Science.gov

Sample records for reformer processes

  1. Hydrocarbon cracking and reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Q.N.; Schipper, P.H.; Owen, H.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a process for upgrading paraffinic naphtha to high octane fuel. It comprises: contacting a fresh naphtha feedstock stream containing a major amount of C{sub 7+} alkanes and naphthenes with medium pore acid cracking catalyst under low pressure selective cracking conditions effective to produce 4-C5 isoalkene and C4-C5 isoalkane, the cracking catalyst being substantially free of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation metal components and having an acid cracking activity less than 15; separating cracking effluent to obtain an olefinic fraction rich in C4-C5 isoalkene and a C6+ fraction; etherifying the C4-C5 isoalkene fraction by catalytic reaction with lower alkanol to produce tertiary-alkyl ether product; and reforming the C6+ fraction to provide high octane gasoline components.

  2. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  3. Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

  4. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  5. Cognitive Processes in Spelling and Their Relevance to Spelling Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Uta

    Cognitive psychology has provided an information processing model that distinguishes between input processes such as listening to speech or reading and output processes such as speaking or writing. It is useful for spelling reformers to consider reading (input) and writing (output) processes separately, because the demands of the reader and of the…

  6. Professional Development and School Restructuring: Mutual Processes of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, John; Hamer, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    For five years the authors have facilitated professional development leading to restructuring and reform at Ravine Junior High (RJH). As they present their work with colleagues from RJH, people ask them how did they get teacher buy-in. They answered that they don't get teachers to buy-in, they get teachers to drive the process. At RJH, they…

  7. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  8. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. PMID:24561628

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhadi, N. Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah; Istadi, I.

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  10. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  11. Systems, Ideologies and History: A Three-Dimensional Absence in the Study of Assessment Reform Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez Petour, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes the case for the need to study assessment reform processes from a broader and more complex perspective that takes the historical, ideological and systemic aspects of assessment policies into account. It draws on a larger study to demonstrate how the understanding of Assessment for Learning (AfL) reforms is enriched by such a…

  12. Regulatory Federalism: Policy, Process, Impact and Reform. A Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    In the last two decades, the federal government's role in state and local affairs has shifted markedly from subsidy to regulation. This report examines the origins and effects of the new "regulatory federalism" and proposes reforms. Chapter 1 delineates the subject, chronicling the growth of intergovernmental regulation and discussing the legal…

  13. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  14. Conceptual design of the integration of the reforming process in high temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidebrecht, Peter; Sundmacher, Kai

    The integration of the endothermic reforming reactions and the exothermic electrochemical reactions in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is investigated with a mathematical steady state anode model. The dimensionless model consists of only a few equations based on the description of physical phenomena, and is thus easily solved and interpreted. The equations and their derivation are presented and three different applications of the model are demonstrated. It proves to be a useful tool for an intuitive understanding of the interactions of reforming and electrochemical processes, but it can also yield quantitative results for flow sheet design of MCFC with internal reforming.

  15. Medicaid and State Health Care Reform: Process, Programs, and Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    Rotwein, Suzanne; Boulmetis, Maria; Boben, Paul J.; Fingold, Helaine I.; Hadley, James P.; Rama, Kathy L.; Van Hoven, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    Health care reform is a continuously evolving process. The States and the Federal Government have struggled with policy issues to combat escalating Medicaid expenditures while ensuring access and quality of care to an ever-expanding population. In the absence of national health care reform, States are increasingly relying on Federal waivers to develop innovative approaches to address a myriad of issues associated with the present health care delivery system. This article provides a summary of State health care reform efforts that have been initiated under Federal waiver authority. PMID:10142572

  16. Eyewitness Identification Reform: Data, Theory, and Due Process.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Some commentators view my analyses (Clark, 2012, this issue) as an important step forward in assessing the costs and benefits of eyewitness identification reform. Others suggest that the trade-off between correct identifications lost and false identifications avoided is well-known; that the expected utility model is misspecified; and that the loss of correct identifications due to the use of reformed eyewitness identification procedures is irrelevant to policy decisions, as those correct identifications are the illegitimate product of suggestion and lucky guesses. Contrary to these criticisms, the loss of correct identifications has not been adequately considered in theoretical or policy matters, criticisms regarding the various utilities do not substantively change the nature of the trade-off, and the dismissal of lost correct identifications is based not on data but on an outdated theory of recognition memory. PMID:26168466

  17. MTCI/Thermochem stream reforming process for biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.; Voelker, G.

    1995-11-01

    Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc. (MTCI) has developed a novel technology to convert solid fuels including biomass, coal, municipal solid waste (MSW) and wastewater sludges into usable syngas by steam reforming in an indirectly heated, fluid-bed reactor. MTCI has licensed and patented the technology to ThermoChem, Inc. Both MTCI and ThermoChem have built two modular commercial-scale demonstration units: one for recycle paper mill rejects (similar to refuse-derived fuel [RDF]), and another for chemical recovery of black liquor. ThermoChem has entered into an agreement with Ajinkyatara Cooperative Sugar Factory, India, for building a 10 MW combined cycle power generation facility based on bagasse & agro-residue gasification.

  18. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  19. Narratives of change and reform processes: global and local transactions in French psychiatric hospital reform after the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    As with the rest of biomedicine, psychiatry has, since the Second World War, developed under the strong influence of the transnational accumulation of a whole series of practices and knowledge. Anthropology has taught us to pay attention to the transactions between local-level actors and those operating at the global level in the construction of this new world of medicine. This article examines the role played by the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee of Mental Health in the reform of the French mental health system during the 1950s. Rooted in the experience of practitioners and administrators participating in the process of reforming local psychiatric systems, the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee developed a new vision of regulating psychiatry, based on professionalism and an idea of a normativity of the doctor-patient relation. This article shows how, by mobilizing the WHO reports' recommendations, French administrators and doctors succeeded in creating a typically French object: "the psychiatric sector", founded on elaborating a new mandate for the psychiatric profession. The article thus questions the deinstitutionalization model as an explanation of transformations of the structure of the French psychiatry system in the post-war period. PMID:19041168

  20. The Alberta Strategy for Educational Reform: Balancing Inputs, Processes, and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatko, Gary

    A results-based educational approach focuses on the outcomes of processes and inputs into the educational system and stresses results, such as student achievement, rather than process. The results-based educational reform initiatives undertaken in Alberta from 1982-1990 are described in this paper, with a focus on interrelated results-oriented…

  1. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality. PMID:26190827

  2. Production of synthetic fuels using syngas from a steam hydrogasification and reforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Arun Satheesh Kumar

    This thesis is aimed at the research, optimization and development of a thermo-chemical process aimed at the production of synthesis gas (mixture of H2 and CO) with a flexible H2 to CO ratio using coupled steam hydrogasification and steam reforming processes. The steam hydrogasification step generates a product gas containing significant amounts of methane by gasifying a carbonaceous feed material with steam and internally generated H2. This product gas is converted to synthesis gas with an excess H2 to CO using the steam reformer. Research involving experimental and simulation work has been conducted on steam hydrogasification, steam reforming and the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The Aspen Plus simulation tool has been used to develop a process model that can perform heat and mass balance calculations of the whole process using built-in reactor modules and an empirical FT model available in the literature. This model has been used to estimate optimum feed ratios and process conditions for specific feedstocks and products. Steam hydrogasification of coal and wood mixtures of varying coal to wood ratios has been performed in a stirred batch reactor. The carbon conversion of the feedstocks to gaseous products is around 60% at 700°C and 80% at 800°C. The coal to wood ratio of the feedstock does not exert a significant influence on the carbon conversion. The rates of formation of CO, CO 2 and CH4 during gasification have been calculated based on the experimental results using a simple kinetic model. Experimental research on steam reforming has been performed. It has been shown that temperature and the feed CO2/CH4 ratio play a dominant role in determining the product gas H2/CO ratio. Reforming of typical steam hydrogasification product-gas stream has been investigated over a commercial steam reforming catalyst. The results demonstrate that the combined use of steam hydrogasification process with a reformer can generate a synthesis gas with a predetermined H2/CO ratio

  3. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  4. The Reform Process of Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: From Collegial to Managerial Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckmann, Sofia; Carvalho, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Portuguese public higher education institutions have been undergoing a major reform process since 2007. The most noticeable changes were introduced by Law 62/2007, which gave higher education institutions the option to choose between two different institutional models (foundational and public institute), and allowed the implementation of new…

  5. European Education Reform and Its Impact on Curriculum and Admissions: Implications of the Bologna Process on United States Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the European-wide educational reform known as the Bologna Process in order to provide an understanding of the methodology that will be used by European countries to assess course credit hours as well as degree programs. The Bologna Process is culmination of years of educational reform within the European Union (EU) and more…

  6. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOEpatents

    Sircar, Shivaji; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Nataraj, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  7. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy. PMID:20078033

  8. Development and life evaluation of a steam reforming process for PAFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, S.; Takami, S.; Masuda, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a life evaluation method for a carbon monoxide (CO) shift process in the steam reforming process for PAFC. A CO shift reactor simulation was developed to evaluate the whole performance of the CO shift process. The calculation results of the simulation almost coincide with the experimental data obtained from a demonstration plant. By evaluating and grasping the sintering trend of the catalyst, and by simulation calculation of the reactor, it became possible to evaluate the performance at targeted operation hours.

  9. The Bologna Process and the New Reforms of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydov, Iu. S.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the different opinions of specialists on The Bologna Process. The Bologna Process was brought into being by society's transition to a new stage of development, in which education and knowledge are becoming the decisive engines of progress. With the aim of creating a unified educational space, the Bologna Process was begun in…

  10. THE EFFECT OF SULFUR ON METHANE PARTIAL OXIDATION AND REFORMING PROCESSES FOR LEAN NOX TRAP CATALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Ponnusamy, Senthil

    2006-01-01

    Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping after NOx purge. Creating the rich exhaust conditions for regeneration can be accomplished by catalytic partial oxidation of methane in the exhaust system. Furthermore, catalytic reforming of partial oxidation exhaust can enable increased quantities of H2 which is an excellent reductant for lean NOx trap regeneration. It is critical to maintain clean and efficient partial oxidation and reforming processes to keep the lean NOx trap functioning properly and to reduce extra fuel consumption from the regeneration process. Although most exhaust constituents do not impede partial oxidation and reforming, some exhaust constituents may negatively affect the catalysts and result in loss of catalytic efficiency. Of particular concern are common catalyst poisons sulfur, zinc, and phosphorous. These poisons form in the exhaust through combustion of fuel and oil, and although they are present at low concentrations, they can accumulate to significant levels over the life of an engine system. In the work presented here, the effects of sulfur on the partial oxidation and reforming catalytic processes were studied to determine any durability limitations on the production of reductants for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration.

  11. Process Improvements to Reform Patient Flow in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Whatley, Shawn D; Leung, Alexander K; Duic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (ED) function to diagnose, stabilize, manage and dispose patients as efficiently as possible. Although problems may be suspected at triage, ED physician input is required at each step of the patient journey through the ED, from diagnosis to disposition. If we want timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and great outcomes, then ED processes should connect patients and physicians as quickly as possible. This article discusses the key concepts of ED patient flow, value and efficiency. Based on these fundamentals, it describes the significant impact of ED process improvements implemented on measures of ED efficiency at a large community ED in Ontario, Canada. PMID:27133605

  12. Palladium coated porous anodic alumina membranes for gas reforming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeremy P.; Brown, Ian W. M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kemmitt, Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Nanostructured ceramic membranes with ultrathin coatings of palladium metal have been demonstrated to separate hydrogen gas from a gas mixture containing nitrogen with 10% carbon dioxide and 10% hydrogen at temperatures up to 550 °C. The mechanically robust and thermally durable membranes were fabricated using a combination of conventional and high-efficiency anodisation processes on high purity aluminium foils. A pH-neutral plating solution has also been developed to enable electroless deposition of palladium metal on templates which were normally prone to chemical corrosion in strong acid or base environment. Activation and thus seeding of palladium nuclei on the surface of the template were essential to ensure uniform and fast deposition, and the thickness of the metal film was controlled by time of deposition. The palladium coated membranes showed improved hydrogen selectivity with increased temperature as well as after prolonged exposure to hydrogen, demonstrating excellent potential for gas separation technologies.

  13. Process Options Description for Steam Reforming Flowsheet Model of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Barnes, C.M.; Nichols, T.T.

    2002-05-21

    Technical information is provided herein that is required for development of a steady-state process simulation of a baseline steam reforming treatment train for Tank Farm waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This document supercedes INEEL/EXT-2001-173, produced in FY2001 to support simulation of the direct vitrification treatment train which was the previous process baseline. A process block flow diagram for steam reforming is provided, together with a list of unit operations which constitute the process. A detailed description of each unit operation is given which includes its purpose, principal phenomena present, expected pressure and temperature ranges, key chemical species in the inlet steam, and the proposed manner in which the unit operation is to be modeled in the steady state process simulation. Models for the unit operations may be mechanistic (based on first principles), empirical (based solely on pilot test data without extrapolation) , or by correlations (based on extrapolative or statistical schemes applied to pilot test data). Composition data for the expected process feed streams is provided.

  14. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  15. Process for alternately steam reforming sulfur containing hydrocarbons that vary in oxygen content

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieur, R.R.; Setzer, H.J.; Hawkins, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In the hydrotreating and steam reforming of an oxygen and sulfur bearing hydrocarbon fuel, the oxygen is first removed in an oxidizer containing a bed of platinum catalyst, the inlet temperature being well below 1000/sup 0/F and preferably on the order of 300/sup 0/F. The sulfur in the fuel does not harm the oxidizer catalyst and may be removed downstream by known hydrodesulfurization techniques prior to reforming. A process is described for removing oxygen from an oxygen and sulfur bearing hydrocarbon fuel, such as peak shared natural gas, upstream in the process so that sulfur can be removed later. The fuel and some hydrogen are introduced into an oxidizer at a temperature of 350/sup 0/F or less down to the minimum ignition temperature. The oxidizer consists of a platinum bed catalyst which catalyzes the oxidation of the oxygen to water with accompanying heat release to raise the exit gas temperature to less than 650/sup 0/F. The temperature desorbs the sulfur from the catalyst, and the exit gases are passed downstream to nickel subsulfide or molybdenum desfulfide catalysts where the hydrosulfurization process takes place. (BLM)

  16. Reforms of the pre-graduate curriculum for medical students: the Bologna process and beyond.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    For several years, all five medical faculties of Switzerland have embarked on a reform of their training curricula for two reasons: first, according to a new federal act issued in 2006 by the administration of the confederation, faculties needed to meet international standards in terms of content and pedagogic approaches; second, all Swiss universities and thus all medical faculties had to adapt the structure of their curriculum to the frame and principles which govern the Bologna process. This process is the result of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999 which proposes and requires a series of reforms to make European Higher Education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans students. The present paper reviews some of the results achieved in the field, focusing on several issues such as the shortage of physicians and primary care practitioners, the importance of public health, community medicine and medical humanities, and the implementation of new training approaches including e-learning and simulation. In the future, faculties should work on several specific challenges such as: students' mobility, the improvement of students' autonomy and critical thinking as well as their generic and specific skills and finally a reflection on how to improve the attractiveness of the academic career, for physicians of both sexes. PMID:23254322

  17. Reforming the EU Clinical Trials Directive: streamlining processes or a radical "new" agenda?.

    PubMed

    McHale, Jean V

    2013-09-01

    From its conception the EU Clinical Trials Directive met with controversy. Some saw it as an unnecessary inhibitor to scientific research, introducing bureaucracy which was unduly expensive, slowing down the clinical trial approval system. The Directive however also enshrined respect for fundamental rights in relation to clinical trials decision-making and impacted upon the domestic law of member states facilitating the alignment of trial review processes. Nearly a decade after its implementation the EU is moving towards implementation of further reform in this area, from a Directive to a Regulation, from a system placing the research ethics system at the heart of the clinical trials approval committee to one which does not and which represents a see change in international and domestic approaches to research ethics. This article critically examines the proposed reform of the regulation of clinical trials on medicinal product through the introduction of a new EU Regulation and asks whether this can be seen as a natural streamlining of processes or a radical new agenda in EU health law and regulation. PMID:23977734

  18. Student restraints to reform: Conceptual change issues in enhancing students' learning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gregory P.

    1999-03-01

    Considerable research has been published on students' alternative conceptions of science concepts and the means of addressing those alternative conceptions. However, few studies have been reported on students' conceptions of learning and consequent learning processes and attempts to change such conceptions and processes. Recent research has shown that students' beliefs can act as barriers to the implementation of educational reforms that aim to alter students' learning processes. In this study an interpretive methodology was employed by a teacher participant-observer to investigate barriers to students' adoption of an alternative referent for learning and its consequent learning strategies in a Grade 11 chemistry class. Student narratives suggest that both “cold” and “hot” contextual factors influenced students' willingness to adopt an alternative referent. The consideration of “hot” factors, including students' beliefs, trust of the teacher, and ownership of the change process, is necessary if such change is to be understood more fully. The value and difficulties of a teacher adopting this researcher's perspective are also explored.

  19. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  20. Higher Education Reform in Germany: How the Aims of the Bologna Process Can Be Simultaneously Supported and Missed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the current reform of higher education in Germany, which can be described as German reading of the Bologna process, about the problems and deficits occurring in this area, and about ways to correct unwelcome developments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper starts with a review…

  1. Impact of the Bologna Process and German Higher Education Reforms on Professorial Work and Role Definition at the University of Potsdam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Christen Cullum

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Process and German higher education reforms over the past decade have created significant waves of change at German universities. This case study focuses on the enduring impact of both the Bologna Process and German higher education reforms on how professors experience their work and define their roles during the winter term 2011-12 at…

  2. From Formulation to Realisation: The Process of Swedish Reform in Advanced Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the complexities of planning and implementation of a reform in the Swedish system of higher vocational education and training (VET). The study object of this article is the Swedish reform with advanced vocational education (AVE). The two main questions the study aims to address are: "What are the main driving…

  3. Educational Reform in Viet Nam: A Process of Change or Continuity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examines Vietnamese educational reforms of the 1990s, aimed at modernizing education to support Vietnam's wide-ranging market reforms. Discusses the structure of preschool through higher education; the cluttered lower secondary school curriculum, rigidly tied to textbook content and teacher training; rural disadvantage and lesser access to…

  4. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Sean C.; Davis, Timothy D.; Peles, A.; She, Ying; Sheffel, Joshua; Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Zhu, Tianli

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to

  5. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis). PMID:24283272

  6. Steam Reforming Solidification of Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; T. G. Garn; R. D. Boardman; J. D. Law

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is conducting research on aqueous separations processes for the nuclear fuel cycle. This research includes development of solvent extraction processes for the separation of cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions to reduce the short-term decay heat load. The cesium/strontium strip solution from candidate separation processes will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. Steam reforming is currently being investigated for stabilization of these streams because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach-resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. These ongoing experimental studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam reforming for this application.

  7. Negotiating a space to teach science: Stories of community conversation and personal process in a school reform effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Heidi Bulmahn

    This is a qualitative study about elementary teachers in a school district who are involved in a science curricular reform effort. The teachers attempted to move from textbook-based science teaching to a more inquiry and process-based approach. I specifically explore how teachers negotiate their place within changes in pedagogy and curriculum and how this negotiation is enacted in the space of a teacher's own classroom. The account developed here is based on a two-year study. Presented are descriptions, analysis, and my own interpretations of teaching and conversations as teachers spoke with one another, with me and with children as they tried out the new science curriculum and pedagogies. I conclude that people interested in school reform should consider the following ideas as they work with teachers to implement pedagogical and curricular changes. (1) Teaching is a personal/individual process that takes place within a larger community. This leads to a complex context for working and making decisions. (2) Despite feeling that changes were imposed, teachers make the curriculum work for the needs in their own classroom. (3) Change is a process that teachers view as part of their work. Teachers expect that they will adapt curriculum and make it work for the children in their classes and for themselves. I suggest that those who advocate various reform efforts in teaching and curriculum should consider the spaces that teachers create as they become a part of the change process including intellectual, physical, and emotional ones. In my stories I assert: teachers create their own spaces for making changes in pedagogy and curriculum and they do this as a complex negotiation of external demands (such as their community, relationships with colleagues, and state standards) and their own values and interpretations. The ways that teachers implement the change process is a personal one, and because it is a personal process, school reform efforts largely depend on the teachers

  8. Evaluation of process variables on the performance of Sorption Enhanced Methane Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lario, Ana Luisa; Aznar, María; Grasa, Gemma S.; Murillo, Ramón

    2015-07-01

    The joint performance of a synthetic Ca-based sorbent and a 10%wt.NiO/NiAl2O4 catalyst is tested under Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER) of CH4 in a fixed bed reactor. The effects of the mass hourly space velocity (MHSV, mol CH4 h-1 (gcatalyst + gsorbent-1)), the sorbent-to-catalyst proportion (Z) for diverse steam-to-methane ratios (S/C) and the behavior of cycled solids under different regeneration conditions (by calcination under inert, oxidant, with steam and CO2 atmospheres) are studied. An H2 concentration close to equilibrium (≈95 vol.% for S/C = 3.2) is achieved working at both lower (0.01 mol CH4 h-1 (gcatalyst + gsorbent)-1 or 769 h-1) and higher MHSV (0.04 mol CH4 h-1 (gcatalyst + gsorbent)-1 or 3000 h-1). The practical operation window for the combination of the sorbent and catalyst used should be below 0.044 mol CH4 h-1 gsorbent-1, and around 0.44 mol CH4 h-1 gcatalyst-1. The stabilities of both solids (sorbent and catalyst) working cyclically are demonstrated, despite the demanding and realistic regeneration environments used. Thus, H2 purity close to equilibrium (≈88 vol.% for S/C = 2) is attained under SER conditions and no carbon deposition is found. In summary, the results obtained confirm the good joint performance of the synthesized solids in the SER process even when working under demanding conditions.

  9. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero. PMID:24933030

  10. Education "Decentralization" Processes in Mexico and Nicaragua: Legislative versus Ministry-Led Reform Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershberg, Alec Ian

    1999-01-01

    Like most countries that have implemented some form of decentralization policy, Mexico followed a strategy of legislation first and actual reform second. Nicaragua, on the other hand, moved toward school-based management and significant changes in governance and finance with little legal framework. Benefits and pitfalls of the two national…

  11. Design Thinking: A Process for Developing and Implementing Lasting District Reform. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, challenges such as how to sustain district reform, how to build a leadership pipeline, how to create an integrated project, or how to best intervene with struggling students would be resolved with a team of "experts" developing a solution in isolation of the stakeholders involved. By contrast, design thinking centers on the…

  12. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  13. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

  14. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  15. Teacher Education Reforms in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Drawing on insights from Albanian teacher educators and government representatives, this paper examines processes of change and types of reform (modernization, structural, and systemic reform) in Albania. It also discusses the initial implementation of one of the reforms, which was directed at the balance and role of school experiences, analyzing…

  16. Property rights and water markets in Australia: An evolutionary process toward institutional reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigram, John J.

    1993-04-01

    In the past decade far-reaching reforms have taken place in the Australian water industry. Extensive restructuring of water administration has been accompanied by increased evidence of willingness by public agencies to consider alternative institutional arrangements to the traditional regulatory approach to water allocation and use. In irrigated agriculture, a market-based system linked to enforceable property rights to water is seen as preferable to rule-based management of water resources. However, significant social and economic considerations and political realities constrain the unfettered operation of water markets. The challenge facing the irrigation industry in Australia is to put in place institutional arrangements which reflect the most appropriate mix of incentive-based and regulatory mechanisms for water management.

  17. MTCI/ThermoChem steam reforming process for solid fuels for combined cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, M.N.; Voelker, G.; Dural-Swamy, K.

    1995-12-31

    Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc. (MTCI) has developed a novel technology to convert solid fuels including biomass, coal, municipal solid waste (MSW) and wastewater sludges into usable syngas by steam reforming in an indirectly heated, fluid-bed reactor. MTCI has licensed and patented the technology to ThermoChem, Inc. Both MTCI and ThermoChem have built two modular commercial-scale demonstration units: one for recycle paper mill rejects (similar to refuse-derived fuel [RDF]), and another for chemical recovery of black liquor. ThermoChem has entered into an agreement with Ajinkyatara Cooperative Sugar Factory, India, for building a 10 MW combined cycle power generation facility based on bagasse and agro-residue gasification.

  18. Steam reforming of glycerol over Pt-MCM-41 synthesized in a one-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Feng-Wen; Guo, Cun-Yue; Yuan, Guo-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Pt-MCM-41 materials were synthesized by a simple method via simultaneous self-assembling and Pt incorporation using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as a structure directing agent. Structural characterization of the sample was carried out by N2 sorption, XRD and TEM measurements. The highly ordered structure of MCM-41 was not appreciably affected by the formation of the Pt particles. Unlike related results, the Pt nanoparticles were incorporated into the mesopores and embedded into the pore walls as framework. The Pt-MCM-41 sample was tested as a catalyst in the steam reforming of glycerol in which it exhibited moderate activity, high selectivity to hydrogen, and very low selectivity to light alkanes.

  19. Rapid catalytic processes in reforming of methane and successive synthesis of methanol and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Tomoyuki

    1997-11-01

    In order to obtain high quality fuels and basic raw materials for petrochemical industries, novel catalysts which enable the realization of new synthetic routes have been investigated. First, a highly active Rh-modified Ni-based composite catalyst, NiCe 2O 3PtRh, supported on a ceramic fiber in a plate shape was developed, which reformed methane into the syngas having an appropriate ratio of H2/CO. Furthermore, more combustible ethane or propane was added into the reaction gas and its catalytic combustion was allowed to occur on the same catalyst. The combustion heat compensated the reforming heat resulting in an extraordinarily high space-time yield of hydrogen, as high as 10,000 mol/1·h, even under the condition of a very short contact time, 5 ms, and a very low furnace temperature at around 400°C. Next, a highly active catalyst for methanol synthesis from CO 2-rich or CO-rich syngases was developed. A Cu-based CuZnCrAlGa mixed oxide catalyst was prepared by the uniform gelation method and it was mixed with Pd supported on χ-alumina. The composite catalyst exhibited a much higher activity than the conventional catalyst prepared by the precipitation method and a space-time yield of methanol of 1,300 and 6,730 g/l·h was amounted, respectively, from CO 2-rich and CO-rich syngases under 80 atm and at 270°C. Finally, the products obtained as mentioned above were introduced into the reactor, which was connected in series and the methanol was totally converted into hydrocarbons. In the case of a HGa-silicate catalyst, gasoline was obtained at as high a value as 1,860 g/l·h in space-time yield, and in the case of SAPO-34, ethylene and propylene were obtained with an equivalent selectivity.

  20. [Curricular reform].

    PubMed

    Fraga Filho, C; Rosa, A R

    1980-01-01

    Advocating the thesis that the planning of medical education must be oriented toward the articulastion of instruction with care, the authors note that the curricular reforms of the last 25 years, though reflected in the teaching-learning process, have led to no improvement in medical practice or in the health of the population. This failing, they assert, stems from the fact that these reforms begin and end within the educational institution itself, and ignore the interrelations between the education system and the user of the professional, and results in the production of physicians who are individualistic and of narrow vision. The article refers to the slight importance attached to the complementarity and interdependence of teaching and care work, and to the restriction of teaching to episodic contacts between specialized professors and groups of anonymous students, each in the limited confines of his own discipline, and the relegation of the student to the status of spectator and possible assistant in care work entrusted to him without any responsibility. PMID:7398573

  1. One Teacher's Identity, Emotions, and Commitment to Change: A Case Study into the Cognitive-Affective Processes of a Secondary School Teacher in the Context of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veen, Klaas; Sleegers, Peter; van de Ven, Piet-Hein

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive social-psychological theoretical framework on emotions, derived from Richard Lazarus, to understand how teachers' identity can be affected in a context of reforms. The emphasis of this approach is on the cognitive-affective processes of individual teachers, enabling us to gain a detailed understanding of what…

  2. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  3. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  4. Regional Higher Education Reform Initiatives in Africa: A Comparative Analysis with the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Jonck, Petronella; Goujon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Europe's Bologna Process has been identified as a pioneering approach in regional cooperation with respect to the area of higher education. To address the challenges of African higher education, policymakers are recommending regional cooperation that uses the Bologna Process as a model. Based on these recommendations, the African Union Commission…

  5. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  6. The production of pure pressurised hydrogen by the reformer-steam iron process in a fixed bed reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestl, Stephan; Voitic, Gernot; Lammer, Michael; Marius, Bernhard; Wagner, Julian; Hacker, Viktor

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a fixed bed chemical looping process for the decentralised production of pure pressurised hydrogen for fuel cell applications is described. CH4 is converted to a syngas using conventional steam reforming. The syngas is directly used for the reduction of an iron based oxygen carrier. A consecutive oxidation step using steam leads to the formation of pure pressurised hydrogen. A thermodynamic analysis was performed in order to investigate feasible conditions for the syngas generation and reduction step. Experiments using pure hydrogen as well as an artificial syngas mixture showed the feasibility of the process for the production of pressurised hydrogen. A stable hydrogen production at a pressure of 8-11 bar(g) was achieved and only minor impurities of 700 ppm of carbon dioxide but no signs of carbon monoxide were detected in the produced hydrogen. Although the active surface decreased from 7.5 m2 g-1 to 0.9 m2 g-1 only moderate losses of reactivity were measured in the fixed bed reactor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a loss of 9% of reactive material over nine cycles, presumably due to sintering effects.

  7. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  8. The Process of General Education Reform from a Faculty Perspective: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachtmann, Frauke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the process and implementation of an outcomes-based general education program at a public, doctoral/research-extensive institution from the perspective of faculty. The theory that emerged explains how different causal, intervening, and contextual conditions interact with and affect the phenomenon of general…

  9. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  10. Statistical validation and an empirical model of hydrogen production enhancement found by utilizing passive flow disturbance in the steam-reformation process

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Paul A.; Liao, Chang-hsien

    2007-11-15

    A passive flow disturbance has been proven to enhance the conversion of fuel in a methanol-steam reformer. This study presents a statistical validation of the experiment based on a standard 2{sup k} factorial experiment design and the resulting empirical model of the enhanced hydrogen producing process. A factorial experiment design was used to statistically analyze the effects and interactions of various input factors in the experiment. Three input factors, including the number of flow disturbers, catalyst size, and reactant flow rate were investigated for their effects on the fuel conversion in the steam-reformation process. Based on the experimental results, an empirical model was developed and further evaluated with an uncertainty analysis and interior point data. (author)

  11. Reform of the EIA process in Indonesia: improving the role of public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Purnama, Dadang

    2003-07-01

    The implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a planning tool has been utilised for a relatively long time in Indonesia. It was introduced formally through the Act No. 4/1982. Supporting regulation was established in 1986 when Government Regulation No. 29 was enacted. After developing the EIA system for 14 years, Indonesia finally recognized the importance of emphasizing public involvement in the EIA guidelines of 2000. EIA in the previous Indonesian regulations, i.e. Regulation No. 29/1986 and No. 51/1993, did not have provisions for direct public involvement. The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 27/1999 is currently accommodating the above issue. Guidelines for public announcement and public involvement have been introduced in a decree issued by the Head of Indonesia's Environmental Impact Management Agency No. KepDal 08/2000. This was officially enacted on 7 November 2000 in response to the demand for more public involvement, an issue that was ambiguous in the previous legislation. This paper discusses: the implementation of the new guidelines; what has been achieved; and the challenges during implementation. While the paper focuses its review on the Indonesian EIA system, Indonesia's experience is relevant to many other developing countries that are starting to adopt public involvement in their decision-making processes.

  12. Orthopaedic Surgery Under National Health Reform: An Analysis of Power, Process, Adaptation, and Leadership: AOA Critical Issues.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Charles D; Adair, Daniel; Bozic, Kevin J; Manning, Blaine T; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Khaled J

    2014-07-01

    Morrison argued that demography, economy, and technology drive the evolution of industries from a formative first-generation state ("First Curve") to a radically different way of doing things ("Second Curve") that is marked by new skills, strategies, and partners. The current health-reform movement in the United States reflects these three key evolutionary trends: surging medical needs of an aging population, dramatic expansion of Medicare spending, and care delivery systems optimized through powerful information technology. Successful transition from a formative first-generation state (First Curve) to a radically different way of doing things (Second Curve) will require new skills, strategies, and partners. In a new world that is value-driven, community-centric (versus hospital-centric), and prevention-focused, orthopaedic surgeons and health-care administrators must form new alliances to reduce the cost of care and improve durable outcomes for musculoskeletal problems. The greatest barrier to success in the Second Curve stems not from lack of empirical support for integrated models of care, but rather from resistance by those who would execute them. Porter's five forces of competitive strategy and the behavioral analysis of change provide insights into the predictable forms of resistance that undermine clinical and economic success in the new environment of care. This paper analyzes the components that will differentiate orthopaedic care provision for the Second Curve. It also provides recommendations for future-focused orthopaedic surgery and health-care administrative leaders to consider as they design newly adaptive, mutually reinforcing, and economically viable musculoskeletal care processes that drive the level of orthopaedic care that our nation deserves-at a cost that it can afford. PMID:24990985

  13. Curriculum Reform: Discovering the Void

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuca, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Contends that intensive activity and rapid change in curriculum reform is at an end; that areas of urban and vocational education in the reform process have been ignored; and that the level of knowledge in curriculum and instruction has not advanced. Appeals for exploratory research to establish the foundation for constructing a theory of…

  14. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  15. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  16. General Education Reform: Opportunities for Institutional Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuess, Scott M., Jr.; Mitchell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    General education reform provides strategic opportunities for departments. This article analyzes reform at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, illustrating how departments could use the reform process to clarify their strategic planning, align with institutional goals, and steer the university closer to departmental objectives. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Funding Comprehensive School Reform. Rand Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltner, Brent R.

    Comprehensive school reform is a type of reform process directed at primary and secondary education that relies on the simultaneous change of all elements of a school's operating environment aligned with a central, guiding vision. This new approach was developed in response to the growing dissatisfaction with the traditional piecemeal reform,…

  18. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  19. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  20. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  1. What Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    A teacher explores the recent educational reform movement and discusses the studies of schools done by Sociologist Christopher Jencks in the 1970s. An important idea that can be extrapolated from Jencks' studies is that schools should function more like families than factories. This would empower teachers and make schooling more equitable,…

  2. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform, which…

  3. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  4. Teaching Reform and Union Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles T.; Mitchell, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews present labor statutes and examines three alternatives to current practices; proposes that teaching, by its nature, is not well administered by industrial standards or well adjudicated through industrial unionism. Suggests "professional unionism" as a means of effecting educational reform. (DR)

  5. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  6. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  7. "Delivering as one" UN reform process to improve health partnerships and coordination: old challenges and encouraging lessons from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bile, K M; Lashari, K A; Shadoul, A F

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The UN Secretary-General constituted a high-level panel on system-wide coherence in 2005 within the areas of development, humanitarian assistance and the environment. The panel adopted "Delivering as One" as a slogan for its coherence initiative. Pakistan was among eight pilot countries implementing this reform initiative. Five joint programmes were developed, on health and population; agriculture, rural development and poverty reduction; disaster risk management; education; and environment. Fourteen UN agencies supported the health and population joint programme and participatd aripe in its implementation. Although confronted by many challenges, the positive results of the joint programmes confirmed the advantage of Delivering as One over the past scenarios of fragmentation, duplication and incoherent government and UN strategic operations. The paper shares the accomplishments of the health and population sector including its ability to harness the power of intersectoral collaboration and prospectively concentrate human and financial resources around the strategic national priorities. PMID:21495598

  8. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  9. Developing Stakeholder Engagement To Support School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camarena, Margaret M.

    This document is the first of a series that will address five stages of the school reform process. It focuses on the first stage of the change process, managing key stakeholders and external groups and engaging them in the planning and development of the reform or innovation. A stakeholder is any group or individual who can affect or is affected…

  10. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program. PMID:20398389

  11. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  12. Reforming Again: Now Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  13. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  14. A Thoughtful Approach to Public Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Restates the underlying rationale for the importance of high-quality K-12 public education and describes some of the difficulties reformers encounter in engendering support for, and determining, the most cogent elements of reform. Summarizes the process followed by the Massachusetts Business Alliance for Education in developing a framework for…

  15. Contemplating Criteria for Science Education Reform: The Case of the Olympia School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippins, Deborah; Weiseman, Katherine; Nichols, Sharon E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of the science-curriculum reform process. Highlights the nature of metaphors guiding reform efforts; the influence of social, historical, economic, and political forces on the reform process; the use of local and professional languages as discourses for communicating about reform; and the complex power relations that…

  16. Lessons Learned? School Leadership and Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the processes of implementing curriculum reform in schools. Specifically, it investigates how schools learn lessons from previous experiences of reform and apply them when challenged by new reforms. The context for this study is Hong Kong's New Secondary School Curriculum (NSSC), with particular reference to the subject of…

  17. Rhetoric, Distortions, and Responsibility: Illusion and Reality in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korotkova, Maria; Snyder, Conrad Wesley, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The process of education reform takes place in a highly politicized environment. Language plays an important part in the characterization of the reform, and the words used connect the reform to higher ideals, usually extensive to the local environment but signifying some opportunity for progress. The language is frequently decoupled from the…

  18. Science Curriculum Reform as a Socioculturally Anchored Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia G., Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I elaborate on three ideas that emerged from reading the work of Sylvie Barma. These points are in response to curriculum reform and the use of activity theory: (a) curriculum reform as a public policy; (b) a reflection about the process followed by teacher implementation of that reform in a biology classroom; and (c) the sense of…

  19. Integrated solar reforming for thermochemical energy transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenman, T.

    1987-12-01

    This report presents a design study of two reforming processes as applied to the concept of solar thermochemical energy transport. Conceptual designs were carried out for steam-methane and CO2-methane reforming plants. A solar central receiver reformer was designed as an integrated reactor with the chemical reaction tubes placed inside the receiver cavity. The two plant designs were compared for their energy efficiency and capital cost. The CO2 reforming plant design results in higher energy efficiency but requires a catalyst which is still in an experimental stage of development. A third design was performed as a modification of the steam reforming plant utilizing a Direct Contact system, in which the process steam is generated by utilizing the heat of condensation. This system resulted in the highest energy efficiency. A comparison of the capital cost of these three plant designs shows them to be equivalent within the estimation accuracy of 25 percent.

  20. The Process of General Education Reform from a Faculty Perspective at a Research-Extensive University: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachtmann, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theory for institutional change that explains the process and implementation of "Achievement-Centered Education" (ACE) from the faculty perspective. ACE is a new general education program at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, a public, doctoral/research-extensive institution. A constant comparative…

  1. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  2. Effects of the catalyst and reaction conditions on the integrated process of coal pyrolysis with CO{sub 2} reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Jiahe Liu; Haoquan Hu; Lijun Jin; Pengfei Wang

    2009-09-15

    Our previous works showed that the tar yield of coal pyrolysis can obviously be improved by integrated CO{sub 2} reforming of methane to coal pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor consisting of an upper catalyst layer and a lower coal layer. In this work, the effects of catalyst supports (MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, and NaY) and reaction conditions on tar and water yields, CH{sub 4} conversion in pyrolysis of Chinese Pingshuo coal, and the carbon deposition on different catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the catalyst support has an important effect on the integrated process and MgO is the best among the studied supports. A higher tar yield, lower water yield, and lower carbon deposition can be obtained with Ni/MgO as the catalyst. The tar yield increases with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature, holding time, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio, and CH{sub 4} flow rate, respectively, while the char yield decreases with an increasing pyrolysis temperature. 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. [Controversial matters of arrangement of dental assistance within the framework of healthcare system reform and ways to increase of efficiency of diagnosing destructive processes in apical periodont].

    PubMed

    ZHero, N I

    2014-01-01

    In conditions of reform of primary level of medical sanitary assistance a tendency for decrease of availability of dental care for population has been revealed. Increase in number of complicated cases of typical dental diseases, inter alia, destructive affection of apical periodont. An examination of 347 patients with apical periodontitis has been held. For the purpose of improvement of differential diagnostics of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas as well as choice of adequate method of treatment postprocessing of digital dental roentgenograms has been used. 241 granulomas, 106 cysts (simplex and complex) and cystogranulomas--have been diagnosed. For improvement of visualization of destruction zone of alveolar bone possibilities of digital processing of image have been utilized. Postprocessing of digital roentgenograms significantly supplemented results of visual examination and excluded impact of subjective factor in composition of diagnostic conclusion. Upon results of examination of histograms of optical density of radiographic image of pathological zone signs of specific for granulomas, cysts and have been detected. Diagnostic conclusion coincides with results of pathomorphological study. PMID:25796822

  4. Liquid fuel reformer development.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.

    1999-07-30

    At Argonne National Laboratory we are developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a clean hydrogen feed for a fuel cell. The process incorporates a partial oxidation/steam reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. We have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a regular diesel fuel. We achieved complete conversion of the feed to products. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 800 C. For the two diesel fuels, higher temperatures, >850 C, were required to approach similar levels of hydrogen in the product stream. At 800 C, hydrogen yield of the low sulfur diesel was 32%, while that of the regular diesel was 52%. Residual products in both cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, ethylene, and methane.

  5. Reform before NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The author compared NCLB-prompted standards-based reforms with earlier reforms and found that earlier manifestations of standards-based reforms may have been more productive and constructive. NCLB, with its emphasis on accountability through high-stakes testing, has produced many perverse results alongside documented achievement gains, the author…

  6. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  7. Reforming Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishkin, Anne S.; Sullivan, Michael

    This paper describes education reform as an integrated effort to modify not only the structure and elements of the education system but also the culture or belief structure of that system. Central to any discussion of school reform are the elements of restructuring, empowerment, and change. Current reform efforts in restructuring revolve around a…

  8. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  9. Beyond Reform: Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jill

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) is not a reform movement. To reform is to make a thing again; reformation implies a stasis that doesn't deliver enough for the educational future. This issue of Horace demonstrates that Essential schools and the districts and networks that support them are at various points in the journey of transformation,…

  10. Stories of Reform in Science Education: Commentary on Opp(reg)ressive Policies and Tempered Radicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This response to the two papers (by Rodriguez and Carlone et al.) on science education reform acknowledges first the coherence of the arguments presented around four reform narratives; that of the process of becoming science-enthusiastic, the nature of beliefs of science reform teachers, the barriers to reform, and the institutional expressions of…

  11. Key Factors Associated with the Effective Implementation and Impact of California's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.

    This study focused on the implementation of "top-down" California state-initiated reform in secondary schools and the impact of that process on several outcomes: student academic achievement and the capacity of the organization to carry out ongoing reform. The research was part of a broader study of secondary school reform and how the reforms led…

  12. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 4, Educational Reform in International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D., Ed.; Yogev, Abraham, Ed.

    National educational reform must be interpreted from a broader sociopolitical vantage point. Following the introduction, "The Change Process and Educational Reform" by Val D. Rust, the four papers in part 1 are devoted primarily to conceptual issues related to educational reform. They include: (1) "Problems of Educational Reforms in a Changing…

  13. The Whole Story of the Beida Personnel System Reform and the Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lixin, Wang; Jie, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Beijing University's personnel affairs reform went through five stages: preparations for the reform, sharp criticism, in-depth debate, cooling of the debate and plan formation, and approval and implementation of the plan. This article describes the process of the reform, analyzes the changes to the reform plan from the first draft to the official…

  14. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  15. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…

  16. Sorption enhanced reaction process for direct production of fuel-cell grade hydrogen by low temperature catalytic steam-methane reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, Michael G.; Caram, Hugo S.; Sircar, Shivaji

    New experimental data are reported to demonstrate that a sorption enhanced reaction (SER) concept can be used to directly produce fuel-cell grade H 2 (<20 ppm CO) by carrying out the catalytic, endothermic, steam-methane reforming (SMR) reaction (CH 4 + 2H 2O ↔ CO 2 + 4H 2) in presence of a CO 2 selective chemisorbent such as K 2CO 3 promoted hydrotalcite at reaction temperatures of 520 and 550 °C, which are substantially lower than the conventional SMR reaction temperatures of 700-800 °C. The H 2 productivity of the sorption enhanced reactor can be large, and the conversion of CH 4 to H 2 can be very high circumventing the thermodynamic limitations of the SMR reaction due to the application of the Le Chetalier's principle in the SER concept. Mathematical simulations of a cyclic two-step SER concept showed that the H 2 productivity of the process (moles of essentially pure H 2 produced per kg of catalyst-chemisorbent admixture in the reactor per cycle) is much higher at a reaction temperature of 590 °C than that at 550 or 520 °C. On the other hand, the conversion of feed CH 4 to high purity H 2 product is relatively high (>99+%) at all three temperatures. The conversion is much higher than that in a conventional catalyst-alone reactor at these temperatures, and it increases only moderately (<1%) as the reaction temperature is increased from 520 to 590 °C. These results are caused by complex interactions of four phenomena. They are (a) favorable thermodynamic equilibrium of the highly endothermic SMR reaction at the higher reaction temperature, (b) faster kinetics of SMR reaction at higher temperatures, (c) favorable removal of CO 2 from the reaction zone at lower temperatures, and (d) higher cyclic working capacity for CO 2 chemisorption at higher temperature.

  17. Chemical reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.L.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes the process of producing liquid oils from organic waste materials, which comprises: mixing an oil-based carrier with organic waste material selected from the group consisting of organic garbage, raw sewage, sewage sludge and waste paper. The waste material contains at least about 10 weight percent water. The amount of oil-based carrier present is sufficient to permit the mixture to be a more readily flowable material that the corresponding waste material free of oil carrier. The flowable material is pyrolyzed at elevated temperature and pressure to produce the liquid oils. 17. The process of producing liquid oils from organic waste materials selected from the group consisting of organic garbage, raw sewage, sewage sludge, and waste paper, which comprises: mixing an oil-based carrier with organic waste material, the waste material containing at least about 10 weight percent water, the amount of oil-based carrier present being sufficient to permit the mixture to be more readily flowable material than the corresponding waste material free of oil carrier, pyrolysing the flowable material at a temperature of 700/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/F. and a pressure of 700 to 2,500 p.s.i. to produce the liquid oils, and thereafter passing the heated, substantially continuous stream through heat exchange means to recover heat and to transfer it to an upstream portion of the substantially continuous stream.

  18. Successfully reforming orthopaedic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Peter A; Adair, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Since 2005, Barwon Health has successfully reformed its orthopaedic outpatient service to address the following issues: increasing number of referrals, inefficient referral management and triage, long waiting times for non-urgent appointments, high 'Did Not Attend' (DNA) rates and poor utilisation of conservative therapies before referral to surgeon. Numerous strategies have been implemented including: waiting list audits, triage guidelines, physiotherapy-led clinics, a DNA policy, an orthopaedic lead nurse role and a patient-focussed booking system. There has been a 66% reduction in the number of patients waiting for their first appointment; an 87% reduction in the waiting time from referral to first appointment; a 10% reduction in new patient DNAs; and more efficient referral management and communication processes. Patients are now seen in clinically appropriate time frames and offered earlier access to a wider range of conservative treatments. PMID:22624648

  19. Road to reform

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.

    1997-04-01

    The power sector is actively exploring and pursuing the myriad opportunities that exist under the concessions and independent power plant laws recently enacted by the Brazilian legislature. While Brazil has not yet finalized the necessary implementing regulations, it has taken positive steps to reform its infrastructure, develop proactive fiscal policies and address the problem of inflation. The author goes on to discuss issues unique to the situation of Brazil as they relate to the ability of foreign companies to break into the business sector, in particular the power generation field. Many rules are in the process of change, but there still remains uncertainties which cloud the question as to the economic viability of investments in the power generation field.

  20. Utilization of high specific surface area CuO-CeO2 catalysts for high temperature processes of hydrogen production: steam re-forming of ethanol and methane dry re-forming.

    PubMed

    Djinović, Petar; Batista, Jurka; Cehić, Benis; Pintar, Albin

    2010-03-25

    CuO-CeO(2) mixed oxide catalysts with 10, 15, and 20 mol % CuO content were prepared by the hard template method using KIT-6 silica as a template. The applied synthesis method yields solids with BET surface area in excess of 147 m(2)/g, highly porous nanocrystalline CeO(2) morphology and dispersion of CuO phase between 28 and 40%, corresponding to CuO particle size between 1.3 and 1.9 nm. Increasing the CuO content caused a decrease in dispersion of this phase and a further decrease of surface acid site abundance, determined by NH(3) chemisorption/TPD method, but improved the reducibility extent of CeO(2) (14.5, 16.1 and 24.5% for CuCe10, CuCe15, and CuCe20 catalyst, respectively) and oxygen mobility of prepared powders. It was discovered during ethanol steam re-forming experiments that increasing CuO content is favorable in terms of ethanol conversion but also causes quicker catalyst deactivation, primarily as a result of sintering and loss of CuO dispersion. Reaction temperatures in excess of 550 degrees C strongly promoted ethanol dehydratation reaction, leading to a rise in methane production and extensive coking of the catalyst surface. Coking was slower in the case of CuO-CeO(2) catalysts with a higher CuO content as a result of lower acid site abundance and more pronounced oxygen mobility. Temperatures in excess of 450 degrees C are required for any noticeable CO(2) and CH(4) conversion in methane dry re-forming reaction over CuO-CeO(2) materials. The examined materials displayed steady performance during stability tests at a reaction temperature of 650 degrees C, with catalysts containing 15 and 20 mol % CuO exhibiting the highest activity. Additionally, very low amounts of carbon were deposited on spent catalyst samples. PMID:19883056

  1. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  2. Educational Reform in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Bertha Orozco; Elizando Y Carr, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1970s, each presidential regime has presented an educational modernization reform program for Mexico. Although the various reforms have widened educational opportunities, the quality of education has continued to deteriorate because of student and teacher desertion, a low scholastic progress index, accessibility problems, lack of an…

  3. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  4. Orthographic Reform in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John M.

    The role of local attitudes in recent orthographic reform in Kope is examined. The previous Kope orthographic tradition is outlined, and two areas apparently requiring reform (nasal/fricative variation and vowel clusters versus semivowels). The concerns and the greater awareness among the locals regarding these orthographic changes are explored.…

  5. Educational Reform in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butorac, Marylin M.; First, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Oklahoma's answer to the cry for reform and involvement in education emerged as House Bill 1017, a comprehensive $223 million school reform and tax act. This article reviews the HR 1017 story, focusing on its legislative enactment history and offering a content analysis of mandated changes in finance, personnel, governance, student assessment,…

  6. Reform: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

  7. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  8. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Alexeev, N.

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  9. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  10. On the Road to Reform: A Sociocultural Interpretation of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I…

  11. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  12. Becoming Good American Schools: The Struggle for Civic Virtue in Education Reform. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jeannie; Quartz, Karen Hunter; Ryan, Steve; Lipton, Martin

    Education reform based on technical and rational processes often short-circuits reform because it is uncontentious, abstract, and provides educators with no legitimate ways to question the marketplace values and policies that drive much contemporary school reform. The perspective referred to as "betterment" is an alternative reform that stresses…

  13. Chicago School Reform as History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between Chicago's school reform and history, noting implications for current reform: (1) origins of bureaucracy and ascendance of experts and professionals; (2) educational reform as a social movement; (3) race and ethnicity; (4) revitalization of the public sphere; and (5) limits of educational reform. (SM)

  14. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  15. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  16. Focus on Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes principal-initiated reform efforts at Alton Elementary School in downtown Memphis, Tennessee, that improved teacher performance and student reading scores. Alton is a K-4 school with a 100 percent African-American student population. (PKP)

  17. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  18. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  19. Health care reform and changes: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Merican, Mohd Ismail; bin Yon, Rohaizat

    2002-01-01

    Health care reform is an intentional, sustained and systematic process of structural change to one or more health subsystems to improve efficiency, effectiveness, patient choices and equity. Health care all over the world is continuously reforming with time. Health care reform has become an increasingly important agenda for policy change in both developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This paper provides an overview of the Malaysian health care system, its achievements, and issues and challenges leading to ongoing reform towards a more efficient and equitable health care system that possess a better quality of life for the population. PMID:12597513

  20. Reforming Schools: The Collective Doubting Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Ganon-Shilon, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The ongoing challenge to sustain educational reforms requires a learning process through which doubt is induced as a means of fostering productive school change. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of doubt as well as the doubting process and its importance to the school community, particularly with regard to educational…

  1. Combining steam-methane reforming, water-gas shift, and CO{sub 2} removal in a single-step process for hydrogen production. Final report for period March 15, 1997 - December 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandro Lopez Ortiz; Bhaskar Balasubramanian; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-02-01

    The objective of the research project was to determine the feasibility of a simpler, more energy-efficient process for the production of 95+% H{sub 2} from natural gas, and to collect sufficient experimental data on the effect of reaction parameters to guide additional larger-scale process development. The overall objectives were accomplished. 95+% H{sub 2} was produced in a single reaction step by adding a calcium-based CO{sub 2} acceptor to standard Ni-based reforming catalyst. The spent acceptor was successfully regenerated and used in a number of reaction steps with only moderate loss in activity as the number of cycles increased. Sufficient experimental data were collected to guide further larger-scale experimental work designed to investigate the economic feasibility of the process.

  2. On the road to reform: a sociocultural interpretation of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-09-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I address some familiar areas that must be considered when teachers undertake curriculum reform and how science educators may fulfill the role of facilitator and advocate in the support of teachers on the road to reform. The commentary focuses on how Barma retells the story through the lens of activity theory.

  3. On-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol for high temperature PEM fuel cells: Comparison of autothermal reforming and steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stefan; Wörner, Antje

    2011-03-01

    In the 21st century biofuels will play an important role as alternative fuels in the transportation sector. In this paper different reforming options (steam reforming (SR) and autothermal reforming (ATR)) for the on-board conversion of bioethanol and biodiesel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells are investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. Special emphasis is placed on thermal heat integration. Methyl-oleate (C19H36O2) is chosen as reference substance for biodiesel. Bioethanol is represented by ethanol (C2H5OH). For the steam reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 75.6% (76.3%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 3. For the autothermal reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 74.1% (75.1%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 2 and λ = 0.36 (0.35). Taking into account the better dynamic behaviour and lower system complexity of the reforming concept based on ATR, autothermal reforming in combination with a water gas shift reactor is considered as the preferred option for on-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the simulation results optimum operating conditions for a novel 5 kW biofuel processor are derived.

  4. Toward State Tax Reform: Lessons from State Tax Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Therese J.; Rio, Jessica E.

    This paper reviews recent state tax-commission recommendations in selected states and identifies critical factors for the success of state tax-reform commissions. The paper focuses on factors linked to the process of forming a commission and generating the necessary consensus to enact tough reforms. It describes and compares comprehensive studies…

  5. Get Over It! Education Reform Is Dead. Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Caren

    This book shares what one educator learned as a teacher and administrator in public and private schools and business, examining where the country is in the process of reforming public education and suggesting that it is tired out from so many reform efforts. It notes that new programs often suffocate under the latest federal, state, or district…

  6. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  7. Reforming General Education: A Departmental Experience with Mission and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzano, Joseph M., III; Wallace, Samuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Changes to general education curricula are taking place across the globe. From the Bologna Process in Europe to the Liberal Education and America's Promise initiative in the United States, colleges and universities are reforming what constitutes general education for their students. At the University of Dayton, such reforms took the shape of…

  8. When School Restructuring Meets Systemic Curriculum Reform. Brief to Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmann, Fred M.; Clune, William H.

    The relationship between two educational improvement initiatives--school restructuring and systemic curriculum reform--is examined in this bulletin. School restructuring tends to focus on process in schools and curriculum reform concentrates more directly on content and curriculum across a range of schools. The main features, their promises and…

  9. Avoiding the Potholes: Strategies for Reforming General Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaff, Jerry G.

    1980-01-01

    Strategies for curricular change in the reform of general education are as important as the substance of the change. Forty-three pitfalls and common errors in the process of reform are enumerated, in the areas of task force objectives and procedures, concepts of general education, program planning, proposal approval, and program implementation.…

  10. Curriculum Reform in Contemporary China: Seven Goals and Six Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Fuquan

    2004-01-01

    Curriculum developers and scholars in China are facing a set of inter-related issues around the goals and the strategies of curriculum reform. This paper argues that there are, as in every process of curriculum development, seven goals to be addressed within China's curriculum reform: (1) the establishment of a new curriculum philosophy or ideal;…

  11. Mathematics teachers' beliefs and curriculum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handal, Boris; Herrington, Anthony

    2003-05-01

    This paper discusses the role of mathematics teachers' beliefs and their impact on curriculum reform. It is argued that teachers' beliefs about the teaching and learning mathematics are critical in determining the pace of curriculum reform. Educational change is a complex process in which teachers hold strong beliefs about the quality and the process of innovation. Curriculum implementation may only occur through sufferance as many teachers are suspicious of reform in mathematics education given its equivocal success over the past decades. It is not surprising then that many teachers, when they come to enact the curriculum in their classes, rely more on their own beliefs than on current trends in pedagogy. These beliefs, conservative as they might be, have their own rationality in the practical and daily nature of the teaching profession, and in the compelling influence of educational systems from which these teachers are paradoxically the social product. The literature indicates that many of these teachers hold behaviourist beliefs, a fact that has strong implications for the success of constructivist-oriented curriculum reform. In general, studies of teachers' pedagogical beliefs reveal the extreme complexity of bringing about educational change, and largely explains the failure of many past reform endeavours.

  12. Medical liability reform crisis 2008.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stuart L

    2009-02-01

    The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called "Doctors for Medical Liability Reform" to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States. PMID:18989732

  13. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  14. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes. PMID:22611652

  15. Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

  16. Instructional Leadership in Indonesian School Reform: Overcoming the Problems to Move Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…

  17. The Adoption Features of Government Initiatives for the Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ping-Man; Cheung, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of a series of papers generated from the Curriculum Reform study in Hong Kong with the purpose of understanding the impact of government's role in the change process of the reform. This paper specifically examines the 17 government initiatives in the Curriculum Reform in terms of their adoption percentages of schools from…

  18. The Challenges of Autonomy: Curricular Decisions in Reform Jewish Day Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldin, Michael

    This study examined the process by which Reform Jewish day schools translate philosophy into curriculum. A Reform day school is defined as a full-time school that encompasses both secular and Jewish studies, extends at least from kindergarten through grade six, and is sponsored by one or more Reform congregations. Seven schools participated.…

  19. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

  20. Reforms in Chinese Higher Education and Their Effect on Teacher Education in Inner Mongolia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Peter; Thomas, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Examines experiences of an English language teaching project at the Inner Mongolia Teacher University (China). Considers the effect of higher education reform processes on teacher education at Inner Mongolia. Presents these reforms in context of international trends in higher education over the past decade and more specific reforms happening in…

  1. Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

  2. Policy and Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

  3. Knowledge Regimes and Contradictions in Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Petter; Prøitz, Tine Sophie; Sandberg, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines a theoretical framework for understanding education policy and education reforms based on the concept of knowledge regimes. The concept refers to understandings and definitions of governance and procedural aspects, manners of governing and curriculum issues, thus it comprises contents, structures, and processes of education…

  4. Political Transformations and Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a comprehensive concept for European higher education reforms of the 20th and 21st centuries. However, it means something else in Central European countries than it does in the rest of Europe. It has been combined in Central Europe with a major social change referred to as the "political transformation" (Johnson 1996).…

  5. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  6. On the Reform of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mironov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The "modernization" of Russian education is linked to the functioning of the entire social system of Russia, and reforms are proving difficult and contradictory. The use of the Unified State Examination in Russia, plus participation in the Bologna process, is causing concern about the ability of education to meet the needs of the…

  7. Reforming Systems: Realizing the Fourth Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines how the work of Andy Hargreaves has significantly and substantially informed our understanding of educational change, particularly systemwide change, by drawing upon his most recent research and writing to consider what is known about the process of successful, large-scale reform. It focuses on some of the "fallacies of…

  8. Gorbachev's Reforms and the Reversal of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Robert V.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains the contemporary political Soviet scene poses a major intellectual challenge to Western Sovietology. Analyzes reforms of the Gorbachev era and traces the development of change and the concepts of glasnost and perestroika. Discusses recent policies, problems, and strategies. Views revolution as a prolonged process. (NL)

  9. Applying Chaos Theory to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Zinga, Mario

    1998-01-01

    Presents a case study of the ideology, strategies and process of the "Common Knowledge: Pittsburgh" project in its attempt at school reform in an urban school district. Reflects on the project's activities, and uses its experience to develop a conceptual framework based on chaos theory, as developed in mathematics and science, for discussing…

  10. Reforming Science Education. Social Perspectives & Personal Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    Science education reform is an ongoing process. In recent years many have begun to look not only to teachers for change, but they are also insisting on the involvement of administrators, parents, community members, and some business organizations to bring about this change. This book presents facts and insights regarding science education reform…

  11. Technology and Reform-Based Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dani, Danielle E.; Koenig, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current reforms in science education call for the integration of digital technologies into science teaching, advocating that students learn science content and processes through technology. In this article, we provide practical examples, situated within the literature, of how digital technologies can be used to support the development and…

  12. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen. PMID:22645894

  13. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  14. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  15. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  16. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  17. Prospects for Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

  18. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  19. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  20. Reforming the Undergraduate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderPol, Diane; Brown, Jeanne M.; Iannuzzi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The higher education literature abounds with reports and studies calling for reform in undergraduate education. An alphabet soup of higher education associations creates or advocates desired learning outcomes for postsecondary education and endorses approaches for student learning. This article shows connections between some of the major…

  1. Reforming Teacher Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

    2010-01-01

    A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

  2. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  3. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  4. The Reform Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kelli

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of welfare reform in Ohio's 29 Appalachian counties surveyed human services agencies, county commissioners, poor families, and employers and found that rural barriers to employment included lack of jobs, lack of child care, poor health, lack of education and job skills, and transportation problems. Many former welfare recipients…

  5. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  6. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  7. Accomplishing Districtwide Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharratt, Lyn; Fullan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This is a mystery story. It is about a district that apparently did the right things but seemed not to get commensurate results across all classrooms and schools. In this article, we look closely at the details and discover an important lesson about districtwide reform. The district is York Region District School Board, which is a large…

  8. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  9. Welfare Reform Briefing Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This report presents information on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in light of efforts at welfare reform. Following a listing of whom to call at the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) regarding various welfare issues, the report's first section, "Basic Facts on Welfare," presents information on the AFDC in a…

  10. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  11. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  12. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  13. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide school leaders with guidance in determining how to choose and implement the schoolwide program that is best for their school. American Institutes for Research's "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform" provides educators with comprehensive profiles and evaluations of 24 of the leading schoolwide…

  14. Networks as Agents of Innovation: Teacher Networking in the Context of Vocational and Professional Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafel-Viia, Külliki; Loogma, Krista; Lassur, Silja; Roosipõld, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The effective implementation of educational reform is an issue that confronts both those that plan and sponsor those reforms and those that are affected by them. This article discusses networking processes in the context of reform in vocational and professional higher education. When exploring failures in educational change processes, issues…

  15. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  16. Health sector reforms in Kenya: an examination of district level planning.

    PubMed

    Oyaya, Charles O; Rifkin, Susan B

    2003-04-01

    The paper examines health sector reforms in Kenya at the district level based on the Government of Kenya's Health Policy Framework of 1994. The authors present the context of and historical perspective to health sector reforms in Kenya and discuss the major reform policies including decentralization to the district level. The authors then review intended policy outcomes, investigating assumptions on which the implementation and effectiveness of the reform agenda at the local level are based. The authors argue that emphasis on outcomes rather than process has not supported sustainable reforms or achieved the government's goal of improving health and ensuring equity for the citizens of the country. PMID:12644333

  17. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  18. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  19. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. Multifuel reformer R D

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    The on-board fuel for fuel cell powered vehicles may be one or more of hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, propane, or other liquified petroleum gases. To use hydrogen as the fuel, suitable means of storing, and subsequently delivering, adequate quantities of the gas must be developed. For all other fuels suitable reformers must be developed to convert the fuel to hydrogen or a hydrogen-rich gas mixture at rates corresponding to the varying power demand rates of the automotive system; this is especially true for the lower temperature fuel cells, such as the polymer electrolyte fuel cell which operates at 80{degrees}C and the phosphoric acid fuel cell which operates at 190{degrees}C. This paper discusses the key design and performance characteristics of such hydrogen storage and fuel reformer systems for use in stand-alone fuel cell automotive applications.

  3. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  4. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  5. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Michael S.; Painter, Corning F.; Pastore, Steven P.; Roth, Gary S.; Winchester, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  6. A miniature fuel reformer system for portable power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Belavič, Darko; Hrovat, Marko; Hočevar, Stanko; Pohar, Andrej; Petrovčič, Janko; Musizza, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    A miniature methanol reformer system has been designed and built to technology readiness level exceeding a laboratory prototype. It is intended to feed fuel cells with electric power up to 100 W and contains a complete setup of the technological elements: catalytic reforming and PROX reactors, a combustor, evaporators, actuation and sensing elements, and a control unit. The system is engineered not only for performance and quality of the reformate, but also for its lightweight and compact design, seamless integration of elements, low internal electric consumption, and safety. In the paper, the design of the system is presented by focussing on its miniaturisation, integration, and process control.

  7. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  8. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  9. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  10. Lightspan in Action: A Skill-and-Content Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program Model. Proceedings from a CSRD Invited Symposium for Lightspan Reform Model Users (San Diego, California, October 21, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohls, Anuradha, Ed.; Porter, Ethel, Ed.; Stafford, Bernice, Ed.

    These proceedings, from a Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program (CSRD) Invited Symposium for Lightspan Reform Model users highlight group participants' experiences in implementing a comprehensive school reform process using the Lightspan "Achieve Now" education program. They shared in various ways how this skill-and-content model…

  11. The 2015 hospital treatment choice reform in Norway: Continuity or change?

    PubMed

    Ringard, Ånen; Saunes, Ingrid Sperre; Sagan, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In several European countries, including Norway, polices to increase patient choice of hospital provider have remained high on the political agenda. The main reason behind the interest in hospital choice reforms in Norway has been the belief that increasing choice can remedy the persistent problem of long waiting times for elective hospital care. Prior to the 2013 General Election, the Conservative Party campaigned in favour of a new choice reform: "the treatment choice reform". This article describes the background and process leading up to introduction of the reform in the autumn of 2015. It also provides a description of the content and discusses possible implications of the reform for patients, providers and government bodies. In sum, the reform contains elements of both continuity and change. The main novelty of the reform lies in the increased role of private for-profit healthcare providers. PMID:27005300

  12. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  13. Sounds of silence : what happened to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's hazardous waste recycling program reform?

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Environmental Assessment

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the EPA's project of hazardous waste recycling program reform and explores the potential reasons for its breakdown. Part I provides a snapshot of the current regulatory framework for hazardous waste recycling. Part II overviews driving forces behind regulatory reform processes. Part III describes the evolution of the various phases of EPA's recycling reform attempts. Finally, Part IV presents findings and perspectives.

  14. Harmony and Disharmony in an Educational Reform Concert: Towards a Parsons' Inspired Dynamic Model of Tuning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpay, Thérèse; Luttenberg, Johan; Veugelers, Wiel; Pieters, Jules

    2013-01-01

    In large-scale educational reforms, many actors play their roles. The diversity of contributions and lack of harmonization prove to be frequently found to cause educational reform failures. Many explanations for these failures focus on differences between the actors and on differences in their contributions to the reform process. In this article,…

  15. Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

  16. Reforming Reforms: Changing Incentives in Education Finance in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stephen J.; Scott, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In 1997, Vermont passed Act 60, which reformed its education finance system to achieve greater equality of spending. The reform encouraged wealthy towns to reduce spending; it was politically unpopular and was replaced, in 2004, by Act 68. We analyze the spending incentives created by the two acts and estimate the effects the change will have on…

  17. Reform in the garden.

    PubMed

    Wise, M Norton; Wise, Elaine M

    2002-12-01

    English gardens powered by steam engines offer an intriguing view of how technological and scientific progress was naturalized in the landscape of 19th-century Prussia, and in Prussian culture, during the early years of industrial modernization. One such garden is Peacock Island, in the Havel River near Potsdam. A product of the reform era that preceded and followed the Napoleonic Wars, it expressed the goal of Friedrich Wilhelm III and his government to enter into the British system of factory production and world trade. Modern science, as represented especially by Alexander von Humboldt, played a prominent role. PMID:12535923

  18. Similarities, Divergence, and Incapacity in the Bologna Process Reform Implementation by the Former-Socialist Countries: The Self-Defeat of State Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative analysis describes the socialist legacy in the governance of higher education within the former Soviet-led member countries that entered the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) between 2001 and 2010. In joining the EHEA these countries signed on for the Bologna Process (BP), but are not members of the European Union. The…

  19. Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-07-24

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

  20. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Randy D. Cortright

    2005-05-04

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.

  1. Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-08-01

    Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

  2. Contradictions in Chinese Language Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    The Draft of the Second Chinese Character Simplification Scheme proposed by the Chinese Committee on Language Reform, published in 1977, is discussed. The political history of the draft and current uncertainty about character simplification are examined, and a rigorous methodology for determining the success rate of a script reform is proposed.…

  3. The Other Face of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Ursula M.; Compton, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    According to William Spady's "Beyond Counterfeit Reforms," politically driven, mechanistic "reforms" box educators into smaller, limiting ways of thinking and running schools. Donald McAdams's book "Fighting to Save Our Urban Schools...and Winning!" shows the salubrious effects of high expectations and community involvement. (MLH)

  4. Reform in Polish Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcicka, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the essential concept of reforms, implemented in Poland's education system since the early 1990s and some of their outcomes. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of the reforms, i.e. structural diversification of the system, leading to diversification of education levels and corresponding diplomas. The article…

  5. International Handbook of Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    This book provides an overview of education reform in 27 countries. Following the introduction by Peter W. Cookson, Jr., Alan R. Sadovnik, and Susan F. Semel, part 1 offers national case studies of educational reform in the 1980s. Chapters include: (2) "Argentina" (Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (3) "Australia" (Richard Teese); (4) "Brazil" (Robert Cowen…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  7. Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

  8. Free Speech and Campaign Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Harry, Jr.

    The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, a political campaign reform measure, was enacted to limit campaign contributions and independent expenditures, to mandate disclosure of contributors, and to establish public financing of campaigns, all to minimize the opportunity for political corruption. Unfortunate implications of such reform on the…

  9. Teachers' Perspectives on Evaluation Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to reform teacher evaluation in order to increase its impact on teachers' practice and persistence in the profession, very little research examines how current reforms influence teachers' attitudes or reported instructional practices. Do the new evaluation systems lead to enhancements in teachers' instruction overall? And…

  10. School Reform: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    United States educational history is full of uncertain reform attempts beginning with colonial New England's school reform goal of salvation in this world as a preparation for eternal life in the next. A more practical type of education characterized the Early National Period. Monitorial schools and communal schools, as in New Harmony, Indiana,…

  11. Educational Reform and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Ann M., Ed.

    This document contains six studies that were commissioned for the National Assessment of Vocational Education. "Introduction" (Ann M. Milne) provides an overview of the reforms of the 1980s. "The Impact of Educational Reform on Vocational Education" (Marion Asche, Donald E. Elson, Ann Echols, Arthur Williams) examines primary strategies of reform…

  12. Middle Grades Reform. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have pointed to the lagging scores of eighth graders on international, national, and state assessments as evidence that students are not prepared to meet high academic standards and that middle grades reform is needed. In response to these concerns, educators have introduced reforms designed to provide middle-level…

  13. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  14. An ethical justification and policy for making commitments during computerized residency application processes: The US matching program as a laboratory for needed reform.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Cefalo, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The US National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) is a computerized, national system for matching residency applicants to programs. Similar systems exist in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and the need for such a program will probably make itself felt in the European Union soon. NRMP is an important laboratory for the ethical challenges that computerized matching programs create, especially its current prohibition of making commitments by both applicants and residency programs. Nonetheless, it would be denial to suppose that commitments are not being made and that there is no dishonesty when commitments are made. We analyze the current NRMP no-commitment policy by reference to Plato's retelling of the myth of the Ring of Gyges, which makes its wearer physically invisible and therefore ethically unaccountable. Because applicants and programs complete their preference-lists in secret, the matching process inadvertently slips a Ring of Gyges on the fingers of both parties. As a result, making false commitments promotes the rational self-interest of both parties. To strengthen the professional integrity of the matching process, we argue that NRMP should abandon its no-commitment policy and adopt a new paradigm: sanctioning honest, non-contingent, accountable, one-party, and documented commitments. Computerized residency matching systems in other countries should consider the NRMP a laboratory and develop policies about making commitments that promote professionalism in the residency application process. PMID:19496016

  15. Pension Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  16. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces. PMID:11910721

  17. Healthcare reform in the USA, 2010: the rocky road ahead?

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Helen E

    2010-01-01

    Historic legislation for healthcare reform in the United States was enacted in March 2010. Reforms in medical practice, payment for services, and access to care and insurance will be introduced by complex processes over time through 2019. The overriding goals of healthcare reform are cost containment and guaranteeing access to all Americans. The contentious political struggle that preceded the legislation is emblematic of the continuous struggle in American society to define who is worthy of services. Understanding the value framework for social and welfare provisions in American society is crucial to making sense of the piecemeal policy making characteristic of the development of healthcare over the past 50 years. Here some highlights of the reform and the complex organisation of American healthcare are discussed. PMID:20806524

  18. Assessment and Educational Reform: Doing More than Polishing Brass on the Titanic, a Call for Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Andrew

    This exploration of evaluation strategies for systemic educational reform considers whether there is a way to design an assessment and delivery system that can accomplish the goals of the total educational process. A basic question that must be addressed in systemic reform is the role of education in the socialization processes of society. Beyond…

  19. Flawed Implementation or Inconsistent Logics? Lessons from Higher Education Reform in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates two competing explanations of why reforms associated with the Bologna process brought disappointing results in Ukraine. The lack of anticipated benefits from the reforms may stem either from a flawed implementation of the Bologna process, or from more fundamental differences between the models of higher education…

  20. Reforming Practice or Modifying Reforms?: Elementary Teachers' Response to the Tools of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leigh K.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between internally constructed and externally imposed aspects of the teaching context may be the missing link between calls for school reform and teachers' interpretation and implementation of that reform. Although the context of the local school culture has a profound impact on teachers, there are other external…

  1. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOEpatents

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  2. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. Method The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. Results The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Conclusion Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate

  3. Reforming and Restructuring Education. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This booklet contains four selected conference papers on educational reform and restructuring. In "Can Rational Organization Models Really Reform Anything? A Case Study of Reform in Chicago," Fenwick English describes reform efforts in the Chicago Public Schools and examines the political, social, organizational, and bureaucratic factors that have…

  4. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  5. The OPtimising HEalth LIterAcy (Ophelia) process: study protocol for using health literacy profiling and community engagement to create and implement health reform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health literacy is a multi-dimensional concept comprising a range of cognitive, affective, social, and personal skills and attributes. This paper describes the research and development protocol for a large communities-based collaborative project in Victoria, Australia that aims to identify and respond to health literacy issues for people with chronic conditions. The project, called Ophelia (OPtimising HEalth LIterAcy) Victoria, is a partnership between two universities, eight service organisations and the Victorian Government. Based on the identified issues, it will develop and pilot health literacy interventions across eight disparate health services to inform the creation of a health literacy response framework to improve health outcomes and reduce health inequalities. Methods/Design The protocol draws on many inputs including the experience of the partners in previous co-creation and roll-out of large-scale health-promotion initiatives. Three key conceptual models/discourses inform the protocol: intervention mapping; quality improvement collaboratives, and realist synthesis. The protocol is outcomes-oriented and focuses on two key questions: ‘What are the health literacy strengths and weaknesses of clients of participating sites?’, and ‘How do sites interpret and respond to these in order to achieve positive health and equity outcomes for their clients?’. The process has six steps in three main phases. The first phase is a needs assessment that uses the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), a multi-dimensional measure of health literacy, to identify common health literacy needs among clients. The second phase involves front-line staff and management within each service organisation in co-creating intervention plans to strategically respond to the identified local needs. The third phase will trial the interventions within each site to determine if the site can improve identified limitations to service access and/or health outcomes. Discussion

  6. Views of collaboration among administrators and teachers involved in science education reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trax, Mark Francis

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the perceptions of collaboration among administrators and teachers involved in science education reform, determine similarities and difference in perception among administrators and teachers, and examine the progress of district reform efforts in terms of reform recommendations advanced in the research literature. Naturalistic constructivist theory guided the generation of the instruments and the analysis of data. Instruments for this investigation included a questionnaire and structured surveys. Audio-taped responses to the surveys were transcribed and analyzed for patterns of interaction. Support for science teacher collaboration and science education reform depended on the district's overall organizational style (classified as top-down, bottom-up, or a combination of these two styles), was connected to the level of commitment of the sciences teachers and administrators interviewed, and was linked to the level of solidarity for that support among teachers and administrators in the district. Reform-oriented districts addressed resource allocation in ways that supported science education reform. Science teachers, identified as the agents for educational reform, facilitated the overall process by providing specific evidence in support of reform, recruiting teachers and administrators to a reform-oriented agenda, and creating close-knit cadres engaged in the reform process. District activities in support of science education reforms which reflect the overall school reform recommendations maintained their focus provided that such activities were monitored and adjusted to furnish opportunities to include all the district science teachers, utilized a committed cadre of science teachers that supported the overall recommendations, and facilitated the inclusion of all district staff in the overall process. For success, it is important for the staff in each district to identify a clear need and establish a high level of

  7. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  8. A reforming accountability: GPs and health reform in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last ten years or so, many countries have undertaken public sector reforms. As a result of these changes, accounting has come to play a more important role. However, many of the studies have only discussed the reforms at a conceptual level and have failed to study how the reforms have been implemented and operated in practice. Based on the work of Lipsky (1980) and Gorz (1989), it can be argued that those affected by the reforms have a strong incentive to subvert the reforms. This prediction is explored via a case study of general practitioner (GP) response to the New Zealand health reforms. The creation of Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) allowed the State to impose contractual-accountability and to cap their budget exposure for subsidies. From the GP's perspective, the IPAs absorbed the changes initiated by the State, and managed the contracting, accounting and budgetary administration responsibilities that were created. This allowed individual GPs to continue practising as before and provided some collective protection against the threat of state intrusion into GP autonomy. The creation of IPAs also provided a new way to manage the professional/financial tension, the contradiction between the professional motivation noted by Gorz (1989) and the need to earn a living. PMID:10175302

  9. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  10. What Next in School Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of education reform in the United Kingdom and uses the BBC film "The Choir to explore alternative ways of improving the quality of learning and teaching in schools.

  11. A View from the Field: Substantial Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Through a process involving identification of priorities and implementation of strategic initiatives to address them, the University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Dentistry has begun a process of curriculum reform. Several stages of reevaluation and the need for sensitivity and patience are anticipated, but a better environment for learning…

  12. Misrecognition and science education reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  13. Campaign 2008: healthcare reform revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Gail R

    2008-10-01

    *An important lesson to be learned from the failed efforts at healthcare reform of the early 1990s is that successful reform cannot be an all-or-nothing proposition. *The McCain and Obama healthcare plans have some elements in common, but they also have important differences. *Whoever wins the election will face the challenge of persuading Congress to go along with his proposal. PMID:18839667

  14. Residency Work-Hours Reform

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Escarce, José J

    2005-01-01

    Background In response to proposed federal legislation, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education limited resident work-hours in July 2003. The cost may be substantial but, if successful, the reform might lower preventable adverse event costs in hospital and after discharge. Objectives This study sought to estimate the reform's net cost in 2001 dollars, and to determine the reduction in preventable adverse events needed to make reform cost neutral from teaching hospital and societal perspectives. Design Cost analysis using published literature and data. Net costs were determined for 4 reform strategies and over a range of potential effects on preventable adverse events. Results Nationwide, transferring excess work to task-tailored substitutes (the lowest-level providers appropriate for noneducational tasks) would cost $673 million; mid-level providers would cost $1.1 billion. Reform strategies promoting adverse events would increase net teaching hospital and societal costs as well as mortality. If task-tailored substitutes decrease events by 5.1% or mid-level providers decrease them by 8.5%, reform would be cost neutral for society. Events must fall by 18.5% and 30.9%, respectively, to be cost neutral for teaching hospitals. Conclusions Because most preventable adverse event costs occur after discharge, a modest decline (5.1% to 8.5%) in them might make residency work-hours reform cost neutral for society but only a much larger drop (18.5% to 30.9%) would make it cost neutral for teaching hospitals, unless additional funds are allocated. Future research should evaluate which reform approaches prevent adverse events and at what cost. PMID:16191130

  15. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area. PMID:27119389

  16. Perspective: The road to reform

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, J.B. )

    1994-04-01

    The rapid transformation underway in the utility industry provides ample evidence that the reality of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is sinking in. This law reflected Congress's conclusion that competition in wholesale power generation-at the plant busbar-is a demonstrable reality. It expressed the vision of a fully competitive wholesale generation market, with suppliers linked to markets through a grid that would provide service on a nondiscriminatory basis. But will consumers reap the full benefits of effective competition at the wholesale generation level Or will more disorderly forms of competition emerge, reflecting a hybrid of deregulation and old-fashioned monopoly tactics Along the latter course we run the risk of cost shifts among customer classes, customer defections, diminished utility cooperation, and higher overall costs to society. In short, the vision of a competitive market in wholesale generation will not come about without thoughtful efforts at defining the relevant market, as well as careful attention to the management of a difficult transition away from outmodes mindsets and regulatory models. As a national trade association representing independent power producers (IPPs) and suppliers of goods and services to the competitive wholesale electric generation industry, the Electric Generation Association (EGA) believes that constructive dialogue will yield the best approach to managing this difficult process of transition. In that spirit, the EGA Emerging Operational Issues Committee recently released a while paper, [open quotes]Electrifying Change: Strategies for Structural Reform in the Electric Industry,[close quotes] which forms the basis for this article.

  17. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  18. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  19. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOEpatents

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  20. Regulation reform slows down

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Regulatory reformers in Congress are easing off the accelerator as they recognize that some of their more far-reaching proposals lack sufficient support to win passage. Last week the proposed one-year moratorium on new regulations was set back in the Senate by it main sponsor, Sen. Non Nickles (R., OK), who now seeks to replace it with a more moderate bill. Nickel`s substitute bill would give Congress 45 days after a regulation is issued to decide whether to reject it. It also retroactively allows for review of 80 regulations issued since last November 9, 1994. Asked how his new proposal is superior to a moratorium, which is sharply opposed by the Clinton Administration, Nickles says he thinks it is better because its permanent. The Chemical Manufacturer`s Association (CMA) has not publicly made a regulatory moratorium a top priority, but has quietly supported it by joining with other industry groups lobbying on the issue. A moratorium would halt EPA expansion of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and alloys the delisting of several TRI chemicals.

  1. Council of Medical Specialty Societies: Committed to Continuing Medical Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    The Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS) recognizes the need for continuing medical education (CME) reform and intends to be actively engaged in that process. While recognizing that CME reform must involve many organizations, the CMSS and particularly the 23 societies that make up the CMSS are in a position to affect many of the needed…

  2. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  3. Efficiency and Counter-Revolution: Connecting University and Civil Service Reform in the 1850s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Historians have often recognised important links between the processes of university and civil service reform in mid-nineteenth-century England. Yet such connections are usually seen as forming part of a wider project of modernising reform with any conservative or counter-revolutionary aims largely discounted. However, as this article suggests,…

  4. "We Think That's the Future": Curriculum Reform Initiatives in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This international research considered two key questions: (1) What self-scrutiny, strategies, planning and processes do universities with a successfully reformed curriculum undertake?; and (2) How do these universities measure and evaluate the impact of whole curriculum reform in relation to learning and teaching and the student experience?…

  5. Instructional Leadership for Systemic Change: The Story of San Diego's Reform. Leading Systemic School Improvement #4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Hightower, Amy M.; Husbands, Jennifer L.; LaFors, Jeanette R.; Young , Viki M.; Christopher, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Instructional quality is one of the most important factors in effective teaching. Without it, school reform is impossible. How can leaders develop and implement strategies to improve faculty quality and then manage the process of school reform in today's complex school environments? The authors answer this question through the study of a systemic…

  6. The Tension between Teacher Accountability and Flexibility: The Paradox of Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Fuller, Michael; Briggs, Pamela; Hammons, David; Bubak, Katie; Sass, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The anticipated constraints imposed by the accountability process associated with standards-based reform on teachers' practice suggest a tension between teachers' desire for flexibility and the accountability mandates associated with reform initiatives. In particular, we posited that the teachers would negatively perceive the influence of…

  7. Increasing the Openness of Education as an Approach to Promoting Educational Reform and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinqiu, He

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the main content of the portion on "increasing the openness of China's education" in the "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)" (hereafter abbreviated as the "Guideline") and the key issues studied and discussed in the formulation process. Issues such as promoting reform and…

  8. The Impact of Accreditation on the Reform of Study Programmes in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchanek, Justine; Pietzonka, Manuel; Kunzel, Rainer H. F.; Futterer, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process put in motion a series of reforms for higher education. In Germany, the "Bologna reform" focused national standards and guidelines which served as criteria for obligatory programme accreditation by external bodies. This article reports on the results of an empirical study that examined the effects and limitations of…

  9. Faculty Perspectives on the "3+3+4" Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Cecilia K. Y.; Luk, Lillian Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum reform in higher education has been taking place in many countries, with much attention paid to many such as the national-level Bologna process in Europe, institutional-level Melbourne Model in Australia and discipline-level Engineering Criteria 2000 (EC2000). This paper gives a detailed account of the reform initiatives taking place in…

  10. Current Developments in School Education in Turkey: Education "Reforms" and Teacher Trade Union Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyruk, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Education "reforms"' have been accelerated in the last decade in Turkey. Teachers, as the main actors of the education system, have developed a variety of responses to the reforms implemented in the field of education, both individually and collectively. They give directions to the change process in education by means of their trade…

  11. An Unfulfilled Dream of an Urban Community School for Girls: A Failed Experiment in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the qualitative case study of an urban community school initiative that began as an educational reform effort and that ultimately failed. The process of emergence for this school and factors leading to its collapse are described through participant interviews and document analysis. Nationally, policy reformers,…

  12. The Limits of Teacher Education Reforms: School Subjects, Alchemies, and an Alternative Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary U.S. schools and professional reforms call for teachers to have greater disciplinary and pedagogical knowledge for teaching school subjects. Reform efforts leave unexamined the rules and standards of "reason" that historically order school subjects. The notion of alchemy provides an analytic "tool" to consider the processes of…

  13. Exploring Motivational Factors for Educational Reform: Do International Comparisons Dictate Educational Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachelek, AJ

    2010-01-01

    In mathematics education, utilizing international comparisons to support implementation of educational reforms has become increasingly common. With the advent of "Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study" (TIMSS), educational reform seems to have transitioned to a reactionary process rather than a calculated adaptation of…

  14. India's Social Development in a Decade of Reforms: 1990-91/1999-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Amal Kanti

    2008-01-01

    The economic reforms initiated in India in 1991 have brought about visible upliftment of economic conditions of the country. This paper examines if the economic process is associated with an enhancement of India's social development in equal measure in the reform decade of nineties. Ray (1989) considered thirteen social indicators of India and…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of Administrators in Literacy Reform: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Betsy A.

    2011-01-01

    With reform movements besieging American schools, building administrators are increasingly called to lead the change process. The purpose of this study was to determine how the role of building administrators in literacy reform was viewed by teachers and how these perceptions influenced teacher practice and school improvement efforts. The study…

  16. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  17. Reform of the Method for Evaluating the Teaching of Medical Linguistics to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hongkui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Longlu

    2014-01-01

    Explorating reform of the teaching evaluation method for vocational competency-based education (CBE) curricula for medical students is a very important process in following international medical education standards, intensify ing education and teaching reforms, enhancing teaching management, and improving the quality of medical education. This…

  18. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  19. Teachers' Enactments of Workplace Conditions and Their Beliefs and Attitudes toward Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imants, J.; Wubbels, T.; Vermunt, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on two assumptions regarding agency in teachers' workplace learning: (1) While teachers enact school reform in daily school and classroom practice, they actively redefine the reform; (2) In this learning process, in which working and learning are integrated, teachers reinterpret and reinvent the workplace conditions in their…

  20. Change without Reform: The Case of Stanford University School of Medicine, 1908-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry

    1997-01-01

    The nine-decade history of the Stanford University of Medicine (California) and its history of teaching human anatomy illustrate the recurring processes of curricular and instructional reforms in medical education and the ways in which these reform efforts do not disturb the traditional preclinical/clinical model of medical education. (SLD)

  1. The Reception of the Educational Decentralization and Curricular Reform among the Hungarian Teachers from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Péter, Lilla

    2008-01-01

    Choosing of the theme was determined by the Central-Eastern European educational reforms, the role of the educators in the process of changing in the educational system and the enlargement of the social demands towards the schools. The aim of our the research is on the connection between the educational reforms and the educators. Partly, it is due…

  2. Let's make a deal: trading malpractice reform for health reform.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; Hyman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Physician leadership is required to improve the efficiency and reliability of the US health care system, but many physicians remain lukewarm about the changes needed to attain these goals. Malpractice liability-a sore spot for decades-may exacerbate physician resistance. The politics of malpractice have become so lawyer-centric that recognizing the availability of broader gains from trade in tort reform is an important insight for health policy makers. To obtain relief from malpractice liability, physicians may be willing to accept other policy changes that more directly improve access to care and reduce costs. For example, the American Medical Association might broker an agreement between health reform proponents and physicians to enact federal legislation that limits malpractice liability and simultaneously restructures fee-for-service payment, heightens transparency regarding the quality and cost of health care services, and expands practice privileges for other health professionals. There are also reasons to believe that tort reform can make ongoing health care delivery reforms work better, in addition to buttressing health reform efforts that might otherwise fail politically. PMID:24395935

  3. Tri-reforming and combined reforming of methane for producing syngas with desired hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of a new process concept for direct production of synthesis gas (CO + H2) with desired H 2/CO ratios (1.5--2.0) for methanol synthesis and F-T synthesis, using CO2 together with steam and unconverted O2 in flue gas from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants to react with methane or natural gas. This new process is called tri-reforming, referring to simultaneous CO2-steam-O2 reforming of methane or natural gas. This study included (1) The investigation of carbon formation in the tri-reforming process. For comparison, carbon formation in the combined reforming and CO2 reforming reaction was studied as well. (2) The effect of reaction conditions and feed compositions on equilibrium composition (e.g. H2/CO ratio) and equilibrium conversions in the tri-reforming process. (3) The role of catalysts in the tri-reforming process, especially the effect of catalysts on CO2 conversion in the presence of H 2O and O2. It was clearly evidenced from this study that CO in the product stream is probably the major source of carbon over Ni/Al2O3 in the equimolar CO2-CH4 reforming at 650°C and 1 atm. Addition of either O2 or H2O into the CO 2 reforming reaction system can suppress carbon formation. It was demonstrated that carbon-free operation can be achieved in the tri-reforming process. A thermodynamic comparison of tri-reforming with feed compositions of (H2O+CO2+0.5O2)/CH4 (mol ratio) = 1 showed that O2 improves equilibrium CH4 conversion, yet greatly decreases equilibrium CO2 conversion. H2O in tri-reforming has a significant effect on the H2/CO ratio in the products, while O2 has a minor effect. A kinetic study and catalytic performance tests indicated that the support in a supported catalyst has a significant role in enhancing CO2 conversion to CO in the presence of H2O and O2 in tri-reforming. The Ni/MgO catalyst showed superior performance with close to equilibrium CH4 and CO2 conversions at 850°C, 1 atm, and 32,000 ml

  4. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D.

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  5. Immigration reform, American style.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status. PMID:12159575

  6. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. PMID:27044689

  7. Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock. PMID:21459406

  8. Public Sector Reform in Australia and Its Impact on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of public sector reform in Australia, focusing on the Commonwealth Government and Australian Public Service. Describes management reform packages, human resources management reforms, and industrial relations reforms. Discusses the impact of these changes on public libraries. (AEF)

  9. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  10. Patent reform in the US: what's at stake for pharmaceutical innovation?

    PubMed

    Yancey, Amy; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2010-05-01

    The current patent landscape in the US has not undergone major legislative reform since 1952. The US Senate version of the most recently proposed patent reform legislation puts forward a number of rule changes that could impact the pharmaceutical industry. Among the bill's major provisions are moving to a first-to-file system, changes to post-grant review and reexamination procedures, and damages reform. Various industries with a stake in patent reform have responded to the proposed changes. The need for balanced reform makes the stakes particularly high for the pharmaceutical industry which must invest a significant amount of time and money in the research and development process in exchange for already abbreviated patent lifetimes due to the lengthy clinical trial process. PMID:20402544

  11. Re-forming supercritical quasi-parallel shocks. I - One- and two-dimensional simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, V. A.; Winske, D.; Omidi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The process of reforming supercritical quasi-parallel shocks is investigated using one-dimensional and two-dimensional hybrid (particle ion, massless fluid electron) simulations both of shocks and of simpler two-stream interactions. It is found that the supercritical quasi-parallel shock is not steady. Instread of a well-defined shock ramp between upstream and downstream states that remains at a fixed position in the flow, the ramp periodically steepens, broadens, and then reforms upstream of its former position. It is concluded that the wave generation process is localized at the shock ramp and that the reformation process proceeds in the absence of upstream perturbations intersecting the shock.

  12. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country. PMID:24823603

  13. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T cell) of 750 °C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T ref) with various fuel utilizations (U f) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO 2 concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T cell is higher than T ref. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U f decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell.

  14. Health care reform: informing difficult choices.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A; Bloor, K

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade, policy makers in a large number of countries have attempted various reforms of their health care systems. Health care reform has been described as a 'global epidemic' (Klein, 1993). All health care reforms consist of very complex policy choices, some of which are examined in this article. After an introductory exploration of ideological issues, the objectives of health care reformers are considered. Three major policy objectives of health care reform are examined: cost containment; efficiency; and, equity. Three types of reform which have been advocated are also considered: public planning; market regulation; and provider-advocated reforms such as a 'basic package' with copayments and alternative means of finance. Finally, appropriate features of efficient health care reform are suggested, addressing explicit policy goals. PMID:10154305

  15. Catalytic reforming of liquid fuels: Deactivation of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Haynes, D.J.; Berry, D.A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Gardner, T.H.

    2007-10-01

    The catalytic reforming of logistic fuels (e.g., diesel) to provide hydrogen-rich gas for various fuel cells is inevitably accompanied by deactivation. This deactivation can be caused by various mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, sintering, and sulfur poisoning. In general, these mechanisms are, not independent—e.g., carbon deposition may affect sulfur poisoning. However, they are typically studied in separate experiments, with relatively little work reported on their interaction at conditions typical of liquid fuel reforming. Recent work at the U.S. Dept. of Energy/NETL and Louisiana State University has shown progress in understanding the interaction of these deactivation processes, and catalysts designed to minimize them.

  16. Mental health reform, economic globalization and the practice of citizenship.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec it is argued that tension exists between mental health reforms born out of concern for the well-being and care of people and those that are being driven by cost-containment and efficiency. Contributing to this tension are competing discourses about mental health and mental illness. It is argued that progressive change requires the meaningful engagement of mental health care recipients in policy decision-making processes and ongoing analysis about the interconnections between economic globalization, social welfare state restructuring and mental health reform. PMID:16138645

  17. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Parent, Yves O.; Magrini, Kim; Landin, Steven M.; Ritland, Marcus A.

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  18. Florence Nightingale and healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Kudzma, Elizabeth Connelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the work of Florence Nightingale in light of her collaboration with William Farr, the eminent medical statistician. Nightingale's epidemiological investigations supported by Farr illustrated that attention to environmental cleanliness was an important factor in preventing spread of disease. Nightingale channeled her investigations to support hospital reforms and the need for an educated nurse who could provide better management of the hospital environment. Statistical support and solicited criticism allowed Nightingale to argue more forcefully for her reforms. PMID:16407602

  19. The Higher Education System in Macedonia: Overview, Reforms, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanov, Georgi; Angeloska-Galevska, Natasha

    2006-01-01

    The system of higher education in Macedonia is undergoing the largest reform process since the mid-1940s. The context is rather turbulent. Fourteen years after Macedonia's separation from the Yugoslav Federation, this small country now deals with an unstable political situation (the Kosovo question) and awaits an answer from Brussels (expected in…

  20. Life After the Project: On Re-forming the Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repsher, Marilyn

    1995-01-01

    The Jacksonville University (Alabama) experience with reforming its mathematics major is described. The process, designed to meet student career needs while maintaining academic integrity, involved realignment of program objectives with student goals, which often did not include immediate graduate study. Other considerations included…

  1. Reform in Administrator Preparation Programs: Individual Perspectives. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.; Bryant, Miles T., Ed.

    This publication contains five chapters that focus on individual perspectives of reform in administrator-preparation programs. In "One Person's Links Between Administration and the Academy," Ann Weaver Hart offers a self-study that views administrative leadership as an ongoing process of social validation and socialization. Diana G. Pounder, in…

  2. Sexism in School Textbooks Prepared under Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Yasemin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the new textbooks prepared under the framework of the "curriculum reform" realized in Turkey , as part of the EU harmonization process, in terms of gender representation. For this purpose, illustrations in the new ABC, Life Studies and Social Studies textbooks prepared under the new program were analyzed…

  3. Higher Education Reforms and Unintended Consequences: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in Europe has undergone remarkable transformations over the last two decades. Germany is a very interesting case in point here. While the country was labeled as a laggard in the process, over the last decade the pace of higher education reforms in Germany has grown considerably. This paper will focus on the by now visible effects…

  4. New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

  5. Teacher Education in Bhutan: Highlights and Challenges for Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBalkom, W. Duffie; Sherman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Bhutan is embarking on a comprehensive education reform process, with teachers and teacher education at the centre of a number of initiatives. This study describes the current state of affairs based on interviews with key informants and semi-structured focus groups in Bhutan. Several major themes emerged, including issues of quality of students…

  6. The Rhetoric of Policy Formation in Cordoba Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Liliana Esther

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore education policies formation during two administrations (1983-1998) in the province of Cordoba, Argentina through the comparison of policy documents. The profound connections of the social, cultural, economic, and educational processes impact of Argentina's educational reforms during the last two decades of…

  7. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  8. Feminism and School Reform: The Last Fifteen Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agre, Gene P.; Finkelstein, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Two distinct lines of argument elaborating connections between school reform and women's lives are identified. The "domestic feminism" tradition defines the meaning of education in relation to the processes of moral and psychological nurture; "economic feminists" have looked to schools to readjust the relationships of women to the marketplace.…

  9. Place Matters: Mathematics Education Reform in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau Anderson, Celia

    2014-01-01

    While mathematics education research has often focused at the level of the classroom (Rousseau Anderson & Tate, 2008), there are emerging calls for attention to shift from individual classrooms to consider the process of reform at the school or district level. Investigating the role of the institution and conditions of the organization becomes…

  10. Education and Empire: Democratic Reform in the Arab World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Democracy and related concepts--human rights, active learning, civic participation, gender empowerment, and global citizenship--have become the international policy mantras of the post-Cold War era, or what many have labeled a neoimperial order. These bedrock principles of global educational reforms are supposed to contribute to processes of…

  11. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  12. Attending to the Noise: Applying Chaos Theory to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Zinga, Mario

    The Common Knowledge: Pittsburgh (CK:P), a technology-based project, introduced the Internet into all levels of the Pittsburgh Public Schools during 1993-97. This is a case study of the ideology, strategies, and process of the CK:P project describes the project's activities, examines the project in light of school-reform literature, and uses its…

  13. Equipped for the Future: A Collaborative Journey toward System Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIFL News, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This issue of the National Institute for Literacy (NIFL) News is devoted to "Equipped for the Future" (EFF), the organization's long-term collaborative initiative for system reform. The newsletter contains the testimony of people who have been involved in the process over the past 2 years, speaking of the promise they see in EFF. The following…

  14. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  15. The National School Reform Faculty: Reforming Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Horizons, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Winter 2005 issue of "educational HORIZONS," Charles Glenn wrote that schools designed in a perfect system of educational diversity and choice could nonetheless end up as "uninspired carbon copies produced by educators without the foggiest idea of how to do anything differently." Most school reform tries to avoid that fate with various…

  16. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I

    2015-05-01

    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology. PMID:25901049

  17. Reformers and Reform: Towards Free Public Libraries in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The "Victorian Free Library Service Board Act" of 1946 was the culmination of a long campaign to replace the mechanics' institute model of library provision with free libraries funded by state and local government. Given that library reform required legislation by the state government, this paper is mainly concerned with the political campaign…

  18. Reel Reform: Documentaries Spur Debate about Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Three new American documentaries including "Waiting for Superman," "The Lottery, Race to Nowhere" and one British entry, "We are the People We've Been Waiting For," have animated school reform debates. Each of these documentaries seeks to disturb the entrenched thinking by claiming that our educational institutions are suffering from a malaise…

  19. Stories of reform in science education: commentary on opp(reg)ressive policies and tempered radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, Russell

    2010-12-01

    This response to the two papers (by Rodriguez and Carlone et al.) on science education reform acknowledges first the coherence of the arguments presented around four reform narratives; that of the process of becoming science-enthusiastic, the nature of beliefs of science reform teachers, the barriers to reform, and the institutional expressions of these barriers. In the commentary I first discuss the reform `problem' in terms of two interacting issues—the purposes of school science and the value placed on it in an elementary school curriculum. The insights produced in these papers are then used to reflect on a range of experiences and current policy debates in Australia. Finally, in this commentary, I point out: (a) the relationship of the papers to the reform issue of opposition to Standards Based Science (SBS) from proponents' traditional conceptions of science education, discussing how this more specific reform question relates to the two papers; and (b) the singular nature of the I-meanings characterised in the Carlone et al. paper, describing (using Australian examples) how the notions of tempered radicals and I-meanings might also be used to characterise complexities in the processes of school science reform.

  20. Health reform in Mexico: the promotion of inequality.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C

    2001-01-01

    The Mexican health reform can be understood only in the context of neoliberal structural adjustment, and it reveals some of the basic characteristics of similar reforms in the Latin American region. The strategy to transform the predominantly public health care system into a market-driven system has been a complex process with a hidden agenda to avoid political resistance. The compulsory social security system is the key sector in opening health care to private insurance companies, health maintenance organizations, and hospital enterprises mainly from abroad. Despite the government's commitment to universal coverage, equity, efficiency, and quality, the empirical data analyzed in this article do not confirm compliance with these objectives. Although an alternative health policy that gradually grants the constitutional right to health would be feasible, the new democratically elected government will continue the previous regressive health reform. PMID:11407172

  1. Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

  2. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  3. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  4. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  5. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  6. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  7. Reform and Transform with the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When school leaders think of reform, their first thought is rarely "the arts," but perhaps they've been missing a vehicle that can inspire the adoption of best practices on a schoolwide basis. School leaders across Georgia are using the arts in the core reform areas that were recommended in "Breaking Ranks II: Strategies for High School Reform" as…

  8. Large-Scale Reform Comes of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the history of large-scale education reform and makes the case that large-scale or whole system reform policies and strategies are becoming increasingly evident. The review briefly addresses the pre 1997 period concluding that while the pressure for reform was mounting that there were very few examples of deliberate or…

  9. Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

    This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School House: Leadership in…

  10. School Reform--Does It Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Looks at different waves of school reform beginning with Sputnik in the 1950s. Examines influences in today's reform, including industrial influences and school choice. Argues that the origins and outcomes of school reform have more to do with what is happening outside the school than within it, and that schools must think beyond objective indices…

  11. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  12. Whatever Happened to Undergraduate Reform? Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Theodore J.

    2006-01-01

    The author asks whether higher education reform has run out of new things to say. The final two decades of the twentieth century were a remarkable period for innovation in undergraduate education. Many of higher education's earlier waves of reform had focused on curricular issues, on what should be taught. The new reformers by and large ignored…

  13. Assessing Students' Conceptions of Reform Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda J.

    As the use of National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored, reform- oriented mathematics curricula has become more prevalent across the U.S., an increasing number of researchers are attempting to study the "impact" of reform. In particular, mathematics educators are interested in determining whether reforms are having the desired effects on…

  14. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  15. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  16. Systemic Reform--Monitoring Its Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of questions that state policymakers can use to assess the systemic nature of their education reform efforts. Suggestions are offered for identifying the evidence of scope, coherence, and balance of reform. To assess the scope of reform, a first step is to determine if the performance-based standards provide the…

  17. Whose Job Is It to Lead Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    Much confusion exists today among board of education members and superintendents about governance roles, especially when a district is low performing and the public is demanding bold reform. Part of the confusion comes from the definition of reform. To many Americans, school reform means fine-tuning what education historian David B. Tyack calls…

  18. Catalog of School Reform Models. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buechler, Mark

    Comprehensive school reform involves changes in every aspect of school operations, from classroom instruction to school governance. Some schools develop their own reform approach from within. Others seek assistance from without, particularly from organizations that have developed coherent, research-based approaches, or school-reform models. For…

  19. School Reform and Schools as Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Schools' characteristics obstruct reform because teacher and student norms and values are at variance with one another. Because most reforms gobble teacher time, reduce teacher autonomy, and disturb current routines, they frequently fail. Chances for success will improve when context or reforms directly addressing organizational features are…

  20. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  1. Benchmarks for Success in High School Education: Putting Data to Work in School-to-Career Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan; Keough, Robert; Almeida, Cheryl

    This book describes an effort by Jobs for the Future (JFF) to help communities keep their school-to-career reform efforts on track through a process of goal setting and measurement that sets realistic and achievable reforms while still building toward fundamental educational change. The process is called "benchmarking," and those involved must:…

  2. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  3. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  4. Policy Diffusion and Transfer and Teachers' Perceptions within the Bologna Reforms: The Armenia case of Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand how higher education policy from the European Community is defused and transferred to Armenia, a developing country. Particularly, this study aims to delve deeper in the actual implementation process of higher education reforms in Armenia through teachers' perceptions. The findings mainly reveal that teachers do long…

  5. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution. PMID:12174483

  6. Heroism and Science Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robyn; Wallace, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes the activities of two prominent science educators who presided over Australian science curriculum reforms during the 1960s and 1970s. Represents the educators' actions as heroic and describe how the Heroes shaped, modified, and united the culture through referents, rituals, and artifacts. Speculates on the importance of heroic activity…

  7. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  8. Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, T; Allen, Lloyd; Irving, Patricia M.

    2002-12-01

    has developed a proprietary catalyst formulation for the fuel processor that is being developed for use with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The catalyst has been tested for the steam reforming of various hydrocarbons such as natural gas, iso-octane, retail gasoline, and hexadecane. A 300h continuous test has shown that the catalyst has very stable performance for steam reforming of iso-octane at 800?C with a steam/C ratio of 3.6. The same catalyst was also tested for steam reforming hexadecane (a surrogate of diesel) for 73h as well as natural gas for over 150h continuously, without deactivation or carbon deposition. Sulfur tolerance of the catalyst was tested using iso-octane containing various concentrations of sulfur. There was no catalyst deactivation after a 220h continuous test using iso-octane with 100ppm sulfur. For comparison, a nickel catalyst (12wt.% Ni/Al2O3) was also tested using different levels of sulfur in iso-octane. The results indicated that the InnovaTek catalyst has a substantially improved sulfur resistance compared to the nickel catalysts currently used for steam reforming. In addition, a variation of the catalyst was also used to reduce CO concentration to < 1% by water gas shift reaction.

  9. Teacher Empowerment and School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Devin G.; Mungai, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Teachers in high-needs settings working with diverse populations are typically cited as a central element for school improvement yet are often described as resistant to such efforts. We sought to investigate the reasons behind teachers' views and beliefs about school reform within the context of collaboration and professional development, rather…

  10. Structural Management with Participatory Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Judy

    Administrative managers who have the trust of their employees, who listen to their employees openly, and who share power with their employees are better equipped to confront and overcome obstacles. This paper discusses models for structural management that include participatory reforms. It identifies four common models of administration--rational,…

  11. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  12. Assessing Institutionalization of Educational Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Kalayci, Serpil Sezer

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to assess the institutionalization of a major reform in the faculties of education in Turkey in the 1990s. A survey was administered to faculty members in eight faculties of education in the academic year 2005-2006. Factor analysis, t-tests and ANOVAs, and OLS regressions were used. Findings indicate that the most problematic area…

  13. Congress enacts health care reform.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    Health care reform at last: After nearly a century of effort by Presidents from Theodore Roosevelt on down, the Congress finally agreed on and President Barack Obama signed into law a system that covers most Americans, regulates sharp insurance practices, and embraces a paradigm shift from acute institutionally focused care to chronic disease management based on home and community-based care. PMID:20465039

  14. Education Reform: A Governor's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Richard W.

    Enactment of South Carolina's Education Improvement Act of 1984 taught several lessons about successful education reform. The law provides for raising student performance by increasing academic standards; strengthening the teaching and testing of basic skills; elevating the teaching profession; improving leadership, management, and fiscal…

  15. Tax Reform and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Gail

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on college and university revenues and expenditures is reviewed. Institutional revenues are derived primarily from five sources: tuition, charitable contributions, debt financing, endowment income, and governmental appropriations. The effect of the new law on family and student income, savings, student…

  16. Poor Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Olivia

    This book analyzes how welfare reform can improve the lives of children, based on a study of successful programs that provide services to needy children and their families. The study looked at programs that operated in conjunction with the welfare department before the enactment of the Family Support Act and that operated successfully. Chapter 1…

  17. Reforming the Educational Administration Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklos, Erwin

    This paper discusses the conceptual reform of university-based graduate level administrator preparation programs. The functionalist, interpretative, and critical approaches to social science have important implications for the study of motivation, decision-making, communication and leadership. Interpretative and critical approaches must be woven…

  18. Misrecognition and Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-01-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and…

  19. Teacher Education Reform. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    1999-01-01

    Reviews three books that examine teacher-education reform from an international comparative perspective: "The Crisis in Teacher Education: A European Concern," by Anthony Adams and Witold Tulasiewicz; "Global Perspectives on Teacher Education," edited by Colin Brock; and "Learning and Teaching in an International Context: Research, Theory and…

  20. Battling for national health reform.

    PubMed

    DiVenere, L; Davis, M C

    1993-03-01

    At stake are the futures of all health care providers, including those that provide home care and hospice care. Who in Washington holds the ammunition to wage a winning war? Here is your insider's guide to the health reform leaders and their likely strategies. Be assured only that their battles will be intense. PMID:10123976

  1. Reform and Resistance at Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, both Harvard and Oxford Universities have been rattled by reform-minded--some say brash--leaders determined to question the status quo. At Harvard, President Lawrence H. Summers proved too controversial for his own good and is scheduled to step down this month after five contentious years in office. But at Oxford, John Hood, who…

  2. Holmes Group Pursues Reform Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    The Holmes Group is a national organization of some 90 research universities that addresses the low quality of teacher preparation. Its goals are to reform teacher education and teaching itself by promoting intellectually sound programs, recognizing teacher differences, revising standards, connecting education programs with schools, and improving…

  3. Group Polarization and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David; Magdaleno, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Although educational leaders may be optimistic about initiating change, lasting reforms are rare. The group polarization literature, although dated, provides an important explanation for a very current problem. The theory holds that when there are differences of opinion to begin with, a counter-conformity effect works among members of groups.…

  4. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  5. Reforming Educational Administration: Ethical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that serious ethical questions regarding the preparation of prospective school administrators have arisen out of the American reform movement. Discusses university-sponsored educational administration programs in the context of the social contract between the university and its various shareholders. Argues that such programs have a major…

  6. [Impact of health care reform on human resources and employment management].

    PubMed

    Brito Quintana, P E

    2000-01-01

    According to those in charge of health sector reform, human resources are the key component of health sector reform processes and offer health services their greatest competitive advantage. With the help of the Observatory for Human Resources within Health Sector Reform promoted by the Pan American Health Organization and other groups, countries of the Region of the Americas have now begun to gather, in a methodical fashion, tangible evidence of the decisive importance of human resources within health sector reform initiatives and particularly of the impact of these initiatives on health personnel. This mutual influence is the main theme of this article, which explores the most disturbing aspects of health sector reform from a human resources perspective, including job instability and conflicting interests of employers and employees. PMID:11026774

  7. Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

  8. [Governance and health: the rise of the managerialism in public sector reform].

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean L; Lamothe, Lise; Langley, Ann; Stéphane, Guérard

    2010-01-01

    The article examines various healthcare systems reform projects in Canada and some Canadian provinces and reveals some tendencies in governance renewal. The analisis is based on the hypothesis that reform is an exercise aiming at the renewal of governance conception and practices. In renewing governance, reform leaders hope to use adequate and effective levers to attain announced reform objectives. The article shows that the conceptions and operational modalities of governance have changed over time and that they reveal tensions inherent to the transformation and legitimation process of public healthcare systems. The first section discusses the relationships between reform and change. The second section defines the conception of gouvernance used for the analisis. Based on a content analisis of the various reform reports, the third section reveals the evolution of the conception of governance in healthcare systems in Canada. In order to expose the new tendencies, ideologies and operational principles at the heart of the reform projects are analysed. Five ideologies are identified: the democratic ideology, the "population health" ideology, the business ideology, the managerial ideology and the ideology of equity and humanism. This leads to a discussion on the dominant influence of the managerial ideology in the current reform projects. PMID:20963305

  9. Performance tests for steam methane reformers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

    1982-08-01

    Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

  10. Health care reforms: the unfinished agenda.

    PubMed

    Defever, M

    1995-10-01

    A number of similar trends emerge in the development of major reform programs in all Western societies: (1) convergence and divergence: whether intentionally or not, the reform programs follow the proposed general directions across countries. This convergence is challenged by an opposite trend towards divergence through regionalization; (2) politics: the interference of the political process and of government coalitions is manifest in health policy making; (3) competition: the movement away from the public integrated model towards the public contract model is occurring in National Health Service type systems as well as in Health Insurance Systems; (4) privatization: the increase of the private sector is encouraged in all European countries by a variety of mechanisms such as opting-out and tax concessions; (5) inequity: gains in efficiency entail a decrease in availability and accessibility of high quality care among the different population groups; (6) management costs: cost-containment efforts lead to an increase in management costs especially of management information both in real money and human resources; (7) power shifts: there is a reorientation of the flux of money throughout the system with shifts in authority away from the traditional power groups; and (8) public deficits: concern about the reduction of public deficits prevails over cost-effectiveness, or macro-efficiency prevails over micro-efficiency. PMID:10151962

  11. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  12. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  13. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What is the…

  14. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  15. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    advanced to support market reforms and an industry view of the actual strategic actions undertaken by important utilities. Legislative changes will be reviewed for different countries with a discussion on the assessment procedures for these reforms. A detailed example of the reform process in the Finnish electricity market is presented. The investment issue will emerge as an interesting challenge to focus on, due to its importance for the market. The second approach is more analytical and develops on the market equilibria that could result from the new structure. A dynamic model of investment for the electricity market is built and applied to the Finnish market. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Institutional obstacles to educational reform.

    PubMed

    Bulger, R J

    1994-01-01

    For the full implications of health care reform to be implemented in health professions education, there will need to be a radical rethinking of educational missions and goals, as well as a careful analysis of the obstacles to educational reform that are currently extant within our academic centers and health professions schools. A series of steps should be taken to encourage the development of a collegial spirit among faculty and students across the major health professions. As costs of education become distinct from those of service and research, certain organizational steps will become apparent, such as: 1) developing separate postgraduate and undergraduate medical schools; and 2) forming a regional educational network to respond to the workforce demands of the region. PMID:7960089

  17. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  18. PBS reform - a missed opportunity?

    PubMed

    de Boer, Rebecca

    2009-05-01

    The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) reform package was announced in 2006 and was designed to save the government significant expenditure on the PBS through mandatory price cuts and price disclosure arrangements for multi-brand products. Perhaps most significantly, the formulary was spilt in two with no linkages between the formularies on either price or therapeutic outcome. This article examines the potential impact of these changes on the PBS and pharmaceutical policy in Australia more broadly. PMID:19563306

  19. Dealing with Resistance to Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Marc

    2008-09-01

    About the author: Any teacher, new or experienced, will at times face criticism, resistance, and even hostility from students, parents, and colleagues. An inexperienced teacher who runs a reformed classroom based on classroom discourse and "interactive engagement," both of which may run counter to school culture, risks resistance or even outright revolt. In this essay, which grew out of discussions on the Modeling Instruction Program Listserv, Marc Reif shares some strategies that can be used to forestall or deal with classroom opposition.

  20. Job satisfaction of village doctors during the new healthcare reforms in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fang, Pengqian

    2016-04-01

    Objective China launched new healthcare reforms in 2009 and several policies targeted village clinics, which affected village doctors' income, training and duties. The aim of the present study was to assess village doctors' job satisfaction during the reforms and to explore factors affecting job satisfaction. Methods Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, 935 village doctors in Jiangxi Province were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic information and contained a job satisfaction scale and questions regarding their work situation and individual perceptions of the new healthcare reforms. Descriptive analysis, Pearson's Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression were used to identify village doctors' job satisfaction and the factors associated with their job satisfaction. Results Only 12.72% of village doctors were either satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and the top three items leading to dissatisfaction were pay and the amount of work that had to be done, opportunities for job promotion and work conditions. Marriage, income, intention to leave, satisfaction with learning and training, social status, relationship with patients and satisfaction with the new healthcare reforms were significantly associated with job satisfaction (P<0.05). Conclusions China is facing critical challenges with regard to village doctors because of their low job satisfaction. For future healthcare reforms, policy makers should pay more attention to appropriate remuneration and approaches that incentivise village doctors to achieve the goals of the health reforms. What is known about the topic? Village doctors act as gatekeepers at the bottom tier of the rural health system. However, the policies of the new healthcare reform initiatives in China were centred on improving the quality of care delivered to the rural population and reducing fast-growing medical costs. There have been limited studies on village doctors

  1. Modeling of On-Cell Reforming Reaction for Planar SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Choongmo; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Hwang, Soon Cheol; Kim, Dohyung; Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-30

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is known to suffer thermal problem from high stack temperature during operation to generate high current. On-Cell Reforming (OCR) phenomenon is often used to reduce stack temperature by an endothermic reaction of steam-methane reforming process. RIST conducted single-cell experiment to validate modeling tool to simulate OCR performance including temperature measurement. 2D modeling is used to check reforming rate during OCR using temperature measurement data, and 3D modeling is used to check overall thermal performance including furnace boundary conditions.

  2. Nuclear Reformation at the End of Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Schellhaus, Anna Katharina; De Magistris, Paola; Antonin, Wolfram

    2016-05-22

    Cells have developed highly sophisticated ways to accurately pass on their genetic information to the daughter cells. In animal cells, which undergo open mitosis, the nuclear envelope breaks down at the beginning of mitosis and the chromatin massively condenses to be captured and segregated by the mitotic spindle. These events have to be reverted in order to allow the reformation of a nucleus competent for DNA transcription and replication, as well as all other nuclear processes occurring in interphase. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of how, in animal cells, the highly compacted mitotic chromosomes are decondensed at the end of mitosis and how a nuclear envelope, including functional nuclear pore complexes, reassembles around these decondensing chromosomes. PMID:26423234

  3. Instructional changes based on cogenerative physics reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Natan; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2013-01-01

    We describe changes in a physics teacher's pedagogy and cultural awareness that resulted from her students' involvement in reforming their classroom. For this case study, we examined a veteran high school teacher's semester-long use of CMPLE (the Cogenerative Mediation Process for Learning Environments) in her Modeling Instruction classroom. CMPLE is a formative intervention designed to help students and instructors collaborate to change classroom dynamics, based on how closely the environment matches their learning preferences. Analysis of classroom videos, interviews, and other artifacts indicates that adapting the environment to align with the preferences of that shared culture affected the instructor in complex ways. We will trace her teaching practices and her self-described awareness of the culture of learning, to highlight notable changes. The teacher espoused deeper understanding of her students' physics learning experience, which she gained from including students in responding to their own individual and collective learning preferences.

  4. Regulatory reform proposals and the public health.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Kyle, A D

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Congress is considering legislation that would change policy for environmental health in important ways. Current approaches have been criticized for addressing the wrong set of priorities and consuming too many resources. The legislation requires additional analyses and sets new decision criteria to be applied to federal agency actions taken to protect the environment and public health. Close review of the legislation suggests that though it is intended to address identified problems, it is unlikely to lead to an improved basis for public policy and is likely to paralyze the regulatory process. Reform proposals that reduce rather than increase fragmentation of decision-making and that address problems comprehensively rather than selectively are needed. PMID:8732938

  5. The Retrospection and Elicitation of China's Teacher Education Reform and Opening-Up More Than 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian-Ping, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Since implementation of reform and opening-up policy, China's teacher education has got significant success on policy design, legislation process, theory research, system reform, model innovation and teaching qualification system building. Teachers' educational background level has been increased. Teachers' professional ethics and teaching…

  6. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  7. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  8. Unpacking "Health Reform" and "Policy Capacity"

    PubMed Central

    Legge, David; Gleeson, Deborah H

    2015-01-01

    Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building. PMID:26673185

  9. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts. PMID:8034391

  10. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING DL

    2011-02-11

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  11. Being a Player in Teacher Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jerry L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a letter to Governors from the president of the International Reading Association addressing an increased discussion about teacher preparation programs and calls for teacher education reform. (SG)

  12. Healthcare Reform 2010- a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ullyot, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law President Barack Obama in March 2010. From the standpoint of a clinical surgeon, Dan Ullyot examines healthcare reform of the US system and asks: What is healthcare reform? Do we need it? What would ideal reform look like? And to what extent does the PPACA approach ideal reform? This article is a primer for understanding the salient features of this complex piece of federal legislation, which will have an enormous influence on the lives of this generation and those of the future. PMID:21928185

  13. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants. PMID:15693224

  14. Teachers' Response to Standards-Based Reform: Probing Reform Assumptions in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Hilary; Knapp, Michael S.; Elfers, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this…

  15. Toward Reform in Land Reform: Coupling Local Control and Social Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Charles C.

    An alternative to the traditional land reform movement in the United States and the recent land use reform movement would result in a merging of social control with local control over land. Traditional land reformers perceive that land is a private commodity subject to fee-simple ownership and near absolute control over its use and disposition.…

  16. Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

    2003-01-01

    School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the…

  17. Education Reform and Students At Risk. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert J.; Stringfield, Samuel C.

    Despite the widespread attention given to education reform, no substantial knowledge base has existed for identifying and implementing specific effective reforms. This document, the first of three volumes, presents findings of a study that sought to identify the essential mechanics of effective reforms for students at risk. The study also…

  18. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  19. Reforming the energy sector in transition economies: Selected experience and lessons. World Bank discussion paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.

    1995-08-01

    ;Contents: Background and Characteristics of the Energy Sector at the Beginning of the Reform Process; Energy Demand and Efficiency; Major Energy Production Issues in Central and Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union; Changing Structure of East-West Energy Trade; Energy Pricing; Energy Sector Revenues and Finances; Experience in Energy Reform Commercialization, Privatization and Links to the Macroeconomy; Lessons, Conclusions and Approaches to Improve; and Annexes.

  20. In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.

    2002-09-20

    The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

  1. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  2. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Steeper, Richard R.; Splitter, Derek A; Kalaskar, Vickey B; Pihl, Josh A; Daw, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  3. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOEpatents

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  5. The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them. PMID:14613523

  6. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Fred

    2009-10-01

    Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms. PMID:19765032

  7. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Rahman, Syed Azizur; Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Mustafa, Ahmed; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    that encourage positive responses among health workers b) the role of context has been underestimated and it is necessary to address broader systemic problems before initiating reform processes, c) reform programs need to incorporate active implementation research systems to learn the contextual dynamics and responses as well as have inbuilt program capacity for corrective measures d) health workers are key stakeholders in any reform process and should participate at all stages and e) some effects of reforms on the health workforce operate indirectly through levels of satisfaction voiced by communities utilising the services. PMID:17270042

  8. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size. PMID:27037897

  9. The Rocky Road to Reform in Rochester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    A profile of Rochester, New York, Public School District's educational reform efforts from 1987 to 1990 is offered in this case study. Following an overview of the city and its public schools, the impetus for educational reform is discussed, with attention given to the roles of the superintendent, teachers' union president, and school board.…

  10. Leading Mathematics Reform and the Lost Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    Queensland's primary school teachers have experienced change in every Key Learning Area in the last few years. This avalanche of curriculum reform is set to continue as schools prepare for the imminent release of the Australian national curriculum. This article reports on one school's approach to dealing with this avalanche of curriculum reform.…

  11. Educational Reform: A Self-Scrutinizing Memoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.

    In this book, the author candidly confronts errors he made of omission, commission, misplaced emphases, and watering down the depth and scope of his criticisms of the reform arena in his half-century involvement in educational reform. No other major figure in this arena has made public such a searching self-critique. Sharing his thoughts about the…

  12. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

  13. Lessons in Reading Reform: Finding What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian R.; Zau, Andrew C.; Koedel, Cory

    2010-01-01

    The San Diego Unified School District, the nation's eighth-largest, launched an ambitious program of literacy reforms in 2000 aimed at narrowing reading achievement gaps. Known as the Blueprint for Student Success, the program ran through 2005. The reforms succeeded in boosting the reading achievement of students who had been identified as lagging…

  14. Emerging Issues in Educational Reform in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the demand-supply continuum to look at emerging reforms in the Japanese educational system. Data from fieldwork in major urban districts and their prefectures in Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo highlight demand-driven reform (higher education restructuring), integrated governance (mediating demand and supply at the K-12 levels), and ongoing…

  15. Long Term Impact on Reforming Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marium T.

    This paper describes Morehead State University's support of the Kentucky Education Reform Act through mini-grants to public school teachers to help them implement state reform mandates and guidelines in the classroom through in-school action research projects. Morehead State University funded 18 mini-grants to 14 different schools in 11 different…

  16. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity programs such…

  17. How Block Scheduling Reform Effects Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Flinders, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Block scheduling has become an increasingly popular reform movement for schools, school districts, and principals to enact. Much of the decision making as to whether to implement some type of block scheduling has occurred without understanding the implications this type of reform has on teachers and their classroom practices. This paper reports on…

  18. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax system…

  19. Reforming Administrator Preparation Programs. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This publication contains four chapters that examine the reform of administrator preparation programs. In "The Reform Paradigm: Exploring the Fuzzy Logic of Educational Administration," William Ammentorp and Thomas Morgan develop a model based on linguistic algorithms to understand qualitative policy formation and decision making. In "Student…

  20. A fresh start for health reform?

    PubMed

    Kendall, D B

    1996-01-01

    Health reform isn't a popular subject in Washington these days, but problems of cost and access persist. The author, a senior health policy analyst for the Progressive Policy Institute, argues that in next year's debate of tax reform, a few modest changes could lead to a more effective and universal market for health care. PMID:10158552

  1. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  2. Teacher Generations in an Era of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Steen; Hansen, Dion Russelbak

    2009-01-01

    Danish upper-secondary school is currently undergoing remarkable changes. Comprehensive reforms and restructuring have transformed teacher roles and school organization. However, not all upper-secondary teachers welcome reform: on the one hand, they have to adopt norms, standards and values determined by colleagues, if they want to "fit in"; on…

  3. Understanding Parole Officers' Responses to Sanctioning Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Travis, Lawrence F., III; Makarios, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    There are constant calls for reform in the criminal justice system, but observers have often reported that criminal justice reform is an exceptionally challenging task. As with any organizational change, resistance to new policies, procedures, and practices comes from a variety of sources. The relatively broad discretionary authority vested in…

  4. The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

  5. Introduction: An Issue on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pink, William T.

    1986-01-01

    The six articles in this issue suggest that, prior to selection and implementation, school reforms be critically examined for the following: (1) curricular content and impact on complex social organization of school; and (2) sufficient flexibility to permit teachers and building leaders to adapt reforms to local needs. (PS)

  6. Utah's Educational Reform Programs, 1991-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    In November 1983, the Utah Education Reform Steering Committee issued the report "Education in Utah: A Call to Action." To meet Utah's double challenge of rapid growth and quality enhancement, the report stated that Utah needed to: (1) increase the allocation of financial resources to education; (2) demand reforms in many aspects of education; and…

  7. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.; Whelan, James A.

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  8. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  9. School Teachers' Experiences of Science Curriculum Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2013-02-01

    We examine teachers' experiences of a major reform of the school science curriculum for 14-16-year olds in England. This statutory reform enhances the range of available science courses and emphasises the teaching of socio-scientific issues and the nature of science, alongside the teaching of canonical science knowledge. This paper examines teachers' experiences of the reform and the factors that condition these experiences. A designed sample of 22 teachers discussed their experiences of the reform within a semi-structured interview. Our analysis considers how the external and internal structures within which teachers work interact with the personal characteristics of teachers to condition their experiences of the curriculum reform. In many cases, personal/internal/external contexts of teachers' work align, resulting in an overall working context that is supportive of teacher change. However, in other cases, tensions within these contexts result in barriers to change. We also explore cases in which external curriculum reform has stimulated the development of new contexts for teachers' work. We argue that curriculum reformers need to recognise the inevitability of multiple teaching goals within a highly differentiated department and school workplace. We also show how experiences of curriculum reform can extend beyond the learning of new knowledge and associated pedagogies to involve challenges to teachers' professional identities. We argue for the extended use of teacher role models within local communities of practice to support such 'identity work'.

  10. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  11. Recent History of Schooling Reform in Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common, Dianne L.

    The social climate in Manitoba has led, in the past 25 years, to an expectation of school reform that has been translated into varieties of political action. However, most of the reforms, instituted by government policymakers, have fallen short of public expectations. This paper explores lessons to be taken from these experiences in school reform…

  12. Higher Education Reform in the Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anthony W.

    2004-01-01

    Struggling economies, outdated academic cultural traditions, and obsolete organizational structures are among the problems facing higher education reformers in the Balkans today. Change comes hard there despite difficult financial circumstances that elsewhere might provide the impetus for reform. Yet governmental and university leaders are finding…

  13. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  14. Smart, Bold Reform for Powerful Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the author has spent time in hundreds of high schools reviewing data; observing classes; learning about interventions and whole-school reforms; and speaking with principals, teachers, counselors, and students. She has also been a district leader in New York City responsible for high school reform that has achieved promising…

  15. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  16. Taking Stock of a Decade of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Next, 2011

    2011-01-01

    School reformers have made forward strides in the last ten years, and public debate has acquired a bipartisan cast. But just how successful have reform efforts been? The editors of "Education Next" assess the movement's victories and challenges. Two essays are presented in this issue's "Forum": (1) "A Battle Begun, Not Won" (Paul E. Peterson,…

  17. Breaking the Consensus in Educational Policy Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The paper contributes to the debate on the implementation of policy reforms developing a typology for implementation based on the initial agreement on means and goals at the time of reform design. It is argued that the volume and nature of knowledge gathering and stakeholder involvement required to gain approval of a policy and avoid the…

  18. Secondary Education Reform: Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry

    In these lectures the author examines current criticisms of secondary education in light of the history of secondary education reform and then discusses future prospects for reform as they relate to the place of secondary education in modern American society. The author begins by presenting a retrospective analysis of a number of studies and…

  19. Historical Perspectives on the Current Education Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Vinovskis, Maris, Ed.

    This document contains 14 individual papers by prominent scholars who provide a historical perspective on current educational reforms. The three essays in part 1 examine some of the major changes in educational development and reform. These include: (1) "Antiquarianism and American Education: Assimilation, Adjustment, Access" (Patricia Graham);…

  20. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  1. What has Reform of Rape Legislation Wrought?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Wallace D.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the impact of common law and reform rape legislation on prosecution based on analysis of 445 forcible and statutory rape cases in King County, Washington. Concludes that the impact of the statutory reform has been mainly symbolic and educative for society at large, rather than instrumental for law enforcement. (Author/MJL)

  2. Designing Meaningful Developmental Reform. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle; Stacey, Georgia West

    2013-01-01

    This practitioner packet is designed to help community college administrators implement reforms to developmental education at their colleges. It reviews common impediments to developmental reform and presents data that supports directions colleges can take to create a system of developmental education that might serve students more effectively.…

  3. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  4. Teacher Evaluation Reform: Focus, Feedback, and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2016-01-01

    How are teachers experiencing the more rigorous teacher evaluation systems that many states have mandated in recent years? Donaldson, who has studied teacher evaluation reform over the past eight years, shares insights from a study of 14 Connecticut districts that have implemented the state's 2012 teacher evaluation reforms. In surveys and…

  5. Academic Health Centers and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Stephen H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of academic health centers in health care reform efforts looks at the following issues: balancing academic objectivity and social advocacy; managing sometimes divergent interests of centers, faculty, and society; and the challenge to develop infrastructure support for reform. Academic health centers' participation in…

  6. Health Care Reform: A Values Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popko, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the crisis in health care, considering costs, lack of access, and system ineffectiveness. Reviews "Setting Relationships Right," the Catholic Health Association's proposal for health care reform. Advocates educators' awareness of children's health needs and health care reform issues and support for the Every Fifth Child Act of 1992. (DMM)

  7. These Seven School "Reforms" Could Backfire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Bill

    1987-01-01

    State legislation designed to help schools and students achieve "excellence" may spawn numerous unforeseen consequences. This article discusses seven potentially harmful reform ideas: extended school year, mimimum competency tests, reliance on standardized achievement tests, state-mandated courses or curricula, blue ribbon reform panels, more…

  8. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  9. Rationing Education: Policy, Practice, Reform and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David; Youdell, Deborah

    This book examines gender, racial/ethnic, and class inequalities in education, analyzing the impact of major reforms and exploring routine practices by which inequalities are reproduced and legitimized. It describes observations and interviews at two British secondary schools that show the costs of reform in terms of pressures on teachers and…

  10. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  11. Strategic Leadership and School Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peiying

    2008-01-01

    This article examines school leadership in the context of Taiwanese educational reform since the mid-1990s. The goal of the inquiry is twofold: to explore the conflicts that school administrators have confronted in facilitating school reform and to analyze the strategic and innovative leadership practices that have facilitated improvements in…

  12. What, After All, Should Beida Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liping, Sun

    2005-01-01

    As a person who worked for more than twenty years at Beida, I must say I entertain quite complicated feelings about Beida?s current reform. First of all, I am still somewhat in the fold, and it is inevitable that an emotional patina would be involved. More important, the university's reform itself is too complicated, or I should say that the…

  13. A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…

  14. Redesigning Teacher Salary Systems for Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.

    1994-01-01

    How changes in teacher pay can contribute to systemic educational reform and school restructuring is discussed, focusing on knowledge- and skill-based pay, job enlargement, and collective incentives. These alternatives have the potential to improve teacher motivation and support other reforms. (SLD)

  15. Introduction to "The Politics of Educational Reforms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that education is a site of conflict. This essay examines the ideological positions that now dominate educational reforms and suggests a number of roles that critically democratic educators should play in confronting these reforms. It then details the contributions that the authors included in this special issue…

  16. Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

  17. On Rhetorical Battleground, "Reform" Proves Potent Weapon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric of education today tends to divide the world in two: between those who favor "reform" and those who don't. Many who consider themselves reformers say they stand in opposition to the "status quo." Some of them speak of the need to challenge the "education establishment," or the education bureaucracy. Many also describe their policies…

  18. Reforming Higher Education in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia G. M.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in eastern Europe begins with a description of the major European programs promoting international mobility for students and scholars and then examines reform efforts in the former Soviet Union, Poland, and former East Germany. Critical factors in the success of reforms are outlined. (MSE)

  19. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  20. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  1. Equity in Reform: Case Studies of Five Middle Schools Involved in Systemic Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Jane Butler; Kelly, Mary Kay

    Science and mathematics education reform documents of the last decade have called for improved teaching and learning for all children. To overcome inequalities, a systemic approach to reform has been adopted. The case studies synthesized in this analysis arc part of a larger effort to reform science and mathematics education systemically and assess the progress of systemic reform. The purpose of this study was to assess the progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform in five middle schools. A multiple-case study design was used, and qualitative data were collected. Kahle's Equity Metric was used to analyze the schools' progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform of mathematics and science. Two results occurred: Various equity issues were identified in the five case studies, and the metric proved efficacious in identifying barriers to or facilitators of equitable reform in the schools. Overall, the study illustrates how schools might assess their commitments to providing high-quality science and mathematics education to all students.

  2. Managed care and Medicare reform.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, J B

    1997-04-01

    A primary goal of many Medicare reform proposals is to move program beneficiaries into managed care plans operated by private insurance companies. Advocates contend that managed care plans, especially health maintenance organizations (HMOs), can save substantial money for the federal government, while also improving the quality of medical care and scope of covered benefits for Medicare enrollees. Should Medicare follow the private sector by adopting managed care-based reforms? This article summarized the claims that are made for and against incorporating managed care into Medicare, and reviews evidence from the program's experience with HMOs on financial savings, benefits coverage, and quality of care. This evidence raises concerns regarding the ability of HMOs to provide adequate care for chronically ill Medicare patients. Moreover, there is considerable uncertainty about the future performance of managed care plans. I therefore conclude that policy makers should move cautiously in embracing managed care and that Medicare should not adopt financial incentives, such as vouchers, that are intended to push beneficiaries into HMOs. However, Medicare beneficiary enrollment in managed care plans is likely to increase substantially in coming years regardless of public policy. It is therefore critical for Medicare to pursue policies that protect the quality of care for elderly and disabled patients in managed care plans; curtail excessive payments to HMOs that result from favorable selection of healthier enrollees; and preserve the current fee-for-service Medicare program. PMID:9159717

  3. Contextual Barriers to School Reform in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arco-Tirado, José L.; Fernández-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    2003-11-01

    Over the past two decades, the Spanish educational system has undergone various legal reforms. However, judging by the low educational performance of Spanish students as reported by the OECD for the year 2001, it seems that additional reforms are necessary. Several factors may account for the failure of previous reforms to attain the desired results. These include: (a) educators' low expectations that further reforms will succeed, (b) lack of financial resources, (c) institutional lack of commitment to implement the structural and administrative changes called for and (d) the adoption of questionable theoretical models for making appropriate structural, curricular and educational decisions. This essay presents some suggestions for implementing a reform program that would bring about substantial changes in these areas.

  4. Health financing and insurance reform in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Kress, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The government of Morocco approved two reforms in 2005 to expand health insurance coverage. The first is a payroll-based mandatory health insurance plan for public- and formal private-sector employees to extend coverage from the current 16 percent of the population to 30 percent. The second creates a publicly financed fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms aim to improve access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and between rural and urban dwellers. In this paper we analyze these reforms: the pre-reform debate, benefits covered, financing, administration, and oversight. We also examine prospects and future challenges for implementing the reforms. PMID:17630444

  5. Catalytic reforming of heart cut fcc naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, L.A.

    1985-03-01

    The anticipated lead phasedown in the USA and the growing demand for unleaded gasoline will require a higher gasoline pool octane number. One of the possibilities to achieve this increase of pool octane will be catalytic reforming of FCC naphtha. In this paper we evaluate the effects of FCC naphtha reforming on the reformer operation and gasoline pool volume for various lead phasedown scenarios. High-stability reforming catalysts, like TPR-8/CK-522 TRILOBE catalyst, will be required to maintain acceptable cycle lengths at the more severe reformer operating conditions. The properties and octane distribution of FCC naphtha are discussed, as well as its hydrotreating with high-active NiMo catalysts.

  6. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  7. Steam reforming of DOE complex waste simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has worked with Synthetica Technologies and Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCl) to demonstrate the applicability of their commercial steam reforming technologies for treating DOE low-level mixed wastes. Previously, Synthetica successfully demonstrated destruction of a Sandia formulated lab trash simulant. During November 1994 Synthetica did not adequately process the aqueous halogenated organic liquid mixed waste simulant (MWTP-2110) formulated by the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing at MTCl is ongoing and initial results appear to be favorable. Approximately 200 lbs each of the MWIP aqueous halogenated organic liquids (MWTP-2110), and absorbed aqueous and organic liquids (MWTP-3113/3114) simulants have been processed. At 1650{degree}F, destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were obtained for tetrachloroethylene, toluene, and 1,2 dichlorobenzene. Product cases consisted primarily of H{sub 2}, C0{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} and had higher heating values of up to 355 BTU/SCF. Conclusions concerning the suitability of the MTCI process for treating DOE mixed wastes will be drawn upon the completion of testing.

  8. Results of the market-oriented reform in the Netherlands: a review.

    PubMed

    Maarse, Hans; Jeurissen, Patrick; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The market-oriented reform in the Dutch health care system is now in its 10th year. This article offers a concise overview of some of its effects thus far on health insurance, healthcare purchasing and healthcare provision. Furthermore, attention is given to its impact on healthcare expenditures, power and trust relationships as well as the relationship between the Minister of Health and the Dutch Healthcare Authority. The reform triggered various alterations in Dutch health care some occurring quickly (e.g. health insurance), others taking longer (e.g. purchasing). These developments suggest a process of gradual transformation. The reform has instigated controversy which is increasingly framed as a power conflict between insurers and providers. Weakened consumer trust in insurers threatens the legitimacy of the reform. The relationship between Minister and Healthcare Authority appears to be more intimate than the formal independent status of this regulatory agency would suggest. PMID:26278627

  9. Study on the path of comprehensive reform and development of the People's Hospital of Shimian County.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Gui; Gao, Wan-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The People's Hospital of Shimian County is located in the underdeveloped agricultural county of western China with a population of 120,000. In light of the region's geographic location and cultural characteristics, the hospital has laid out a development strategy of becoming a regional healthcare service center-in Shimian and extends services to surrounding regions. Its reform process would start with the overhaul of the personnel system to rejuvenate the hospital's internal operation, and then move towards more comprehensive reforms on corporate governance structure and trans-regional integration of medical resources. On the basis of constructing a digital hospital, we would build an information platform to explore the 'Shimian model' of information-based healthcare reform through regional medical coordination and whole-sector oversight. An appropriate strategy and development roadmap, comprehensively internal and external reforms and persistent culture building, as well as the use of information technology will help put the hospital onto a track of fast and healthy development and in the right direction of healthcare reform that accords with our national circumstances. This article makes a review, summary and analysis of the process and further discusses about how to overhaul the healthcare system through reform and development. PMID:25333011

  10. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  11. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer.

  12. Health reform: examining the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Custer, W

    1994-03-01

    This Issue Brief examines the major issues of the health reform debate. The issues that must be resolved before reform can be enacted include: allocation of health care resources, universal coverage versus universal access, composition of risk pools, employer and individual mandates, and distribution of health care services' costs. This report also contains short descriptions and analyses of the following proposals: McDermott-Wellstone, Clinton administration, Cooper-Breaux, Chafee-Thomas, Michel-Lott, Nickles-Stearns, and Gramm. Proposals without an individual mandate will not achieve universal coverage. An individual mandate raises significant enforcement issues. An employer mandate will not achieve universal coverage by itself. Depending on the number of hours an employee must work to be included in a mandate, an employer mandate could potentially extend health insurance coverage to as many as 85 percent of the currently uninsured. Each individual has a risk of needing health care services. Restructuring the health insurance market is accomplished by changing the way individuals and their risks are pooled. The composition of these risk pools will determine the costs of health insurance and the distribution of these costs. The theory behind medical saving accounts is that the market for health insurance currently leads to health care cost inflation because many events covered under most health insurance plans are not truly insurable. There are two issues involved in medical savings accounts--the impact on low-income individuals and individuals' ability to evaluate the quality of care they receive. The present market does not provide individuals with adequate information for assessing the quality or effectiveness of medical care. Among the critical issues in health reform is how to reduce the rate of health care cost inflation. The effect of proposals that impose explicit budget caps or price controls on health care cost inflation can be more easily estimated than

  13. Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

  14. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes. PMID:22069803

  15. Scientists researching teaching: Reforming science education and transforming practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    Reforming science education is a multidimensional and complex undertaking. Of extreme importance is transforming how teachers teach. Answering the equity call of reform initiatives requires focusing on the underlying values and beliefs guiding teacher action and the promotion of inclusive practices (Brickhouse, 2001; Harding, 1994; Eisenhart, Finkel, & Marion, 1995; Mayberry & Rees, 1999; Rodriguez, 1997). Reform efforts within the last decade are being directed at college level science courses. Course and pedagogical transformations are particularly aimed at increasing the numbers of females and persons of color in science and improving the education of preservice teachers. Facilitating transformations toward these goals at the individual and program level is challenging work. This study explores and describes the conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy. Two science professors affiliated with a reform collaborative were the main participants of the research. The professors, in collaboration with the primary researcher, engaged in assisted action research that lead to the identification and descriptions of their context and practical teaching theories. Among the questions explored were: "How does placing the professor in a position to conduct an assisted action research project help to foster teacher change conditions?" "How do the practical theories guiding the professors' teaching foster or impede inclusionary practice?" "What necessary conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy emerged from the study?". Using case study and ethnographic qualitative research strategies for data collection and analysis, this study affords a unique perspective through which to consider why and how science professors change their practice. Data indicated that the assisted action research strategy fostered the conditions of teacher change. In addition, findings revealed that the professors shared a teacher and curriculum

  16. Multiple Aims in the Development of a Major Reform of the National Curriculum for Science in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2011-03-01

    In the context of a major reform of the school science curriculum for 14-16-year-olds in England, we examine the aims ascribed to the reform, the stakeholders involved, and the roles of differing values and authority in its development. This reform includes an emphasis on socioscientific issues and the nature of science; curriculum trends of international relevance. Our analysis identifies largely 'instrumental' aims, with little emphasis on 'intrinsic' aims and associated values. We identify five broad categories of stakeholders focusing on different aims with, for example, a social, individual, political, or economic emphasis. We suggest that curriculum development projects reflecting largely social and individual aims were appropriated by other stakeholders to serve political and economic aims. We argue that a curriculum reform body representing all stakeholder interests is needed to ensure that multiple aims are considered throughout the curriculum reform process. Within such a body, the differentiated character of the science teaching community would need to be represented.

  17. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  18. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

  19. Reform in teaching preclinical pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Yu; Li, Kun; Yao, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Qiao-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Pathophysiology is a scientific discipline that studies the onset and progression of pathological conditions and diseases, and pathophysiology is one of the core courses in most preclinical medical curricula. In China, most medical schools house a Department of Pathophysiology, in contrast to medical schools in many developed countries. The staff in Chinese Departments of Pathophysiology generally consists of full-time instructors or lecturers who teach medical students. These lecturers are sometimes lacking in clinic knowledge and experiences. To overcome this, in recent years, we have been trying to bring new trends in teaching pathophysiology into our curriculum. Our purpose in writing this article was to share our experiences with our colleagues and peers worldwide in the hope that the insights we have gained in pathophysiology teaching will be of some value to educators who advocate teaching reform in medical schools. PMID:26628645

  20. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  1. University Governance Reforms: Potential Problems of More Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    University governance reforms are very much a reflection of the broader New Public Management reforms that are focusing on increasing efficiency in public organizations. The article deals with how university reform ideas of a generic nature, emphasizing that universities should be treated and reformed like any other public organizations, are…

  2. Reform of Preservice Teacher Education: Doomed to Failure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Cruz, Josue, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Reform of teacher education involves reformulation and reconceptualization, not a simple patch-up. Reform means moving away from the college-of-education, research-driven approach to the closer-to-the-source public schools. Reform-minded people must pursue long-term solutions, concentrate on reforming university-based teacher educators, and…

  3. A Cautionary Tale. School Reform in England: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a symposium on British school reform under the 1988 Education Reform Act. In England and the United States, school reform is driven by "conservative restoration" forces that emerged in Western democracies about 15 years ago. English reforms embody a relentless program of government initiatives inspired by free-market doctrines similar…

  4. Healthcare reform version 1.0.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Gail R

    2010-05-01

    The primary focus of the March 23 healthcare reform legislation is on reforming insurance and expanding coverage; less direct attention is given to slowing spending while improving outcomes and patient safety. Many of the key provisions regarding coverage and financing will unfold during the period of now through 2014. The primary strategies proposed for "bending the cost curve" in the House and Senate versions of reform-the tax on high-cost plans and the new advisory board that could fast-track payment changes in Medicare that would reduce spending-are also included in the final legislation, but in muted form. PMID:20446424

  5. The Research of Software Engineering Curriculum Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Li-Qun; Han, Xie

    With the problem that software engineering training can't meet the needs of the community, this paper analysis some outstanding reasons in software engineering curriculum teaching, such as old teaching contents, weak in practice and low quality of teachers etc. We propose the methods of teaching reform as guided by market demand, update the teaching content, optimize the teaching methods, reform the teaching practice, strengthen the teacher-student exchange and promote teachers and students together. We carried out the reform and explore positive and achieved the desired results.

  6. Health care reform and the new economy.

    PubMed

    Starr, P

    2000-01-01

    The objectives and assumptions of health care reform have changed repeatedly during the past century and may now be entering a new historical phase as a result of the "new economy" rooted in information technology. In a high-growth context, proponents of reform may no longer feel obliged to bundle expanded coverage with tighter cost containment. At the same time, the new digital environment may facilitate innovations intended to inform and expand consumer choice and to improve quality. The new environment elevates "transparency" to a guiding principle. Health informatics has long been peripheral to reform and must now become more central. PMID:11192407

  7. An attempt to minimize the temperature gradient along a plug-flow methane/steam reforming reactor by adopting locally controlled heating zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozdzierz, M.; Brus, G.; Sciazko, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.

    2014-08-01

    Plug flow reactors are very common in the chemical process industry, including methane/steam reforming applications. Their operation presents many challenges, such as a strong dependence of temperature and composition distribution on the inlet conditions. The strongly endothermic methane/steam reforming reaction might result in a temperature drop at the inlet of the reactor and consequently the occurrence of large temperature gradients. The strongly non-uniform temperature distribution due to endothermic chemical reaction can have tremendous consequences on the operation of the reactor, such as catalyst degradation, undesired side reactions and thermal stresses. To avoid such unfavorable conditions, thermal management of the reactor becomes an important issue. To carry out thermal management properly, detailed modeling and corresponding numerical analyses of the phenomena occurring inside the reforming system is required. This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the methane/steam reforming process inside a plug-flow reactor. To optimize the reforming reactors, detailed data about the entire reforming process is required. In this study the kinetics of methane/steam reforming on the Ni/YSZ catalyst was experimentally investigated. Measurements including different thermal boundary conditions, the fuel flow rate and the steam- to-methane ratios were performed. The reforming rate equation derived from experimental data was used in the numerical model to predict gas composition and temperature distribution along the steam-reforming reactor. Finally, an attempt was made to control the temperature distribution by adopting locally controlled heating zones.

  8. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well. PMID:22319407

  9. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  10. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  11. "An army of reformed drunkards and clergymen": the medicalization of habitual drunkenness, 1857-1910.

    PubMed

    Chavigny, Katherine A

    2014-07-01

    Historians have recognized that men with drinking problems were not simply the passive subjects of medical reform and urban social control in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America but also actively shaped the partial medicalization of habitual drunkenness. The role played by evangelical religion in constituting their agency and in the historical process of medicalization has not been adequately explored, however. A post-Civil War evangelical reform culture supported institutions that treated inebriates along voluntary, religious lines and lionized former drunkards who publicly promoted a spiritual cure for habitual drunkenness. This article documents the historical development and characteristic practices of this reform culture, the voluntarist treatment institutions associated with it, and the hostile reaction that developed among medical reformers who sought to treat intemperance as a disease called inebriety. Those physicians' attempts to promote therapeutic coercion for inebriates as medical orthodoxy and to deprive voluntarist institutions of public recognition failed, as did their efforts to characterize reformed drunkards who endorsed voluntary cures as suffering from delusions arising from their disease. Instead, evangelical traditions continued to empower reformed drunkards to publicize their own views on their malady which laid the groundwork for continued public interest in alcoholics' personal narratives in the twentieth century. Meanwhile, institutions that accommodated inebriates' voluntarist preferences proliferated after 1890, marginalizing the medical inebriety movement and its coercive therapeutics. PMID:23417017

  12. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  13. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  14. European hospital reforms in times of crisis: aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe. PMID:24703855

  15. Using accountability for mental health to drive reform.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B; McGorry, Patrick D; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Burns, Jane; Christensen, Helen; Mendoza, John; Rosen, Alan; Russell, Lesley M; Sinclair, Sally

    2015-10-19

    Greatly enhanced accountability can drive mental health reform. As extant approaches are ineffective, we propose a new approach. Australia spends around $7.6 billion on mental health services annually, but is anybody getting better? Effective accountability for mental health can reduce variation in care and increase effective service provision. Despite 20 years of rhetoric, Australia's approach to accountability in mental health is overly focused on fulfilling governmental reporting requirements rather than using data to drive reform. The existing system is both fragmented and outcome blind. Australia has failed to develop useful local and regional approaches to benchmarking in mental health. New approaches must address this gap and better reflect the experience of care felt by consumers and carers, as well as by service providers. There are important social priorities in mental health that must be assessed. We provide a brief overview of the existing system and propose a new, modest but achievable set of indicators by which to monitor the progress of national mental health reform. These indicators should form part of a new, system-wide process of continuous quality improvement in mental health care and suicide prevention. PMID:26465695

  16. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C.

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  17. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  18. Aligning payment reform and delivery innovation in emergency care.

    PubMed

    Pines, Jesse M; McStay, Frank; George, Meaghan; Wiler, Jennifer L; McClellan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Current alternative payment models (APMs) that move away from traditional fee-for-service payment often have explicit goals to reduce utilization in episodic settings, such as emergency departments (ED). We apply the new HHS payment reform taxonomy to illustrate a pathway to success for EDs in APMs. Despite the unique challenges faced by EDs, a variety of category 2 and 3 APMs may be applicable to EDs in the short- and long term to improve efficiency and value. Full and partially capitated models create incentives for longitudinal and episodic ED providers and payers to unite to create interventions to reduce costs. However, prospective attribution remains a challenge for EDs because of exogenous demand, which makes it important for EDs to be one of the components of capitated payment along with longitudinal providers who can exert greater control on overall care demands. The goal of payment and delivery reforms in ED care is to improve population health across the continuum of acute and longitudinal care. In order to deliver cost-conscious care, ED providers will need additional resources, expanded information, and new processes and metrics to facilitate cost-conscious decisions. Improved availability of electronic information across settings, evidence generated from developing and testing acute care-specific payment models, and engaging acute care providers directly in reform efforts will help meet these goals. PMID:27541697

  19. The reorientation of market-oriented reforms in Swedish health-care.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M I; Calltorp, J

    2000-01-01

    Sweden was an important pioneer of market-oriented reform in publicly funded health-care systems. Yet by the mid-1990s the county councils, which fund and manage most health-care, had substantially scaled back reforms based on provider competition while continuing to constrain health budgets. As policy makers faced new issues, they turned increasingly to longer-term and more cooperative contracts to define relations between hospitals and the county councils. Growing regionalization of government and hospital mergers further reconfigured acute care and limited opportunities for competition between hospitals. We seek to explain this reorientation of market-oriented reforms between 1989 and 1996 in terms of shifts in the positions taken by powerful policy actors, and in particular by county council politicians. During this period, elections moved liberal and conservative politicians, who were the most enthusiastic supporters of market-oriented reform, in and out of control of most county governments. Meanwhile many Social Democratic politicians gradually turned from initial support of competitive reform toward opposition. Politicians and county administrators from all parties were particularly concerned about controlling health expenditures during a period of recession. In addition, the public, politicians in the counties and municipalities, and health professionals resisted steps that threatened health sector employment and would have allowed market mechanisms, rather than governments, to determine the prices and distribution of health services. During the years under study Sweden's market-oriented reforms followed a course of development similar to that taken by other management and policy fashions (Abrahamson E. Management fashion, Academy of Management Review 1996;21: 254-85). At first the reforms enjoyed uncritical support by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gradually participants in the reform process recognized inherent tensions among the goals of the reform

  20. Steam Reforming Technology for Denitration and Immobilization of DOE Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Ryan, K.; Schmoker, D.

    2003-02-26

    THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (THOR) is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC to further develop, market, and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM non-incineration, steam reforming waste treatment technology. This paper provides an overview of the THORSM steam reforming process as applied to the denitration and conversion of Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes to an immobilized mineral form. Using the THORSM steam reforming technology to treat nitrate containing tank wastes could significantly benefit the DOE by reducing capital and life-cycle costs, reducing processing and programmatic risks, and positioning the DOE to meet or exceed its stakeholder commitments for tank closure. Specifically, use of the THORSM technology can facilitate processing of up to 75% of tank wastes without the use of vitrification, yielding substantial life-cycle cost savings.