…
The prime objective of this work was the development of a practical galvanic series of metals and alloys to aid in the selection of compatible materials for missile systems. This was accomplished by studying the various metals and alloys coupled with a 11...
This article examines the efforts to hold high-level US officials accountable for their alleged role in the torture and other serious abuse of detainees under US control through the principle of universal jurisdiction. First, it sets out what is known about United States detention and interrogation practices during the so-called ‘war on terror’, and what efforts, if any, have been
This paper is about understanding modelling practices in manufacturing and contribute in methodologies and approaches facilitating introduction of modelling in a company. Based on ethnographic studies at real work environments and scenario-building workshops, we could identify and analyse several issues like how to involve and engage domain workers in modelling activities, that there are four different levels of formal and
Roser discusses how both teachers and librarians, whom she calls the preservers of children's reading, should cling tightly to three essential practices to ensure that our children read more, read better, and read more widely. She argues we should: a) keep the classroom library viable; b) preserve, protect, and defend time for self-selected…
The role of the calibration lab is becoming more and more important in view of the `global business' environment. Scheduled, regular calibration of test and measuring instruments with measurement traceability to the nationally accepted standards is a prerequisite. Certification to ISO 9000-Quality System Standards becoming a must for exports, the calibration activity being the backbone for quality, calibration laboratory practices
Current focus in the health care ethics literature on the character of the practitioner has a reputable pedigree. Rather than offer a staple diet of Aristotelian ethics in the undergraduate curricula, perhaps instead one should follow Murdoch's suggestion and help the practitioner to develop vision and moral imagination, because this has a practical rather than a theoretical aim. The imaginative
|This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders…
The challenges and questions directed at the political order in South Africa affected the educational arena as well. The profession of social work has been questioned as to the knowledge base, content, appropriateness and the relevancy of social work education and practice in the South African context. This paper utilizes the multicultural approach to explore cultural issues essential for an
|When planning for the new school year, K-2 teachers might consider the benefits of creating a caring classroom. Caring has the potential to not only encourage thoughtful social studies practice, but to also enhance it. The best K-2 teachers also recognize the importance of caring in the development of responsible citizens. Such teachers plan and…
The University of Wisconsin is developing a program designed to help existing transportation professionals improve their abilities and practices in the management of transportation assets. The program will be unique in two aspects. First of all, it uses distance learning technology to allow more professionals to participate. Second, it focuses more attention on the management and leadership aspects of asset
The dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible from a radiation safety standpoint. Occasionally, one encounters a case in which an unsuspected pregnant woman undergoes a CT pelvic scan, and the radiologist is required to estimate the dose to the fetus. This article addresses practical methods of CT dosimetry with a specific discussion on fetal dose estimate. Three
Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been received with enthusiasm and interest by many nurses. It has, however, raised skepticism and negative reactions from others. This article seeks to address the place of EBP in care of the elderly by outlining EBP and providing some pertinent examples of how it can be used in caring for older people. Finally, it promotes EBP
Summary The professional and academic pratice of architects, landscape architects, planners, and facility managers is presented as sharing the fundamental aim of placemaking. This article presents two stories of placemaking, one in community development and another about an intervention into an office environment. Both stories demonstrate that our collective practice can be inclusive, creating places that are sustained over time
There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community
Barbara Berkman; Barbara Silverstone; W. June Simmons; Patricia J. Volland; Judith L. Howe
Although the basic assumptions of scientific management are detrimental to the public policy of the community, they still govern its theorization and implementation. The main reason we continue to conduct our communal policy thinking in terms of scientific management is that we still lack relevant, practical alternative theories, models, and languages, which might serve to ground our thought and behavior.
Good Medical Practice: Professionalism, Ethics and Law brings together the infor- mation central to the professional, ethical and legal requirements of being a doctor. It covers a core curriculum for medical students, doctors in training and international medical graduates preparing for the Australian Medical Council examinations. It will also be useful for busy doctors looking for answers to issues that
|Laboratory practice requires preparation in class and adequate follow-up. Like the library, it does not replace the teacher but is an auxiliary to teaching. The laboratory is not a panacea, but a place for continued experimentation and innovation in teaching methods. Variety in instruction is required. (PJM)|
|How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices.…
|To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…
Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…
A stage by stage approach was adopted to solve some of the problems of diagnosing and managing acute abdominal pain. Audit started in hopsital and was extended, with the help of a community physician, to cover the practice of a group of general practitioners. Referrals to the accident and emergency department for acute abdominal pain were analysed, and the diagnostic
There are few reports from the behavioral health field that focus on educational best practices. This article summarizes a panel presentation from the Annapolis Conference in which four different programs were described: (1) a provider educational initiative, (2) a tool-kit project related to evidence-based services, (3) a multidisciplinary faculty training program in addictions, and (4) an AIDS education project. While
Gail W. Stuart; Joyce Burland; Vijay Ganju; Petros Levounis; Stephen Kiosk
|Throughout the chapters in this issue, the authors have cited various definitions for learning transfer. For educators, in its simplest form, transfer of learning occurs when students put to practical use the knowledge and skills they gained in the classroom (near transfer). Chapter 1 defines near transfer and then goes into detail on the levels…
Kaminski, Karen; Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.
For anyone who has wondered about how creativity looks in practice, this article offers a picture of how creativity can be a powerful force in the classroom. The author provides three examples illustrating some alternatives that he has developed that work with pupils and teachers in many countries all over the world. The magic bucket activity…
|In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…
|Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…
This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.
This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…
In this address to the American Psychological Association, the President examines the relation of psychology to social practice, focusing primarily on the relation of psychology to education. The main point is whether the standpoint of psychological science, as a study of mechanism, is indifferent and opposed to the demands of education with its free interplay of personalities in their vital
|Examines conditions in the school district and national concerns affecting the implementation of school library media programs. The importance of these programs to education is discussed in terms of classroom teaching practices, and changes necessary to meet expectations of teacher-librarians are described. (16 references) (MES)|
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at https://villanova.gosignmeup.com/dev_students.asp?action=browse&main=Nursing+Journals&misc=564. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Practice Uncertainty: Changing Perceptions," found on pages 439-444, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until September 30, 2015. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Review factors leading to practice change. Describe actions that can be taken to reduce negative consequences of practice uncertainty. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. Practice uncertainty occurs when health care providers feel uncomfortable in response to unfamiliar or challenging patient care situations. Practice uncertainty is inevitable in health care, and there are many contextual factors that can lead to either good or bad outcomes for patients and health care providers. Practice uncertainty is not a well-established concept in the literature, perhaps because of the predominant empirical paradigm and the high value placed on certainty within current health care culture. This study was conducted to explore practice uncertainty and bring this topic into the foreground as a first step toward practice evolution. A shift in the perception of practice uncertainty may change the way in which practitioners experience this phenomenon. This process must start with nursing educators recognizing and acknowledging this phenomenon when it occurs. J Contin Educ Nurs 2013;44(10):439-444. PMID:23875604
In an agroforestry context, the knowledge of leaf area is an important parameter to take into consideration because tree foliage\\u000a shades the intercrop. Single leaf measurement (for example leaf length and width) is a widely used method to estimate leaf\\u000a area in a rapid non-destructive way. In this study, the objectives were to estimate the leaf area of different leaf
Subjective tinnitus is an enigmatic and chronic condition that is predominantly managed as symptomatic. Little high-level evidence exists for the efficacy and specificity of the various tinnitus management strategies currently used, and this is reflected in documents that aim to guide clinicians. As a consequence, there are clear gaps in evidence-based practice linking diagnosis to the most effective management strategies as well as a general lack of consensus about which are appropriate strategies for assessment and management. Several guidelines have been produced from research efforts and from expert opinion. All recommend standardization of assessment and a range of management options but do not yet provide a means to link the two. The authors call for clinicians, scientists, and policy makers to work together to address this barrier to good practice.
Much more is known about attitudes toward mental illness and social stigma, the viscious cycle of its consequences and how to fight the social stigma in public, but much less is known about how to combat the stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. Stigma theories have not been enough to understand the feelings and experience of people with mental illness. Conceptual framework that understands stigma as consisting of difficulties of knowledge (ignorance or misinformation), problems of attitudes (prejudice), and problems of behaviour (discrimination) have not o been enough to understand stigma dynamics in the patient therapist interaction. Understanding the psychodynamic aspects of internalized stereotype of mental illness in the patient- therapist relationship may improve our competency to deal with stigma and self stigma in clinical practice. PMID:23995176
The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmophere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular, the Milky Way and Galaxies. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library.
The low carbohydrate (low-carb) movement has been impacting all facets of the hospitality industry including restaurants, hotels, airlines and conventions. The purpose of this study was to identify business travelers' low-carb diet practices and to understand their experiences with low-carbohydrate menus during business trips. The findings indicate that the respondents' experiences with low-carb foods during their business trips are influential
\\u000a Often flagged as an origin of empiricism, experience has a range of meanings in the context of early modern natural philosophy\\u000a and medicine. It has been aligned with practical knowledge, knowledge of contingent effects, and the un-theorized perception\\u000a of phenomena accessible to the senses. In the realm of anatomical inquiry, experience joined reason to constitute (according\\u000a to Galen, Mondino, Berengario
For most people with a religious orientation, religion is not a thing but it is something that they do, a set of individual and communal practices that they perform to develop and express their spiritual nature (cf. Section 6.3.4). Thus, no consideration of the topic\\u000a of religion and psychology is complete without a thorough examination of the individual and communal
The dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible from a radiation safety standpoint. Occasionally, one encounters a case in which an unsuspected pregnant woman undergoes a CT pelvic scan, and the radiologist is required to estimate the dose to the fetus. This article addresses practical methods of CT dosimetry with a specific discussion on fetal dose estimate. Three methods are described: (1) the use of a dose chart, (2) the pencil ionization chamber method, and (3) the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method.
Executable requirements neatly combine two important XP practices: user stories and acceptance testing. They enhance communication, ease following the number of running tested features during an iteration, and work as regression tests in future iterations. This workshop does not only give an introduction to this important process, but also shows how it is used in developing a real system in front of the audience. Some of the participants can even join the fun and get real hands-on experience.
This book contains the following eight chapters: Basic Concepts of Geology; Sedimentation; Oil and Gas Accumulation; Exploration; Economics; Well Sitting; Field Development; and Past, Present and Future. The goal of the book is to present a description of the field of petroleum geology that is centered on the point of view of the practicing petroleum geologist. After the beginning three chapters of pure geology, slanted toward the petroleum geologist's interest in oil and gas, the discussion turns toward more active concerns.
This book provides theoretical and practical data on filtration of gases and liquids. Topics covered include the following: gas filtration theory; liquid filtration theory; filter media; industrial gas filtration; filtration pretreatment; filtration in the chemical process industry; ultrafiltration; filtration in the mineral industry; filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; cartridge filtration; high-efficiency air filtration; analytical applications of filtration; and filter evaluation and testing.
This paper presents the results of a mail survey of the capital investment practices of the U.S.-based companies in the Standard & Poor's Industrial Index. Unlike earlier studies, which focus on the use of project evaluation and risk analysis tools, this study considers the entire investment decision-making process, from strategic analysis through post-auditing operating performance. Analysis of the responses suggests
EDWARD J. FARRAGHER; ROBERT T. KLEIMAN; ANANDI P. SAHU
In this worksheet of eight questions, students practice their knowledge of similarity proofs. In the first four questions, students determine which postulate or theorem works to prove triangle similarity - AA, SAS, or SSS. In the last four questions, students are asked to work through the proof of various problems. The answers are embedded in the page, and this is a helpful resource for students to work with similarity proofs.
Which business practices set successful firms apart from others? We address this question using data from an official survey\\u000a of almost 3000 New Zealand firms. Questions cover: leadership, planning practices, customer and supplier focus, employee practices,\\u000a quality and process monitoring, benchmarking, community and social responsibility, innovation, IT use, business structure\\u000a and the competitive environment. Some of these are internal practices
Resistance training increases muscle strength. Muscle strength gains are influenced by program design. This review attempted to identify design choices that would be best practices. A best practice is a design option that produces significantly better res...
Nurse practitioners have endless possibilities for innovative practice. Deciding on provision of independent practice, suggestions for implementation and service, possible barriers, and solutions are discussed. Future directions for services are outlined. PMID:6562268
This iOS app provides students in grades K-2 with practice counting, writing numerals, addition and subtraction. The user can select the grade level and adjust the time of practice; the app then generates a selection of activities from the base six activities of the app. At the end of the practice the app asks for feedback on the level of difficulty in order to make adjustments for the next practice session.
A web survey of Buddhists’ religious practices and beliefs, and health history and practices was conducted with 886 Buddhist\\u000a respondents. Eighty-two percent were residents of the USA. Ninety-nine percent practiced Buddhist meditation and 70% had attended\\u000a a formal retreat for intensive meditation practice. Eighty-six percent were converts to Buddhism and had been a Buddhist for\\u000a a median of 9 years.
W. H. Wiist; B. M. Sullivan; D. M. St. George; H. A. Wayment
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Angel and Jayden were at track practice. The track is $\\frac25$ kilometers around. Angel ran 1 lap in 2 minutes. Jayden ran 3 laps in 5 minutes. How ma...
The limited amount of literature available which describes the work of practice managers has been used as the basis for compiling a tentative job description and for the discussion of a number of actual or theoretical issues which seem to be relevant. A comparison is made at a superficial level with experience in the U.S.A. The intention is to clarify some ideas in a newly emerging aspect of community medicine and primary care with a view to exploring the possibilities for research, training and consultancy in the future.
Physics is an extremely practical science. If you were to ask, ``Who uses physics in their job?'' people will cite engineers or scientists. Physics is actually extremely important to many different jobs. Often, our classes are filling with students who do not intend to continue on in physics. It is most important to show these students that physics is more than string theory and nanotechnology. I laving a working knowledge of physics is important in many jobs outside of science. These videos make that point very clear!
The dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible from a radiation safety standpoint. Occasionally, one encounters a case in which an unsuspected pregnant woman undergoes a CT pelvic scan, and the radiologist is required to estimate the dose to the fetus. This article addresses practical methods of CT dosimetry with a specific discussion on fetal dose estimate. Three methods are described: (1) the use of a dose chart, (2) the pencil ionization chamber method, and (3) the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method. PMID:2762539
Prevention has had an enormous impact on the health of western nations. Because people are now living longer, educating patients about prevention is becoming increasingly important. Priorities for preventive medicine are reviewed; in office practice, the most important preventive strategies are helping patients to quit smoking, giving advice on nutrition, recommending moderate regular exercise, detecting and treating patients at high risk for suicide, and detecting and treating hypertensive patients. Teachers of family medicine can improve the teaching of prevention by helping to establish liaisons between departments of family medicine and community and preventive health. The future impact of prevention on medical care is also discussed.
This book is for technical professionals in mineral exploration, environmental management, agriculture or forestry, this new edition takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a lively and detailed overview of practical sedimentology. Emphasizing application over theory, the text is streamlined for comprehension, and it features many summary tables and graphs. The ideal companion to Analytical Sedimentology, this volume updates both methodology and applications, incorporates software information and extensively covers new technical developments. Specifically designed for students and cross-functional practitioners, it requires minimal geological background.
Lewis, D.W. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. (Southern Cross Univ., New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Coastal Management)
Practical aspects of laboratory scale preparative photochemistry are discussed under the headings of: (1) lamps: dimensions, power ratings, spectral distributions and output intensities of different lamp types; (2) the reaction mixture: factors involved in establishing the most suitable wavelength region to use to carry out a particular reaction; the selection of the appropriate solvents, filters, and glassware; concentration of the photoactive component; (3) preparative photoreactions: immersion well, falling film, external irradiation and elliptical configurations; (4) apparatus for quantitative work: carousel and optical bench arrangements; (5) hazards: effects of ultraviolet radiation on eyes and skin and precautions to be taken.
This paper proposes practical escrow cash schemes with the following properties:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? \\u000a \\u000aThe privacy of users is preserved, unless all (or a certain portion) of the trustees collaborate.\\u000a\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? \\u000a \\u000aIf all (or a certain portion) of the trustees collaborate (for law enforcement or crime prevention), the collaboration can trace the payment history from the payer's (i.e., criminal's) name, and they
This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.
Xue, Fei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, Irma S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knudson, Frances L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
This essay probes the relations between educational policy and teaching practice in instructional innovations. It also takes up explanations for the slow pace of instructional reform, and the seeming failure of many exciting instructional innovations. Computer technology is the case in point. One theme in the essay is that policies and programs depend on practice. Another is that instructional practice
|The relative effectiveness of practice and motivation was studied with 18 sixth grade classes learning English usage. Results suggest that the most effective device for learning is to increase the amount of practice, while the prime function of motivation is to make the practice more palatable. (SLD)|
Many alternative health practices have their origins in spiritual traditions and practices. Through the research and clinical uses of meditation, biofeedback, prayer, imagery, music, relaxation, therapeutic touch, yoga, and other methods, the alternative health practitioner is discovering which practices actually alleviate human suffering and promote healing. In doing so, the practitioner is participating in a sociocultural event with as yet
Mental practice is the cognitive rehearsal of a task prior to performance. Although most researchers contend that mental practice is an effective means of enhancing performance, a clear consensus is precluded because (a) mental practice is often denned so loosely as to include almost any type of mental preparation and (b) empirical results are inconclusive. A meta-analysis of the literature
Despite recent controversies over the ontological status of scale, geographers have continued to interrogate so-called ‘scalar practices’. But not enough has been said about the skill involved in making these practices successful. Geographers have overlooked the potential for thinking through the craft of scalar practices. I therefore introduce ‘scalecraft’, a concept which builds upon existing work and is intended to
For many years the profession has acknowledged a schism between theories taught in the classroomand the practice of clinicians. This tends to arise from beliefs that knowledge which has been generalized (formalized) can be readily transferred to informal settings (practice). Whilst apprehension of formalized knowledge is crucial to professional development, a mediator is necessary to demonstrate its relevance to practice.
Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855
In this paper we aim to share the evolution of innovative ways to explore, 'unpack' and reframe clinical issues that exist in everyday practice. The elements of these processes, which we call 'puzzling practice', and the techniques associated with them, were delineated over a two year period by the four authors using action theory based processes. The authors have evolved several different frameworks for 'puzzling practice' which we draw on and use in our practice development work and in our research practice. This paper pays attention to a particular form of puzzling practice that we have found to be useful in assisting individual clinicians and teams to explore and find workable solutions to practice issues. The paper uses a semi-fictitious example of 'Puzzling Practice' gleaned from our experience as practice development facilitators. In this example 'puzzling practice' uses seven different elements; naming the issue; puzzling the issue; testing the puzzle exploring the heart of out practice; formulating the puzzle question; visualizing the future; and generating new strategies for action. Each of the elements is illustrated by the story and the key foundations and ideas behind each element is explored. PMID:18315821
This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.
Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.
We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.
We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.
Pappa, Anna; Diamanti, Eleni [LTCI, CNRS - Telecom ParisTech, Paris (France); Chailloux, Andre; Kerenidis, Iordanis [LIAFA, CNRS - Universite Paris 7, Paris (France)
The theme for the 2004 AANCART Academy, “Community Partnerships for Cancer Control: From Vision to Synergy to Reality”, characterizes Best Practices for the Houston AANCART site. Researchers and community members share a common vision for addressing the cancer and health disparities that exist in our Asian community. They banded together synergistically to bring to reality the programs and projects that are enabling more Asian Americans to understand their risks for cancer, receive screening and education, and access treatment and survivorship support. Along the way, Houston AANCART was also able to conduct meaningful and relevant community-based participatory research and to train young Asian and other investigators in how to reach out to this community in a culturally sensitive and appropriate manner.
Current focus in the health care ethics literature on the character of the practitioner has a reputable pedigree. Rather than offer a staple diet of Aristotelian ethics in the undergraduate curricula, perhaps instead one should follow Murdoch's suggestion and help the practitioner to develop vision and moral imagination, because this has a practical rather than a theoretical aim. The imaginative capacity of the practitioner plays an important part in both the quality of the nurse's role enactment and the moral strategies which the nurse uses. It also plays a central part in the practitioner's ability to communicate with a patient and in the type of person which the practitioner becomes. Can the moral imagination be stimulated and nurtured? Some philosophers and literary critics argue that not only is this possible, but that literature is the means of doing so. If this is the case then a place should be made for literature in already crowded health care curricula.
Society now expects more from its doctors and dentists, and these increasing demands can be summed up in one relatively new term for the medical profession: "quality management" (QM). Doctors and dentists formerly took the view that their performance could be assessed solely on the basis of their technical skills, ethics and expertise, but are now confronted with a new social imperative, from outside the profession--quality management. The author, prize-winner of the European Quality Award 2000 describes his approach to introduce the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model in his dental practice. He shows that the EFQM model is well suited as a basis for a quality management system in healthcare. PMID:11436753
Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.
Diathermy has revolutionised modern surgery and is an important tool for efficient and safe surgical practice. It has evolved to become the modern day scalpel, being used for cutting and coagulating tissues. This article addresses the functioning and safe use of diathermy in the perioperative setting. The various precautionary checks before surgery, which are prerequisite for safe usage, are highlighted along with the necessary safety drills during and after operation. A specific note is included about the use of electrical equipment in specialised surgeries like cardiac and laparoscopic surgery. The issues regarding the maintenance and repair of equipment are acknowledged and finally, the anticipation for a future with precise and safer cutting and coagulation devices is addressed. PMID:21162356
\\u000a After reading this chapter, you should be able to\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Code according to Drupal coding conventions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Document your code so that your comments can be reused by the API module.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Comfortably search through Drupal’s code base using grep.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Identify Drupal coding ninjas by their best practices.
Aspiring truck drivers and those who seek a commercial driving license will appreciate this website a great deal, as it features a number of practice questions that may be found on the test that is required for such certifications. The site features over a dozen self-assessment modules that cover such topics as air brakes, hazardous materials, and of course, transporting passengers. Within each section, visitors will find both Âtrue-falseÂ-style questions and their equally well-known counterpart, the multiple choice query. Also, for those getting acquainted with teaching others how to prepare for this exam, this site may be most handy. Whether one is on their way to Bangor, Maine, or just in need of this certification to meet up with a midnight train, this site will get them on their way.
There has been a significant effort over the past 10 years to attempt to control the rate of increase in the cost of medical care. However, as is true of any economic system, there are multiple stakeholders involved and often competing motivations. The single largest source of medical inflation is the cost of pharmaceuticals; however, this topic is not directly discussed in this article Similarly, the cost of medical insurance products is not included as these issues cannot be directly addressed by physician behavior. The body of this discussion focuses on costs directly experienced by or potentially controlled by physicians. These areas include practice expense and margin and hospital direct costs and margin. It is essential for physicians to understand fully factors they can potentially control and areas they may be able to influence in this troubling era of cost containment. PMID:20011377
Reading research articles can be challenging, but it also can be stimulating. Once you get a system for reviewing articles and interpreting their worth and value to your practice, you will find much usable information. Reviewing articles with the focus of assessing their importance to clinical practice could be done with a research committee of your local AORN chapter. It also would be an interesting and informational chapter program to have a panel discuss the relevance of two or three studies to perioperative practice. This process and type of information also can be used if your institution is developing research teams. Assessing the practicality of research to your practice is essential. Research is not a mystery; it is the answer to a mystery. It is necessary to the future of perioperative nursing. Change practice with empirical evidence! PMID:10476200
Backgound and Purpose. Evidence-based practice is the explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients and is a concept of growing importance for physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate Australian physiotherapists' self-reported practice, skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice and to examine differences between recent and experienced grad- uates,
Sedation practices vary according to countries with different health system regulations, the procedures done, and local circumstances. Interestingly, differences in the setting in which the practice of gastroenterology and endoscopy takes place (university-based vs academic practice) as well as other systematic practice differences influence the attitude of endoscopists concerning sedation practices. Conscious sedation using midazolam and opioids is the current standard method of sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. Interestingly, propofol is a commonly preferred sedation method by endoscopists due to higher satisfaction rates along with its short half-life and thus lower risk of hepatic encephalopathy. On the other hand, midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. The administration of sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist could become the standard practice and the urgent development of an updated international consensus regarding the use of sedative agents like propofol is needed. PMID:23901243
The decision to sell a medical practice is never easy. There is often a personal attachment to a medical practice started from scratch that has grown into a full-fledged operation. Selling has advantages as well as drawbacks. Much like selling a home, most of the price can be reflected in the preparation and market research. This article will examine the advantages, disadvantages, and strategies associated with the process of selling a medical practice. PMID:17260914
Objective To explore obese patients' experiences with GPs' management of their weight problems. Methods Focus-group study with a purposive sample of 13 participants (eight women and five men), aged 30–55 years, with BMI above 40, or BMI above 35 with additional weight-related problems. Two focus-group interviews were conducted, inviting the participants to speak about their health care experiences from general practice. Analysis applied Systematic Text Condensation inspired by Giorgi's approach, searching for issues describing or discussing participants' experiences of GPs' obesity management. Results Obese patients want their GPs to put their weight problems on the agenda. When the patient appears reluctant, it may be a sign of embarrassment rather than rejection of the issue. However, restricted attention to obesity could lead to neglect of patients' problems. Participants complained that GPs often demonstrated insufficient engagement and knowledge regarding service resources for obesity treatment, leaving the responsibility for information on available referral resources to the patient. Finally, considerate attitudes in the GPs are needed for follow-up to be experienced as helpful by the patients. Vulnerable feelings of failure could be reinforced by well-intended advice. Degrading attitudes were perceived as especially subversive when they came from doctors. Conclusions The challenge for the GP is to increase his or her competence in individualized and evidence-based counselling, while acknowledging the efforts needed by the patient to achieve permanent change, and shifting attention from shame to coping.
Water is an essential foundation for life, having both a regulatory and structural function. The former results from active and passive participation in all metabolic reactions, and its role in conserving and maintaining body temperature. Structurally speaking it is the major contributer to tissue mass, accounting for 60% of the basis of blood plasma, intracellular and intersticial fluid. Water is also part of the primary structures of life such as genetic material or proteins. Therefore, it is necessary that the nurse makes an early assessment of patients water needs to detect if there are signs of electrolyte imbalance. Dehydration can be a very serious problem, especially in children and the elderly. Dehydrations treatment with oral rehydration solution decreases the risk of developing hydration disorders, but even so, it is recommended to follow preventive measures to reduce the incidence and severity of dehydration. The key to having a proper hydration is prevention. Artificial nutrition encompasses the need for precise calculation of water needs in enteral nutrition as parenteral, so the nurse should be part of this process and use the tools for calculating the patient's requirements. All this helps to ensure an optimal nutritional status in patients at risk. Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. On the subject of artificial nutrition and hydration, there isn't yet any unanimous agreement regarding hydration as a basic care. It is necessary to take decisions in consensus with the health team, always thinking of the best interests of the patient. PMID:21428011
Nutraceuticals can be defined as food components or active principles present in aliments which have positive effects for health and quality of life, including preventing or treating disorders. Herbal and "natural" food supplements are increasingly used to treat different psychiatric disorders, often as "self-prescribed" therapies. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, S-Adenosylmethionine, inositol, alfa-lactoalbumin and passionflower). There is evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, proved also by Cochrane's meta-analysis. However many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent using of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy is needed to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices. The article presents some promising patents on nutraceuticals in psychiatric practice. PMID:22472025
Chiappedi, Matteo; de Vincenzi, Silvia; Bejor, Maurizio
Of the 319 radiologists who responded to a survey concerning mammography practices, 50% were employed in a private hospital and 26% in a private office. Film-screen mammography was used most often (54%) followed by xeromammography (30%) and a combination of film-screen and xeromammography (16%). Of the respondents, 62% had changed their method of performing mammography in the last 10 years. Of these, 50% had switched from xeromammography to film-screen, 23% from direct film to film-screen, 15% from direct film to xeromammography, and 6% from film-screen to xeromammography. Mammographic equipment had been purchased by 71% of respondents after 1983. Most respondents (71%) monitored mammography equipment doses, usually at 6- to 12-month intervals. Manual breast examinations were done at the time of mammography at 42% of the facilities, and breast self-examination was taught at 32%. For screening, 87.4% used a two-view examination, 92% required the name of a referring physician to whom the report could be sent, 28% accepted self-referred patients, and only 12% charged a reduced fee for screening. Breast sonography was performed by 53% (93% hand-held vs 7% automated), but none used sonography for screening. Only one respondent reported using thermography; three used light scanning. A need for postgraduate mammography courses for radiologists was indicated by 81%, while 69% recommended technologist courses and 64% recommended 1-week fellowships for radiologists. PMID:3318338
Bassett, L W; Diamond, J J; Gold, R H; McLelland, R
The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924
The use of contractualisation has greatly developed over the last years in the field of health care, with results that are often promising, but also with failures and sometime virulent criticism. Thus it has become more and more necessary to regulate contractual practices. In the framework of its mission of general administration, that is to say, protection of the general interest, it falls to the Ministry of Health to put in place this regulation. Several tools are available. Certain, such as standard contracts and master agreements, although useful, do not remain specific and ad hoc. On the other hand, the politics of contractualisation, fitting well in the general politics of Health Care, form, without doubt, the most globalised tool, since they allow contractualisation to be replaced in the management of the total health case system, and thus to be seen as a potential contribution in the framework of performance improvement. The conditions for success are not, however, automatically united. One must ensure that the mechanisms exist which bring about regulatory tools, and which ensure that the participants use correctly the framework defined by the Ministry of Health. PMID:19027694
|This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…
This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…
Considerable attention has been directed in preparing social work students to understand the paradigm of evidence-based practice (EBP). The infusion of EBP through training, course instruction, and assignments has the potential to enhance EBP knowledge acquisition in the macro practice curriculum. This article examines an approach to integrating EBP into the curriculum through a training model that is linked with
The Center for Social Justice Research and Education at Saint Louis University has implemented a model of collaborative research and education among social work practitioners, university faculty and students. The partnerships promote creative practice of social justice in the community.Social workers in community agencies articulate the relevant practice problems for students and faculty; faculty offer methodological and resource assistance to
Mary Beth Gallagher; Cynthia A. Loveland Cook; Susan Tebb
Offers recommendations for the conduct of practice analysis (i.e., job analysis) concerning these issues: (1) selecting a method of practice analysis; (2) developing rating scales; (3) determining the content of test plans; (4) using multi-variate procedures for structuring test plans; and (5) determining topic weights for test plans. (SLD)
|Helping young musicians learn how to practice effectively is a challenge faced by all music educators. This article presents a system of individual music practice instruction that can be seamlessly integrated within large-ensemble rehearsals. Using a step-by-step approach, large-ensemble conductors can teach students to identify and isolate…
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is an experientially based group intervention empirically supported to reduce psychological symptomology. Although MBSR has shown to be an effective intervention, little is known about which facets of the intervention are important in producing positive outcomes. This study tested several aspects of mindfulness practice (total practice duration, practice frequency and practice quality) with the primary focus being on validating (i.e., predictive and convergent validity) a new measure of mindfulness practice quality (PQ-M). The PQ-M fit a two-factor solution via a Maximum Likelihood Exploratory Factor Analysis (n=99). Using longitudinal multilevel modeling on a smaller subsample (n=19), preliminary support was found for changes in practice quality over the course of the MBSR intervention. Further, change in practice quality was associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. While this study was exploratory, these findings suggest that practice quality is a relevant factor to promote positive outcomes and may guide mindfulness instructors in providing highly tailored interventions. PMID:23046287
Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Goldberg, Simon Benjamin; Hoyt, William T
Objectives To identify current operational practices and expectations for future practices in hospital foodservice; establish the probability that current practices will change; and determine whether differences in practices exist on the basis of profit status and hospital size.Design A questionnaire, to determine current practices, probability of change, and expectations for future practices, was mailed to foodservice directors.Subjects A random sample
MELANIE R SILVERMAN; MARY B GREGOIRE; LINDA J LAFFERTY; REBECCA A DOWLING
The prospects for practical fusion power received a substantial shot in the arm recently when the President signed into law the Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980. This new law directs the Secretary of Energy to ''initiate at the earliest practical time each activity which he deems necessary to achieve the national goal for operation of a commercial demonstration plant
Learning participation only makes sense if it is purposeful. From our perspective its primary purpose is to achieve more effective managing in situations of complexity and change. We describe our evolving understandings and practices (a praxeology) for Systems Practice for managing complexity, built on 30 years of developing supported open…
The purpose of this study was to explore string teachers? assessment practices related to string program success. Additionally, the study examined the relationship between teacher characteristics and string program success. This study was conducted by surveying string teachers (N = 201) from around the country. The survey was designed based on the independent variables of teacher characteristics and assessment practices,
Purpose – This paper aims to introduce current debates on assessment practice in higher education and to explore educational research on assessment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper progresses by exploring a number of outcomes and highlights their role in helping one to understand the potential reasons for engaging in enterprise education. The paper then applies this outcomes framework to assessment practice.
Luke Pittaway; Paul Hannon; Allan Gibb; John Thompson
|This paper outlines ways other than drills that students can practice reading methods. Flash cards, software programs, essay projects, and synonym hunts are examples of enjoyable ways for students to practice. In a more formal method of introducing words, a teacher writes words on the board and discusses them before assigning a story with the new…
|This chapter suggests further ways that Practice Theory can be applied to understanding language teaching and learning. In particular, the author contends that more work is needed to describe the configuration of discursive resources in practices in foreign language communities in order to design effective pedagogies and assessments. In addition,…
The participation of advanced practice registered nurses in neonatal care continues to be accepted and supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Recognized categories of advanced practice neonatal nursing are the neonatal clinical nurse specialist and the neonatal nurse practitioner. PMID:19482773
The advanced practice neonatal nurse's participation in newborn care continues to be accepted and supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Recognized categories of advanced practice neonatal nurse are the neonatal clinical nurse specialist and the neonatal nurse practitioner. Training and credentialing requirements have been updated recently and are endorsed in this revised statement. PMID:12777571
Tests constitute one of the technological tools most frequently used by psychologists in their professional practice. Like any other scientific technology, tests can be used both in appropriate and inappropriate ways. Currently, various institutions, both national and international, are developing projects and activities aimed at improving testing practices. In Europe, the Task Force on Tests and Testing created by the
José Muñiz; Dave Bartram; Arne Evers; Dusica Boben; Kruno Matesic; Kathia Glabeke; José R. Fernández-Hermida; Jac N. Zaal
For the past decades, inclusive educational practice has developed to be a guiding political vision in Norway as in several other Western countries. In this article, we are concerned with how the ideal of inclusive practice is realized in one particular classroom. Ann is the homeroom teacher for a third-grade class and in her class she has two boys with
The findings from the Improving Practical Work in Science (IPWiS) evaluation suggest that the project can, and did, bring about noticeable improvements in the effectiveness of practical work in school science. However, the extent of these improvements varied widely and appeared to be dependent on the departmental seniority of the person…
abstract? The purpose of this paper is to critically explore the communities of practice approach to managing knowledge and its use among management academics and practitioners in recent years. In so doing, the aim is to identify the limits of the approach in the field of knowledge management. The paper begins with a brief description of the communities of practice
|Cycles of educational reform initiatives and their effects on practice are reviewed in this paper, which focuses on the relationship between state and federal policy and local practices. The first part discusses the first generation of reform that began with the passage of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Such reforms were…
Three issues concerning the relationship between research and practice are addressed. (1) A certain ‘prototype mathematics classroom’ seems to dominate the research field, which in many cases seems selective with respect to what practices to address. I suggest challenging the dominance of the discourse created around the prototype mathematics classroom. (2) I find it important to broaden the school-centred discourse
This review provides a practical, simple, and logical approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with acute infectious diarrhea, one of the most common diagnoses in clinical practice. Diarrhea in the immunocompromised host, traveler’s diarrhea, and diarrhea in the hospitalized patient are also discussed. Most episodes of acute diarrhea are self-limited, and investigations should be performed only if the
This article discusses the importance of international perspectives in designing and promoting educational innovation and reform, cultural and financial limitations of imposing western special education inclusion principles and practices on developing countries, and special education practices in China, Vietnam, and Costa Rica. (Contains 2…
This chapter suggests further ways that Practice Theory can be applied to understanding language teaching and learning. In particular, the author contends that more work is needed to describe the configuration of discursive resources in practices in foreign language communities in order to design effective pedagogies and assessments. In addition,…
|This article discusses the importance of international perspectives in designing and promoting educational innovation and reform, cultural and financial limitations of imposing western special education inclusion principles and practices on developing countries, and special education practices in China, Vietnam, and Costa Rica. (Contains 2…
This collection of essays describes practices in environmental education and points to possibilities in the field. The intention is to appraise selected practices in order to prepare the ground for a consideration of alternative images of environmental education that may shape future action. The following articles are included: (1) "A Political…
|Three issues concerning the relationship between research and practice are addressed. (1) A certain "prototype mathematics classroom" seems to dominate the research field, which in many cases seems selective with respect to what practices to address. I suggest challenging the dominance of the discourse created around the prototype mathematics…
This website contains examples of the eight Mathematical Practice standards. Each example is referred to as an illustration and is intended to expand teacher knowledge of the practices. Each illustration contains a task, student dialogue about the task, information about grade level, standards, and the context for the dialogue; teacher reflection questions; a mathematical overview; and optional student materials.
The paper presents a theoretical and empirical discussion of how costs of outpatient medical practice vary with the size of the group providing services. It focuses upon the incentives facing the individual physician to keep the costs of his practice down...
This paper highlights the content of a course designed to prepare students for family practice, with emphasis on mothers as primary caregivers. A model is presented of relatively healthy family interactions characterized by co-parenting and equitable division of labor in the home. The strengths perspective is applied to family practice with mother-headed families where noncustodial fathers share responsibilities for childrearing.
Recent reports in the medical literature suggest that some vigorous Yoga breathing practices (prânâyâma) may pose health risks. This article addresses the issue of safety in prânâyâma by reviewing traditional cautions and recommendations from Yoga texts such as the Yoga Sûtras and Hatha Yoga Pradipikâ, and by describing the prerequisites for beginning a prânâyâma practice. Prerequisites include the ability to
|Learning participation only makes sense if it is purposeful. From our perspective its primary purpose is to achieve more effective managing in situations of complexity and change. We describe our evolving understandings and practices (a praxeology) for Systems Practice for managing complexity, built on 30 years of developing supported open…
Studied the perceptions of chief financial and information officers of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software implementation best practices. Usable responses from 159 respondents show consensus for the most part between the perceptions of the two groups and describe some best practices that represent common ground. (SLD)
Frantz, Pollyanne S.; Southerland, Arthur R.; Johnson, James T.
A process for evaluating physician practices by their strategic alignment with a health system's mission separates the practices into four categories: "Must-have"--Strategically and financially beneficial. "Cash is king"--Financially beneficial but not a strategic priority. "Dream big"--strategically important but currently not financially beneficial. "Avoid acquiring"--neither strategically nor financially beneficial. PMID:22292329
Hartzell, Sean T; Sturm, Matthew R; Lopez, Emily D
|Some athletics officials worry that, on many campuses, male practice players are taking opportunities away from female athletes. In an effort to try keeping second-string players off the sidelines, the NCAA's Committee on Women's Athletics has recommended banning male practice players in all women's sports. The proposal has touched off a fierce…
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to show the connection between spiritual capital and practical wisdom with moral virtue as the link of both concepts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The concept of spiritual capital will be explained using the well known concept of social capital and practical examples for virtues. Findings – Spiritual capital has an impact on business like
This article deals with the theory and practice of sovereignty from the perspective of a trend in theoretical perspectives as well as the relevant trend in practice. The article provides a survey of the leading thinkers and philosophers views on the nature and importance of sovereignty. The concept of sovereignty is exceeding the complex. Unpacking its meanings and uses over
"Curriculum: From Theory to Practice" introduces readers to curriculum theory and how it relates to classroom practice. Wesley Null provides a unique organization of the curriculum field into five traditions: systematic, existential, radical, pragmatic, and deliberative. He discusses the philosophical foundations of curriculum as well as…
Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient\\u000a money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia,\\u000a this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil
Interest in the incorporation of riparian buffers and forest farming were modeled following agricultural conservation and\\u000a agroforestry adoption studies. Attitudes, individual characteristics, economic diversity of landowners’ household portfolio,\\u000a and physical and ecological conditions were explanatory variables in Logit regression models of interest. Habitus and field, the values and institutions of farm operators, were included in the framework. Knowledge of the
Software “best” practices depend entirely on context - in terms of the problem domain, the system constructed, the software designers, and the “customers” ultimately deriving value from the system. Agile practices no longer have the luxury of “choosing” small non-mission critical projects with co-located teams. Project stakeholders are selecting and adapting practices based on a combina tion of interest, need and staffing. For example, growing product portfolios through a merger or the acquisition of a company exposes legacy systems to new staff, new software integration challenges, and new ideas. Innovation in communications (tools and processes) to span the growth and contraction of both information and organizations, while managing the adoption of changing software practices, is imperative for success. Traditional web-based tools such as web pages, document libraries, and forums are not suf ficient. A blend of tweeting, blogs, wikis, instant messaging, web-based confer encing, and telepresence creates a new dimension of communication “best” practices.
A key component of workforce reform is the international growth in Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) roles. This study evaluated one APN role in Australia, the Clinical Nurse Consultant (CNC). All 56 CNCs employed in a tertiary hospital in New South Wales took part in the study. Demographic and work activity data were collected by an online questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews included the administration of a 50-point tool to score the level of practice of each CNC against five domains. The domains of practice did not appear to have played a central role in the design of these CNC roles despite being defined in the industrial legislation and linked to a pay structure. There was widespread variability in the level of practice both within and between the CNC grades as well as significant differences in job content. Few CNCs managed to achieve a moderate level of practice across all five domains. The findings suggest that the distinctive features of the CNC roles as articulated in the domains of practice are often not realized in practice. PMID:23692175
Nitrogen loading to the Bassin d'Arcachon coastal lagoon (SW France) was evaluated by studying land-use and nitrogen output in its 3001 km2 catchment. At present, the catchment is dominated by forestry (79%), while intensive agriculture occupies 9% of the surface. The N-output of two hydrological subunits, i.e. the Tagon subunit dominated by pine forestry and the Arriou II subunit comprising both forestry and intensive agriculture, were monitored for a seven year period (1996 2002). From these observations it was calculated that forestry contributes on average 1.6 kg total N ha-1 yr-1, which is dominated by organic nitrogen (DON + PON are 70% of N). On an areal basis, intensive agriculture contributes 26 times more than forestry, i.e. 41.6 kg total N ha-1 yr-1, which is mainly in the form of nitrate (65% of N). These data were upscaled to the catchment and the upscaling was validated by comparison to gauged nitrogen throughputs for the catchment of the Leyre river that is the major tributary to the system. Taking into account the other known N sources and the interannual variability in the catchment it was estimated that nitrogen loading to the lagoon was on average 90 kg ha-1 yr-1 (range from 54 to 126 kg ha-1 yr-1). The sandy soils of the catchment have a clear potential for denitrification, but anoxic conditions (waterlogged) and input of organic matter to fuel this process are required. Currently, agricultural practices and spatial planning do not make use of this potential. Nitrogen loading in the Bassin d'Arcachon is reflected by 10 40 ?M nitrate concentrations in winter, which became depleted during spring as a result of uptake by vegetation. Short-term uptake experiments showed that the macroalga Monostroma obscurum is well adapted to temperatures between 10 to 20 °C and competitive with respect to the seagrass Zostera noltii when the nitrate concentrations are above 10 ?M. Spring conditions with high nitrate and high insolation are therefore favourable for M. obscurum and this species presents a high risk for algal blooming. In contrast, the macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata well adapted to summertime temperatures around 25 °C, forms occasionally blooms in the lagoon. This phenomenon is limited due to the low DIN concentrations in summer.
Cannabis has a potential for clinical use often obscured by unreliable and purely anecdotal reports. The most important natural cannabinoid is the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC); others include cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG). Not all the observed effects can be ascribed to THC, and the other constituents may also modulate its action; for example CBD reduces anxiety induced by THC. A standardised extract of the herb may be therefore be more beneficial in practice and clinical trial protocols have been drawn up to assess this. The mechanism of action is still not fully understood, although cannabinoid receptors have been cloned and natural ligands identified. Cannabis is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for muscle spasm and pain, and in an experimental model of MS low doses of cannabinoids alleviated tremor. Most of the controlled studies have been carried out with THC rather than cannabis herb and so do not mimic the usual clincal situation. Small clinical studies have confirmed the usefulness of THC as an analgesic; CBD and CBG also have analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, indicating that there is scope for developing drugs which do not have the psychoactive properties of THC. Patients taking the synthetic derivative nabilone for neurogenic pain actually preferred cannabis herb and reported that it relieved not only pain but the associated depression and anxiety. Cannabinoids are effective in chemotherapy-induced emesis and nabilone has been licensed for this use for several years. Currently, the synthetic cannabinoid HU211 is undergoing trials as a protective agent after brain trauma. Anecdotal reports of cannabis use include case studies in migraine and Tourette's syndrome, and as a treatment for asthma and glaucoma. Apart from the smoking aspect, the safety profile of cannabis is fairly good. However, adverse reactions include panic or anxiety attacks, which are worse in the elderly and in women, and less likely in children. Although psychosis has been cited as a consequence of cannabis use, an examination of psychiatric hospital admissions found no evidence of this, however, it may exacerbate existing symptoms. The relatively slow elimination from the body of the cannabinoids has safety implications for cognitive tasks, especially driving and operating machinery; although driving impairment with cannabis is only moderate, there is a significant interaction with alcohol. Natural materials are highly variable and multiple components need to be standardised to ensure reproducible effects. Pure natural and synthetic compounds do not have these disadvantages but may not have the overall therapeutic effect of the herb. PMID:11152013
OBJECTIVE--To investigate a method of assessing the extent of routine patient data held on computer by Scottish general practitioners. DESIGN--An "electronic questionnaire" in the form of an interrogation questionnaire was used to extract a subset of data from practice computers running a standard software package (the general practice administrative system for Scotland, GPASS). The data were retained by each practice and also collected and analysed centrally to produce regional and national data. SUBJECTS--All 257 general practices in Scotland using GPASS software were sent the electronic questionnaire; data from 154 practices, including 759 general practitioners and covering 1,010,452 patients, were collected. RESULTS--Ninety three practices had all their patient records on computer; others had selectively entered data on, for example, only those patients receiving repeat prescriptions. The number of computerised patient records per practitioner ranged from 46 to 2373. Altogether 194,261 patients had repeat prescribing data and 204,005 morbidity or clinical data. CONCLUSION--An electronic questionnaire is a simple and effective way of investigating the information held on practice computers, allowing analysis and feedback of information to practitioners. Development of this system will provide a cumulative information system for Scottish general practitioners.
Taylor, M W; Ritchie, L D; Taylor, R J; Ryan, M P; Paterson, N I; Duncan, R; Brotherston, K G
Background With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to\\u000a determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best\\u000a practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines\\u000a (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they
J. Stuart Wolf; Heddy Hubbard; Martha M. Faraday; John B. Forrest
Family practice obstetrics is strongly influenced by demography and marketing. The falling birth rate is leading to a surplus of caregivers who may inappropriately apply their technical skills to a population of low-risk pregnant women. This in turn may lead to a ‘cascade’ of negative consequences for the normal, child-bearing public. The family practice accoucheur has a key role to play as an advocate of high quality, humanistic maternity care. Training programs must address the academic base of family practice obstetrics through direct teaching, role modelling, research, and quality assurance.
The report is a comprehensive examination of the current marketing practices, marketing methodologies, and decision-making processes utilized by the domestic automotive industry. The various marketing elements, such as products, consumer behavior, sales, ...
The UK's Arts and Humanities Data Service, a project of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), has recently made available the GIS Guide to Good Practice, the first of a series of Guides to Good Practice. These Guides are intended to "provid[e] the humanities research and teaching communities with practical instruction in applying recognized standards and good practice to the creation and use of digital resources." The first guide covers GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and its relationship to archaeology, as well as interdisciplinary studies. The guide is divided into six major topics, including types and documentation of data, structuring information, and archiving datasets. A substantial selected bibliography and glossary accompany the guide, making it an even more valuable resource.
The University of Southern California School of Medicine's Division of Research in Medical Education (USC/DRME) is conducting a nationwide study of practicing phsyicians in more than 20 medical and surgical specialties. The study's purpose is to provide a...
Discusses how the communication and information systems (CIS) infrastructure model is changing and explores the implications for higher education practices and purposes in this context of frequently disruptive but newly empowering technologies. (EV)
Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)
Text VersionPage 1. Page 2. . * OD LA130RATORY PRACTICE QUARTERLY COMPLIANCEREPORT BIORESEARCH MONITORING PROGIWM 7348.808 - ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation
Examines questions concerning the place of practical work within media studies and contends that students' media production work should not be a peripheral activity but should be combined with the rest of the curriculum. (MH)
A web survey of Buddhists' religious practices and beliefs, and health history and practices was conducted with 886 Buddhist respondents. Eighty-two percent were residents of the USA. Ninety-nine percent practiced Buddhist meditation and 70% had attended a formal retreat for intensive meditation practice. Eighty-six percent were converts to Buddhism and had been a Buddhist for a median of 9 years. Sixty-eight percent of respondents rated their health as very good or excellent. A one-point increase on a Buddhist Devoutness Index was associated with a 15% increase in the odds of being a non-smoker and an 11% increase in the odds of being in good to excellent health. PMID:20336487
Wiist, W H; Sullivan, B M; St George, D M; Wayment, H A
Background data were obtained in a study to characterize the number and type of patients using chiropractic services in Connecticut, and financial aspects of chiropractic care were investigated. Of 15,500 chiropractors actively engaged in practice in the ...
|Describes three activities, substrate inhibition, product inhibition by fructose and glucose, and gel immobilization of invertase for use with undergraduate biochemistry classes. Discusses materials, methods, and results. Stresses the advantages of practical exercises in undergraduate classes. (CW)|
This article asserts that a scholarship of practice should emerge to improve day-to-day administrative practice in higher education. Six characteristics of professional practice in higher education strongly indicate such a need. The primary goals of scholarship of practice are to improve administrative practice in higher education and to develop a…
|Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…
Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.
This article reviews the 2009 APA President's initiatives and recommendations for the future of psychology practice and science. The future of psychology practice requires that we expand the focus of traditional practice; become health care providers, not just mental health providers; use evidence-based practice, assessment, and outcome measures; incorporate technology into our practices, including electronic health records; and change training
\\u000a This chapter aims at investigating the role of religious practice in promoting optimal experience, as well as in shaping the\\u000a process of psychological selection. Data obtained from participants belonging to different cultures and religious traditions\\u000a will be discussed. More specifically, we will explore the occurrence of optimal experience during religious practice, its\\u000a psychological features, as well as the relevance of
Antonella Delle Fave; Fausto Massimini; Marta Bassi
Background: A practicing psychiatrist faces dilemmas on a number of occasions, in deciding the best course of action he/she needs to undertake while treating a patient. At times, this choice may not be in accordance with the ethical and moral principles and may in fact appear to violate patient's autonomy and rights. Aim: To study the nature of psychiatric practice by the practicing psychiatrist in the areas of admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight psychiatrists gave consent to participate in the study. A special proforma was prepared, which addresses the common dilemmas in the clinical psychiatric practice. All the psychiatrists were given specially designed profoma and were requested to fill the proforma with appropriate answers. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: There were 42 male and 6 female psychiatrists. The age of the psychiatrists ranged from 28 to 65 years with a mean of 43.08 years. The mean duration of practice of these psychiatrists was 14.81±11.07 years. Question and answers related to admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy are discussed. Conclusions: The present standard and practice especially in private psychiatric set-up does not confirm to the rules, recommendations, and regulations suggested by Mental Health Act 1987, Mental Health Authorities and various guidelines of practice. Indian Psychiatric Society and other professional bodies need to take steps to prepare guidelines for a good psychiatric practice.
Patil, Nanasaheb M.; Nayak, Raghavendra B.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Chate, Sameeran S.
Objective To describe food-related policies and practices in secondary schools in Minnesota.Design Mailed anonymous survey including questions about the secondary school food environment and food-related practices and policies.Subjects\\/Setting Members of a statewide professional organization for secondary school principals (n=610; response rate: 463\\/610=75%). Of the 463 surveys returned, 336 met the eligibility criteria (current position was either principal or assistant principal
A questionnaire seeking details of working arrangements and problems encountered was circulated to social workers working in general practice. The main difficulties were: insufficient preparation for the scheme, poor communication between general practitioners and social workers, and the inadequate provision of facilities for social workers in practice premises. Most of the respondents had not experienced big difficulties. Two thirds had enjoyed a rewarding professional experience, which is a testimonial to interdisciplinary co-operation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.
Gilchrist, Iain C.; Gough, Jean B.; Horsfall-Turner, Yvonne R.; Ineson, Eileen M.; Keele, Ged; Marks, Bernard; Scott, Heather J.
Many long-held practices surrounding newborn injections lack evidence and have unintended consequences. The choice of needles, injection techniques, and pain control methods are all factors for decreasing pain and improving the safety of intramuscular injections. Using practices founded on the available best evidence, nurses can reduce pain, improve the quality and safety of care, and set the stage for long-term compliance with vaccination schedules. PMID:23403493
Hensel, Desiree; Morson, Gwyndolen Leigh; Preuss, Elizabeth A
\\u000a Model Transformations in Practice (MTiP) 2005 was a workshop which provided a forum for the model transformation community\\u000a to discuss practical model transformation issues. Although many different model transformation approaches have been proposed\\u000a and explored in recent years, there has been little work on comparing and contrasting various approaches. Without such comparisons,\\u000a it is hard to assess new model transformation
Jean Bézivin; Bernhard Rumpe; Andy Schürr; Laurence Tratt
This article discusses important issues in delivery of best practice Internet-based therapy (etherapy). Etherapy is first defined as the interaction between a consumer and a therapist via the Internet (commonly via e-mail) in association with the use of a structured web-based clinical treatment program. A summary of the professional and ethical issues is provided, along with illustrated examples of best-practice
An annotated bibliography is presented of the literature on medical practice plans (a mechanism for distributing funds generated by the practice of academic medicine). The listing of references is grouped as follows: Faculty practice income; organization ...
...the total patient care services of the group practice members) must be...a week on patient care services for a group practice, the physician has...2) Location and specialty-based compensation practices are permitted...
...the total patient care services of the group practice members) must be...a week on patient care services for a group practice, the physician has...2) Location and specialty-based compensation practices are permitted...
|Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.|
Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.
...13-06] RIN 3072-AC52 Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure; Practice Before the Commission, Parties to Proceedings...Commission (FMC or Commission) amends its Rules of Practice and Procedure regarding practice before the...
Modern business science has many tools that can be of great value to radiologists and their practices. One of the most important and underused is long-term planning. Part of the problem has been the pace of change. Making a 5-year plan makes sense only if your develop robust scenarios of possible future conditions you will face. Scenario analysis is one of many highly regarded tools that can improve your predictive capability. However, as with many tools, it pays to have some training and to get practical tips on how to improve their value. It also helps to learn from other people's mistakes rather than your own. The authors discuss both theoretical and practical issues in using scenario analysis to improve your planning process. They discuss actionable ways this set of tools can be applied in a group meeting or retreat. PMID:20439081
Purpose Traditionally, radiographers and radiation therapists function in a workplace environment that is protocol-driven with limited functional autonomy. The workplace promotes a culture of conformity and discourages practitioners from reflective and critical thinking, essential attributes for continuing learning and advancing workplace practices. As part of the first author’s doctoral study, a continuing professional development (CPD) educational framework was used to design and implement an online module for radiation therapists’ CPD activities. The study aimed to determine if it is possible to enhance healthcare practitioners’ reflective practice via online learning and to establish the impact of reflective learning on clinical practice. Materials and methods The objectives of the online module were to increase radiation therapists’ knowledge in planning for radiation therapy for the breast by assisting them engage in reflective practice. The cyclical process of action research was used to pilot the module twice with two groups of volunteer radiation therapists (twenty-six participants) from Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Results The online module was evaluated using Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. Evidence indicated that participants were empowered as a result of participation in the module. They began reflecting in the workplace while assuming a more proactive role and increased clinical responsibilities, engaged colleagues in collaborative reflections and adopted evidence-based approaches in advancing clinical practices. Conclusion The study shows that it is possible to assist practitioners engage in reflective practice using an online CPD educational framework. Participants were able to apply the reflective learning they had developed in their workplace. As a result of their learning, they felt empowered to continue to effect changes in their workplace beyond the cessation of the online module.
|Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice…
Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice…
The purpose of the study was to explore Jordanian women's breastfeeding beliefs and practices including exclusive breastfeeding. A descriptive cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 200 Jordanian mothers was used. The majority of mothers were muliparous and were recruited from primary health-care centres within 6 weeks of a normal vaginal birth or an instrumental delivery. Eligible women, who met the inclusion criteria, were invited to participate in the study. A sociodemographic data form and a 14-item questionnaire concerning different aspects of breastfeeding beliefs and practices were developed for self administration. This study indicated high early initiation of breastfeeding. Most mothers gave supplements other than breastfeeding, including water without knowing that this supplementation could affect exclusive breastfeeding or the continuation of breastfeeding. Finding of this study shed some light on the current breastfeeding practices including exclusive breastfeeding among Jordanian women. Women need to be better educated about breastfeeding. Therefore, more efforts and resources should be put into providing opportunities for education to discuss breastfeeding during antenatal care. This Jordanian study could be relevant to Arabic women in the West, because cultural beliefs and practices are likely to be part of immigrant woman's perceptions about breastfeeding practices. PMID:19187167
This second part focuses on estimation of secret parameters of some practical watermarking techniques. The first part reveals some theoretical bounds of information leakage about secret keys from observations. However, as usual in information theory, nothing has been said about practical algorithms which pirates use in real life application. Whereas Part One deals with the necessary number of observations to disclose secret keys (see definitions of security levels), this part focuses on the complexity or the computing power of practical estimators. Again, we are inspired here by the work of Shannon as in his famous article, he has already made a clear cut between the unicity distance and the work of opponents' algorithm. Our experimental work also illustrates how Blind Source Separation (especially Independent Component Analysis) algorithms help the opponent exploiting this information leakage to disclose the secret carriers in the spread spectrum case. Simulations assess the security levels theoretically derived in Part One.
The liability of a doctor as regards medical negligence is now a well accepted eventuality. However still many doctors and hospitals are unaware of their liability on account of negligence on the part of their junior doctors and hospital staff. Indemnity insurance specifically protects you against your liability to pay compensation including legal costs, fees or expenses. If court orders to pay compensation for negligence of patient and you have a valid insurance cover, the insurance company is supposed to pay the money. In the present text we are highlighting the medical practice related insurance such as personal indemnity insurance, error and omission policy for hospital and nursing homes and insurance policy related to damage to hospital building, damage to electrical and electronics appliances and also insurance for doctor's kit, signboard, burglary, fidelity guarantee and loss of money in transit. All this medical practice related insurance is explained with its present charges, terms and conditions and its importance in today's practice. PMID:23029950
The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to describe the theoretical structures of the strategies used by medical practices to navigate adaptive challenges. The process of responding to adaptive challenges in five medical practices was studied using a grounded theory approach, collecting data from interviews with the organizations' leaders and managers. The leadership of these medical practices had successfully navigated adaptive challenges within two years of the study. The analysis revealed a model that describes the key elements in finding solutions to adaptive challenges. The model was named the Adaptation Solution Dynamic, which explains the elements of Rational Tools, Relationship Commitment, and Achievement Drive. The findings from the results of this study provide a theoretical basis for studying how leaders support identifying solutions to adaptive challenges. PMID:23866647
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among critical illnesses. In severe cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. It has been reported that hospital mortality of the patients who require RRT is more than 60%. Because of the high mortality, it is quite important to conduct RRT appropriately to improve outcome of patients with severe AKI. However, RRT is not a single homogeneous therapy but rather there are diverse modes of therapy and various ways of providing RRT that might affect its efficacy and safety. The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) reviewed the available evidence and recommended that more research should be conducted on such technical aspects of RRT in order to determine if certain techniques are preferred for certain indications. As a response to the recommendation by ADQI, the BEST Kidney (Beginning and Ending Supportive Therapy for the Kidney) study was conducted. This study is a multicenter, multinational, prospective, epidemiological study with the aim of understanding multiple aspects of AKI at an international level. This study was conducted at 54 centers in 23 countries from September 2000 to December 2001. The study included more than 1,700 patients including 1,260 who were treated with RRT. Using the large database, several aspects related to RRT have been analyzed, including comparison of IRRT and continuous RRT (CRRT), timing of RRT initiation and discontinuation, and practice variations for CRRT around the world. This study found that RRT practice was quite varied around the world. RRT practice is not aligned with the best evidence and variations in practice may be responsible for significant morbidity. The BEST Kidney Study has generated several hypotheses related to RRT practice in the intensive care unit. Such hypotheses will need to be tested in future clinical trials and hopefully help reduce practice variations for patients with AKI requiring RRT. PMID:20427975
|In professional education today, Schon's concept of "reflective practice" underpins much thinking about learning at work. This approach--with its emphasis on the inner life of the professional and on her own interpretations of her learning experiences--is increasingly being challenged: often cited objections are that the model ignores factors…
|Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) concerns teaching techniques which identify and foster developmental needs of children individually and in groups from birth to age 8. In a DAP classroom, play is a central focus, as it enables children to make sense of their world, develops social and cultural understanding, and fosters flexible and…
Purpose : Traditionally, radiographers and radiation therapists function in a workplace environment that is protocol- driven with limited functional autonomy. The workplace promotes a culture of conformity and discourages practitioners from reflective and critical thinking, essential attributes for continuing learning and advancing workplace practices. As part of the first author's doctoral study, a continuing professional development (CPD) educational framework was
More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary, facts, and names of visual objects, with test
Nicholas J. Cepeda; Noriko Coburn; Doug Rohrer; John T. Wixted; Michael C. Mozer; Harold Pashler
Individualized care in children's services requires practitioners to move beyond individual worldviews to gain a cultural context for service planning and delivery to an increasingly diversifying U.S. population. As such, research is needed to empirically support diversity practice models used to prepare practitioners for cross-cultural work. This qualitative study compares family and professional perceptions of cultural competence in children's mental
All residents of McGill University's Department of Family Medicine were surveyed by mail about their family practice clinic experience. Residents were generally satisfied with their training site and their supervision, but noted problems with volume and diversity of patients, learning certain procedures, and knowledge of community resources. They did not want more family medicine clinic time.
|A major tenet of both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act is the identification and use of evidence-based practices, or those instructional techniques shown by research as most likely to improve student outcomes meaningfully. However, much confusion exists regarding the meaning and potential…
Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.
Examines the intersection of policy and practice in the areas of systemic reform and special education. Provides examples of statewide system reform efforts in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Vermont, as well as examples of how children with disabilities are included in the total reform efforts. (Author/CR)
Individualized care in children's services requires practitioners to move beyond individual worldviews to gain a cultural context for service planning and delivery to an increasingly diversifying U.S. population. As such, research is needed to empirically support diversity practice models used to prepare practitioners for cross-cultural work. This…
Describes how Canada's University of Victoria worked with the Meadow Lake Tribal Council representing Aboriginal communities to develop the generative preschool curriculum model, an early childhood education (ECE) training program embracing community- and culturally-appropriate practice. Concludes that early indicators of program impact support…
|This paper examines the recent development of a computer-assisted learning program--in Practice--at the School of Health Science, in the University of Wales Swansea. The project, which began in 2001, was developed in close collaboration with The Meningitis Trust, the aim being to produce a software package to increase nursing students' knowledge…
Hand washing remains an important preventative method for making the transmission of nosocomial infections redundant. Despite awareness by health workers of the practices required and of the legislation governing hand washing, the study reported here found that compliance to these procedures was quite poor. The results of two surveys distributed to health workers and direct observation by clinical staff in
|The purpose of this article is to provide a mnemonic device that when incorporated into practice behavior is shown through case study to help students develop an understanding of the relationship between exercises, new and old, and the music that they are preparing. I developed the mnemonic "Preparation of Relevant Activities Causes Technical…
This paper examines the recent development of a computer-assisted learning program--in Practice--at the School of Health Science, in the University of Wales Swansea. The project, which began in 2001, was developed in close collaboration with The Meningitis Trust, the aim being to produce a software package to increase nursing students' knowledge…
|Describes how Canada's University of Victoria worked with the Meadow Lake Tribal Council representing Aboriginal communities to develop the generative preschool curriculum model, an early childhood education (ECE) training program embracing community- and culturally-appropriate practice. Concludes that early indicators of program impact support…
Recordkeeping in contact lens practice may be based on a problem-oriented system that emphasizes the use of forms. Fitting agreements and informed consent agreements are the most important components of such a system. Progress notes are also used to document the episodic care that is an integral part of contact lens practice. Examination findings should be described with descriptive language whenever possible; warnings, diagnoses, patient management, and recall and referral appointments should be conscientiously documented in the record of care. PMID:7812068
Performance management, variably referred to as corporate, business, or enterprise performance management, has traditionally been viewed as a strategy to achieve an optimum mix of solvency, quality, safety, and patient satisfaction in large healthcare organizations. Now, however, with the readily available data from government and nonprofit organizations promoting quality health care and affordable business intelligence tools, small practices can adopt management strategies, tools, and techniques once limited to corporate executives. With a modest investment in self-assessment and affordable analysis tools, a small practice can benefit from a scaled-down version of the performance management initiatives in place at the leading health-care organizations. PMID:15921133
1 As part of a prospective study on the use of digoxin in a general practice, plasma digoxin concentrations were measured in all patients receiving the drug. 2 A low mean plasma digoxin concentration was observed, suggesting a cautious approach to digitalization. 3 The correlation between plasma digoxin concentration and signs or symptoms commonly used in the assessment of digoxin effect was poor. 4 It was concluded that the measurement of plasma digoxin could be of assistance in a variety of clinical settings within a general practice.
Many family physicians have written about how they influence, nurture, and empower people in their communities of practice. In this essay, the author writes of the personal joys that family medicine has brought him. An expression of his appreciation for his work as a family doctor, it touches on 6 themes that continue to rejuvenate his practice: love, faith, mystery, place, dance, and medicine. By examining the emotional and psychological dimensions of these themes, he offers a path by which other family physicians may be able to find sustenance and joy in their daily work. PMID:22585892