Science.gov

Sample records for reforestation agroforestry practices

  1. Agroforestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impacts of agroforestry systems (AFS) on soil management in temperate, subtropical, and tropical biomes support the beneficial, holistic role of tree components in agricultural land-use systems. Compared to annual monocultures, AFS can enhance several soil physical properties improving soil resi...

  2. Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

  3. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  4. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

  5. VARIATIONS IN SOIL AGGREGATE STABILITY AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN A TEMPERATE AGROFORESTRY PRACTICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry and grass buffers have been shown to improve soil properties and overall environmental quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates (WSA), soil carbon, soil nitrogen, enzyme activity, and microbial community DNA co...

  6. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  7. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  8. Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

  9. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  11. Parklands Partnership: Education through Reforestation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalia, Josephine A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes New York City's Parklands Partnership Program, in which elementary and secondary students visit natural woodlands areas in their neighborhood, learn about forest ecology, and engage in restoration and reforestation activities that foster a connection between themselves and their local environment. (SV)

  12. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  13. Reforesting the Earth. Worldwatch Paper 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra; Heise, Lori

    This document deals with efforts aimed at reforesting large areas of degraded lands. It includes sections on: (1) tree cover trends; (2) fuelwood challenges of the future; (3) the need to supply industrial wood; (4) stabilizing soil and water resources; (5) forests and climate change; and (6) mobilization for reforestation. (TW)

  14. Reforestation: Site Preparation and Reforestation BMPs http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 1

    E-print Network

    and equipment fluids associated with site preparation activities should be collected and disposed of properly. · Plan ahead to minimize disturbance by equipment in SMZs. · Site preparation and reforestation

  15. Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

  16. Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

  17. Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

  18. Reforestation: Herbaceous Weed Control After Planting http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Reforestation: Herbaceous Weed Control After Planting http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 2 Band Spray within 6 hours of application. Broadcast Spray (Aerial): Broadcast applications of herbaceous weed the treatment area boundaries with a In the practice called herbaceous weed control, herbicides are used

  19. Impact of agroforestry plantings for bioenergy production on soil organic carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree windbreaks are an attractive multiple-benefit land use through their ability to mitigate climate change by modifying the local microclimate to improve crop growth and by sequestering carbon in the soil and tree biomass. Recently, such agroforestry practices are also being considered for their b...

  20. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  1. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  2. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take spuriously precise model results at face value, and it is able to make predictions even where data is scarce. It thus provides a rapid and honest assessment option that can quickly supply decision-makers with system performance estimates, offering an opportunity to improve the targeting of agroforestry interventions.

  3. Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

  4. CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

  5. Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

  6. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  7. Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

  8. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  9. Drought resilience of maize-legume agroforestry systems in Malawi

    E-print Network

    Kerr, Amber Catherine

    2012-01-01

    improve the drought resilience of agriculture in southernagriculture: water harvesting, improved water use efficiency, and expanded irrigation; conservation farming (including agroforestry); heat- and drought

  10. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  11. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance. PMID:16261277

  12. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x? = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (?x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. PMID:25460423

  13. Monitoring of reforested areas using LANDSAT data. [Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.

  14. Effect of reforestation on streamflow in central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, William Joseph; Ayer, Gordon Roundy

    1961-01-01

    Hydrologic data have been collected since 1932 in central New York State to determine the effect of reforestation on streamflow. Data are available for three small partly reforested areas and for one nonreforested control area. From 35 to 58 percent of the 3 areas were reforested, mostly with species of pine and spruce. The trees were allowed to grow without thinning or cutting, and by 1958 these reforested areas had developed into dense coniferous woodlots. Intensive statistical analyses of the data from the four study areas were made in 1958. Analyses were made for three hydrologic periods: the dormant season represented by the 6-month period ending April 30, the growing season represented by the 6-month period ending October 31, and the year represented by the 12-month period ending April 30. Analyses of the hydrologic data using multiple correlation with time as a variable and analyses of covariance between early and late periods of record indicated that several significant changes had occurred in the streamflow from the partly reforested study areas. Based on correlation with precipitation, total runoff for the dormant season from the 3 study areas was reduced by annual rates of 0.17 to 0.29 inches per year. Based on correlations with streamflow from a control area, total runoff from the partly reforested Shackham Brook area was reduced by average rates of 0.14 inches per growing season, 0.23 inches per dormant season, and 0.36 inches per hydrologic year. Peak discharges on Shackham Brook during the dormant season were reduced by 1958 by an average of 41 percent for the season, with reductions ranging from an average of 66 percent for November to an average of 16 percent for April. No significant changes were found in the peak discharges for the growing season, rates of base-flow recession, volumes of direct runoff, or annual low flows of streams in the three partly reforested areas. The significant reductions in total runoff are attributed to increases in interception and transpiration in the reforested areas. The reductions in peak discharges during the dormant period are attributed largely to increased interception and sublimation of snowfall, and a gradual desynchronization of snowmelt runoff from the wooded and open areas of partly reforested watersheds. The changes in streamflow occurred gradually over the years; it could not be determined from the data whether changes in streamflow were still occurring in 1958, or whether they had reached a maximum.

  15. Drought resilience of maize-legume agroforestry systems in Malawi

    E-print Network

    Kerr, Amber Catherine

    2012-01-01

    effect of soil surface temperature on the growth of millet in relation to the effect of Faidherbia albida trees."effect of these fertilizer tree systems on air temperatureeffects of agroforestry trees on microclimate (air and soil temperature,

  16. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  17. A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

  18. Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

  19. Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groninger, John W.

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  20. Soil properties following reforestation or afforestation of marginal cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reforestation or afforestation of marginal agricultural lands offers opportunities to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and improve the quality of degraded soils. The objectives of this study were to identify the extent and distribution of marginally productive cropland that was originally under f...

  1. INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LARGE-SCALE REFORESTATION: PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the workshop was to identify major operational and ecological considerations needed to successfully conduct large-scale reforestation projects throughout the forested regions of the world. Large-scale" for this workshop means projects where, by human effort, approx...

  2. The Role of Soil Biological Function in Regulating Agroecosystem Services and Sustainability in the Quesungual Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, S.; Pauli, N.; Rousseau, L.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Barrios, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Quesungual agroforestry system from western Honduras has been increasingly promoted as a promising alternative to traditional slash-and-burn agriculture in tropical dry forest regions of the Americas. Improved residue management and the lack of burning in this system can greatly impact soil biological functioning and a number of key soil-based ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes has not been thoroughly integrated to understand system functionality as a whole that can guide improved management. To address this gap, we present a synthesis of various field studies conducted in Central America aimed at: 1) quantifying the influence of the Quesungual agroforestry practices on soil macrofauna abundance and diversity, and 2) understanding how these organisms influence key soil-based ecosystem services that ultimately drive the success of this system. A first set of studies examined the impact of agroecosystem management on soil macrofauna populations, soil fertility and key soil processes. Results suggest that residue inputs (derived from tree biomass pruning), a lack of burning, and high tree densities, lead to conditions that support abundant, diverse soil macrofauna communities under agroforestry, with soil organic carbon content comparable to adjacent forest. Additionally, there is great potential in working with farmers to develop refined soil quality indicators for improved land management. A second line of research explored interactions between residue management and earthworms in the regulation of soil-based ecosystem services. Earthworms are the most prominent ecosystem engineers in these soils. We found that earthworms are key drivers of soil structure maintenance and the stabilization of soil organic matter within soil aggregates, and also had notable impacts on soil nutrient dynamics. However, the impact of earthworms appears to depend on residue management practices, thus indicating the need for an integrated approach for management of soil biological function and ecosystem services in the Quesungual agroforestry system.

  3. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  4. Biochar application during reforestation alters species present and soil chemistry.

    PubMed

    Drake, J A; Carrucan, A; Jackson, W R; Cavagnaro, T R; Patti, A F

    2015-05-01

    Reforestation of landscapes is being used as a method for tackling climate change through carbon sequestration and land restoration, as well as increasing biodiversity and improving the provision of ecosystem services. The success of reforestation activities can be reduced by adverse field conditions, including those that reduce germination and survival of plants. One method for improving success is biochar addition to soil, which is not only known to improve soil carbon sequestration, but is also known to improve growth, health, germination and survival of plants. In this study, biochar was applied to soil at rates of 0, 1, 3 and 6 t ha(-1) along with a direct-seed forest species mix at three sites in western Victoria, Australia. Changes in soil chemistry, including total carbon, and germination and survival of species were measured over an 18 month period. Biochar was found to significantly increase total carbon by up to 15.6% on soils low in carbon, as well as alter electrical conductivity, Colwell phosphorous and nitrate- and ammonium-nitrogen. Biochar also increased the number of species present, and stem counts of Eucalyptus species whilst decreasing stem counts of Acacia species. Biochar has the potential to positively benefit reforestation activities, but site specific and plant-soil-biochar responses require targeted research. PMID:25679816

  5. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 ?m) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 ?m). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar SCR (4.5%). C content in the mineral fraction increased for SRC and AF 1.3-1.5 times compare to cropland, showing that the early stage of trees development lead to C accumulation in stable fractions. CO2 efflux from the surface 0-3 cm was in 2-3 times higher than from 3-20 cm. CO2 efflux did not follow soil C contents and was the highest for poplar SRC plot (1.8 mg C g-1 soil), followed by willow AF (1.6 mg C g-1 soil), willow SRC (1.4 mg C g-1 soil) and cropland (0.8 mg C g-1 soil). Estimated size of labile C pool for forest soils was two times higher and decomposition rates were 1.3 times faster than for the arable site. We conclude that afforestation in the first years mainly affects C accumulation in the top soil. Due to changing in soil structure most of the C was associated with large macroaggregates. Afforestation measures promoted C accumulation in the mineral fractions, whereas C associated with free POM even decreased in case of poplar SRC, compare to cropland soil.

  6. Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

  7. Drought resilience of maize-legume agroforestry systems in Malawi

    E-print Network

    Kerr, Amber Catherine

    2012-01-01

    damage 8   1.4   Climate modulation by agroforestry systems: indirect effects 8   1.4.1   Biodiversity conservation . 8   1.4.2   Weeds,damage from termites and monkeys may be partly responsible for the difference. A heavy weed

  8. Bats Limit Insects in a Neotropical Agroforestry System

    E-print Network

    Bats Limit Insects in a Neotropical Agroforestry System Kimberly Williams-Guillén,1 * Ivette the importance of avian predators in arthropod control (2). Although insectivorous bats are ex- pected to have major impacts on arthropods (3), few studies have quantified the effects of bats on standing crops

  9. Agroforestry systems for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural landscapes are an important component of a biofuel strategy to develop energy independence. Agroforestry systems offer an opportunity to produce both food and biofuel feedstocks from the same land area. Such a strategy could improve numerous ecosystem services more so than either of t...

  10. More than Just Trees: Assessing Reforestation Success in Tropical Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Hai Dinh; Smith, Carl; Herbohn, John; Harrison, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many parts of the tropics are dependent of forests for their livelihoods and for environmental services. Forest resources in the tropics have declined rapidly over the past century and therefore many developing countries in the tropics have reforestation programs. Although reforestation is a long-term process with long-term…

  11. Reforestation: Direct Seeding of Oak Acorns http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 1

    E-print Network

    Reforestation: Direct Seeding of Oak Acorns http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 1 planting areas of heavy clay soils. See a professional forester for specific site requirements for each oak species from direct seeding of oak. The initial growth rate is slower for this type reforestation. Determining

  12. Volunteer Notes on Reforestation. A Handbook for Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Steve, Comp.

    Provided in this document are descriptions of reforestation projects and techniques presented by Peace Corps volunteers from Chad, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, and Niger. The purpose of the document is to aid individuals in trying to find solutions to the problems facing forestry in the Sahel. These projects include: (1) reforestation of Ronier palm…

  13. Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (20012010) T. Mitchell Aide1,7

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001­2010) T. Mitchell Aide1 have documented extensive deforestation, but there are also many local studies reporting forest evaluated deforestation and reforestation from the municipal to continental scale, we lack a comprehensive

  14. The future of reforestation programs in the tropical developing countries: insights from the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Reforestation against the rapid rate of deforestation and forest degradation is common in most tropical developing countries. The main objective of reforestation programs is to restore and/or enhance the degraded landscapes depreciated in environmental value. However due to changing socio-political contexts and increasing awareness on sustainable development and environmental issues such programs are becoming more challenging, particularly in the developing tropics. Like most tropical developing countries substantial deforestation has occurred in the Philippines followed by massive logging and slash-and-burn agriculture, resulting in severe social and environmental problems. The country is also one of the pioneer countries that introduces reforestation program to restore its degraded forests. Most recently the government of the Philippines has launched the National Greening Program (NGP), one of the largest reforestation projects so far, with an aim to reforest 1.5 million hectares of degraded forest in critical watersheds over a five year time period. This paper highlights the key challenges that might hinder the success of the reforestation program through National Greening Program. We found that it is unlikely to achieve the desired project goals if rural communities dependent on upland landscapes are excluded from the reforestation program through plantation establishment. Bringing larger amount of areas and greater number of people under community based forest management (CBFM) initiatives for reforestation programs, with clearly defined rights and responsibilities, as well as securing timely access to timber harvesting permits to the communities involved in maintaining the plantations could enhance the long term reforestation success in the country. The paper also tries to provide a critical review of the past reforestation efforts in the Philippines, and direction of possible research and development in order to achieve a win-win situation that will benefits both the local livelihoods and the environment, not only in the Philippines but in other tropical developing countries with similar socio-political context.

  15. [Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

    2014-10-01

    As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time. PMID:25796917

  16. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  17. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Coupled Socioecological Systems in East Africa: The Case of the Chagga Agroforestry and Maasai Agropastoralism across the Greater Environments of Mount Kilimanjaro Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The various types of rainfall-dependent coupled socioecological systems that conspicuously characterize mountain-environments across Africa, such as the Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, constitute a major economic backbone to the local inhabitants. Similarly, agropastoralism that characterizes the adjoining rangelands of such mountain-environments, such as that practiced by the Maasai people of Kenya, in the northern plains that adjoins Mount Kilimanjaro, is major contributor to local food security. Both Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism also contribute greatly to broader-scale economic sectors and respectively to sustainable utilization of rangeland and mountain-environment resources. Like similar coupled socioecological systems across Africa, the Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism are being, and will continue to be affected by the changing climate. This study uses an integrated approach to explore the sustainability of Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, in the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Concurrently, the sustainability of the Maasai agropastoralism (a livelihood-diversification type) in the northern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and the adjoining plains in Kenya is explored. This explication is followed by conceptualization of the potential future of Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism systems under diverse scenarios of climate change—and alongside simultaneous effects of cross-scale social and biophysical factors, processes, and their interactions—in an integrated model. The premise of this study is that coupled socioecological systems, such as Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism, linked to and/or dependent on mountain environments and microclimates, are natural-laboratories. Apropos this last point, the two systems offer timely insight into how similar systems in different geographical locations are likely to be influenced by the continuously changing climate amidst simultaneously heightened permeation of global socioeconomic and sociopolitical change. This insight become important as climate-influenced agriculture and pastoralism and their various derivatives continues to dominant livelihood systems across Africa.

  18. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract…

  19. Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

    2008-01-01

    Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry

  20. Integrating climate change criteria in reforestation projects using a hybrid decision-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Gonzalez-Utrillas, Nuria; Canto-Perello, Julian; Martin-Utrillas, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The selection of appropriate species in a reforestation project has always been a complex decision-making problem in which, due mostly to government policies and other stakeholders, not only economic criteria but also other environmental issues interact. Climate change has not usually been taken into account in traditional reforestation decision-making strategies and management procedures. Moreover, there is a lack of agreement on the percentage of each one of the species in reforestation planning, which is usually calculated in a discretionary way. In this context, an effective multicriteria technique has been developed in order to improve the process of selecting species for reforestation in the Mediterranean region of Spain. A hybrid Delphi-AHP methodology is proposed, which includes a consistency analysis in order to reduce random choices. As a result, this technique provides an optimal percentage distribution of the appropriate species to be used in reforestation planning. The highest values of the weight given for each subcriteria corresponded to FR (fire forest response) and PR (pests and diseases risk), because of the increasing importance of the impact of climate change in the forest. However, CB (conservation of biodiversitiy) was in the third position in line with the aim of reforestation. Therefore, the most suitable species were Quercus faginea (19.75%) and Quercus ilex (19.35%), which offer a good balance between all the factors affecting the success and viability of reforestation.

  1. Determining options for agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds in Alemaya Basin, Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Bishaw, B.

    1993-01-01

    Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.

  2. Best Management Practices Poplar Manual

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Plant Material Selection ­ Species and Clones 21 Introduction and caution 21 Poplar clones 21 Willows 14 Riparian buffers 15 Block plantings 16 Biomass/energy plantings 17 Wellhead designs 17 Other agroforestry practices 18 Phytoremediation 19 Site Preparation 20 Year one 20 Year two ­ Year of planting 20

  3. Discerning Fragmentation Dynamics of Tropical Forest and Wetland during Reforestation, Urban Sprawl, and Policy Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940–2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr?1 in 1977–1991 versus 2.17% yr?1 in 1991–2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land planning to reduce future fragmentation. PMID:25409016

  4. Discerning fragmentation dynamics of tropical forest and wetland during reforestation, urban sprawl, and policy shifts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land planning to reduce future fragmentation. PMID:25409016

  5. Reforestation of degraded hills in Nepal: Review of silvicultural and management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.; Dickmann, D.I. )

    1991-01-01

    Nepal's Middle Hill regions have been excessively deforested. The government has launched a community-based reforestation project with help of international donors. However, results have been far from satisfactory. Plantation targets have not been met and survival rates of the planted trees are poor averaging around 60%. Social factors are given more blame than technical ones for these failures. However, an analysis of the available information indicates, rather, that about two-thirds of the failures were due to technical and administrative reasons. Only about 13% of the failures could be attributed to social causes. Poor quality seeds are used to raise undersized seedlings which are planted improperly during the wrong time of the year. Species selected are not appropriate for the site or the people for whom the plantations are being created; rather they are selected for the ease of planting and to meet administrative targets. The overall trend has been to plant conifers (mainly pinus roxburghii) and to plant on relatively easy sites. The result has been the creation of forest plantations which often do not have any management plant, while the few which often do not have any management plan, while the few which do are without any committed managers. There is a tremendous lack of information regarding user demand, growth, yield, and harvesting and utilization techniques. This paper stresses that research to improve practical methods in plantation establishment and training to produce competent, and dedicated resource managers be immediately initiated.

  6. Agroforestry: Systems of Diversity or Divestiture? Author(s): Rinku Roy Chowdhury

    E-print Network

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    Agroforestry: Systems of Diversity or Divestiture? Author(s): Rinku Roy Chowdhury Reviewed work:SystemsofDiversityorDivestiture? RinkuRoyChowdhury* Resumen Hoyendía lospaisajesreflejaninteraccionesentrelas fuerzasdeforestadorasyde;100 RinkuRoy Chowdhury Revista Geográfica125 Abstract

  7. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  8. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  9. Brush-eating device promises reforestation, wood energy aid

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, T.

    1981-01-01

    An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.

  10. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  11. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

  12. Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

    2007-03-01

    The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

  13. Contribution of deforestation to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and reforestation as an option to control CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.; Marland, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we discuss various aspects of global climate change as related to forests: the rate of deforestation; CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from deforestation; and reforestation as a means to control atmospheric CO/sub 2/. We also include for perspective a discussion of current policy considerations related to methods for reducing deforestation or promoting reforestation. 68 refs.

  14. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in croplands converted to walnut-based agroforestry systems and orchards in southeastern Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sen; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong; Yin, Changjun; Sun, Shiyou

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of agroforestry system practices on soil properties in the Loess Plateau of China. Over the last decade, a vegetation restoration project has been conducted in this area by converting cropland into tree-based agroforestry systems and orchards to combat soil erosion and degradation. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of land use conversion on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in southeastern Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: walnut intercropping system (AF), walnut orchard (WO), and traditional cropland (CR). After 7 years of continual management, soil samples were collected at 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50-cm depths for three treatments, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. Results showed that compared with the CR and AF treatments, WO treatment decreased both SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-50-cm soil profile. However, similar patterns of SOC and TN concentrations were observed in the AF and CR treatments across the entire profile. The SOC stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 5.42, 5.52, and 4.67 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. The calculated TN stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 0.63, 0.62, and 0.57 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. This result demonstrated that the stocks of SOC and TN in WO were clearly lower than those of AF and CR and that the walnut-based agroforestry system was more beneficial than walnut monoculture in terms of SOC and TN sequestration. Owing to the short-term intercropping practice, the changes in SOC and TN stocks were slight in AF compared with those in CR. However, a significant decrease in SOC and TN stocks was observed during the conversion of cropland to walnut orchard after 7 years of management. We also found that land use types had no significant effect on soil C/N ratio. These findings demonstrated that intercropping between walnut rows can potentially maintain more SOC and TN stocks than walnut monoculture and that agroforestry is a sustainable management pattern for vegetation restoration in the Loess Plateau area. PMID:26468039

  15. Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland with contrasting

    E-print Network

    Espigares, Tíscar

    Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland, and weeds are strong competitors for resources, particularly water. We conducted a 3-year experiment of full-light versus artificial shading and weed presence versus weed mowing. We measured seedling

  16. Reforestation in Arid Lands. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

    This manual presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad subject of project implementation) includes…

  17. Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used. PMID:25681794

  18. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  19. New Agroforestry Site: Kotumachigi village About 20 Km from the town of Gadag

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    and cities. Need to install weather stations to generate interest in the environment. Water harvestingNew Agroforestry Site: Kotumachigi village · About 20 Km from the town of Gadag · Population of 11,000 · Number of Houses 1400 · Population below poverty line ~25% · Drinking water: Only one well with two

  20. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry system with runoff irrigation in Northern Kenya

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    ) were lower in the sorghum monoculture than in the tree- based systems. In the subsoil (120 cm), however the sorghum were 53% lower than in the sorghum monoculture. This could be attributed to a higher root in the monocultures indicating a higher nutrient efficiency. The lower leaching losses in the agroforestry system

  1. Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment K for correspondence: E-mail: klaus@bgumail.bgu.ac.il) Key words: Acacia saligna, complementarity, cowpea, intercropping, resource capture, sorghum Abstract. Water is the most limiting factor for plant production

  2. Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System is Improved with Intercropped Kura Clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intercropping alleys of agroforestry systems provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover, m...

  3. Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil; and eventually, this leads to high levels of soil organic matter content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and macrofaunal communities in soil and litte...

  4. ICE DAMAGE IN A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY PINE PLANTATIONS IN ARKANSAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in re...

  5. Agroforestry Programs and Issues in the Northern Marianas Anthony Paul Tudela2

    E-print Network

    throughout the islands making up the CNMI through the coop- eration and involvement of locally and federally is also working on integrating agriculture and forestry in its re- search and extension programs. Land Methodologies and Applications for Pacific Island Agroforestry, July 16-20, 1990, Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated

  6. Needs and Priorities in Agroforestry Research in the Pacific1 Roger R. Bay2

    E-print Network

    -grant colleges of the American Pacific, several federal and state agencies, and the East-West Center. All had islands. The committee developed a list of 24 major forestry re- search, education, and extension needs Methodologies and Applications for Pacific Island Agroforestry, July 16-20, 1990, Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated

  7. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  8. Intercropping with Kura Clover Improves Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems provides income until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops or intensive herbicidal control of vegetation in the alleys decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial...

  9. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  10. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  11. Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha?1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha?1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

  12. Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

  13. KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

  14. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  15. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  16. Changing human-ecological relationships and drivers using the Quesungual agroforestry system in western Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual Agroforestry System (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The his...

  17. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  18. A common framework for GHG assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: connecting via GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are technical and financial advantages for pursuing agroforestry-derived mitigation and adaptation services simultaneously, with a recognition that carbon (C) payments could assist in supporting the deployment of adaptation strategies (Motocha et al. (2012). However, we lack the repeated/repea...

  19. Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

  20. A Review of Traditional Agroforestry in Micronesia1 Harley I. Manner2

    E-print Network

    of Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Nauru. Within the region there are high volcanic islands, low coral limestone Micronesian islands, agroforestry was a sustainable land use system, and an integral component, Truk, Yap, and their affiliated atolls in the Caroline Islands), the Republic of the Marshall Islands

  1. An Indigenous Pacific Island Agroforestry System: Pohnpei Bill Raynor James Fownes2

    E-print Network

    ) in the group and one of the few high islands. The island is of volcanic origin and is about five million years devel opment around most of the shoreline. Pohnpei Island is typically volcanic, with a majorityAn Indigenous Pacific Island Agroforestry System: Pohnpei Island1 Bill Raynor James Fownes2

  2. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  3. Carbon sequestration potential and climatic effects of reforestation in an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian; Schmidt, Hauke

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the global climatic effects of afforestation have mainly focused on the carbon sequestration potential of plausible scenarios while neglecting biogeophysical effects or were based on highly idealised afforestation scenarios. Here we assess the reduction potential for the atmospheric CO2 concentration and possible consequences for the global climate of following a strong reforestation scenario during this century taking into account both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. We perform simulations using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM), forced by anthropogenic emissions according to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but using land use transitions according to RCP 4.5. Thereby we are able to isolate the effects of land use changes in this scenario in which agricultural intensification leads to abandonment of agricultural areas and a regrowth of forest of about 8 million km2 in our model. We find that this reforestation reduces the atmospheric CO2 concentration by about 85 ppm by the end of the century as compared to RCP 8.5. This value is higher than previous estimates for plausible reforestation scenarios, mostly because the CO2 fertilisation effect on the terrestrial vegetation has not been accounted for in previous studies. Due to the lower CO2 concentration the global mean temperature increase is reduced by about 0.27 K. Regionally the simulated effect may exceed 2 K, but the largest annual mean cooling signal occurs in only sparsely populated regions. Concerning temperature extremes, however, the effect can also be large in densely populated areas, mostly caused by local biogeophysical effects of the vegetation changes. Thus, we conclude that the mitigation potential of reforestation is higher than previously thought, the need for adaptation in many regions of the world is still strong, but temperature extremes may be reduced.

  4. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

  5. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  6. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  7. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    PubMed

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree-based intercropping site, higher wheat biomass, grain yield and number of grains per spike were observed in agroforestry than in conventional agricultural system soils, but in the drought treatment only. Drought (windbreak site) and flooding (both sites) treatments significantly reduced wheat yield and 1000-grain weight in both types of system. Relationships between soil biochemical properties and soil microbial resilience or wheat productivity were strongly dependent on site. This study suggests that agroforestry systems may have a positive effect on soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience, which could operate positively on crop productivity and tolerance to severe water stress. PMID:23792247

  8. Reforestation as a post-mining land use in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    With the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), some very stringent requirements for the successful establishment of trees and shrubs have come into effect. In response to these requirements, AMAX Coal Company is developing a reforestation program for seven surface mines in Indiana and Illinois using the best technology currently available. The program emphasizes obtaining good quality stock, the proper care and handling of stock, the proper planting of the stock, and an effective weed control program. The value of weed control for the establishment and growth of hardwoods has long been recognized in the forest industry, but has not been used extensively in the reforestation of surface mined lands. The improved survival of tree seedlings with the use of weed control justifies the additional cost. Weed control also enhances the growth of tree seedlings. However, the long term growth of seedlings is questionable due to the compaction resulting from the extensive grading required to achieve approximate original contour. To minimize compaction, a forest area in Illinois is being minimally graded only to the extent necessary for environmental stability. Minimal grading is designed to reduce compaction which in turn will promote the development of a more productive forest resource.

  9. Challenges of reforestation in a water limited world under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Sun, Ge

    2014-05-01

    The debate on the ecological benefits of planted forests at the sensitive lower edge of the closed forest belt (at the "xeric limits") is still unresolved. Forests sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide, control water erosion and dust storms, reduce river sedimentation, and mitigate small floods. However, planting trees in areas previously predominantly occupied by grassland or agriculture can dramatically alter the energy and water balance at multiple scales. The forest/grassland transition zone is especially vulnerable to projected drastic temperature and precipitation shifts under future climate change and variability due to its high ecohydrological sensitivity. The study investigates some of the relevant aspects of the ecological and climatic role of plantation forests and potential impacts at the dryland edges of the temperate zone, using case studies from three countries/regions on three continents. We found that, contrary to popular expectations, the effect of forest cover on regional climate might be limited and the influence of reforestation on water resources might turn into negative. Planted forests generally reduce stream flow and lower groundwater table level because of higher water use than previous land cover types. Increased evaporation potential due to global warming and/or extreme drought events likely reduce areas that are appropriate for tree growth and forest establishment. Ecologically conscious forest policy on management, silviculture and reforestation planning requires the consideration of local hydrologic conditions, future climatic conditions, and also of non-forest alternatives of land use. Keywords: drylands, xeric limits, trailing limits, ecohydrology, climate forcing, land use change, forest policy

  10. Response of methanotrophic communities to afforestation and reforestation in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Nazaries, Loïc; Tate, Kevin R; Ross, Des J; Singh, Jagrati; Dando, John; Saggar, Surinder; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin; Singh, Brajesh K

    2011-11-01

    Methanotrophs use methane (CH(4)) as a carbon source. They are particularly active in temperate forest soils. However, the rate of change of CH(4) oxidation in soil with afforestation or reforestation is poorly understood. Here, soil CH(4) oxidation was examined in New Zealand volcanic soils under regenerating native forests following burning, and in a mature native forest. Results were compared with data for pasture to pine land-use change at nearby sites. We show that following soil disturbance, as little as 47 years may be needed for development of a stable methanotrophic community similar to that in the undisturbed native forest soil. Corresponding soil CH(4)-oxidation rates in the regenerating forest soil have the potential to reach those of the mature forest, but climo-edaphic fators appear limiting. The observed changes in CH(4)-oxidation rate were directly linked to a prior shift in methanotrophic communities, which suggests microbial control of the terrestrial CH(4) flux and identifies the need to account for this response to afforestation and reforestation in global prediction of CH(4) emission. PMID:21593799

  11. Assessing Effects of Native Reforestation on Soil Moisture Dynamics During Artificial and Natural Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A.; Szutu, D.; von Allmen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Because of fire, introduced ungulates, and landscape-level invasion of non-native grasses, less than 10% of original dry forest still exists on leeward Haleakal?, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Native dry forest restoration at Auwahi has demonstrated the potential for dramatic revegetation, allowing experimental comparison of hydrologic function between tracts of restored forest and adjacent grasslands. We hypothesized that even relatively recent forest restoration can assist in the recovery of impaired hydrologic function, potentially increasing aquifer recharge. To simulate an intense storm event, we experimentally irrigated and measured soil moisture and temperature with subsurface instrumentation at 4 locations within the reforested area and 4 within the grassland, each a 2.5 by 2.5 m plot. Compared to grassland areas, water in reforested sites moved to depth faster with larger magnitude changes in water content. The median first arrival velocity of water was greater by a factor of about 13 in the forested sites compared to the grassland sites. Instruments remained in place for more than 1 year and natural storms showed similar responses. This rapid transport of water to depths of 1 m or greater suggests increased potential aquifer recharge. Improved characterization of how vegetation and soils influence recharge is crucial for understanding the long-term impacts of forest restoration on aquifer recharge and water resources, especially in moisture-limited regions.

  12. Comparison of quantitative and molecular variation in agroforestry populations of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn) in Mali.

    PubMed

    Sanou, H; Lovett, P N; Bouvet, J-M

    2005-07-01

    In this study we investigated the within- and between-population genetic variation using microsatellite markers and quantitative traits of the shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, an important agroforestry tree species of the Sudano-Sahelian region in Africa. Eleven populations were sampled across Mali and in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Leaf size and form and growth traits were measured in a progeny test at the nursery stage. Eight microsatellites were used to assess neutral genetic variation. Low levels of heterozygosity were recorded (1.6-3.0 alleles/locus; H(E) = 0.25-0.42) and the fixation index (F(IS) = -0.227-0.186) was not significantly different from zero suggesting that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is encountered in all populations sampled. Quantitative traits exhibited a strong genetic variation between populations and between families within populations. The degree of population differentiation of the quantitative traits (Q(ST) = 0.055-0.283, Q(STmean) = 0.189) strongly exceeds that in eight microsatellite loci (F(ST) = -0.011-0.142, F(STmean) = 0.047). Global and pairwise F(ST) values were very low and not significantly different from zero suggesting agroforestry practices are amplifying gene flow (Nm = 5.07). The population means for quantitative traits and the rainfall variable were not correlated, showing variation was not linked with this climatic cline. It is suggested that this marked differentiation for quantitative traits, independent of environmental clines and despite a high gene flow, is a result of local adaptation and human selection of shea trees. This process has induced high linkage disequilibrium between underlying loci of polygenic characters. PMID:15969738

  13. SPATIAL VARIATION OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON POOLS IN TEMPERATE ALLEY CROPPING PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public concerns over the environmental effects of global warming has stimulated an interest in land use practices, such as agroforestry, which may promote sequestration of soil organic carbon (C). The objective of this study was to examine the spatial variability of soil organic C pools in establis...

  14. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

  15. Reboisement des Terres Arides. (Reforestation in Arid Lands. Manual M5A). Appropriate Technologies for Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Virginia C., Ed.

    This is the French translation for a manual which presents some current, state-of-the-art examples of forestry programs in West Africa. It is based on the collective experiences of foresters and of local farmers and herders. Since many of the problems of reforestation of dry areas are the same worldwide, the text (which focuses on the broad…

  16. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds was matched up to fog occurrence and fog water yields. Additionally, a simple methodology was also found to transform fog water yields from the cylindrical collector into cumulative large flat-panel collector water catches by using wind sensor data. The method found allows an estimation of bulk fog-water catches at any single station of our fog collection network and the use of that information in future potential applications.

  17. Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

    1991-10-01

    The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

  18. Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

  19. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  20. POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

  1. Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration Articles Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: Introduction. Journal of Environmental Quality 40: 784­790. Howlett, D. S., Marcose, M. G., Mosquera-Losada M.-R., Nair, P. K. R

  2. Acacia nilotica and Medicago sativa, suitable plants for agro-forestry in southern coasts of Iran.

    PubMed

    Emtehani, Mohammad Hassan; Tabari, Masoud

    2007-05-15

    Habitats of the multipurpose tree, Acacia nilotica, were identified along the coastline of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, south of Iran. Four sites were randomly chosen and in each one, vegetation as well as climatic and soil characteristics were studied. Likewise, biometry of Acacia trees was conducted and compared in the sites. The fodder values in leaf and fruit of Acacia were determined and compared with those of in foliage of Medicago sativa being managed under an agro-forestry system. By analyzing data it was revealed that the biggest trees were found in Dashteyari region and the smallest in Bamani region (both in the Oman Sea coast). Values in most of nutritional elements were higher in foliage of Medicago than in leaf and fruit of Acacia, respectively. From this investigation it is concluded that in south of Iran where the site is favorable for Acacia plantation, cultivation of Medicago or other adaptable crops together with Acacia can be developed as agroforestry systems (such as undercropping and intercropping) if water is available. PMID:19086523

  3. Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R.

    1992-12-31

    Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

  4. Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

  5. Projecting the long-term biogeochemical impacts of a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolz, K. J.; DeLucia, E. H.; Paul, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Annual, monoculture cropping systems have become the standard agricultural model in the Midwestern US. Unintended consequences of these systems include surface and groundwater pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, loss of biodiversity, and soil erosion. Diverse agroforestry (DA) systems dominated by fruit and nut trees/shrubs have been proposed as an agricultural model for the Midwestern US that can restore ecosystem services while simultaneously providing economically viable and industrially relevant staple food crops. A DA system including six species of fruit and nut crops was established on long-time conventional agricultural land at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2012, with the conventional corn-soybean rotation (CSR) as a control. Initial field measurements of the nitrogen and water cycles during the first two years of transition have indicated a significant decrease in N losses and modification of the seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) pattern. While these early results suggest that the land use transition from CSR to DA can have positive biogeochemical consequences, models must be utilized to make long-term biogeochemical projections in agroforestry systems. Initial field measurements of plant phenology, net N2O flux, nitrate leaching, soil respiration, and soil moisture were used to parameterize the DA system within the DayCENT biogeochemical model as the "savanna" ecosystem type. The model was validated with an independent subset of field measurements and then run to project biogeochemical cycling in the DA system for 25 years past establishment. Model results show that N losses via N2O emission or nitrate leaching reach a minimum within the first 5 years and then maintain this tight cycle into the future. While early ET field measurements revealed similar magnitudes between the DA and CSR systems, modeled ET continued to increase for the DA system throughout the projected time since the trees would continue to grow larger. These modeling results illustrate the potential long-term biogeochemical impacts that can be generated by a land-use transition to a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest.

  6. Survival, reproduction, and recruitment of woody plants after 14 years on a reforested landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.; Schmalhofer, Victoria R.

    1992-03-01

    With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened for use on landfills, these ecological potentials have not yet been investigated. We examined a 14-yr-old landfill plantation in New Jersey, USA, established to test tolerance of 19 species of trees and shrubs to landfill environments. We measured survivorship, reproduction, and recruitment within and around the experimental installation. Half of the original 190 plants were present, although survival and growth rates varied widely among species. An additional 752 trees and shrubs had colonized the plantation and its perimeter, as well as 2955 stems of vines. However, the great majority (>95%) of woody plants that had colonized were not progeny of the planted cohort, but instead belonged to 18 invading species, mostly native, bird-dispersed, and associated with intermediate stages of secondary plant succession. Based on this evidence, we recommend that several ecological criteria be applied to choices of woody species for the restoration of municipal landfills and similar degraded sites, in order to maximize rapid and economical establishment of diverse, productive woodlands.

  7. Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

  9. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  10. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.

  11. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and aggregates with carbonate, clay, ferrous and/or manganese oxides) indicates a low potential reserve of plant nutrients. The clay mineralogy, with the presence of 2:1 minerals, explains the high CEC (60.95 cmolc dm-3). Moderately alkaline pH is above the desirable range. P (282 mg kg-1) is high, while N (0.3 g kg-1) is low. ESP < 4% classifies the waste as non-sodium and the EC (60.95 cmolc dm-3) reflects mainly the Ca. The low values of soil organic matter (3,56 g kg-1) indicate the relevance of using organic amendments for the reconstruction of the soil for plant growth. Based on these data a forestation experiment (randomized block design) was done on a large waste heap preserved for scientific research, where 500 tree seedling were planted (9 different species) in a plot of 134 m x 60 m in size.Two substrates treatments were used: block with 1.4 kg organic matter per plant hole and blocks without organic matter. The preliminary statistical data show good responses to the treatments. This constitutes a way to transform gypsum mining wastes into soil. Application of these technologies for environmental rehabilitation can be used in other problems.

  12. Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Everett, R.

    1998-12-31

    The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

  13. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  14. Effects of cultivation and reforestation on suspended sediment concentrations: a case study in a mountainous catchment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N. F.; Chen, F. X.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, Y. X.; Shi, Z. H.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how sediment concentrations vary with land use/cover is critical for evaluating the current and future impacts of human activities on river systems. This paper presents suspended sediment concentration (SSC) dynamics and the relationship between SSC and discharge (Q) in the 8973 km2 Du catchment and its sub-catchment (4635 km2). In the Du catchment and its sub-catchment, 4235 and 3980 paired Q-SSC samples, respectively, were collected over 30 years. Under the influence of the "Household Contract Responsibility System" and Grain-for-Green projects in China, three periods were designated, the original period (1980s), cultivation period (1990s), and reforestation period (2000s). The results of a Mann-Kendall test showed that rainfall slightly increased during the study years; however, the annual discharge and sediment load significantly decreased. The annual suspended sediment yield of the Du catchment varied between 4 and 332 kg s-1, and that of the sub-catchment varied between 2 and 135 kg s-1. The SSCs in the catchment and sub-catchment fluctuated between 1 and 22 400 g m-3 and between 1 and 31 800 g m-3, respectively. The mean SSC of the Du catchment was relatively stable during the three periods (±83 g m-3). ANOVA indicated that the SSC did not significantly change under cultivation for low and moderate flows, but was significantly different under high flow during reforestation of the Du catchment. The SSC in the sub-catchment was more variable, and the mean-SSC in the sub-catchment varied from 1058 g m-3 in the 1980s to 1256 g m-3 in the 1990s and 891 g m-3 in the 2000s. Reforestation significantly decreased the SSCs during low and moderate flows, whereas cultivation increased the SSCs during high flow. The sediment rating curves showed a stable relationship between the SSC and Q in the Du catchment during the three periods. However, the SSC-Q of the sub-catchment exhibited scattered relationships during the original and cultivation periods and a more linear relationship during the reforestation period.

  15. Dew as an Adaptation Measure to Meet Agricultural and Reforestation Water Demand in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Marlene; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El Fadel, Mutasem

    2014-05-01

    Dew harvesting, believed to be an ancient technique, has recently re-emerged as a viable and sustainable water resource. Nightly yields are relatively low, yet non-negligible, and dew events occur more frequently than rainfall promoting its effectiveness, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate how dew can be harvested and subsequently used for small-scale irrigation to meet agricultural and reforestation water demand. Polyethylene dew harvesting systems were constructed and placed in the field. Dew was harvested as a result of the radiative cooling during the night, thus allowing dew formation under conditions of high humidity. Condensed dew formed upon the planar surface was collected by gravity. Water demand for selected crops and trees within a pilot study area (Lebanon) was estimated using a deficit irrigation model. Simulations of water demand requirements of various plants and surfaces were performed and compared to dew volumes to assess the ability of the system to meet all or in part the plant water demands across seasons. Data from the polyethylene low-cost dew condensers have shown that within the pilot study, average nightly dew yields were 0.1 L m-2 of condensing surface with a maximum yield of 0.4 L m-2. Dew events occurred generally more frequently than precipitation events, with an estimated 40% of nights producing dew condensate. This translates to 50 mm of equivalent rainfall on average (during dew nights), with a maximum of 200 mm in one night, if one assumes using drip irrigation over a seedling within a 20 cm2 area. Using a simple deficit irrigation model, it was demonstrated that crops such as the tomato plant, which typically has a growing season during the dry summer, can potentially be irrigated solely by dew, thus eliminating the need for traditional irrigation sources. Similarly, young tree seedlings, such as the cedar tree, can depend upon dew as a primary water resource. Moreover, based on similar deficit irrigation strategies, dew was found to be a suitable irrigation option with minimal adverse impact to crop yield or growth rates within our pilot area.

  16. Effect of the natural reforestation of an arable land on the organic matter composition in soddy-podzolic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhova, A. A.; Makarov, M. I.; Morgun, E. G.; Ryzhova, I. M.

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of the organic matter composition in soddy-podzolic soils during the natural reforestation of an arable land in the southern taiga zone have been discussed. It has been shown that the contents of the total and labile carbon in the old plow horizon increase with the age of the fallow in the chronosequence of soils established in the Parfen'evo district of Kostroma oblast. The parameters characterizing the labile soil organic matter include the contents of the carbon extractable by mild chemical extractants (distilled water, 0.1 M K2SO4 solution, 0.1 M neutral Na4P2O7 solution), the microbial biomass, and the light fraction. The granulo-densimetric fractionation has shown that the contents of carbon in the light and organomineral fractions of the soil vary in the course of the postagrogenic succession. The content of the clay-fraction carbon increases and its portion in the total carbon of the soil decreases at the transition from the plowland to the forest. The reforestation of agrosoddy-podzolic soils enhances the physical protection of the soil organic matter due to the increase in the portion of microaggregate carbon.

  17. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

  18. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

  19. The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

  20. Seasonal isotope hydrology of a coffee agroforestry watershed in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh Unwala, K.; Boll, J.; Roupsard, O.

    2014-12-01

    Improved information of seasonal variations in watershed hydrology in the tropics can strengthen models and understanding of hydrology of these areas. Seasonality in the tropics produces rainy seasons versus dry seasons, leading to different hydrologic and water quality processes throughout the year. We questioned whether stable isotopes in water can be used to trace the seasonality in this region, despite experiencing a "drier" season, such as in a Tropical Humid location. This study examines the fluctuations of stable isotope compositions (?18O and ?D) in water balance components in a small (<1 km2) coffee agroforestry watershed located in central Costa Rica on the Caribbean side. Samples were collected in precipitation, groundwater, and stream water for more than two years, across seasons and at an hourly frequency during storm events to better characterize spatial and temporal variations of the isotopic composition and of the respective contribution of surface and deeper groundwater to streamflow in the watershed. Isotope composition in precipitation ranged from -18.5 to -0.3‰ (?18O) and -136.4 to 13.7‰ (?D), and data indicate that atmospheric moisture cycling plays an important role in this region. A distinct seasonality was observed in monthly-averaged data between enriched dry season events as compared with the rainy season events. Streamflow data indicate that a deep groundwater system contributes significantly to baseflow, although a shallow, spring-driven system also contributes to stream water within the watershed. During storm events, precipitation contributes to stormflow in the short-term, confirming the role of superficial runoff. These results indicate that isotopes are helpful to partition the water balance even in a Tropical Humid situation where the rainfall seasonality is weak.

  1. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  2. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate. PMID:25366937

  3. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term [corrected] improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  4. Changes in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Long Term Improved Natural and Traditional Agroforestry Management Systems of Cacao Genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  5. Reforestation: Shear and Rake for Site Preparation http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 1

    E-print Network

    along the contour of the land to help prevent soil erosion. This practice should be avoided on steep: Shear and rake helps to reduce the amount of large roots near the soil surface minimizing residual: Care should be taken to disturb as little soil as possible during this procedure and windrows should

  6. Contemporary Subsoil Carbon Accumulation During Reforestation is Conditioned by Long-term, Coupled C-Fe Cycling in Upland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, A. R.; Richter, D., Jr.; Heckman, K. A.; Veverica, T. J.; Nave, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To understand deep soil carbon stabilization and change during reforestation we sampled bulk subsoils and individual redoximorphic features from a network of two meter deep soil pits along a gentle catena (3% slope) in the Southern Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Until 1910, the catena was under cultivation. Since then, half of the soils we excavated have supported deeply rooted pine forests while the other half have continued to support relatively shallow rooted grasses and forbs. Across the catena, accordant with the divergent rooting regimes, subsoil roots were three times more abundant under forest than grass, and ?14C in bulk subsoil samples was enriched by an average of 123‰ under forest relative to grass (p=0.0267). Bulk subsoils, however, were extremely heterogeneous and contained three well-defined redoximorphic feature microsites. Over the lifetime of these upland soils, coupled carbon-iron cycling during transient oxygen limitation created the microsites and thereby imparted subsoils with steep biogeochemical gradients millimeters to centimeters apart. Concentration of operationally defined crystalline iron-oxyhydroxides was on average ten times higher in Fe-enriched microsites (30.1 ± 2.5 mg/g, mean ± 1 SE) than Fe-depleted microsites (2.9 ± 0.3 mg/g) and gley microsites (3.3 ± 0.4 mg/g) across the catena. Under the deeply rooted forest ?14C in gley microsites and Fe-depleted microsites was enriched by an average of 73‰ (p=0.0194) and 94‰ (p=0.0416), respectively relative to the same microsites under grass. Meanwhile, ?14C in Fe-enriched microsites was unchanged by the divergent rooting regimes (p=0.1936). These microsite dependent patterns of radiocarbon enrichment indicate that subsoil C stabilization during reforestation of the catena was spatially conditioned by historic coupled carbon-iron cycling. We detail the mechanisms of this conditioning, and argue that similar long-term biogeochemical processes influence contemporary subsoil C stabilization and change more often than is commonly appreciated.

  7. Reforestation Sites Show Similar and Nested AMF Communities to an Adjacent Pristine Forest in a Tropical Mountain Area of South Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  8. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  9. Channel change as a response to reforestation and population decline in the rural Toulourenc basin, southern French Prealps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Z.; Janes, K.; Kondolf, G. M.; Natali, J.; Radke, J.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of demographic changes, forest cover in the southern French Prealp mountains has increased dramatically during the 20th century. Over the same time period stream morphology within these sub-Mediterranean mountain basins has also changed. At two mainstem locations and eight upstream tributary sites within the Toulourenc basin (~150 km2), we investigated the relationship between hillslope erosion processes and the evolution of stream channel morphology through analysis of historic cadastral maps (circa 1850), aerial photographs (1950-current), topographic surveys (2009-2011), dendrochronolgy of vegetative establishment on abandoned terraces, and bed material size distribution. We observed narrowing of the active channel width, channel degradation, and pavement development along the Toulourenc mainstem and upstream tributaries. On the mainstem Toulourenc, the active channel has narrowed approximately 50% (30m) between 1950 and 2011. As with other studies within the southern French Prealps, the channel modifications appear to be induced by a decrease in the coarse sediment supply as agricultural and logging lands were reforested between 1890 and 1945.

  10. National forest cover change in Congo Basin: deforestation, reforestation, degradation and regeneration for the years 1990, 2000 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Céline, Ernst; Philippe, Mayaux; Astrid, Verhegghen; Catherine, Bodart; Musampa, Christophe; Pierre, Defourny

    2013-04-01

    This research refers to an object-based automatic method combined with a national expert validation to produce regional and national forest cover change statistics over Congo Basin. A total of 547 sampling sites systematically distributed over the whole humid forest domain are required to cover the six Central African countries containing tropical moist forest. High resolution imagery is used to accurately estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and regeneration. The overall method consists of four steps: (i) image automatic preprocessing and preinterpretation, (ii) interpretation by national expert, (iii) statistic computation and (iv) accuracy assessment. The annual rate of net deforestation in Congo Basin is estimated to 0.09% between 1990 and 2000 and of net degradation to 0.05%. Between 2000 and 2005, this unique exercise estimates annual net deforestation to 0.17% and annual net degradation to 0.09%. An accuracy assessment reveals that 92.7% of tree cover (TC) classes agree with independent expert interpretation. In the discussion, we underline the direct causes and the drivers of deforestation. Population density, small-scale agriculture, fuelwood collection and forest's accessibility are closely linked to deforestation, whereas timber extraction has no major impact on the reduction in the canopy cover. The analysis also shows the efficiency of protected areas to reduce deforestation. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on the reduction in CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and serve as reference for the period. PMID:23504894

  11. Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 promotes Pinus sylvestris reforestation of lead-contaminated mine tailing sites.

    PubMed

    Babu, A Giridhar; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-04-01

    Vegetation is critical to stabilize and remediate mine tailing sites, but plant growth is often poor due to toxicity from heavy metal(loid)s (HMs). A non-symbiotic endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7, isolated from Pb-contaminated mine tailing soil, exhibited both high tolerance to HMs and desirable plant growth-promoting characteristics. PDR1-7 promoted HM solubilization in mine tailing soil and removed significant amounts of Pb and other HMs from liquid media containing single and multiple metals. Pb removal efficiency increased with initial pH from 4 to 6 and with Pb concentration from 100 to 125 mg L(-1). Inoculating soil with PDR1-7 significantly increased nutrient availability and seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein contents, as well as antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase) activity. A decrease in malondialdehyde indicated less oxidative stress. HM concentrations were much higher in Pinus sylvestris roots when PDR1-7 was present. These observations suggest the utility of Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 for pine reforestation and phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated mine soil. PMID:24496029

  12. Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration. Methods Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models. Results and discussion The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g. Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees, loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge. Conclusions Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses. For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in agroforestry. These native species should be ecologically sound and selected on their potential to provide subsistence and promising commercial uses. In addition to offering socio-economic and environmental services, agroforestry initiatives using native trees and shrubs can play a crucial role in recovering elements of the lost ancient landscape that still forms part of local people’s collective identity. PMID:24359597

  13. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  14. Potential Impact of Land Use Change on Future Regional Climate in the Southeastern U.S.: Reforestation and Crop Land Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos; Hu, Y.; Nenes, A.; Stone, B.; Russell, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of future land use and land cover changes (LULCC) on regional and global climate is one of the most challenging aspects of understanding anthropogenic climate change. We study the impacts of LULCC on regional climate in the southeastern U.S. by downscaling the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model E to the regional scale using a spectral nudging technique with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Climate-relevant meteorological fields are compared for two southeastern U.S. LULCC scenarios to the current land use/cover for four seasons of the year 2050. In this work it is shown that reforestation of cropland in the southeastern U.S. tends to warm surface air by up to 0.5 K, while replacing forested land with cropland tends to cool the surface air by 0.5 K. Processes leading to this response are investigated and sensitivity analyses conducted. The sensitivity analysis shows that results are most sensitive to changes in albedo and the stomatal resistance. Evaporative cooling of croplands also plays an important role in regional climate. Implications of LULCC on air quality are discussed. Summertime warming associated with reforestation of croplands could increase the production of some secondary pollutants, while a higher boundary layer will decrease pollutant concentrations; wintertime warming may decrease emissions from biomass burning from wood stoves

  15. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  16. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  17. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  18. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  19. Effects of Syn-pandemic Fire Reduction and Reforestation in the Tropical Americas on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During European Conquest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    A new reconstruction of the Late Holocene biomass burning history of the tropical Americas is consistent with expanding fire use by Mesoamerican and Amazonian agriculturalists from 2000-500 BP and a subsequent period of fire reduction due to indigenous demographic collapse. Our reconstruction synthesizes published data from 50 charcoal accumulation records obtained from stratified lacustrine sediments and from soils, including soil charcoal records recovered from archeological sites. Synthesis of stratigraphic charcoal records yields indexes of the mean rate of regional charcoal accumulation and of variability in charcoal accumulation among sites during 500-year increments since 3500 BP. The age distribution of dated soil charcoal particles from non-archeological sites provides an independent measure of variation in regional charcoal accumulation; whereas age distribution of soil charcoal dates from archeological sites records variation in charcoal accumulation related to anthropogenic biomass burning. We observe that the charcoal accumulation indexes derived from stratigraphic records begin to increase at 2000 BP, remain high until 500 BP, and then decline to near-minimum values during the 500-year period subsequent to European contact. Similarly, the age distributions of soil charcoal dated from both non-archeological and archeological sites indicate increases in charcoal accumulation from 2000 to 500 BP followed by decline. An index of the inter- site variability in charcoal accumulation obtained from the stratigraphic records attains a maximum during the time period between 1000 and 500 BP and a near-minimum value afterward. We interpret the covariation between measures of charcoal accumulation derived from archeological and non-archeological sites as a consequence of the expansive influence of anthropogenic activity on the regional fire regime. Increases in regional charcoal accumulation apparent in both the stratigraphic and soil charcoal records beginning at 2000 BP correlate with expanding indigenous population, agriculture, and fire use in the tropical Americas. The rise in inter-site variability in charcoal accumulation after 2000 BP is consistent with a demographic shift toward sedentary agrarian communities and localized increases in charcoal accumulation in densely populated centers. Declines in regional charcoal accumulation and inter-site variability after 500 BP suggest a correlative cause related to reduction in anthropogenic biomass burning resulting from pandemic-driven population collapse. Published reconstructions of Pre-Columbian demography indicate that during European conquest, pandemics killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~60 million), estimated to represent ~20% of the 16th century global population. Our predictive calculations suggest that fire reduction in the tropical Americas is associated with massive forest regeneration on ~5 x 105 km2 of land and sequestration of 5-10 Gt C into the terrestrial biosphere, which can account for 13- 50% of the ~2% global reduction in atmospheric CO2 levels and the 0.1‰ increase in ?13C of atmospheric CO2 from 1500 to 1700 CE recorded in Antarctic ice cores and tropical sponges. New archeological discoveries revealing extensive networks of geoglyphs and urban polities in Pre-Columbian Amazonia suggest that our estimates of reforestation, and consequent effects on atmospheric CO2, may be conservative.

  20. The rain-runoff response of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation in the Western Ghats of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas; Rakesh, K. N.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe effects of forest degradation and use and establishment of tree-plantations on degraded or modified forest ecosystems at multi-decadal time-scales using tree-plantations on the streamflow response are less studied in the humid tropics when compared to deforestation and forest conversion to agriculture. In the Western Ghats of India (Uttar Kannada, Karnataka State), a previous soil hydraulic conductivity survey linked with rain IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) had suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess overland within the degraded forest and reforested areas and thus potentially higher streamflow (Bonell et al., 2010). We further tested these predictions in Uttar Kannada by establishing experimental basins ranging from 7 to 23 ha across three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen Forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest (DF) and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. In total, 11 basins were instrumented (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF) in two geomorphological zones, i.e., Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad) and at three sites (one Coastal, two Up-Ghat). The rainfall-streamflow observations collected (at daily and also at a 36 min time resolutions in the Coastal basins) over a 2-3 year period (2003-2005) were analysed. In both the Coastal and Up-Ghat basins, the double mass curves showed during the rainy season a consistent trend in favour of more proportion of streamflow in the rank order DF > AC > NF. These double mass curves provide strong evidence that overland flow is progressively becomes a more dominant stormflow pathway. Across all sites, NF converted 28.4 ± 6.41stdev% of rainfall into total streamflow in comparison to 32.7 ± 6.97stdev% in AC and 45.3 ± 9.61stdev% in DF. Further support for the above trends emerges from the quickflow ratio QF/Q for the Coastal basins. There are much higher values for both the DF and AC land covers, and their rank order DF > AC > NF. The quickflow response ratio QF/P is also the highest for the DF basin, and along with the QF/Q ratio, can exceed 90%. The corresponding delayed flow response ratios, QD/P clearly show the largest QD yields as a proportion of event precipitation from the Forest (NF1). The application of linear model supported these differences (e.g. 10-36% difference between NF and DF, p < 0.001) in the storm hydrologic response of the Coastal basins. The exception was QF/P where there was a higher uncertainty connected with inter-basin mean differences. Cross-correlation plots for rain-streamflow and corresponding lag regression models for three storm events in the Coastal basins suggested the existence of alternative stormflow pathways with multiple lags with peaks between ˜12 and 24 h in NF, compared to respective bimodal peaks at ˜1 and 16 h in AC and ˜1 and 12 h in DF. The long time lags for NF are suggestive of deep subsurface stormflow and groundwater as the contributing sources to the storm hydrograph. The short time lags in DF and AC are indicative of overland flow and so 'memory' of the previous degraded land cover is retained in AC as supported by previous hydraulic conductivity data. As potential and actual evapotranspiration is likely to be depressed during the monsoon, differences in streamflow and run-off responses between land-cover types is largely attributed to differences in soil infiltration and hydrologic pathways. Enhancing infiltration and reducing run-off in managed ecosystems should be explored in the terms of the context of other ecosystem services and biodiversity.

  1. Ensemble Composition and Activity Levels of Insectivorous Bats in Response to Management Intensification in Coffee Agroforestry Systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

    2011-01-01

    Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

  2. Temporal and spatial genetic structure in Vitellaria paradoxa (shea tree) in an agroforestry system in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bokary Allaye; Hardy, Olivier; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2004-05-01

    Ten microsatellite loci were used to investigate the impact of human activity on the spatial and temporal genetic structure of Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae), a parkland tree species in agroforestry systems in southern Mali. Two stands (forest and fallow) and three cohorts (adults, juveniles and natural regeneration) in each stand were studied to: (i) compare their levels of genetic diversity (gene diversity, HE; allelic richness, Rs; and inbreeding, FIS); (ii) assess their genetic differentiation (FST); and (iii) compare their levels of spatial genetic structuring. Gene diversity parameters did not vary substantially among stands or cohorts, and tests for bottleneck events were nonsignificant. The inbreeding coefficients were not significantly different from zero in most cases (FIS = -0.025 in forest and 0.045 in fallow), suggesting that the species is probably outbreeding. There was a weak decrease in F(IS) with age, suggesting inbreeding depression. Differentiation of stands within each cohort was weak (FST = 0.026, 0.0005, 0.010 for adults, juveniles and regeneration, respectively), suggesting extensive gene flow. Cohorts within each stand were little differentiated (FST = -0.001 and 0.001 in forest and fallow, respectively). The spatial genetic structure was more pronounced in fallow than in forest where adults showed no spatial structuring. In conclusion, despite the huge influence of human activity on the life cycle of Vitellaria paradoxa growing in parkland systems, the impact on the pattern of genetic variation at microsatellite loci appears rather limited, possibly due to the buffering effect of extensive gene flow between unmanaged and managed populations. PMID:15078458

  3. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

  4. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  5. Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

  6. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    PubMed

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances. PMID:18055434

  7. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  8. Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land degradation remain.

  9. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0–40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front’s downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  10. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  11. The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

  12. The groundwater recharge response and hydrologic services of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation: Support for the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off hypothesis”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Rakesh, K. N.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas

    2013-08-01

    The hydrologic effects of forest use and reforestation of degraded lands in the humid tropics has implications for local and regional hydrologic services but such issues have been relatively less studied when compared to the impacts of forest conversion. In particular, the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off” hypothesis which predicts a net gain or loss to baseflow and dry-season flow under both, forest degradation or reforestation depending on conditions has not been tested adequately. In the Western Ghats of India, we examined the hydrologic responses and groundwater recharge and hydrologic services linked with three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest(DF), and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. Instrumented catchments ranging from 7 to 23 ha representing these three land-covers (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF, in total 11 basins), were established and maintained between 2003 and 2005 at three sites in two geomorphological zones, Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad). Four larger (1-2 km2) catchments downstream of the head-water catchments in the Malnaad with varying proportions of different land-cover and providing irrigation water for areca-nut and paddy rice were also measured for post-monsoon baseflow. Daily hydrological and climate data was available at all the sites. In addition, 36 min data was available at the Coastal site for 41 days as part of the opening phase of the summer monsoon, June-July 2005. Low potential and actual evapotranspiration rates during the monsoon that are similar across all land-cover ensures that the main control on the extent of groundwater recharge during the south-west monsoon is the proportion of rainfall that is converted into quick flow rather than differences in evapotranspiration between the different land cover types. The Flow duration curves demonstrated a higher frequency and longer duration of low flows under NF when compared to the other more disturbed land covers in both the Coastal and Malnaad basins. Groundwater recharge estimated using water balance during the wet-season in the Coastal basins under NF, AC and DF was estimated to be 50%, 46% and 35% respectively and in the Malnaad it was 61%, 55% and 36% respectively. Soil Water Infiltration and Movement (SWIM) based recharge estimates also support the pattern (46% in NF; 39% in AC and 14% in DF). Furey-Gupta filter based estimates associated with the Coastal basins also suggest similar groundwater recharge values and trends across the respective land-covers: 69% in NF, 49% in AC, and 42% in DF. Soil water potential profiles using zero flux plane methods suggest that during the dry-season, natural forests depend on deep soil moisture and groundwater. Catchments with higher proportion of forest cover upstream were observed to sustain flow longer into the dry-season. These hydrologic responses provide some support towards the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off” hypothesis in which differences in infiltration between land-cover rather than evapotranspiration determines the differences in groundwater recharge, low flows and dry-season flow. Groundwater recharge is the most temporally stable under natural forest, although substantial recharge occurs under all three ecosystems, which helps to sustain dry-season flow downstream in higher order streams that sustain local communities and agro-ecosystems. In addition to spatial scale effects, greater attention also needs to be given to the role of hydrogeology within the context of the above hypothesis and its implications for hydrologic services.

  13. Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

    2014-12-01

    This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface and subsurface soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed, natural broadleaved forest; (ii) a 25-year-old, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to mainly reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broadleaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 mm year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

  14. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

  15. Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

  16. The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (<15 cm) tillage. - Introducing cover crops in cropping systems: sown between two cash crops on arable farms, in orchards and vineyards (permanent or temporary cover cropping) . - Expanding agroforestry systems; planting of tree lines in cultivated fields and grasslands, and hedges around the field edges. - Increasing the life time of temporary sown grasslands: increase of life time to 5 years. The recent literature was reviewed in order to determine long term (>20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when associated with vineyards. Hedges (i.e 60 m ha-1) stored 0.15 (0.05-0.26) Mg C ha-1 y-1. Very few estimates were available for temperate agroforestry system, and we proposed a value of 1.01 (0.11-1.36) Mg C ha-1 y-1for C stored in soil and in the tree biomass for systems comprising 30-50 trees ha-1. Increasing the life time of temporary sown grassland increased C stocls by 0.11 (0.07-0.22) Mg C ha-1 y-1. In general, practices with increased C inputs to soil through additional plant biomass (agroforestry, hedges and cover crops) resulted in higher additional C storage rates, while the reduction of soil organic matter mineralisation through reduced tillage seemed less effective. When applied to the French agricultural sector, excluding areas with soils with major technical constraints or negative environmental consequences (e.g. poorly aerated soils with high N2O emissions), the measures considered here allowed to increase French soil C stocks by 0 to more than 1 Tg C y-1. However, our estimates are associated with high uncertainties, due to the high variability in soil C storage associated with pedo-climatic conditions and cropping systems, and on the very few studies available for some practices such as agroforestry under temperate conditions.

  17. Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2012-04-01

    In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the ?13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

  18. Theorizing Practice and Practicing Theory

    E-print Network

    Feldman, Martha S.

    his paper describes the emerging field of practice theory as it is practiced in relation to organizational phenomena. We identify three approaches—empirical, theoretical, and philosophical—that relate to the what, the how, ...

  19. Practice management.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    The practicing orthopaedic traumatologist must have a sound knowledge of business fundamentals to be successful in the changing healthcare environment. Practice management encompasses multiple topics including governance, the financial aspects of billing and coding, physician extender management, ancillary service development, information technology, transcription utilization, and marketing. Some of these are universal, but several of these areas may be most applicable to the private practice of medicine. Attention to each component is vital to develop an understanding of the intricacies of practice management. PMID:24918826

  20. Changing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This serial issue contains nine articles all on the subject of "changing practice," i.e., innovative practices of rural English teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network. "Byte-ing into Medieval Literature" (John Fyler) describes an online conference on medieval literature for rural high school students. "Literacy in Cattle Country" (Dan…

  1. Votive Practices

    E-print Network

    Pinch, Geraldine; Waraksa, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    a requirement of Egyptian religion, but there is plentifulEgyptian art and appear to belong to the sphere of folk religion (Egyptian letters of the New Kingdom as evidence for religious practice. Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions

  2. [Practice is learned by practice].

    PubMed

    Schei, E; Gulbrandsen, A; Skjerven, T

    1998-08-20

    Efficient continuing education for experienced physicians should build upon and reflect doctors' concrete everyday experiences and self-defined learning needs. Reciprocal practice visits among general practitioners, afford excellent opportunities for colleagues to see and be seen, to reflect, discuss, learn from each other and develop networks, using commonly experienced consultations as a starting point. Practice visits have been credited within the Norwegian continuing medical education system since 1989, but very few practitioners have made use of the method. We have developed a course where groups of 10-12 experienced general practitioners conduct four whole day practice visits over a 2-month period. Group sessions, totalling 20 hours, are used to develop cohesion and trust among colleagues through discussions and exercises. In the later stages, plenary sessions are used to present and discuss experiences from all of the practice visits, and participants are encouraged to develop ideas and strategies concerning their professional future. The participants in the three courses arranged so far (n = 31) were general practitioners with, on average, ten years of experience. Evaluations were positive, and emphasized the value of the course as an opportunity to break the relative isolation of general practice, and share experiences, insights, frustrations and ideas with colleagues. PMID:9748838

  3. Practicing Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; Hall, Rogers P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of learning to construct and interpret representations from a social practice perspective. If students need to construct tables and graphs to complete a project report in mathematics or science, they can learn to consider whether these forms are effective at communicating important information. If students merely complete…

  4. Tropical leguminous species for acid soils: studies on plant form and growth 

    E-print Network

    Tilki, Fahrettin

    1996-01-01

    have been conducted to test the potential of native species for reforestation and agroforestry in acid, infertile soils. Results are presented from a three-year species screening trial with 25 legume species, of which most were tree species of potential...

  5. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, David W.; de Moraes, Márcia M. G. Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S.; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G.; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production—from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  6. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Watkins, David W; de Moraes, Márcia M G Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production-from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research. PMID:25813630

  7. Practically Saline

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O’Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  8. Practically Saline.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O'Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  9. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  10. REFORESTATION TECHNIQUES IN COGONGRASS-INFESTED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cogongrass is a nonnative grass that is rapidly invading the gulf coast states, with projected spread into the interior of the Southeastern U.S. Cogongrass is particularly damaging to forested land as it decreases biodiversity and wildlife habitat, hinders plantation establishment, creates a wildfi...

  11. BIOSPECIMEN BEST PRACTICES FORUM

    Cancer.gov

    BIOSPECIMEN BEST BIOSPECIMEN BEST PRACTICES FORUM PRACTICES FORUM Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Overview of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Best Practices Best Practices June 18, 2007 June 18, 2007 Karen Smith Thiel, Ph.D., J.D. Karen Smith Thiel,

  12. A farm-scale framework for assessing vineyard soil fertility and restoration practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Leclercq, Léa

    2015-04-01

    The design of sustainable vineyard management is needed at varied scales and particularly at farm-scale. More and more winegrowers wish to adopt environmental-friendly practices while better controlling harvest composition. This leads to question complex issues with regard to sustainability of winegrowing agroecosystem and the adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. This study aims at elaborating a multivariate approach framework for vineyard soil fertility assessment over a 6 ha-farm planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at the regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey comprising ~20 soil pits, physico-chemical analyses for all soil profile horizons, and a series of additional soil surface samples analyzed for several parameters including soil organic carbon, calcium carbonate, copper and the major mineral nutrients, is here carried out. Along with soil parameters and soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing are collected. Very high resolution multispectral satellite data and resistivity EMI data are acquired and processed in order to characterize spatial variations in both physiological responses, soil surface conditions, soil depth and/or the presence of coarse elements. Multi-temporal historical aerial photographs are used in order to complement farmer's surveys regarding past management practices. The farm is characterized by a diversity of soils including Red Mediterranean soils (chromic luvisols), colluvic calcisols, arenosols, fluvisols, and regosols, which develop from top to slope then bottom of a Neogene molassic and conglomeratic plateau. Soil management past practices are marked by the absence of chemical/organic manuring in the last decades, resulting in erosional features and weakened vines. Relationships between vine spatial variability, soil spatial variability and the impact of past practices are analyzed and result in formalizing decision rules. Several restoration scenarios are then proposed, that focus either on chemical fertilizer and/or organic amendment and/or interrow cover and/or agroforestry practices.

  13. Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2014-10-01

    We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. PMID:25065287

  14. Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

  15. EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Joanne M. Lozar

    2006-01-01

    Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…

  16. Practice Experience with a Practice Management Company.

    PubMed

    Tankersley, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of a dentist using a contracted dental services organization to manage the business aspects of a multisite group oral and maxillofacial practice. The need for help with management functions first became apparent in medicine, and several models emerged there. The model used in this practice sought to take advantage of specialized expertise without reducing practitioners' control over dental decisions, including those going beyond narrow clinical decisions. Personal experiences and suggestions for best fit between practices on contracted services are presented. PMID:26562977

  17. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  18. Practice Safer Sex

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...

  19. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  20. Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices submitted in the 2012 Training Top 125 application. Best practices: (1) Edward Jones: Practice Makes Perfect (sales training); (2) Grant Thornton LLP: Senior Manager Development Program (SMDP); (3) MetLife, Inc.: Top Advisor…

  1. Philosophy of logical practice

    E-print Network

    Koolen, Marijn

    Philosophy of logical practice: a case study in formal semantics nikhil maddirala www.nikhilmaddirala.com #12;Philosophy of logical practice: a case study in formal semantics MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie shall be known as "philosophy of logical practice" and to make a modest contribution to this field

  2. When Practice Transformation Impedes Practice Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bujold, Edward

    2015-01-01

    I lead a small practice in rural western North Carolina. We have embraced the patient-centered medical home model and other practice-improvement initiatives, and I have seen our practice transformed in many positive ways. But in the past year alone, my staff and I have spent hundreds of hours studying for and taking exams, certifying for numerous programs, and updating our electronic health records system (EHR) to meet new national requirements and then relearning our EHR. Seeing patients used to be the hardest part of my job. It is now the easiest by far. I am considering walking away from the time-intensive PCMH certification even though it would cause financial hardship. We have more important business at hand—taking excellent care of patients, improving our practice, and meaningfully engaging with our patients. PMID:25964408

  3. Nutrition Education and Practices Among Practicing Chiropractors

    E-print Network

    Werner, Donna

    2008-04-29

    Few studies have examined chiropractors' educational background and use of nutrition in their practices. Published studies have used surveys with low response rates, and the last study was published seven years ago. The ...

  4. Building the boutique practice.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    2001-04-01

    To fully educate patients today, dental practitioners must communicate why a practice is unique. Sell your patients on the idea that your practice is the best place for their treatment. Start by informing the current patient base and all new patients about the breadth of your procedures and services. This knowledge will motivate them to become the referral base you need to build your boutique practice. While the boutique practice enables you to provide the highest quality care, highest levels of customer service, and highest fees of any practice in dentistry, perhaps its greatest asset is its ability to help you chart your course through the changing world of dentistry. PMID:11913274

  5. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

  6. Presenting practice financial information.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lee Ann H

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance. PMID:17974087

  7. Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving

    E-print Network

    Licentiate Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Umeå 2013 #12;Acta Universitatis Agriculturae, the overall aim of this thesis is to broaden the scope and understanding of drivers and consequences of the on production (fertilizer and seed), experience of others, risk of theft, and wildlife disturbance. These causes

  8. AGROFORESTRY IN MINNESOTA FACTSHEET SERIES #3

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into their woody biomass above and below the ground. This can play a role in reducing rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, as well as adding carbon upwind blowing snow - are a cost-effective solution to reducing snow removal costs and preventing

  9. AGROFORESTRY IN MINNESOTA FACTSHEET SERIES #1

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    areas thereby improving water quality. Improves crop performance from the increased soil productivity water quality. Nitrogen leached beyond the cropping root zone is often captured by the deeper tree root shading effect. From the improved shading, water use efficiency by plants is increased. Reduces the use

  10. AGROFORESTRY IN MINNESOTA FACTSHEET SERIES #2

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    to poacher #12;CROPS FROM THE MINNESOTA FOREST Fruit Medicinal Herbs Nuts Woody Florals Other Products in forest grown mushrooms and Specialty herbs. Herbal Turtle currently cultivates Shiitake, Winecap

  11. Agroforestry, climate change, and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successfully addressing global climate change effects on agriculture will require a holistic, sustained approach incorporating a suite of strategies at multiple spatial scales and time horizons. In the USA of the 1930’s, bold and innovative leadership at high levels of government was needed to enact...

  12. AGROFORESTRY IN MINNESOTA FACTSHEET SERIES #4

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    for fish and other aquatic species; shade is especially important for cold-water species. Provides habitat on floodplain characteristics, landowner goals and conservation program requirements. Environmental Benefits increase property values. Provides habitat for important pollinator species that many crops rely. HOW DO I

  13. AGROFORESTRY IN MINNESOTA FACTSHEET SERIES # 5

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    in silvopasutre improves growth of high quality trees. Shading reduces stress and improved animal productivity trefoil. Grasses include timothy, tall fescue, meadow brome and perennial ryegrass. A piping system runs

  14. Sulfamethazine transport in agroforestry and cropland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of veterinary antibiotic transport and persistence is critical to understanding environmental risks associated with these potential contaminants. To understand mobility of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sorption processes involved during SMZ transport in soil, column leaching experiments were p...

  15. Agroforestry in Palau1 Ebals Sadang2

    E-print Network

    . The archipelago consists of high volcanic islands and low, raised and atoll coral- line islands totaling [SIC] 350 islands, the heavily forested island of Babelthuap being the largest. The other three volcanic islands, located in the western Caroline Islands. However, as a result of land restrictions and concen- tration

  16. Current Practices and Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Natour, Mayada; AlKhamra, Hatem; Al-Smadi, Yahya

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the assessment practices used by resource room teachers in Jordan to determine eligibility for learning disability, and to identify assessment obstacles. The study also investigated whether assessment practices and obstacles of assessment differ among resource room teachers as a function of gender and academic…

  17. Equating Practical Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; And Others

    This paper describes and illustrates a method for equating examinations with multiple facets (i.e., items, examinees, judges, tasks, and rating scales). The data are from the practical section of two histotechnology certification examinations. The first practical examination involved 210 examinees, 14 judges, 15 slides, 3 tasks, and 2 rating…

  18. When Policy Joins Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen; Davin, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Policy influences practice. Policy has the capacity to strengthen practice by demanding accountability for both process and results through clear expectations as well as deliberate sanctions for failure to meet those expectations. Policies can also provide resources to meet expectations. In this article, the authors discuss how several national…

  19. Learning Organization Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on learning organization practices. "Learning Lenses of Leading Organizations: Best Practices Survey" (Laurel S. Jeris) shows that successful learning organizations view learning initiatives through multiple lenses with a clear, sustained focus on strategic outcomes. "Dimensions of the Learning…

  20. Toward practicing privacy

    PubMed Central

    Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice. PMID:23243088

  1. Intention in Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Sofhauser, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to explore the meaning of intention in nursing practice and distinguish it from the concept of intentionality. The notion that nurses engage in a purposeful act of setting intention prior to delivery of nursing care is introduced, and nursing implications for setting intention in practice is offered. PMID:26660773

  2. Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…

  3. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  4. Building resilience to social-ecological change through farmers' learning practices in semi-arid Makueni County Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe; Kiteme, Boniface; Kimathi Mbae, John; Schmude, Miron

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological change is resulting in various risks and opportunities to farmers, which they address through complex multi-strategies to sustain their agricultural-based livelihoods and agricultural landscapes. This paper examines how various stakeholders such as research and government organisations, local and international non-governmental organisations, private companies, farmer groups, individual actors and farmers draw on scientific, external and localised knowledge to address the needs of farmers in sustainable land management and food production. What is the structure of collaboration between the various actors and how does this influence the potential for learning, not only for the farmers but also for other stakeholders? How does the supplied knowledge meet farmers' knowledge needs and demands for sustainable land management and food production? To what extent and how is knowledge co-produced among the various stakeholders? What different types of learning can be identified and what are their influences on farmers' sustainable land management practices? How does farmer learning foster the resilience of agricultural landscapes? Answers to these questions are sought through a case study in the semi-arid areas of Makueni County, Kenya. Particular environmental risks in the study area relate to recurrent droughts and flooding, soil erosion and general land degradation. Opportunities in the study area arise short-term due to more conducive rainfall conditions for crop and vegetation growth, institutional arrangements that foster sustainable land management such as agroforestry programmes and conservation agriculture projects. While farmers observe changes in their environment, they weigh the various risks and opportunities that arise from their social-ecological context and their own capacity to respond leading to the prioritization of certain adaptations relative to others. This can mean that while certain farmers may have knowledge on sustainable land management practices, their capacity to act can be constrained by various factors. Through learning about new land management technologies and adaptation practices, and adapting these to their local contexts, farmers attempt to balance the risks and opportunities arising from social-ecological change. They share and transfer the acquired knowledge to other farmers. While success has been achieved in adoption of sustainable land management practices by many farmers, adoption by other farmers and practice by all farmers remain constrained by various social-ecological factors. The implications of the research findings for interventions and policies aimed at sustainable land management and improved food production are discussed.

  5. Reflections on reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, E A

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, a wide range of professions have adopted 'reflective practice' as an approach to professional development, and many professions have made it a mandatory dimension of their membership credentialling process. Despite the fact that it has been widely taken up in the professional world, there are many different conceptualizations and ideas about what it is. In this paper, six theoretical underpinnings of reflective practice are considered, and suggestions are made about how we can begin to incorporate reflection into our own practices. PMID:11433918

  6. Practical knowledge and abilities

    E-print Network

    Glick, Ephraim N

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is an exploration of the relations between know-how, abilities, and ordinary knowledge of facts. It is shown that there is a distinctively practical sort of know-how and a corresponding interpretation of 'S knows ...

  7. Center for Practical Bioethics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical students and the general public. LEARN MORE Bioethics Interviews and Lectures Helen Emmott INTERVIEW LISTEN Kaith ... and Rosemary Flanigan on the Center for Practical Bioethics’ blog. Myra and Rosemary will start the conversation ...

  8. Practical image based lighting 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jaemin

    2003-01-01

    information is lighting. Image based lighting that is developed to recover illumination information of the real world from photographs has recently been popular in computer graphics. In this thesis we present a practical image based lighting method. Our...

  9. NCI Best Practices

    Cancer.gov

    In June 2007, the NCI initiated an education and outreach program targeted at investigators, industry representatives, hospital administrators, patient advocates, and the general public. Four forums were held in key U.S. cities to provide information about the importance of best practices in guiding biospecimen use, the operational and ethical standards in the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources, and resources for achieving high-quality and accessible biospecimens. Audience discussion and participation were key to the success of these events.

  10. NCI Best Practices

    Cancer.gov

    As part of the commitment to maintaining current and scientifically accurate best practices, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sought public comment on a revised version of the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources from July 28, 2010 to Sept. 21, 2010. Comments received during the public comment period were taken into consideration and edited into the final version which can be found below or here.

  11. Practicing like Thomas Edison.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil; Ornstein, Hal

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices. PMID:23866659

  12. PRACTICE OF MEDICINE III PRACTICE OF MEDICINE IV PRACTICE OF MEDICINE V

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    PRACTICE OF MEDICINE III PRACTICE OF MEDICINE IV PRACTICE OF MEDICINE V PRACTICE OF MEDICINE I PRACTICE OF MEDICINE II SpringWinterAutumn Year3,4,[5] Year2 SCHOLARLY CONCENTRATIONS Year1 · Cells to Tissues · Molecular Foundations of Medicine · Applied Biochemistry · Genetics · Development & Disease

  13. [Children and traditional practices].

    PubMed

    Aholi, P

    1990-07-01

    African traditional practices can be both beneficial and harmful to the newly born. This article describes these practices from 4 perspectives: 1) the period following childbirth or "maternage;" 2) nutrition; 3) curative care; and 4) social customs. The beneficial practices include: 1) giving the baby water as soon as he is washed to prevent neonatal hypoglycemia; 2) breast feeding; 3) carrying the baby on the mother's back and 4) the traditional massage. The harmful practices during maternage include: 1) the baby is rolled in the dirt to protect him and "give birth to his race;" 2) after birth the baby is given lemon juice or gin to prevent the obstruction of the respiratory cords; 3) mother and baby are "put in the dark" or a separate room for the rest of the family and community for 6 days to protect them against evil influences. The harmful nutritional practices are based on superstitions that relate to all animal products because they might produce diseases. 1) Eggs are known to cause diarrhea and throughout Africa eggs are forbidden because of their effect on children's physical development. 2) Chicken and pigeon and "everything that flies" causes convulsions. 3) Palm oil, oranges and bananas cause coughing. 4) Sugar cane, manioc leaves and everything with natural sugar cause intestinal ailments. Traditional health cures are used during an illness and are aimed at reestablishing the balance between man and his environment. Examples described include treatment for measles and chicken pox; fevers; diarrhea, and vomiting and convulsions. The positive traditional African practices need to be combined with those of modern medicine while discouraging the harmful practices. PMID:12342828

  14. Best Practice in Education Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Four experts in school design discuss what constitutes best practice in educational facilities planning and design. Their discussions include examples of schools that illustrate these best practices. (EV)

  15. Practical Quantum Metrology

    E-print Network

    Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Xiao-Qi Zhou; Hugo Cable; Peter J. Shadbolt; Dylan J. Saunders; Gabriel A. Durkin; Geoff J. Pryde; Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2013-07-18

    Quantum metrology research promises approaches to build new sensors that achieve the ultimate level of precision measurement and perform fundamentally better than modern sensors. Practical schemes that tolerate realistic fabrication imperfections and environmental noise are required in order to realise quantum-enhanced sensors and to enable their real-world application. We have demonstrated the key enabling principles of a practical, loss-tolerant approach to photonic quantum metrology designed to harness all multi-photon components in spontaneous parametric downconversion---a method for generating multiple photons that we show requires no further fundamental state engineering for use in practical quantum metrology. We observe a quantum advantage of 28% in precision measurement of optical phase using the four-photon detection component of this scheme, despite 83% system loss. This opens the way to new quantum sensors based on current quantum-optical capabilities.

  16. Radiotherapy in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hope-Stone, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of malignant disease, and modern techniques used in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery have radically improved the prognosis for patients. Although the practice of radiotherapy still may be considered by some to be more of an art than a science, the empirical era has passed and basic radiobiological research coupled with extensive clinical investigation has led to a more rational and scientifically founded approach. Radiotherapy in Clinical Practice, is a major new work for those in training or practice, and reflects the maturity of the discipline. The editor, an experienced radiotherapist of many years' standing, has assembled a team of experts from the United Kingdom to write authoritative accounts of their particular subjects. Every aspect of radiotherapeutic management of tumours is covered in detail.

  17. Compliance Issues Facing Practices.

    PubMed

    Krouse, Alex T

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare fraud enforcement has increased exponentially over the past few years. Practice groups have seen increased enforcement specifically from the federal government. It has never been more important to ensure everyone in your organization understands the various compliance issues and the risks they present. This article highlights the top compliance issues to help your practice groups understand the risks related to healthcare fraud. Once everyone in your organization understands these issues, you can work toward developing effective compliance programs to limit the risks. PMID:26182708

  18. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  19. Guided Metacognition in Instrumental Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, John T., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble directors have a special interest in helping students learn to practice effectively. Practice is also an essential component of musical development. Music educators need to both teach effective practice strategies and guide students toward meaningful, thoughtful practice. Metacognition strategies are one way to accomplish this. Current…

  20. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

  1. From Practice to Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Arnold

    1984-01-01

    Describes the individualized program of Mountain Open High School which at first coincidentally resembed Maurice Gibbons'"Walkabout" concept and was subsequently more consciously shaped by theory. Students move through three phases culminating in challenging independent projects of practical use. (MJL)

  2. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-04-15

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  3. Practical Optical Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscher, David F.; Longair, Foreword by Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Principal symbols, functions and operators; List of abbreviations; Foreword; Preface; 1. Making fringes; 2. Basic imaging; 3. Atmospheric seeing and its amelioration; 4. Interferometers in practice; 5. Measurement noise; 6. Interferometric observation of faint objects; 7. Observation planning; 8. Data reduction; 9. Model-fitting and image reconstruction; Appendix A. Fourier transforms; Appendix B. Supplementary online material; References; Index.

  4. Collecting Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices.…

  5. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  6. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

  7. Measurement Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This discussion guide is part of a larger practice guide designed to help state education agencies (SEAs) define measurement goals, select college and career readiness measures and indicators designed to support those goals, and use the data gathered with those measures and indicators to make informed decisions about college and career readiness…

  8. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  9. The Practical Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Jack

    "The Practical Astronomer" by Thomas Dick, LLD, E.C. & J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 1849, is reviewed. Information on telescope makers and astronomers can be found. Mentioned are: Fraunhofer; John Herschel; Lawson; Dollond; Tulley; W. & S. Jones; and S.W. Burnham.

  10. Creativity in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Hans

    2009-01-01

    For anyone who has wondered about how creativity looks in practice, this article offers a picture of how creativity can be a powerful force in the classroom. The author provides three examples illustrating some alternatives that he has developed that work with pupils and teachers in many countries all over the world. The magic bucket activity…

  11. Educational Researchers and Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velzen, Joke H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an attempt to identify further directions in research designs that researchers can use to contribute to the relevance of educational research findings, by including teachers' practicality issues, is presented. Sixty experienced teachers in secondary education read the reporting of modified experimental research findings about…

  12. Turning Ideas into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…

  13. Good Laboratory Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjicostas, Evsevios

    The principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) in conjunction with the principles of Total Quality Management (see chapter 6) ensure the quality and reliability of the laboratory results, which in turn help to ensure the protection of the environment and human health and safety. A step further is the accreditation of laboratories to ISO 17025 (see chapter 2) to perform specified activities.

  14. GROUNDWATER QUALITY PROTECTION PRACTICES

    E-print Network

    #12;GROUNDWATER QUALITY PROTECTION PRACTICES Submitted to: Environment Canada 224 West Esplanade.............................................................................................1 2.0 GROUNDWATER RESOURCES WITHIN THE FRASER BASIN.................3 2.1 Lower Fraser Region..............................................................................5 3.0 COMMON SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION ...............6 3.1 Category 1 - Sources Designed

  15. The Practice of Solitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    There is only one practice of solitude: to make a choice and carry it out well. The particulars assemble around this simple principle. One may later regret the choice; one may end up reversing or abandoning it. The choice may consist of doing nothing or refraining from a decision until the time is right. But no matter what it entails, one must…

  16. Marching Band Practice Field

    E-print Network

    Recreational Sports Complex Practice Fields Hoglund Ballpark Prairie Acre Marvin Grove Sensory Garden KivistoRd Stratford Rd University D r CrestlineDr Petefish Dr StewartDr M2SEC ©2014 Office of Marketing Communications without the express written permission of the KU Office of Marketing Communications. Monarch Watch 104 SAR

  17. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

  18. Partnership in practice.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Helga; Litchfield, Merian; Pharris, Margaret Dexheimer

    2003-01-01

    Modern health care has increasingly focused on prescriptive, outcomes-oriented, and cost-effective practices concomitantly obscuring the humanness of the health experience. A reconsideration of partnership between nurse and client as the core of the discipline might call nurses back to what is essential to nursing: a caring relationship centered on that which is meaningful as health. This article points to the significance of the relational nature of partnership, differentiating its features and form from the prevalent understanding associated with prescriptive interventions to achieve predetermined goals and outcomes. The meaning of partnership is presented as nursing practice as it unfolds: a process of nurse and client relationship through which the caring presence of the nurse becomes integral to the health experience of the client as the potential for action. Exemplars provide illustration of this emerging view in practice and research. The article is intended to contribute to the expanding dialogue on nursing practice, inviting discussion of the relevance of partnership in different health systems. PMID:12751885

  19. Put Theory into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…

  20. Caring as Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chrystal S.; Thomas, Adrian T.

    2009-01-01

    When planning for the new school year, K-2 teachers might consider the benefits of creating a caring classroom. Caring has the potential to not only encourage thoughtful social studies practice, but to also enhance it. The best K-2 teachers also recognize the importance of caring in the development of responsible citizens. Such teachers plan and…

  1. Early practice: neurotology.

    PubMed

    Breen, Joseph T; Vrabec, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Besides technical and surgical proficiency, some of the most important skills for a young Neurotologist to refine include communication and critical thinking abilities. This Early Practice article provides perspectives on common challenges and career development from a current Neurotology fellow and his mentor. PMID:25650228

  2. Best Program Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Literacy Network, Saskatoon.

    This document, which is intended for use by adult literacy programs in Saskatchewan, Canada, consists of three questionnaires. The questionnaires were developed under the guidance of Saskatchewan's 11-member Good Practice Task Force to give adult literacy programs an opportunity to reflect on their current initiatives, identify their strengths,…

  3. Toward Scholarship in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer-Gabella, Marcy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past decade, scholars of teaching and teacher education have concluded that the field lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to undergird systematic investigation of practice. Absent a shared language, we can neither articulate common questions nor establish common tools--essential elements for building knowledge and…

  4. Practical SPI Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landaeta, José Francisco; García, Javier; Amescua, Antonio

    This paper presents a practical procedure named P4SPI for planning, monitoring and closing an SPI. Planning activities are performed using PMBOK's process areas as a reference; monitoring activities using Six Sigma tools and techniques and closing activities using gathering qualitative and quantitative information about the SPI Implementation. These activities are supported by office templates.

  5. Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris

    1994-01-01

    Comments on the articles presented in this issue with respect to their implications for classroom practices. Stresses that in this issue, the researchers describe how social context factors (such as adult viewpoints and adult-child interaction patterns) and physical context factors (such as variations in classroom space-time organization and…

  6. Policies Can Follow Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Roser discusses how both teachers and librarians, whom she calls the preservers of children's reading, should cling tightly to three essential practices to ensure that our children read more, read better, and read more widely. She argues we should: a) keep the classroom library viable; b) preserve, protect, and defend time for self-selected…

  7. Sentence-Combining Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Judy O'Neal

    1978-01-01

    Sample sentence-combining lessons developed to accompany the first-year A-LM German textbook are presented. The exercises are designed for language manipulation practice; they involve breaking down more complex sentences into simpler sentences and the subsequent recombination into complex sentences. All language skills, and particularly writing,…

  8. NCI Best Practices

    Cancer.gov

    This informational publication issued by the NCI OBBR is designed to increase awareness and understanding among advocates and the interested public of the importance and role of biospecimens in cancer research. It outlines the need for and purpose of best practices for biospecimen resources.

  9. Traffic control: nursing practice calendar.

    PubMed

    Rus, Linda; Cheesebro, Kathy; Nagra, Erica; Neff, Alaina

    2013-01-01

    Educating nurses on the multitude of new and updated best practices, changes in regulatory standards, new equipment, and enhanced technology creates an "information traffic jam." Multiple practice changes occurring simultaneously pose challenges for nurses to retain information to practice safely and effectively. An absence of coordination between various nursing and allied health teaching initiatives compounds this problem. A nursing practice calendar was developed to facilitate the prioritization, communication, and education of hospital-wide initiatives affecting nursing practice. PMID:23657036

  10. Colposcopy in general practice.

    PubMed

    Cherry, S; Blackledge, D; Russell, R

    1996-11-01

    Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to identify women most at risk for cancer precursors. They can use a variety of modalities, including colposcopy thus reducing patient anxiety and waiting time. This article describes a training program for such a service, which includes at least 100 colposcopy examinations under supervision. It is applicable outside a hospital clinic setting. Subsequent practice must have a referral base sufficient to maintain competence as well as economic viability. All GP colposcopists in the Perth area attend regular quality assurance meetings. An audit has shown that properly trained GPs can achieve a level of competence equivalent to that expected of their specialist colleagues (89% concordance between colposcopic impression and histology). The format of the audit was based on that of the Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RACOG). Treatment must be performed by experts. General practice is the appropriate location for community screening studies using colposcopy. PMID:8952109

  11. Best Practice -- Subsurface Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Scott

    2010-03-01

    These best practices for Subsurface Survey processes were developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and later shared and formalized by a sub-committee, under the Electrical Safety Committee of EFCOG. The developed best practice is best characterized as a Tier II (enhanced) survey process for subsurface investigations. A result of this process has been an increase in the safety and lowering of overall cost, when utility hits and their related costs are factored in. The process involves improving the methodology and thoroughness of the survey and reporting processes; or improvement in tool use rather than in the tools themselves. It is hoped that the process described here can be implemented at other sites seeking to improve their Subsurface Investigation results with little upheaval to their existing system.

  12. Marketing your equine practice.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Robert P

    2009-12-01

    The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner. PMID:19945641

  13. Marketing the dental practice.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    1994-01-01

    Marketing is a system. While it is key and the scope of this article to offer 40 internal/customer service, external/community marketing strategies, this is your goal. The combination of programs consistently applied, analyzed and modified makes a difference. Start with your internal/customer service program. Once that is in place you can expand to external/community marketing programs. Creativity and persistence are how strong dental practices are built! PMID:9552632

  14. Filtration principles and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides theoretical and practical data on filtration of gases and liquids. Topics covered include the following: gas filtration theory; liquid filtration theory; filter media; industrial gas filtration; filtration pretreatment; filtration in the chemical process industry; ultrafiltration; filtration in the mineral industry; filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; cartridge filtration; high-efficiency air filtration; analytical applications of filtration; and filter evaluation and testing.

  15. Training environment in General Practice and preparedness for practice 

    E-print Network

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Ogilvie, Sharon Wiener

    2014-07-04

    This thesis explores the way General Practice trainees and early career General Practitioners describe their training environment in General Practice, the meaning they attach to the notion of preparedness and their ...

  16. Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation Counseling: Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Kubota, Coleen; Rosenthal, David

    2010-01-01

    This study describes certified rehabilitation counselors' attitudes (n=163) about evidence based practice, knowledge and skills related to obtaining and evaluating evidence, use of literature in practice, availability of information, and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice. Responses related to knowledge and skills were mixed with strong…

  17. Stocking rate-mediated responses of mid-rotation loblolly pine in west-central Arkansas: Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have compared loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growth in a systematic array of plantation designs or stocking rates commonly used in temperate forestry and agroforestry practices. Our objective was to determine loblolly pine growth responses and agroforestry implications of 13 ...

  18. Human Organization. Vol. 52. No. 2, 1993 Copyright @ 1993 by the Society for Applied Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Belsky, Jill M.

    0018-7259/93/020130-12$1.70/1 Household Food Security, Farm Trees, and Agroforestry:A Comparative that farm trees and agroforestry practices improve household food security. Some have further speculated basis. Furthermore,in SoutheastAsia. food security and upland farm decisions must be viewed within

  19. At similar trunk diameters varieties of eastern black walnut have greater nut yields than native trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many landowners in the United States have little access to information on economic returns from agroforestry practices. Despite the existence of agroforestry economic simulators, data bases are lacking to predict returns from nuts produced by eastern black walnut (EBW), Julgans nigra L., a hardwood...

  20. Relationship between trunk diameter and nut yield of grafted named varieties of eastern black walnut is different from that of native trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many landowners in the United States have little access to information on economic returns from agroforestry practices. Despite the existence of agroforestry economic simulators, data bases are lacking to predict returns from nuts produced by eastern black walnut (EBW), Julgans nigra L., a hardwood...

  1. Technologic and Operational Best Practices

    Cancer.gov

    Technologic and Operational Best Practices Elizabeth H Hammond MD Vice Chair, Group Ba nking Committee NCI Scope of Presentation • Definition of Repositories • Scope of the Qualified Sample Issue • Best Practice Resources • Specimen Handling and Processes

  2. Health Practices of School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petch-Levine, Deborah; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl; Murray, Meg

    2003-01-01

    The health practices of school nurses affect our role as advocates and educators to promote the health of youth. This study describes the health practices of a convenience sample of 388 school nurses who attended the business meeting at an annual school nurse conference. A self-administered, 40-item questionnaire identified health practices of…

  3. Statistics in Practice Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    Statistics in Practice Forensic Science Dr. David Lucy d.lucy@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University Statistics in Practice ­ p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific in Practice ­ p.2/36 #12;Forensic Science Greater realisation that uncertainty is important has lead to

  4. Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

  5. Guide to good practices for shift routines and operating practices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.

  6. Digitization Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Fei; Holtkamp, Irma S.; Knudson, Frances L.

    2012-07-31

    This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

  7. Make it practical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-03-01

    Physics is an extremely practical science. If you were to ask, ``Who uses physics in their job?'' people will cite engineers or scientists. Physics is actually extremely important to many different jobs. Often, our classes are filling with students who do not intend to continue on in physics. It is most important to show these students that physics is more than string theory and nanotechnology. I laving a working knowledge of physics is important in many jobs outside of science. These videos make that point very clear!

  8. Science in Social Practice

    E-print Network

    Mead, George Herbert

    2000-04-01

    HERBERT MEAD University ofChicago Social Thought & Research, 2000, Vol. 23, 1&2 Introductory Notes This paper represents the text for the Annual Phi Beta Kappa ad­ dress given at the University of Kansas on Friday evening, March 3, 1911, under... the announced title of "Science in SocialPractice." The Universi!) DailY Kansan, Thursday, February 23, 1911 (Vol. VII, No. 58, p. 1), carried the following story announcing Mead's visit: Phi Beta Kappa Speaker. Professor George B. Mead, of the philosophy...

  9. Field practice internship final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.

    1994-05-01

    This field practice internship final report gives an overview of the field practice, which was completed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Management Department, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field practice focused on the completion of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312, Tier II Report. The field practice internship was conducted on a full-time basis between December 13, 1993 through February 18, 1994. Sheila Poligone, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Coordinator served as the field practice preceptor.

  10. Practical secure quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Eleni

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.

  11. Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    2004-01-13

    Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

  12. Thermography in Neurologic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Vilaça-Alves, José; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado

    2015-01-01

    One kind of medical images that has been developed in the last decades is thermal images. These images are assessed by infrared cameras and have shown an exponential development in recent years. In this sense, the aim of this study was to describe possibilities of thermography usage in the neurologic practice. It was performed a systematic review in Web of Knowledge (Thompson Reuters), set in all databases which used two combination of keywords as “topic”: “thermography” and “neurology”; and “thermography” and “neurologic”. The chronological period was defined from 2000 to 2014 (the least 15 years). Among the studies included in this review, only seven were with experimental design. It is few to bring thermography as a daily tool in clinical practice. However, these studies have suggested good results. The studies of review and an analyzed patent showed that the authors consider the thermography as a diagnostic tool and they recommend its usage. It can be concluded that thermography is already used as a diagnostic and monitoring tool of patients with neuropathies, particularly in complex regional pain syndrome, and stroke. And yet, this tool has great potential for future research about its application in diagnosis of other diseases of neurological origin. PMID:26191090

  13. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 ?m) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

  14. Linking theory to practice in introductory practice learning experiences.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, Diane; Lamont, David; Macbride, Tamsin; MacKenzie, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Nurse educators internationally are challenged with finding a sufficient number of suitable practice learning experiences for student nurses. This paper reports on a study which aimed to evaluate the utilisation of specialised and highly technical environments ("new" environments) as first practice learning experiences for adult nursing students in the UK. A survey was conducted on 158 first year student nurses who were allocated to either "new" or "old" (those that have been traditionally used) environments. Data analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney U test and exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results have demonstrated that all environments afford novice nurses the opportunity to observe or practice the essential skills of nursing. In addition, the "new" environments have revealed greater opportunity to observe and practice aspects of practice related to governance of care. This paper concludes that a nursing curriculum which makes clear association between the essential nature of nursing and practice based learning outcomes will help the student to appreciate contemporary nursing practice and to link nursing theory with practice. Further research is required to explain the observation that aspects of practice related to governance are more visible within highly technical areas of practice. PMID:25481982

  15. Practical Bayesian Tomography

    E-print Network

    Granade, Christopher; Cory, D G

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Bayesian methods have been proposed as a solution to a wide range of issues in quantum state and process tomography. State-of- the-art Bayesian tomography solutions suffer from three problems: numerical intractability, a lack of informative prior distributions, and an inability to track time-dependent processes. Here, we solve all three problems. First, we use modern statistical methods, as pioneered by Husz\\'ar and Houlsby and by Ferrie, to make Bayesian tomography numerically tractable. Our approach allows for practical computation of Bayesian point and region estimators for quantum states and channels. Second, we propose the first informative priors on quantum states and channels. Finally, we develop a method that allows online tracking of time-dependent states and estimates the drift and diffusion processes affecting a state. We provide source code and animated visual examples for our methods.

  16. Feeding Practices and NEC

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Manimaran

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous over intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant preterm infant without any other clinical and radiological evidence of NEC, minimal enteral nutrition rather than complete suspension of enteral feeding may be an alternative. Human milk-based fortifier as compared to bovine-based fortifier may reduce the incidence of NEC but additional studies are required. PMID:23415260

  17. Practical Bayesian Tomography

    E-print Network

    Christopher Granade; Joshua Combes; D. G. Cory

    2015-09-12

    In recent years, Bayesian methods have been proposed as a solution to a wide range of issues in quantum state and process tomography. State-of- the-art Bayesian tomography solutions suffer from three problems: numerical intractability, a lack of informative prior distributions, and an inability to track time-dependent processes. Here, we solve all three problems. First, we use modern statistical methods, as pioneered by Husz\\'ar and Houlsby and by Ferrie, to make Bayesian tomography numerically tractable. Our approach allows for practical computation of Bayesian point and region estimators for quantum states and channels. Second, we propose the first informative priors on quantum states and channels. Finally, we develop a method that allows online tracking of time-dependent states and estimates the drift and diffusion processes affecting a state. We provide source code and animated visual examples for our methods.

  18. Imagination in practice.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, P A

    1997-01-01

    Current focus in the health care ethics literature on the character of the practitioner has a reputable pedigree. Rather than offer a staple diet of Aristotelian ethics in the undergraduate curricula, perhaps instead one should follow Murdoch's suggestion and help the practitioner to develop vision and moral imagination, because this has a practical rather than a theoretical aim. The imaginative capacity of the practitioner plays an important part in both the quality of the nurse's role enactment and the moral strategies which the nurse uses. It also plays a central part in the practitioner's ability to communicate with a patient and in the type of person which the practitioner becomes. Can the moral imagination be stimulated and nurtured? Some philosophers and literary critics argue that not only is this possible, but that literature is the means of doing so. If this is the case then a place should be made for literature in already crowded health care curricula. PMID:9055163

  19. Practical Quantum Digital Signature

    E-print Network

    Hua-Lei Yin; Yao Fu; Zeng-Bing Chen

    2015-09-29

    Guaranteeing non-repudiation and unforgeability as well as transferability of a signatory is one of the most vital safeguards in today's e-commerce era. Based on fundamental laws of quantum physics, quantum digital signature (QDS) aims to provide information-theoretical security for digital signature widely used nowadays. However, up to date, the previously proposed QDS schemes are impractical due to various challenging problems and most importantly, the requirement of authenticated quantum channels between participants. Here, for the first time, we eliminate all existing problems by proposing a practical and surprisingly simple QDS protocol, whose unconditional security is proven. Our QDS scheme can be implemented over a distance of more than 100 km under technology comparable to quantum key distribution. QDS is an important compliment to quantum key distribution and provides unconditionally secure protection to applications requiring digital signature.

  20. TQM in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Harr, R

    2001-01-01

    Society now expects more from its doctors and dentists, and these increasing demands can be summed up in one relatively new term for the medical profession: "quality management" (QM). Doctors and dentists formerly took the view that their performance could be assessed solely on the basis of their technical skills, ethics and expertise, but are now confronted with a new social imperative, from outside the profession--quality management. The author, prize-winner of the European Quality Award 2000 describes his approach to introduce the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model in his dental practice. He shows that the EFQM model is well suited as a basis for a quality management system in healthcare. PMID:11436753

  1. Practical Quantum Coin Flipping

    E-print Network

    Anna Pappa; André Chailloux; Eleni Diamanti; Iordanis Kerenidis

    2011-07-30

    In this article we show for the first time that quantum coin flipping with security guarantees that are strictly better than any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation like losses, multi-photon pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For channel length up to 21 km, we achieve a cheating probability that is better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is easy to implement using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.

  2. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  3. Practical steps for implementing quality measurement in practice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David; Cheng, Eric M.; Sanders, Amy E.; Dubinsky, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary All neurologists must begin incorporating quality measurement and quality improvement into their practice. Efforts to pay physicians based on the quality of their care and patient outcomes moves quality measurement beyond reporting to satisfy regulatory requirements and pushes physicians to select and use quality measures to improve patient outcomes and patient experience. This article provides practical steps and proposes considerations for neurologic practices advancing quality measurement and improvement. PMID:25317379

  4. REFORESTATION TECHNIQUES IN COGONGRASS (IMPERATA CYLINDRICA) INFESTED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is a non-native, invasive weed that is disrupting economically and ecologically important plant communities in the southeastern United States. Cogongrass is invading forest lands, especially those growing loblolly pine (Pinus teada L.) plantations. Thes...

  5. Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Making Sequential Consistency Practical in TitaniumPractical in Titanium Amir Kamil, Jimmy Su, and Katherine Yelick, y , Titanium Group http://titanium.cs.berkeley.edu U.C. Berkeley November 15 2005November by another threadthread · Titanium, Java, UPC, and many other languages do not provide sequentiallanguages do

  6. Practice againPractice, again Which test should I use?

    E-print Network

    Wolverton, Steve

    run? ­ How would you determine the expected score ­ Set up and do the test by hand #12;Practice againPractice, again Which test should I use? #12;Problem setupProblem setup · What is the question you are asking?What is the question you are asking? · What test should be run?· What test should

  7. PracticePractice Which test should I use?

    E-print Network

    Wolverton, Steve

    determine the expected frequencies ­ Set up and do the test by handSet up and do the test by hand #12 determine the expected score ­ Set up and do the test by hand #12;Example 3Example 3 · DecentralizationPracticePractice Which test should I use? #12;Example 1Example 1 · You have samples from Fort Worth

  8. Practical Innovations Mark the 2011 Effective & Innovative Practices Award Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facilities Manager, 2011

    2011-01-01

    APPA's Effective & Innovative Practices Award continues to highlight the best of the most creative and practical programs and processes that enhance and transform service delivery, lower costs, increase productivity, improve customer service, generate revenue, or otherwise benefit an educational institution. This article features five 2011…

  9. [Practice marketing. Data analysis of a urological group practice].

    PubMed

    Schneider, T; Schneider, B; Eisenhardt, A; Sperling, H

    2009-07-01

    The urological practice setting in Germany has changed tremendously over the last years. Group practices with two or more urologists working together are becoming more and more popular. At the same time, marketing has become essential even for urologists. To evaluate the patient flow to our group practice, we asked all new patients to fill out a questionnaire (n=2112). We also evaluated the efficacy of our recall system. The analysis showed that patients were 18-93 years old (mean 57 years), 68% being male and 32% female. The largest age group consisted of 41-50-year-olds. The most important reasons for choosing our practice were recommendations by general practitioners in 38%, recommendations by specialists in 11%, and recommendations by friends and relatives in 27%. Five percent of the patients chose the practice because of the Internet home page and 10% because of entries in various phone books. Three percent of the patients came because of newspaper articles about the practice owners, and <1% had attended patient presentations. The Internet was used mainly by 31-40-year-old patients. Our recall system showed an efficacy of 59%. In summary, a good reputation in the medical society as well as in the neighbourhood is still the best advertising for a urological practice. Phone books are increasingly becoming less important, and the Internet is increasingly attractive to the younger population. Recall systems can also be useful for urological practices. PMID:19387608

  10. Monitoring mindfulness practice quality: an important consideration in mindfulness practice.

    PubMed

    Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Goldberg, Simon Benjamin; Hoyt, William T

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is an experientially based group intervention empirically supported to reduce psychological symptomology. Although MBSR has shown to be an effective intervention, little is known about which facets of the intervention are important in producing positive outcomes. This study tested several aspects of mindfulness practice (total practice duration, practice frequency and practice quality) with the primary focus being on validating (i.e., predictive and convergent validity) a new measure of mindfulness practice quality (PQ-M). The PQ-M fit a two-factor solution via a Maximum Likelihood Exploratory Factor Analysis (n=99). Using longitudinal multilevel modeling on a smaller subsample (n=19), preliminary support was found for changes in practice quality over the course of the MBSR intervention. Further, change in practice quality was associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. While this study was exploratory, these findings suggest that practice quality is a relevant factor to promote positive outcomes and may guide mindfulness instructors in providing highly tailored interventions. PMID:23046287

  11. Practice Makes Perfect?: Effective Practice Instruction in Large Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Helping young musicians learn how to practice effectively is a challenge faced by all music educators. This article presents a system of individual music practice instruction that can be seamlessly integrated within large-ensemble rehearsals. Using a step-by-step approach, large-ensemble conductors can teach students to identify and isolate…

  12. Education for Sustainability (EfS): Practice and Practice Architectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmis, Stephen; Mutton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports some findings from an investigation of educational practice in ten (formal and informal) education for sustainability (EfS) initiatives, to characterise exemplary practice in school and community education for sustainability, considered crucial to Australia's future. The study focused on rural/regional Australia, specifically…

  13. Emergency control practices

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, L.H.; Badley, D.E.; Koehler, J.E.; McInnis, D.A.; Redmond, O.H.

    1985-09-01

    The Emergency Control Task Force was formed in February 1982. In order to clarify and focus its efforts, the Task Force adopted the following definitions as a basis for its deliberations: Power system emergency: A condition or state of system operation characterized by one or more violations of ''hard'' inequality constraints (e.g., short or long term emergency ratings) on the bulk power system. An emergency generally is an indication of a viability crisis and/or a stability crisis. A viability crisis results from an imbalance between generation, loads, and transmission, whether local or system-wide. A stability crisis results from energy accumulated at sufficient level in swings of the system to disrupt its integrity. Power system failure: A condition or state of system operation characterized by loss of system integrity involving uncontrolled islanding (fragmentation) of the system and/or uncontrolled loss of large blocks of load. The body of this report consists of four short-note papers which describe emergency control procedures responsive to system conditions consonant with the above definition of Power System Emergency. It is the desire of the Task Force that presentation of this paper shall stimulate written discussions which will round out a comprehensive account of industry emergency state control practice throughout North America. Subsequent Task Force efforts will include exploration of relevant research activity and consideration of research needs.

  14. [Hyponatremia in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Cabassi, Aderville; Antonucci, Elio; Brusasco, Irene; Cademartiri, Carola; Pistolesi, Valentina; Morabito, Santo; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and it is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes as well as increased hospital costs. Its clinical presentation may be highly variable, ranging from asymptomaticity to neurologic emergencies with seizures or coma as signs of rapidly worsening cerebral edema. In these cases, prompt treatment is mandatory to avoid the patients death. On the other hand, in the case of gradual development of hyponatremia, it is imperative that its correction be also appropriately slow in order to avoid another neurological catastrophe, namely the osmotic demyelination syndrome. Whilst recent international guidelines and expert consensus agree on the approach to the treatment of acute severe and symptomatic hyponatremia, the recommendations on pharmacological therapy in chronic hyponatremia diverge, particularly as to the potential use of vasopressin antagonists. This review is aimed at summarizing essential aspects of epidemiology, pathophysiology and the diagnostic process of hyponatremia, to set the ground for a practical as well as evidence-based approach to treatment. As a guide through the discussion of the available evidence, a clinical case is presented in which the patients history and laboratory data are crucial for identifying the etiology of hyponatremia. The severe neurological signs at presentation justify an emergency treatment with hypertonic saline, as indicated. Subsequently, as the neurological emergency subsides, we discuss the need to revert the trend towards hypercorrection by an apparently counterintuitive approach, based in fact on sound pathophysiological grounds, with continuous infusion of hypotonic solutions and administration of desmopressin. PMID:25774584

  15. Diagnostic Technologies in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

  16. Mindfulness Practices and Learning Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borker, David R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest among educators in teaching and learning practices based on mindfulness, a concept derived from eastern meditative traditions. This paper describes how mindfulness practices and concepts can be used to enhance the student's learning experience in beginning economics courses. Specific areas with a high potential for…

  17. Distinguished Practices of Distinguished Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for American Private Education, Germantown, MD.

    The Blue Ribbon Schools (BRS) program was designed in 1982 with three purposes in mind: to identify and recognize outstanding schools; to provide schools a tool and criteria for self-assessment and improvement; and to facilitate the sharing of best practices among schools. This book presents profiles and best practices of 12 elementary, 2 middle,…

  18. Education as Initiation into Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, Paul Smeyers and Nicholas Burbules reexamine the concept of "practice" and propose a new way of conceiving it that does justice to the idea that education is in some sense an initiation into practices without endorsing either the conservative and reproductive conception of what initiation entails or the radically social…

  19. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  20. Predictors of Rural Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel-Flom, Penelope

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes toward the urban environment and place of origin were found to be the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. Findings of this study imply that optometry students most likely to enter rural practice can be objectively identified early in their training and that the predictive equation presented may be useful in the…

  1. Best Practices in Business Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Dianna, Ed.

    This document is intended to give business teachers a few best practice ideas. Section 1 presents an overview of best practice and a chart detailing the instructional levels, curricular areas, and main competencies addressed in the 26 papers in Section 2. The titles and authors of the papers included in Section 2 are as follows: "A Software Tool…

  2. Leadership Practices of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, E. C. M.; McMahon, H. George

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is a vital skill called for by the school counseling profession. However, limited research has been done to examine how leadership is characterized by practicing school counselors. The purpose of the exploratory study in this article was to assess leadership practices of school counselors, and to analyze the relationships among…

  3. Curriculum: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    "Curriculum: From Theory to Practice" introduces readers to curriculum theory and how it relates to classroom practice. Wesley Null provides a unique organization of the curriculum field into five traditions: systematic, existential, radical, pragmatic, and deliberative. He discusses the philosophical foundations of curriculum as well as…

  4. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  5. PEPNet Effective Practices Criteria Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Kate, Ed.

    Designed for youth programs, funders, policymakers, and researchers, this workbook is a tool and a resource on effective practices for youth employment and development. It is a product of the Promising and Effective Practices Network (PEPNet), which offers a knowledge base of effective strategies and approaches, opportunities for professional…

  6. CULTURETHEORY AND PRACTICE Michael Raviv

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    SOILLESS CULTURETHEORY AND PRACTICE EDITED BY: Michael Raviv Newe Ya'ar Research Center, ARO9 open recto 1 Color 44 Lines Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice Michael Raviv Heiner Lieth recto 1 Color 44 Lines Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Radarweg 29, PO Box 211

  7. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  8. The Power of the Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Whether it is a rapid-fire Twitter event as part of #ASEchat, or BBC Radio 4's "Inside Science," the discussion of practical work generates powerful debate. While it is right that the best use of practical work is continually discussed, its value in science teaching is without question. The level of discussion is being further heightened…

  9. How To Make Innovations Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter; van Driel, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: A fundamental tension has long existed between school reform proposals and actual teaching practice. Despite a large literature on teacher change, the discontinuity between innovation and practice continues and many attempts to reform teaching fail to be enacted in most classrooms. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…

  10. Software ``Best'' Practices: Agile Deconstructed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven

    Software “best” practices depend entirely on context - in terms of the problem domain, the system constructed, the software designers, and the “customers” ultimately deriving value from the system. Agile practices no longer have the luxury of “choosing” small non-mission critical projects with co-located teams. Project stakeholders are selecting and adapting practices based on a combina tion of interest, need and staffing. For example, growing product portfolios through a merger or the acquisition of a company exposes legacy systems to new staff, new software integration challenges, and new ideas. Innovation in communications (tools and processes) to span the growth and contraction of both information and organizations, while managing the adoption of changing software practices, is imperative for success. Traditional web-based tools such as web pages, document libraries, and forums are not suf ficient. A blend of tweeting, blogs, wikis, instant messaging, web-based confer encing, and telepresence creates a new dimension of communication “best” practices.

  11. The Amount of Practice Really Matters: Specificity of Practice May Be Valid Only after Sufficient Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krigolson, Olav E.; Tremblay, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Studies investigating the specificity hypothesis have not always demonstrated that reliance on a specific source of feedback increases with practice. The goal of the present study was to address this inconsistency by having participants practice a throwing task with or without vision at incremental levels (10, 50, 100, or 200 acquisition trials).…

  12. Satellite Mission Operations Best Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Hogan, Roger P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The effort of compiling a collection of Best Practices for use in Space Mission Operations was initiated within a subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Space Operations and Support Technical Committee (SOSTC). The idea was to eventually post a collection of Best Practices on a website so as to make them available to the general Space Operations community. The effort of searching for available Best Practices began in the fall of 1999. As the search progressed, it became apparent that there were not many Best Practices developed that were available to the general community. Therefore, the subcommittee decided to use the SOSTC Annual Workshop on Reducing Space Mission Costs as a forum for developing Best Practices for our purpose of sharing them with a larger audience. A dedicated track at the April 2000 workshop was designed to stimulate discussions on developing such Best Practices and forming working groups made up of experienced people from various organizations to perform the development. These groups were solicited to help outside the workshop to bring this effort to fruition. Since that time, biweekly teleconferences have been held to discuss the development of the Best Practices and their posting.

  13. General Practice Locum Improvement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Weatherburn, Christopher; Hasan, Shawkat

    2014-01-01

    An improvement culture is required in the NHS. Staff members who move from one place of work to another are often best placed to see alternative methods of working that at times are more efficient – locum general practitioners (GPs) tend to be in this category. A tool was developed specifically to obtain quality improvement suggestions to the general practice from the locum GP and vice versa in a time efficient manner. A pilot study was performed in one general practice in Tayside (Grove Health Centre) in December 2013 to assess if this was possible. During this month a general practice partner provided feedback to the locum GP by completing a drop down tick box survey while reviewing three cases dealt with by the locum. The locum GP was emailed after their session with a one question survey enquiring about improvement suggestions for that practice. Five different locum GPs provided clinical cover during the month studied – of these, one opted out from the study. The other four locums performed their clinical session and completed the survey. Feedback from the practice to locums included specific clinical guidance, suggestions for improving documentation, and ways to optimise referrals; of note, unique feedback was given to each locum and this was generated using this tool. Themes from the locum suggestions to the practice included more physical resources (such as cameras in each room), different ways of handling prescriptions, and a suggestion about identifying complex patients. As a direct result of this pilot a locum box has been implemented in this practice and plans are to rerun this tool periodically. The authors would recommend utilising this tool periodically in other general practices as it has the potential to identify improvement suggestions unique for that particular practice.

  14. The Canadian Family Practice Accoucheur

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Family practice obstetrics is strongly influenced by demography and marketing. The falling birth rate is leading to a surplus of caregivers who may inappropriately apply their technical skills to a population of low-risk pregnant women. This in turn may lead to a ‘cascade’ of negative consequences for the normal, child-bearing public. The family practice accoucheur has a key role to play as an advocate of high quality, humanistic maternity care. Training programs must address the academic base of family practice obstetrics through direct teaching, role modelling, research, and quality assurance. PMID:21267147

  15. CMA Infobase: clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2008-01-01

    The CMA Infobase is a free Web-based resource that contains evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. The database is maintained by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and is available on its Web site. The CMA Infobase currently contains 1,200-plus clinical practice guidelines either developed or endorsed by an authoritative health care organization located in Canada. It is an alternative source of free clinical practice guidelines to the National Guideline Clearinghouse. This column will cover the basics of CMA Infobase, including searching, special features, and available resources which complement the database. PMID:19042721

  16. Code of Practice Discipline in Residences

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    Code of Practice Discipline in Residences 2015-16 1 UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM CODE OF PRACTICE ON DISCIPLINE IN RESIDENCES #12;Code of Practice Discipline in Residences 2015-16 2 Index of points 1;Code of Practice Discipline in Residences 2015-16 3 1. Introduction 1.1 This Code of Practice applies

  17. Implementing Evidence-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Edward J.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, social work has been influenced by new forms of practice that hold promise for bringing practice and research together to strengthen the scientific knowledge base supporting social work intervention. The most recent new practice framework is evidence-based practice. However, although evidence-based practice has many qualities that might…

  18. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  19. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  20. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  1. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  2. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  3. Simple Practical Investigations Using Invertase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare-Brown, Emma; Bullock, Clive

    1988-01-01

    Describes three activities, substrate inhibition, product inhibition by fructose and glucose, and gel immobilization of invertase for use with undergraduate biochemistry classes. Discusses materials, methods, and results. Stresses the advantages of practical exercises in undergraduate classes. (CW)

  4. Documentation : a reflective practice approach

    E-print Network

    Ouko, Luke Odhiambo

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Reflective Community Practice in MIT's Department of Urban studies is involved in projects helping community organizers working on social change. In order to foster reflection, they are currently utilizing ...

  5. Learning in social work practice 

    E-print Network

    Li, Hsien-Ta

    2013-07-03

    The research question underpinning this study is ‘How is learning organised within the context of social work practice in the third sector?’ The research objective is to establish conceptual frameworks that theorise the ...

  6. Implementation of Boiler Best Practices 

    E-print Network

    Blake, N. R.

    2000-01-01

    Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient, economical operation can significantly affect the reliability and profitability of the entire plant. Best Practices for Boilers include tools to determine where a plant...

  7. Institute for Safe Medication Practices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foundation Guidelines on Root Cause Analysis Special Error Alerts 2014-15 Targeted Medication Safety Best Practices for Hospitals ISMP Guidelines High-Alert Medications Confused Drug Name List Community Pharmacy Medication ...

  8. Agriculture 398 Professional Practice Manual

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Agriculture 398 Professional Practice Manual Internship in Agriculture ILLINOIS STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAMPUS BOX 5020 NORMAL, ILLINOIS 61790 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COORDINATOR RESPONSIBILITIES.................. 8 AGRICULTURAL ACADEMIC ADVISOR

  9. EBVM: application in everyday practice.

    PubMed

    2015-12-19

    Essential tools to help practitioners integrate evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) into everyday practice were discussed recently at a 'skills day' organised by RCVS Knowledge. Kristy Ebanks reports. PMID:26679911

  10. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Guide© 

    E-print Network

    Rouse, S.

    2001-01-01

    norms - and successful tactics can vary considerably. 2.0 IMPLEMENTATION The Energy Efficiency (EE) Best Practice Guide is one of the tools developed by the Energy Efficiency Department to help Ontario Power Generation's business units meet... of the Energy Efficiency (EE) Best Practice Guide is to help business units meet and exceed their energy efficiency targets through continuous improvement using seven key criteria. The objectives are threefold: - to provide an easy-to-use structure...

  11. Video otoscopy in audiologic practice.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R F

    1997-12-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic optics and miniature video camera technology have made video otoscopy (VO) accessible to audiologists in a practical way. Seven categories of VO applications are presented with clinical examples: (1) general examination of the earcanal and tympanic membrane, (2) physician communication/telemedicine, (3) hearing instrument selection and fitting applications, (4) patient education, (5) scope of practice reinforcement, (6) knowledge base/skill growth, and (7) cerumen management. PMID:9433690

  12. Trial of integrated laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Osamu; Takahashi, Yuzo; Abe, Chikara; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nakashima, Akira; Morita, Hironobu

    2011-06-01

    In most laboratory practices for students in medical schools, a laboratory guidebook is given to the students, in which the procedures are precisely described. The students merely follow the guidebook without thinking deeply, which spoils the students and does not entice them to think creatively. Problem-based learning (PBL) could be one means for the students themselves to actively learn, find problems, and resolve them. Such a learning attitude nurtures medical students with lifelong learning as healthcare professionals. We merged PBL and laboratory practices to promote deep thinking habits and developed an integrated laboratory practice. We gave a case sheet to groups of students from several schools. The students raised hypotheses after vivid discussion, designed experimental protocols, and performed the experiments. If the results did not support or disproved the hypothesis, the students set up another hypothesis followed by experiments, lasting for 4 or 5 consecutive days. These procedures are quite similar to those of professional researchers. The main impact achieved was the fact that the students developed the experimental design by themselves, for the first time in their college lives. All students enjoyed the laboratory practice, which they had never experienced before. This is an antidote to the guidebook-navigated traditional laboratory practice, which disappoints many students. As educators in basic medical sciences stand on the edge in terms of educating the next generation, there is a need to provide a strong foundation for medical students to design and perform scientific experiments. The integrated laboratory practice may provide the solution. PMID:21652510

  13. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team. PMID:26062328

  14. 48 CFR 203.170 - Business practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Business practices. 203... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL...Safeguards 203.170 Business practices. To... (c) Acquisition process reviews of the military...improve acquisition and management processes, roles,...

  15. 48 CFR 203.170 - Business practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Business practices. 203... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL...Safeguards 203.170 Business practices. To... (c) Acquisition process reviews of the military...improve acquisition and management processes, roles,...

  16. 48 CFR 203.170 - Business practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Business practices. 203... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL...Safeguards 203.170 Business practices. To... (c) Acquisition process reviews of the military...improve acquisition and management processes, roles,...

  17. 48 CFR 203.170 - Business practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Business practices. 203... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL...Safeguards 203.170 Business practices. To... (c) Acquisition process reviews of the military...improve acquisition and management processes, roles,...

  18. 48 CFR 203.170 - Business practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Business practices. 203... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL...Safeguards 203.170 Business practices. To... (c) Acquisition process reviews of the military...improve acquisition and management processes, roles,...

  19. 40 CFR 503.24 - Management practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Management practices. 503...Disposal § 503.24 Management practices. ...located in an unstable area. (f) An active...authority that through management practices public health and the environment are protected from any...

  20. Family practice physicians' beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding obesity.

    PubMed

    Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Krol, R A; Snyder, F F; O'Connell, J K

    1987-01-01

    This study examined 318 family practice physicians' beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding obese patients. Most physicians surveyed were aware of the health effects of obesity and that normal weight is important to the health of their patients. Beliefs, attitudes, and practices differed significantly based on the physicians' sex, weight, years in practice, and belief that counseling patients on weight loss is professionally gratifying and that most obese patients can lose significant amounts of weight. A notable number of respondents held negative or stereotypical attitudes toward obese patients (i.e., obese patients lack self-control, are lazy and sad). The most commonly recommended weight loss techniques were decreasing caloric consumption (92 percent), participating in Weight Watchers (84 percent), consulting a dietitian/nutritionist (76 percent), and aerobic exercise (75 percent). The two sources of weight control information most frequently cited were past experience (73 percent) and medical journals (71 percent). The results of this survey indicate that there is considerable room for improvement in the beliefs, attitudes, and practices of family physicians regarding obese patients. PMID:3452374

  1. PUBLICATIONS by P. K. R. Nair (March 2015) A. Books, Author of

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    , Washington, D.C. 77 p. 3. Nair, P.K.R. 1984. Soil Productivity Aspects of Agroforestry. Science & Practice. ICRAF 003e, ICRAF, Nairobi. 336 p. 1. Nair, P.K.R. 1979. Intensive Multiple Cropping with Coconuts

  2. Family medicine residents’ practice intentions

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Lawrence E.M.; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess residents’ practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. Design A survey based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. Setting McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Participants Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. Main outcome measures The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents’ intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. Results The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents’ intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. Conclusion The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.

  3. Teaching Reflective Practice in Practice Settings: Students' Perceptions of Their Clinical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice

  4. Family practice in Turkey: views of family practice residents.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Melahat; Yaman, Hakan; Senol, Ye?im; Akbayin, Zelal; Cihan, Fatma Gök?in; Celik, Sercan Bulut

    2011-05-01

    Turkey's family practice training program is aimed at providing further training to clinically proficient family physicians who serve the community. A survey conducted in 2001 revealed that there was a need for providing additional training and more time in a specially dedicated family practice placement for family practitioners. Recent changes in the Turkish health care system have also impacted the training environment of family practice residents. Clearly, training needs to change with time. The aims of this study are to investigate the attitudes of resident family practice physicians regarding their training in the health care system in order to gather their views on the hospital learning environment, and to estimate their burnout levels. For this research, the design included a 1-phase cross-sectional study. This study was undertaken in 2008 in departments of family medicine at universities (n = 21) and training and research hospitals of the Ministry of Health (n = 11). Approximately 250 family practice residents in Turkey were approached. In total, 174 residents participated (70% response rate). The survey instruments included a questionnaire with 25 queries and 2 scales: The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure and the Maslach Burnout Questionnaire-Human Services Survey. The average age of the participants was 32.2 years (standard deviation, 4.5 years; range, 24-57 years). The gender distribution was 57.6% women and 42.4% men. Marital status was 34.7% single, 62.9% married, and 2.4% divorced/widowed. In our results, residents affirmed that university hospitals were the best facilities for residency training. Their future plans confirmed that most would like to work in family health centers. This sample showed average levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. Perceptions of professional autonomy, quality of training, and social support were below average. It may be concluded that certain milestones in the development of family practice in Turkey have been fulfilled. The new regulation for postgraduate training has increased the share of family practice training to 50% (18 months). Establishment of educational family health centers has been planned. Introduction of the formative and summative assessment processes in family practice training is anticipated. It is expected that an assessment such as the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners (International) (mRCGP[INT]) examination would be helpful for Turkish residents in reaching these goals. PMID:21566424

  5. What makes distributed practice effective?

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The advantages provided to memory by the distribution of multiple practice or study opportunities are among the most powerful effects in memory research. In this paper, we critically review the class of theories that presume contextual or encoding variability as the sole basis for the advantages of distributed practice, and recommend an alternative approach based on the idea that some study events remind learners of other study events. Encoding variability theory encounters serious challenges in two important phenomena that we review here: superadditivity and nonmonotonicity. The bottleneck in such theories lies in the assumption that mnemonic benefits arise from the increasing independence, rather than interdependence, of study opportunities. The reminding model accounts for many basic results in the literature on distributed practice, readily handles data that are problematic for encoding variability theories, including superadditivity and nonmonotonicity, and provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding the effects of repetition and the effects of associative relationships on memory. PMID:20580350

  6. Person-centred reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Devenny, Bob; Duffy, Kathleen

    Person-centred health and person-centred care have gained prominence across the UK following the publication of reports on public inquiries exploring failings in care. Self-awareness and participation in reflective practice are recognised as vital to supporting the person-centred agenda. This article presents an education framework for reflective practice, developed and used in one NHS board in Scotland, and based on the tenets of the clinical pastoral education movement. Providing an insight into the usefulness of a spiritual component in the reflective process, the framework provides an opportunity for nurses and other healthcare professionals to examine the spiritual dimensions of patient encounters, their own values and beliefs, and the effect these may have on their practice. PMID:24617403

  7. Empirical ethics as dialogical practice.

    PubMed

    Widdershoven, Guy; Abma, Tineke; Molewijk, Bert

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and perspectives need to be exchanged. Within hermeneutic ethics dialogue is seen as a vehicle for moral learning and developing normative conclusions. Dialogue stands for a specific view on moral epistemology and methodological criteria for moral inquiry. Responsive evaluation involves a structured way of setting up dialogical learning processes, by eliciting stories of participants, exchanging experiences in (homogeneous and heterogeneous) groups and drawing normative conclusions for practice. By combining these traditions we develop both a theoretical and a practical approach to empirical ethics, in which ethical issues are addressed and shaped together with stakeholders in practice. Stakeholders' experiences are not only used as a source for reflection by the ethicist; stakeholders are involved in the process of reflection and analysis, which takes place in a dialogue between participants in practice, facilitated by the ethicist. This dialogical approach to empirical ethics may give rise to questions such as: What contribution does the ethicist make? What role does ethical theory play? What is the relationship between empirical research and ethical theory in the dialogical process? In this article, these questions will be addressed by reflecting upon a project in empirical ethics that was set up in a dialogical way. The aim of this project was to develop and implement normative guidelines with and within practice, in order to improve the practice concerning coercion and compulsion in psychiatry. PMID:19338524

  8. Practicing Identity: A Crafty Ideal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brysbaert, A.; Vetters, M.

    This paper focuses on the materialization of technological practices as a form of identity expression. Contextual analyses of a Mycenaean workshop area in the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns (Argolis, Greece) are presented to investigate the interaction of different artisans under changing socio-political and economic circumstances. The case study indicates that although certain technological practices are often linked to specific crafts, they do not necessarily imply the separation of job tasks related to the working of one specific material versus another. Shared technological practices and activities, therefore, may be a factor in shaping cohesive group identities of specialized artisans. Since tracing artisans' identities is easier said than done on the basis of excavated materials alone, we employ the concepts of multiple chaînes opératoires combined with cross-craft interactions as a methodology in order to retrieve distinctive sets of both social and technological practices from the archaeological remains. These methodological concepts are not restricted to a specific set of steps in the production cycle, but ideally encompass reconstructing contexts of extraction, manufacture, distribution and discard/reuse for a range of artefacts. Therefore, these concepts reveal both technological practices, and, by contextualising these technological practices in their spatial layout, equally focus on social contacts that would have taken place during any of these actions. Our detailed contextual study demonstrates that the material remains when analysed in their entirety are complementary to textual evidence. In this case study they even form a source of information on palatial spheres of life about which the fragmentary Linear B texts, so far, remain silent.

  9. Learning about Practice from Practice: A Peer-Based Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Tony

    2014-01-01

    A recommendation from the Social Work Task Force was that all employers of social workers should conduct a regular "health check" of the social work profession to learn from practice as part of a continuous cycle of improvement. This article documents how the London Borough of Tower Hamlets has gone about this. I describe the…

  10. inPractice: A Practical Nursing Package for Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Barry; Cavanna, Annlouise; Corbett, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the recent development of a computer-assisted learning program--in Practice--at the School of Health Science, in the University of Wales Swansea. The project, which began in 2001, was developed in close collaboration with The Meningitis Trust, the aim being to produce a software package to increase nursing students' knowledge…

  11. Practice improvement, part II: trends in employment versus private practice.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Roett, Michelle A

    2013-11-01

    A growing percentage of physicians are selecting employment over solo practice, and fewer family physicians have hospital admission privileges. Results from surveys of recent medical school graduates indicate a high value placed on free time. Factors to consider when choosing a practice opportunity include desire for independence, decision-making authority, work-life balance, administrative responsibilities, financial risk, and access to resources. Compensation models are evolving from the simple fee-for-service model to include metrics that reward panel size, patient access, coordination of care, chronic disease management, achievement of patient-centered medical home status, and supervision of midlevel clinicians. When a practice is sold, tangible personal property and assets in excess of liabilities, patient accounts receivable, office building, and goodwill (ie, expected earnings) determine its value. The sale of a practice includes a broad legal review, addressing billing and coding deficiencies, noncompliant contractual arrangements, and potential litigations as well as ensuring that all employment agreements, leases, service agreements, and contracts are current, have been executed appropriately, and meet regulatory requirements. PMID:24261436

  12. Practicing What We Teach: Trauma-Informed Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carello, Janice; Butler, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the starting case for applying the elements of trauma-informed care (TIC) to education and outlines the authors' initial efforts to develop guidelines for what they call trauma-informed educational practice. To this end, the article starts with a literature review related to the potential for vicarious traumatization and…

  13. Notice of Privacy Practices THIS NOTICE OF PRIVACY PRACTICES

    E-print Network

    IT CAREFULLY. This Notice of Privacy Practices (the "Notice") describes the legal obligations of UT you are covered. All of the Plans are members of an organized health care arrangement ("OHCA, or health care operations, or for any other purposes that are permitted or required by law. We are required

  14. Private Practice: Exploring the Missing Social Dimension in "Reflective Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2012-01-01

    In professional education today, Schon's concept of "reflective practice" underpins much thinking about learning at work. This approach--with its emphasis on the inner life of the professional and on her own interpretations of her learning experiences--is increasingly being challenged: often cited objections are that the model ignores factors like…

  15. The Challenge of Establishing a Professional Practice within Practical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Højbjerg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    "Clinical teachers" in the discipline of nursing in Denmark undergo additional education in addition to their registered nursing education to establish their teaching skill qualifications practicum. This ethnographic study examines some of the pedagogical initiatives clinical teachers are practicing as working professionals attempting to…

  16. Beyond Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Developing Community and Culturally Appropriate Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica; Pence, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how Canada's University of Victoria worked with the Meadow Lake Tribal Council representing Aboriginal communities to develop the generative preschool curriculum model, an early childhood education (ECE) training program embracing community- and culturally-appropriate practice. Concludes that early indicators of program impact support…

  17. Understanding PRACTICE: An Acronym for the Holistic Approach to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a mnemonic device that when incorporated into practice behavior is shown through case study to help students develop an understanding of the relationship between exercises, new and old, and the music that they are preparing. I developed the mnemonic "Preparation of Relevant Activities Causes Technical…

  18. Roots of Art Education Practice. Art Education in Practice Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, Mary Ann

    This book is a thematic history that puts art instruction during the 19th and early 20th centuries into educational, artistic, and social contexts. The book states that the stage on which many art teachers perform is the public school classroom. It explains that art education developed its professional practices in tandem with the development of…

  19. Schools as Clinics: Learning about Practice in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Robin; Rong, Yuhang

    2014-01-01

    The Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut is committed to the intentionality of interweaving course work and practice in its 5-year teacher preparation program, the Integrated Bachelor's and Master's program. It offers a wide range of field experiences to teacher candidates. Teacher candidates enter the program at the…

  20. SSA Sensor Calibration Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.

    Best practices for calibrating orbit determination sensors in general and space situational awareness (SSA) sensors in particular are presented. These practices were developed over the last ten years within AGI and most recently applied to over 70 sensors in AGI's Commercial Space Operations Center (ComSpOC) and the US Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) Space Surveillance Network (SSN) to evaluate and configure new sensors and perform on-going system calibration. They are generally applicable to any SSA sensor and leverage some unique capabilities of an SSA estimation approach using an optimal sequential filter and smoother. Real world results are presented and analyzed.

  1. The Joy of Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ventres, William

    2012-01-01

    Many family physicians have written about how they influence, nurture, and empower people in their communities of practice. In this essay, the author writes of the personal joys that family medicine has brought him. An expression of his appreciation for his work as a family doctor, it touches on 6 themes that continue to rejuvenate his practice: love, faith, mystery, place, dance, and medicine. By examining the emotional and psychological dimensions of these themes, he offers a path by which other family physicians may be able to find sustenance and joy in their daily work. PMID:22585892

  2. Postinfectious Arthritis in Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    PLESCA, Doina Anca; LUMINOS, Monica; SPATARIU, Luminita; STEFANESCU, Mihaela; CINTEZA, Eliza; BALGRADEAN, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Postinfectious arthritis is a relatively often encountered in pediatric practice. The authors present the most important data concerneing this pathology, with up to date informations exemplifying with case presentations. Clinical cases bring to attention the most common forms of postinfectious arthritis (reactive arthritis, postinfectious arthritis bacterial, viral, spirochete, and so on). Although highly studied and commonly found in current pediatric practice, arthritis occurring after infections remains controversial entities, especially regarding terminology. While, according to some authors, postinfectious arthritis belongs to the large group of reactive arthritis, by other authors, these joint events are independent entities. PMID:24371480

  3. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., health system, or other entity or organization. A group practice that is otherwise a single legal entity... group practice is a physician practice that meets the following conditions: (a) Single legal entity. The group practice must consist of a single legal entity operating primarily for the purpose of being...

  4. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., health system, or other entity or organization. A group practice that is otherwise a single legal entity... group practice is a physician practice that meets the following conditions: (a) Single legal entity. The group practice must consist of a single legal entity operating primarily for the purpose of being...

  5. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., health system, or other entity or organization. A group practice that is otherwise a single legal entity... group practice is a physician practice that meets the following conditions: (a) Single legal entity. The group practice must consist of a single legal entity operating primarily for the purpose of being...

  6. Practice Theory: Viewing Leadership as Leading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jane; Kemmis, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Theodore Schatzki's "societist" approach--in which he advocates a notion of "site ontologies"--in this article, we outline our theory of practice architectures (a theory about what practices are composed of) and ecologies of practices (how practices relate to one another). Drawing on case studies of four Australian…

  7. Code of Practice on Student Concerns & Complaints

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    Code of Practice on Student Concerns & Complaints 2015-16 1 UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM CODE OF PRACTICE ON STUDENT CONCERNS AND COMPLAINTS #12;Code of Practice on Student Concerns & Complaints 2015-16 2 #12;Code of Practice on Student Concerns & Complaints 2015-16 3 Index of points 1. Introduction 2

  8. Code of Practice on Academic Appeals Procedures

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    Code of Practice on Academic Appeals Procedures 2015/16 1 UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM CODE OF PRACTICE ON ACADEMIC APPEALS PROCEDURES #12;Code of Practice on Academic Appeals Procedures 2015/16 2 Index of points 1. Principles 2. Stages of the Code of Practice 3. Membership of appeal committees 4. Initial Appeal Stage 5

  9. Contemplative Practices in Human Services Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jacqueline M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the correlation between human services practice and stress and examines the use of contemplative practices in the classroom as a way to teach self-care. The chapter also discusses ways in which contemplative practices can be incorporated as a critical component of human services education. Examples include stillness practices

  10. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to Enhance Private Practice Management…

  11. Hybrid Discourse Practice and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamberelis, George; Wehunt, Mary D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a study of how creative linguistic practices (which we call "hybrid discourse practices") were enacted by students in a fifth-grade science unit on barn owls and how these practices helped to produce a synergistic micro-community of scientific practice in the classroom that constituted a fertile space for students…

  12. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  13. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  14. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  15. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  16. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  17. Interleaved Practice Improves Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Dedrick, Robert F.; Stershic, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A typical mathematics assignment consists primarily of practice problems requiring the strategy introduced in the immediately preceding lesson (e.g., a dozen problems that are solved by using the Pythagorean Theorem). This means that students know which strategy is needed to solve each problem before they read the problem. In an alternative…

  18. The Professional Practice of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwille, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring of novice teachers has become a prevalent component of programs that help beginning teachers. A conceptualization of mentoring practice that rests on a shared vision of good mentoring, however, needs to be developed so that novice teachers receive more than emotional support or professional socialization. Knowing how to be a good mentor…

  19. Implementation of Job Development Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Alberto; Butterworth, John; Nord, Derek; Cox, Monica; Gelb, Amy

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which employment consultants implemented job development practices recommended in the literature when assisting job seekers with intellectual or developmental disabilities. We contacted 83 employment consultants from 25 employment programs in Minnesota and Connecticut. Fifty-nine participants were eligible and…

  20. Narrative Inquiry: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi; Van Niekerk, Lana

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the method of narrative inquiry and explores competing trends in the use of the approach. It not only examines the theories relating to the method but also offers practical guidance on using narrative inquiry, including an exploration of what might count as a narrative and ways of analysing narrative data. The…

  1. Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodheart, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

  2. A northwest collaborative practice model.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Ann; McBroom, Kelly; Warwick, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Collaborative practice between obstetrician-gynecologists and certified nurse-midwives has been successful at the Family Beginnings obstetric unit at Group Health for at least three reasons. Each provider group is able to practice independently and thus give the kind of maternity and women's health care sought by the local community. The legal framework in Washington State supports a wide range of maternity care practices and includes a reasonable provider insurance scheme. The boundaries between different groups operating within distinct scopes of practice are well-defined and communicated. This allows providers to smoothly share or transfer clients from midwife to obstetrician and back as needed in each case. The success of the Family Beginnings model is demonstrated by a favorable comparison with national and Washington State metrics of delivery outcomes. Replicating the model elsewhere depends on building support for collaborative maternity care across the obstetric and midwifery professions in states where an appropriate legal framework exists, and in institutions where policies for credentialing nurse midwives are in place. Where these supports do not exist, all practitioners jointly advocating for more enlightened approaches is recommended. PMID:21860299

  3. Art Practice as Prosthetic Visuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoian, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture I explore and conceptualize the anomalous spaces of perception and memory in art practice and research where experimental and alternative discourses and pedagogies can emerge. I argue that the instabilities and slippages between what is visible and invisible, known and unknown, in these spaces enable insightful and multivalent ways…

  4. Film Studies: Theory and Practice

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    MLitt Film Studies: Theory and Practice School of Arts and Humanities http://stir.ac.uk/f2 #12 for . . . That's why I would have no hesitation in recommending the experience to anyone. Grahame Reid, Film and Media Development Officer, MacRobert Arts Centre, and Recent Graduate, MLitt Film Studies Is Film

  5. Interleaved Practice Improves Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Dedrick, Robert F.; Stershic, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A typical mathematics assignment consists primarily of practice problems requiring the strategy introduced in the immediately preceding lesson (e.g., a dozen problems that are solved by using the Pythagorean theorem). This means that students know which strategy is needed to solve each problem before they read the problem. In an alternative…

  6. Faculty Research and Publication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Kate; Hines, Samantha; Keenan, Teressa; Samson, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Understanding faculty work practices can translate into improved library services. This study documents how education and behavioral science faculty locate, retrieve, and use information resources for research and writing and how they publish and store their research materials. The authors interviewed twelve professors using a structured interview…

  7. Evaluating Screening Performance in Practice

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) is an ongoing effort to improve understanding of breast cancer screening practices in the United States and their relation to changes in stage at diagnosis, survival, or breast cancer mortality. The BCSC is funded and coordinated by the Applied Research Program of the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences.

  8. Education for Professional Engineering Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramhall, Mike D.; Short, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a funded collaborative large-scale curriculum innovation and enhancement project undertaken as part of a UK National Higher Education Science, Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) programme. Its aim was to develop undergraduate curricula to teach appropriate skills for professional engineering practice more…

  9. Practice-Based Research Networks

    E-print Network

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    and with researchers to expand the science base of clinical care in real-world practice. have a sustained partnership for the Integration of Medicine and Science. supported by a CTSA grant since 2008. our mission is to: promote STARNET RRNET STOHN South Texas Psychiatry Research Network ISRN #12;5/20/2015 4 Walt Calmbach

  10. Volunteer Development. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Certain practices in volunteer development have proved successful to help organizations make the best use of their volunteers. Development should be a comprehensive, continuous process through which individuals can extend, update, and adapt their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance their performance and potential. A model for volunteer…

  11. Amala Groom Art, practice, prospects

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Professional Development Opportunities Inside the Green House withSophie Kingsford Smith Kudos exhibition with recent BFA (Hons) graduate Sophie Kingsford Smith on The Green House residency and her work and practice you can write your name on it! #12;In 2015 we see our first ever Aboriginal student President

  12. Multiage Misconceptions: Suggestions from Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lolli, Elizabeth Monce

    1997-01-01

    A former principal of a nongraded elementary school discusses the nongraded, multiage philosophy, effects of multiage grouping, prevalent misconceptions, and suggestions from practice. Critics often mistakenly characterize multiage classrooms as homogeneous, unstructured, and team-taught; appropriate for kindergarten and primary children only;…

  13. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  14. Best Practices in ELL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guofang, Ed.; Edwards, Patricia A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, prominent authorities review the latest research on all aspects of ELL instruction (K-12) and identify what works for today's students and schools. Provided are best-practice guidelines for targeting reading, writing, oral language, vocabulary, content-domain literacies, and other core skill areas; assessing culturally and…

  15. The Social Work Practice Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartocollis, Lina; Cnaan, Ram A.; Ledwith, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a systematic review of the emerging practice doctorate in social work. Based on the experience of the first such Doctor of Social Work (DSW) program, we provide information regarding the program origins and rationale, development, current structure, and future direction. Such information will enrich the discussion on the role…

  16. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  17. [The practical significance of laterality].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M

    1991-01-01

    In the present review the practical relevance and the problems of left-handedness have been discussed. Nowadays the diagnosis of the correct hand for writing and learning to write are very important for left-handers. Laterality is a hybrid phenomenon which concerns not only pedagogics but also many other fields, such as medicine, transport, sport and art. PMID:1759637

  18. ORAL PRESENTATION A PRACTICAL GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    ORAL PRESENTATION SKILLS A PRACTICAL GUIDE © C. STORZ and the English language teachers of the Institut national de télécommunications, EVRY FRANCE. #12;Carl Storz et al. Oral Presentation Skills Août provides the essential elements and some tips on preparing and organizing a successful oral presentation

  19. Mixed Ability Teaching in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Harvey

    1976-01-01

    Author was head of geography for nearly ten years before becoming deputy head at The Woodlands School, Coventry, a school that has pioneered the move to non-streaming at the secondary stage. He writes here on the practical problems arising in this transition, and how they may be overcome. (Editor/RK)

  20. Intercultural Education in Everyday Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupas, Ruanni

    2014-01-01

    While there is substantive work in intercultural education, especially that which proposes intellectual or conceptual road maps for pedagogic interculturalism and, more specifically for the classroom, there is a need to surface the complexity of everyday intercultural classroom practices. This article reflects on some Singapore students'…

  1. Ethical Practices for College Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    A policy statement on ethical practices for college presidents developed by the Committee on Governance of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) is presented. Presidents of AASCU member institutions recognize the special responsibilities that pertain to them by virtue of the public trust they hold. To fulfill that…

  2. Practical Solar Thermal Chilled Water 

    E-print Network

    Leavell, B.

    2010-01-01

    the potential to impact America's use of non-renewable energy beyond its own design capacity by applying it to the optimization of an existing building's system. Solar-thermal chilling systems are not new. However, few of them can be described as a practical...

  3. Annual Conference On Best Practices

    E-print Network

    Ranadli, Robert

    The 5th Annual Conference On Best Practices in the Education of Children with Down Syndrome April and Liberal Arts and Sciences C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University and The Down Syndrome Advocacy. Emily Jones B. Developing Behaviorally Based Programming for Infants and Toddlers with Down Syndrome (*3

  4. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of an effective BMP monitoring program is not a straight-forward task. BMPs by definition are devices, practices, or methods used to manage stormwater runoff. This umbrella term lumps widely varying techniques into a single category. Also, with the existence of ...

  5. Parent Involvement as Ritualized Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual…

  6. Educational Management: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okumbe, J. A.

    This book provides the reader with principal theories and practices of management in educational organizations. It attempts to widen both the breadth and depth of the body of knowledge in this area of specialization. The work provides useful reference material for students and scholars at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in universities…

  7. Preschool Assessment. Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Boehm, Ann E.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and user-friendly, this ideal graduate text and professional reference provides a developmentally informed framework for assessing 3- to 6-year-olds in accordance with current best practices and IDEA guidelines. The authors are leading clinician-researchers who take the reader step by step through selecting appropriate measures,…

  8. Theory into Practice Goes Exactly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Jonny

    2007-01-01

    "Dimensions of possible variation" is a phrase that now occupies a safe place in the literature describing the application of education theory to education practice: "asking yourself what could be changed [in the task], while using the same approach or technique, opens up dimensions of possible variation. A set of exercises forming a sequence of…

  9. Paradigm Shifts: Considerations for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fred B.; Caple, Richard B. (Eds.)

    1985-01-01

    In part one, changes in counseling theory from the perspectives of the self-organization paradigm, quantum theory, and sex-role development are discussed. In part two, the change structure of counseling practice is discussed, including articles on uses of imagery, dream therapy, metaphors, learning style, voluntary self-regulation, and…

  10. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  11. A Potpourri of Practical Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, James L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Consisting of material designed for practical application in the English classroom and representing all educational levels, this collection of articles contains a selection of the best presentations given at the fall 1986 meeting of the Southeastern Ohio Council of Teachers of English. Following an introduction by guest editor James L. Creighton,…

  12. Practical Applications of Space Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report gives an overview of a study conducted by the Space Applications Board (SAB) on the practical applications of space systems. In this study, the SAB considered how the nation's space capability might be used to solve problems such as the shortage of food and energy; the improvement of the physical environment; inventorying and…

  13. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. )

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  14. Philosophical Practice and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew

    The history of philosophy is examined, and what the practice of philosophy may portend for the future of education is discussed. The traditional prohibition of philosophy being taught to children is much indebted to citations from Plato's "Republic." Plato thought that the dialectic would subvert and corrupt children. But just as Socrates thought…

  15. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  16. Educational Management: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the…

  17. Contemplative Practice in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This volume has offered both the theory and practice for a model of contemplative teaching and learning in community colleges--a way of teaching, of learning, of thinking that has often been missing in higher education. Contemplative teaching and learning, with its focus on community, reflection, and mindfulness--in short, on what it means to be…

  18. Survey of Exemplary Instructional Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Bureau of Educational Research.

    Based on structured interviews with 92 faculty members in ten departments at the University of Utah, a categorized list of innovative teaching practices was compiled. The list was separated into two major divisions. The first division deals with in-class learning materials and activities. Within this grouping there are 15 categories: discussion…

  19. Practice Theory in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…

  20. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen Van Quan; And Others

    This illustrated primer, designed for second grade students in Vietnam, consists of stories depicting rural family life in Vietnam. The book is divided into the following six chapters: (1) Practicing Good Habits (health, play, helpfulness); (2) Duties at Home (grandparents, father and mother, servants, the extended family; (3) Duties in School…

  1. Mentoring Program Practices and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Amy W.; Sullivan, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Philadelphia's Sponsor-a-Scholar program pairs high school students with adults who guide them in preparing for the future. The program shows that there is little certainty about what constitutes best practice; that the complex task of mentoring requires a gamut of skills; and that support services for both mentors and proteges are essential. (SK)

  2. Open Educational Resources and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackall, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at what constitutes an open educational resource and considers the issues and benefits to an educational institution that is moving to participate in open educational resource development and to adopt more open educational practices. It describes the initial steps in these directions being made by the Educational Development…

  3. Adolescent Literacy Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jetton, Tamara L., Ed.; Dole, Janice A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book addresses the role of literacy instruction in enhancing content area learning and fostering student motivation and success well beyond the primary grades. The unique literacy needs of middle school and secondary students are thoroughly examined and effective practices and interventions identified. Reviewing the breadth of current…

  4. Participatory Practices in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

    Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

  5. Exploring into Teacher's Specialized Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Lian-jin

    2010-01-01

    Teacher specialization is a subject with very strong practicality as regards its essence. This paper analyzes the main problems of the existing teacher professionalism, poses and argues the 3 hypotheses of teacher professionalism. Around the reality of teacher professionalism, the author brings forward and establishes a new teacher evaluation…

  6. FAU Clinical Practice Organization, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    . In making those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity on the effectiveness of the entity's internal control. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes on the Financial Statements We have audited the accompanying financial statements of FAU Clinical Practice

  7. Exemplary Practices in Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwhistle, Amy; Lefkovitz, Bina; Meehan, Dorothy; Needham, Heather; Paul, Andy

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Sierra Health Foundation's Board of Directors selected school-aged youth as the target for its next focused grantmaking effort. As part of the program research and development phase, staff and consultants examined evidenced-based practices that appear promising in positively affecting adolescent health and development for young people…

  8. Enhancing practice Quality Enhancement Themes

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    Enhancing practice Quality Enhancement Themes: The First Year Experience Transforming assessment DDaavviidd NNiiccooll #12;Preface The approach to quality and standards in higher education (HE) in Scotland the enhancement-led approach to quality and standards in Scottish higher education. Norman Sharp Director, QAA

  9. Career Development: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montross, David H., Ed.; Shinkman, Christopher J., Ed.

    This book explores the latest developments in the theory and practice of career development, as seen by 21 professionals in the field. The study is organized in four parts that cover the following areas: the latest thinking about career theory; the career stages of exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline; current thinking about the…

  10. Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

  11. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  12. Ethics and Improper Laboratory Practices

    E-print Network

    Ethics and Improper Laboratory Practices Ray Terhune US EPA Region 4 Quality Assurance Section #12;#12;Goals for This Presentation Discuss why this training is necessary. Define Ethics, Data Integrity. #12;What is "Ethics"? #12;Ethics: Webster's online dictionary defines ethics as: the discipline

  13. Optimizing Java Theory and Practice

    E-print Network

    Budimliæ, Zoran

    Optimizing Java Theory and Practice Zoran Budimlic Ken Kennedy Rice University Computer Science popularity of the Internet has made an instant star of the Java programming language. Java's portability Java implementation, even with just­in­time compilation technology, is far behind the most popular

  14. Translating evidence into policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Edoardo; Munn, Zachary

    2014-12-01

    This paper uses a published case study to illustrate the practical application of a translational model for the implementation of evidence into practice. The paper examines a translational approach to moving knowledge from robust methods for systematic review into guidance for clinical practice, and then in to action followed by evaluation of its impact on practice and health care outcomes. The conceptual model for evidence-based health care reported in this paper provides the theoretic framework for practice change. PMID:25458139

  15. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  16. Illustrating the practice of statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Christina A; Hamada, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    The practice of statistics involves analyzing data and planning data collection schemes to answer scientific questions. Issues often arise with the data that must be dealt with and can lead to new procedures. In analyzing data, these issues can sometimes be addressed through the statistical models that are developed. Simulation can also be helpful in evaluating a new procedure. Moreover, simulation coupled with optimization can be used to plan a data collection scheme. The practice of statistics as just described is much more than just using a statistical package. In analyzing the data, it involves understanding the scientific problem and incorporating the scientist's knowledge. In modeling the data, it involves understanding how the data were collected and accounting for limitations of the data where possible. Moreover, the modeling is likely to be iterative by considering a series of models and evaluating the fit of these models. Designing a data collection scheme involves understanding the scientist's goal and staying within hislher budget in terms of time and the available resources. Consequently, a practicing statistician is faced with such tasks and requires skills and tools to do them quickly. We have written this article for students to provide a glimpse of the practice of statistics. To illustrate the practice of statistics, we consider a problem motivated by some precipitation data that our relative, Masaru Hamada, collected some years ago. We describe his rain gauge observational study in Section 2. We describe modeling and an initial analysis of the precipitation data in Section 3. In Section 4, we consider alternative analyses that address potential issues with the precipitation data. In Section 5, we consider the impact of incorporating additional infonnation. We design a data collection scheme to illustrate the use of simulation and optimization in Section 6. We conclude this article in Section 7 with a discussion.

  17. Prevention in practice – a summary.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper is a summary document of the Prevention in Practice Conference and Special Supplement of BMC Oral Health. It represents the consensus view of the presenters and captures the questions, comments and suggestions of the assembled audience. Methods Using the prepared manuscripts for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. Results The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in practice, how diseases could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. Conclusions While examples of best practice were provided from both social care and insurance models it was clear that further work was required on both provider and payer side to ensure that evidence based prevention was both implemented properly but also reimbursed sufficiently. It is clear that savings can be made but these must not be overstated and that the use of effective skill mix would be key to realizing efficiencies. The evidence base for prevention of caries and periodontal disease has been available for many years, as have the tools and techniques to detect, diagnose and stage the diseases appropriately. Dentistry finds itself in a enviable position with respect to its ability to prevent, arrest and reverse much of the burden of disease, however, it is clear that the infrastructure within primary care must be changed, and practitioners and their teams appropriately supported to deliver this paradigm shift from a surgical to a medical model. PMID:26391906

  18. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  19. Understanding and Applying the Dynamics of Test Practice and Study Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two different methods of practice are available in the learning of simple information, test practice or study practice. Of these two methods of learning, research has generally shown that test practice is superior to study practice. However, this research has not considered the testing advantage with respect to the fact that test learning is…

  20. Master of Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice Degrees in Advanced Practice Nursing & Health

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Master of Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice Degrees in Advanced Practice Nursing & Health Systems and Organizational Leadership For the love of practice #12;An advanced practice registered nurse nurses is that a significant component of the education and practice focuses on direct care

  1. Forests as carbon sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    When the nations of the world signed and later ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), they accepted the difficult challenge of stabilizing the composition of the atmosphere with respect to the greenhouse gases (GHGs). Success will require a reduction in both use of fossil fuels and rates of deforestation. Forests have a large enough influence on the atmosphere that one of the options for stabilizing the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere includes the use of forests as a carbon sink through reforestation of large areas. We identify in this paper the potential and the limitations of such projects. We discuss the implications of four approaches in management of forests globally: (i) continued deforestation, (ii) halting deforestation, (iii) net reforestation including agroforestry, and (iv) substituting the use of wood fuels for fossil fuels.

  2. Configurations of leadership practices in hospital units.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ninna

    2015-11-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how leadership is practiced across four different hospital units. Design/methodology/approach - The study is a comparative case study of four hospital units, based on detailed observations of the everyday work practices, interactions and interviews with ten interdisciplinary clinical managers. Findings - Comparing leadership as configurations of practices across four different clinical settings, the author shows how flexible and often shared leadership practices were embedded in and central to the core clinical work in all units studied here, especially in more unpredictable work settings. Practices of symbolic work and emotional support to staff were particularly important when patients were severely ill. Research limitations/implications - Based on a study conducted with qualitative methods, these results cannot be expected to apply in all clinical settings. Future research is invited to extend the findings presented here by exploring leadership practices from a micro-level perspective in additional health care contexts: particularly the embedded and emergent nature of such practices. Practical implications - This paper shows leadership practices to be primarily embedded in the clinical work and often shared across organizational or professional boundaries. Originality/value - This paper demonstrated how leadership practices are embedded in the everyday work in hospital units. Moreover, the analysis shows how configurations of leadership practices varied in four different clinical settings, thus contributing with contextual accounts of leadership as practice, and suggested "configurations of practice" as a way to carve out similarities and differences in leadership practices across settings. PMID:26556171

  3. Knowledge Systems in Agroforestry1 Wieland Kunzel2

    E-print Network

    of the system was gone, pulled apart by a hired tractor. A monocrop of cabbage. would only survive with heavy the ecological implications of his cabbage plot. The observation that farmers can turn overnight from ex- perts

  4. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  5. Advances in Agroforestry A Book Series, started in 2004.

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    . Springer Science, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 390 p. ISBN 1-4020-4947-1. 4. Jose, S. and Gordon, A. M. (eds, The Netherlands. Series Editor: P. K. R. Nair Volumes published so far: 1. Nair P.K.R., Rao M. R., Buck L.E. (eds, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 314 p. ISBN 1-4020- 2412-6. 3. Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds) 2006

  6. Drought resilience of maize-legume agroforestry systems in Malawi

    E-print Network

    Kerr, Amber Catherine

    2012-01-01

    an important role in ecosystem adaptation to climate changeadaptation 2   1.1.2   Agroecological perspectives on climate resilience .. 2   1.1.2.1   Insights from traditional knowledge .. 2   1.1.2.2   Ecosystem

  7. Economics and Agroforestry1 John W. Brown2

    E-print Network

    have effects both on and off the farm. Off-farm exter nalities, such as sedimentation and chemical the maintenance of a higher level of soil fertility than continuous monocrop production (Weirsum 1981, Vergara 1987, Kang and others 1989). Farming systems research and extension is frequently recommended

  8. Below-ground interactions in dryland agroforestry Johannes Lehmanna,*

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    . The root carbohydrate contents were used to estimate plant water stress integrated over time. The highest and started earlier after the ¯ood irrigation than of the Sorghum, whereas the crop could better utilize

  9. Ultrafast fiber lasers: practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastirk, Igor; Sell, Alexander; Herda, Robert; Brodschelm, Andreas; Zach, Armin

    2015-05-01

    Over past three decades ultrafast lasers have come a long way from the bulky, demanding and very sensitive scientific research projects to widely available commercial products. For the majority of this period the titanium-sapphire-based ultrafast systems were the workhorse for scientific and emerging industrial and biomedical applications. However the complexity and intrinsic bulkiness of solid state lasers have prevented even larger penetration into wider array of practical applications. With emergence of femtosecond fiber lasers, based primarily on Er-doped and Yb-doped fibers that provide compact, inexpensive and dependable fs and ps pulses, new practical applications have become a reality. The overview of current state of the art ultrafast fiber sources, their basic principles and most prominent applications will be presented, including micromachining and biomedical implementations (ophthalmology) on one end of the pulse energy spectrum and 3D lithography and THz applications on the other.

  10. Practical cosmology and cosmological physics

    E-print Network

    Baryshev, Yu; Teerikorpi, P

    2008-01-01

    We present a summary of the International conference "Problems of practical cosmology", held at Russian Geographical Society, 23-27 June 2008, St.-Petersburg, Russia, where original reports were offered for discussion of new developments in modern cosmological physics, including the large scale structure of the Universe, the evolution of galaxies, cosmological effects in the local stellar systems, gravity physics for cosmology, cosmological models, and crucial observational tests of rival world models. The term "Practical Cosmology" was introduced by Allan Sandage in 1995 when he formulated "23 astronomical problems for the next three decades" at the conference on "Key Problems in Astronomy and Astrophysics" held at Canary Islands. Now when the first decade has passed, we can summarise the present situation in cosmological physics emphasizing interesting hot problems that have arisen during the last decade. Full texts of all reports are available at the website of the conference.

  11. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  12. Optometric practice patterns: British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B T; Samek, M J

    1981-01-01

    A government task force on vision care delivery in British Columbia studied the practice patterns of optometrists in that province. Their aim is to develop a coordinated system of vision care. A questionnaire was mailed to all optometrists in the province. The 84% response rate, with representative regional distribution, gave information on professional time spent in various activities, the use of assistants, indications of attitude toward and participation in community activities, and satellite practices. The information is compared with other studies and inferences are made in relation to workload and the efficient allocation of time. Special note is made of political and other factors that must be rationalized in order to provide a coordinates system of vision care which utilizes the expertise of optometrists in an optimal manner. PMID:7212010

  13. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Pancotti, Anthony; Haag, Thomas; King, Scott; Walker, Mitchell; Blakely, Joseph; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, direct measurement of thrust or impulse is one of the most critical elements of electric thruster characterization, and one of the most difficult measurements to make. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has started an initiative to develop standards for many important measurement processes in electric propulsion, including thrust measurements. This paper summarizes recommended practices for the design, calibration, and operation of pendulum thrust stands, which are widely recognized as the best approach for measuring micro N- to mN-level thrust and micro Ns-level impulse bits. The fundamentals of pendulum thrust stand operation are reviewed, along with its implementation in hanging pendulum, inverted pendulum, and torsional balance configurations. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Sources of error are identified and methods for data processing and uncertainty analysis are discussed. This review is intended to be the first step toward a recommended practices document to help the community produce high quality thrust measurements.

  14. Lectins: production and practical applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Lectins are proteins found in a diversity of organisms. They possess the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes with known carbohydrate specificity since they have at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. This articles aims to review the production and practical applications of lectins. Lectins are isolated from their natural sources by chromatographic procedures or produced by recombinant DNA technology. The yields of animal lectins are usually low compared with the yields of plant lectins such as legume lectins. Lectins manifest a diversity of activities including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory, and anti-insect activities, which may find practical applications. A small number of lectins demonstrate antibacterial and anti-nematode activities. PMID:20890754

  15. Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

  16. Mental health nurses: changing practice?

    PubMed

    Tingle, Alison

    2002-09-01

    Project 2000 envisaged that the nurse practitioner of the future should act as an "agent for change", using research evidence to address those aspects of practice deemed detrimental to patient care. A Department of Health funded study investigating the careers of nurse diplomates provides information on the extent to which newly qualified nurses were able to change aspects of practice, what factors inhibited changes and which personnel played a key role in facilitating change. Key factors which inhibited newly qualified nurses acting as change agents were lack of experience and confidence, as well as attitudes of other members of staff. Staff of a higher grade, immediate line managers and healthcare assistants all played a key role in facilitating change. PMID:12201893

  17. Jellyfish Stings: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Lakkis, Najla A; Maalouf, Grace J; Mahmassani, Dina M

    2015-09-01

    Jellyfish have a worldwide distribution. Their stings can cause different reactions, ranging from cutaneous, localized, and self-limited to serious systemic or fatal ones, depending on the envenoming species. Several first aid treatments are used to manage such stings but few have evidence behind their use. This review of the literature describes and discusses the different related first aid and treatment recommendations, ending with a summarized practical approach. Further randomized controlled trials in this field are needed. PMID:25935311

  18. ACP Best Practice No 165

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, A; Elder, G

    2001-01-01

    The porphyrias are uncommon disorders of haem biosynthesis and their effective management requires prompt and accurate diagnosis. This article describes methods for the determination of urinary porphobilinogen, urinary and faecal total porphyrins, and total porphyrins in erythrocytes and plasma that are suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories. The selection and interpretation of these methods, and the indications for further, more specialised, investigation are discussed. Key Words: porphyria • haem biosynthesis • best practice guidelines PMID:11429419

  19. Culturally Competent School Nurse Practice.

    PubMed

    Carr, Bette; Knutson, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    School nurses are among the professional specialty disciplines in the school environment that have the unique opportunity of exploring and building upon effective practices when working and providing service to diverse populations. As such, school nurses must not only acquire the skills to survive in the culture of education; they must also develop cultural competence by engaging in self-identity and reflection, understanding cultural differences, being culturally responsive, identifying social injustices, and engaging in life-long learning experiences. PMID:26515571

  20. What GUIDES Your NURSING PRACTICE?

    PubMed

    Hountras, Stacy C

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' personal belief systems or philosophies about nursing and people guides their nursing care, especially in difficult situations. Defining and articulating a personal philosophy helps the nurse better understand the motivation and reasoning behind his or her work. In this article, a nurse shares her philosophy of nursing, underlying beliefs, and discusses how this guides her practice. Questions to help nurses articulate their own personal philosophy of nursing are included. PMID:26211305

  1. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  2. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production. PMID:22306535

  3. Combining accounting approaches to practice valuation.

    PubMed

    Schwartzben, D; Finkler, S A

    1998-06-01

    Healthcare organizations that wish to acquire physician or ambulatory care practices can choose from a variety of practice valuation approaches. Basic accounting methods assess the value of a physician practice on the basis of a historical, balance-sheet description of tangible assets. Yet these methods alone are inadequate to determine the true financial value of a practice. By using a combination of accounting approaches to practice valuation that consider factors such as fair market value, opportunity cost, and discounted cash flow over a defined time period, organizations can more accurately assess a practice's actual value. PMID:10179975

  4. Probation workers' practice and practice ideals in a culture of control

    E-print Network

    Phillips, Jake

    2013-10-08

    This dissertation focuses on the practice and culture of probation workers in two offender management units in England. The PhD asks how broad theories of penal transformation have impacted on probation practice and practice ideals by looking...

  5. Hypertension screening in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    In 1974 eight general practitioners decided to co-operate in a hypertension screening exercise in their practices. The reasons for the survey and the methodology are described and the results of screening over 28,000 patients are given. The cut-off point for normal diastolic blood pressure was 89 mmHg and 23,979 (85 per cent) patients were considered to be normosensitive on this criterion, 694 (2.5 per cent) patients were already known by their doctors to have hypertension; 991 (3.5 per cent) had an initial abnormal reading but subsequent readings were normal. The survey identified 2,018 patients (7.12 per cent) as being hypertensive and 575 (2 per cent) failed to complete the survey. Because of the ever-changing population in the practices, 100 per cent surveillance was not achieved. It is considered necessary to carry out continuous case finding for the presence of hypertensive patients in general practice. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:6887113

  6. Transforming commercial aerospace supply chain management practices by utilizing Toyota production system principles, practices, and methodologies

    E-print Network

    Patneaude, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines The Toyota Motor Corporation's core precepts, management principles, supply chain architecture, product development methods, leveraged practice of supplier partnerships and procurement practices, all ...

  7. Improving acute eye consultations in general practice: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Michelle Ai Ling

    2014-01-01

    There is significant evidence that patients with acute eye symptoms are poorly assessed in primary care. There is a tendency to diagnose viral or bacterial conjunctivitis in any acutely red eye. This has led to delays in treatment and in some cases, permanent loss of sight. The aim of this project was to improve acute eye consultations within the Birchwood Medical Practice. The project focused on the “red flag” findings that would identify patients who require referral for same-day ophthalmology assessment. A retrospective baseline audit was carried out on all cases read-coded “conjunctivitis” over the period of one year. Initially, only 2.8% of consultations had documented all four findings. By considering the main factors that lead to poor eye assessments, two main areas for improvement were identified. These were education (reinforced with memory aids) and improving the availability of eye examination equipment within each consultation room. An “eye examination kit” was developed with the needs of the general practitioner in mind. The practice was re-audited six weeks following the intervention. Consultations where all four red flag findings were documented rose from 2.8% to 50%. This was found to be a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). Pain was checked 63% of the time, compared to 26% prior to intervention. Visual acuity screening had increased to from 35% to 69%. Photophobia was the most significantly increased metric, from being documented only 6% of the time to now 63% of the time. Documentation of whether the symptoms were unilateral or bilateral had also increased from 88% to 94% of consultations. The initial audit indicated that general practitioners often diagnosed conjunctivitis without screening for symptoms of sight-threatening disease. However, it was clear from the results that the doctors had made a significant change to their approach to acute eye consultations. This shows that doctors are willing to make changes to their behaviour when given the right tools and information. It was felt that a first-hand understanding of the problem and an open discussion regarding the changes required was key to the success of this project. This project has shown that significant improvements can be achieved with practical and inexpensive interventions. Therefore, general practices throughout the UK are encouraged to adopt similar strategies to improve the identification of patients needing same-day Ophthalmology assessment.

  8. FDA-Proposed Lab Practice Regulations Scored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the negative reactions to the Food & Drug Administration's proposed good laboratory practices for nonclinical laboratory practices. Industry representatives protest the inflexibility and excessive detail in the regulations. (MLH)

  9. Practical Issues with TLS Client Certificate Authentication

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Practical Issues with TLS Client Certificate Authentication Arnis Parsovs Software Technology secure Internet communication standard TLS (Transport Layer Security) has an optional client certificate- cation. In this paper we discuss practical security and usability issues related to TLS client

  10. Communities of Practice | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    The ASPREE Community of Practice is open to sites participating in the ASPREE trial. The Community of Practice provides an open forum for recruitment-related discussion and for enhancing recruitment through shared learning and a sense of partnership.

  11. 36 CFR 230.7 - Program practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 230.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Stewardship Incentive Program § 230.7 Program practices. (a) Practices for which cost sharing...

  12. 36 CFR 230.7 - Program practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 230.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Stewardship Incentive Program § 230.7 Program practices. (a) Practices for which cost sharing...

  13. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...made to a participant for a conservation practice that either the...Payments will not be made for a conservation practice that has been initiated...be eligible for payments for water conservation and irrigation related...

  14. Best Management Practices for Freshwater Pond Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter in the book “Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture” describes freshwater pond aquaculture systems and management practices to reduce environmental impacts of pond aquaculture. Pond aquaculture systems for channel catfish, crawfish, baitfish, hybrid striped bass, and o...

  15. Reading practices among adult education participants

    E-print Network

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Patterson, Margaret; Prewett, Sara

    2007-04-01

    This study extends the literature on the relation between reading practices and individual characteristics of participants in adult education who have low literacy skills. Reading practices describe individuals' reading frequency for different types...

  16. Risk Management Practices and Accounting Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rita Hartung; Yahr, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews current school district risk management practices and the related accounting requirements. Summarizes the Governmental Accounting Standards Board's proposed accounting standards and the impact of these on school districts' risk management practices and on their financial statements. (11 references) (MLF)

  17. AGRICULTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE EFFECTIVENESS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Agricultural Best Management Practice Effectiveness Database contains the results of research projects which have collected water quality data for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in reducing pollutants ...

  18. Spanning the Gap between Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that new developments in prescriptive theory offer an opportunity for instructional designers to combine research and practice in developing instruction. Ways in which instructional theories can facilitate practical applications are suggested. (MER)

  19. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  20. Empowerment in Social Work Practice. A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Lorraine M., Ed.; Parsons, Ruth J., Ed.; Cox, Enid Opal, Ed.

    Empowerment as a philosophy, approach, or method of practice provides a way to rethink social work practice and to achieve needed social change, personally and politically, in ways that meet human needs. Part One, "An Introduction to Empowerment Practice," written by the editors, describes the elements and process of the model in the first…