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Sample records for refractive index matching

  1. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    ScienceCinema

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2013-05-28

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Refractive index matching improves optical object detection in paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, J. M. S.; Heikkinen, S. M.; Fabritius, T. E. J.; Haapala, A. T.; Myllylä, R. A.

    2008-05-01

    The demand for high-quality recycled pulp products has increased the need for an efficient deinking process. Assessing process efficiency via residual ink on test sheets has so far been limited to the sheet surface due to the poor transparency of paper. A refractive index matching method was studied to obtain a quantitative measure of particles within the volume of a paper sheet. In actual measurements a glass plate with etched lines from 8.5 µm to 281.1 µm wide was placed beneath the layers of cleared paper, and visible lines were counted with a microscope. Three different paper grades were tested with transparentizing agents. A diffusion theory-based regression model was used to find a correlation between transparency, paper grammage and paper thickness. These equations enable the determination of the size of an object detectable from a paper with a certain transparentizing agent or the parameters of a test sheet needed to detect objects of a known size. Anise oil was found to be the better of the two agents used, and they both had better transparentizing ability than air or water. The transparent paper grammage of the paper grades was determined for all the tested media. Paper's transparency was found to depend more on paper's thickness than grammage.

  4. Aqueous ammonium thiocyanate solutions as refractive index-matching fluids with low density and viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero-Echeverry, D.; Morrison, B. C. A.

    2016-07-01

    We show that aqueous solutions of ammonium thiocyanate ({NH}4{SCN}) can be used to match the index of refraction of several transparent materials commonly used in experiments, while maintaining low viscosity and density compared to other common refractive index-matching liquids. We present empirical models for estimating the index of refraction, density, and kinematic viscosity of these solutions as a function of temperature and concentration. Finally, we summarize the chemical compatibility of ammonium thiocyanate with materials commonly used in apparatus.

  5. Internal characteristics of refractive-index matched debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Sanvitale, Nicoletta

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows are channelized masses of granular material saturated with water that travel at high speeds downslope. Their destructive character represents a hazard to lives and properties, especially in regions of high relief and runoff. The characteristics that distinguish their heterogeneous, multi-phase, nature are numerous: non-uniform surge formation, particle size ranging from clay to boulders, flow segregation with larger particles concentrating at the flow front and fluid at the tail making the composition and volume of the bulk varying with time and space. These aspects render these events very difficult to characterise and predict, in particular in the area of the deposit spread or runout - zones which are generally of most interest in terms of human risk. At present, considerable gaps exist in our understanding of the flow dynamics of debris flows, which originates from their complex motion and relatively poor observations available. Flume studies offer the potential to examine in detail the behaviour of model debris flows, however, the opaque nature of these flows is a major obstacle in gaining insight of their internal behaviour. Measurements taken at the sidewalls may be poorly representative leading to incomplete or misleading results. To probe internally to the bulk of the flow, alternative, nonintrusive techniques can be used, enabling, for instance, velocities and solid concentrations within the flowing material to be determined. We present experimental investigations into polydisperse granular flows of spherical immersed particles down an inclined flume, with specific attention directed to their internal behavior. To this end, the refractive indices of solids and liquid are closely matched allowing the two phases to be distinguished. Measurements are then made internally at a point in the channel via Plane Laser Induced Fluorescence, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, PTV and Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV. The objective is to to increase our

  6. Refractive-index-matched hydrogel materials for measuring flow-structure interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byron, Margaret L.; Variano, Evan A.

    2013-02-01

    In imaging-based studies of flow around solid objects, it is useful to have materials that are refractive-index-matched to the surrounding fluid. However, materials currently in use are usually rigid and matched to liquids that are either expensive or highly viscous. This does not allow for measurements at high Reynolds number, nor accurate modeling of flexible structures. This work explores the use of two hydrogels (agarose and polyacrylamide) as refractive-index-matched models in water. These hydrogels are inexpensive, can be cast into desired shapes, and have flexibility that can be tuned to match biological materials. The use of water as the fluid phase allows this method to be implemented immediately in many experimental facilities and permits investigation of high-Reynolds-number phenomena. We explain fabrication methods and present a summary of the physical and optical properties of both gels, and then show measurements demonstrating the use of hydrogel models in quantitative imaging.

  7. Aqueous ammonium thiocyanate solutions as refractive index-matching fluids with low density and viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Benjamin C.; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Index-matching fluids play an important role in many fluid dynamics experiments, particularly those involving particle tracking, as they can be used to minimize errors due to distortion from the refraction of light across interfaces of the apparatus. Common index-matching fluids, such as sodium iodide solutions or mineral oils, often have densities or viscosities very different from those of water. This can make them undesirable for use as a working fluid when using commercially available tracer particles or at high Reynolds numbers. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) can be used for index-matching common materials such as borosilicate glass and acrylic, and has material properties similar to those of water (ν ~ 1 . 6 cSt and ρ ~ 1 . 1 g/cc). We present an empirical model for predicting the refractive index of aqueous NH4SCN solutions as a function of temperature and NH4SCN concentration that allows experimenters to develop refractive index matching solutions for various common materials. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-0853691) and by the James Borders Physics Student Fellowship at Reed College.

  8. Refractive index matching to develop transparent polyaphrons: Characterization of immobilized proteins.

    PubMed

    Ward, Keeran; Stuckey, David C

    2016-06-01

    Refractive index matching was used to create optically transparent polyaphrons to enable proteins adsorbed to the aphron surface to be characterized. Due to the significant light scattering created by polyaphrons, refractive index matching allowed for representative circular dichroism (CD) spectra and acceptable structural characterization. The method utilized n-hexane as the solvent phase, a mixture of glycerol and phosphate buffer (30% [w/v]) as the aqueous phase, and the non-ionic surfactants, Laureth-4 and Kolliphor P-188. Deconvolution of CD spectra revealed that the immobilized protein adapted its native conformation, showing that the adsorbed protein interacted only with the bound water layer ("soapy shell") of the aphron. Isothermal calorimetry further demonstrated that non-ionic surfactant interactions were virtually non-existent, even at the high concentrations used (5% [w/v]), proving that non-ionic surfactants can preserve protein conformation. PMID:26952359

  9. Velocimetry with refractive index matching for complex flow configurations, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. E.; Vafidis, C.; Whitelaw, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining detailed velocity field measurements in large Reynolds number flow of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) main injector bowl was demonstrated using laser velocimetry and the developed refractive-index-matching technique. An experimental system to provide appropriate flow rates and temperature control of refractive-index-matching fluid was designed and tested. Test results are presented to establish the feasibility of obtaining accurate velocity measurements that map the entire field including the flow through the LOX post bundles: sample mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and spectral results are presented. The results indicate that a suitable fluid and control system is feasible for the representation of complex rocket-engine configurations and that measurements of velocity characteristics can be obtained without the optical access restrictions normally associated with laser velocimetry. The refractive-index-matching technique considered needs to be further developed and extended to represent other rocket-engine flows where current methods either cannot measure with adequate accuracy or they fail.

  10. High reliability solid refractive index matching materials for field installable connections in FTTH network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kotaro; Kihara, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Tomoya; Yoneda, Keisuke; Kurashima, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    We performed environmental and accelerated aging tests to ensure the long-term reliability of solid type refractive index matching material at a splice point. Stable optical characteristics were confirmed in environmental tests based on an IEC standard. In an accelerated aging test at 140 °C, which is very much higher than the specification test temperature, the index matching material itself and spliced fibers passing through it had steady optical characteristics. Then we performed an accelerated aging test on an index matching material attached to a built-in fiber before splicing it in the worst condition, which is different from the normal use configuration. As a result, we confirmed that the repeated insertion and removal of fiber for splicing resulted in failure. We consider that the repetition of adhesion between index matching material and fibers causes the splice to degrade. With this result, we used the Arrhenius model to estimate a median lifetime of about 68 years in a high temperature environment of 60 °C. Thus solid type index matching material at a splice point is highly reliable over long periods under normal conditions of use.

  11. Refractive index and solubility control of para-cymene solutions for index-matched fluid-structure interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Charles; Fu, Christopher D.; Weichselbaum, Noah A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-12-01

    To deploy optical diagnostics such as particle image velocimetry or planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in complex geometries, it is beneficial to use index-matched facilities. A binary mixture of para-cymene and cinnamaldehyde provides a viable option for matching the refractive index of acrylic, a common material for scaled models and test sections. This fluid is particularly appropriate for large-scale facilities and when a low-density and low-viscosity fluid is sought, such as in fluid-structure interaction studies. This binary solution has relatively low kinematic viscosity and density; its use enables the experimentalist to select operating temperature and to increase fluorescence signal in PLIF experiments. Measurements of spectral and temperature dependence of refractive index, density, and kinematic viscosity are reported. The effect of the binary mixture on solubility control of Rhodamine 6G is also characterized.

  12. Application of matching liquid on the refractive index measurement of biotissue: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-05-01

    The application of matching liquid on the measurement of the refractive index (RI) of biotissue using total internal reflection (TIR) method is investigated in detail. A theoretical model describing samples with different absorbing and scattering ability is given based on Fresnel formula. The theoretical calculation is verified by experimental results of three simulation samples (transparent plexiglass, white plexiglass and ZB3 glass) and cedar wood oil as the matching liquid. Reflectance curves of porcine tissue samples were recorded and systematically studied using two kinds of matching liquid (cedar wood oil and adipose oil) at the incident of TE and TM wave, respectively. Method for proper selection of matching liquid under different conditions is discussed.

  13. Best fit refractive index of matching liquid for 3D NIPAM gel dosimeters using optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Wu, Jay; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Chen, De-Shiou; Wang, Tzu-Hwei; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The accuracy of an optical computed tomography (CT)-based dosimeter is significantly affected by the refractive index (RI) of the matching liquid. Mismatched RI induces reflection and refraction as the laser beam passes through the gel phantom. Moreover, the unwanted light rays collected by the photodetector produce image artifacts after image reconstruction from the collected data. To obtain the best image quality, this study investigates the best-fit RI of the matching liquid for a 3D NIPAM gel dosimeter. The three recipes of NIPAM polymer gel used in this study consisted of 5% gelatin, 5% NIPAM and 3% N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, which were combined with three compositions (5, 10, and 20 mM) of Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride. Results were evaluated using a quantitative evaluation method of the gamma evaluation technique. Results showed that the best-fit RI for the non-irradiated NIPAM gel ranges from 1.340 to 1.346 for various NIPAM recipes with sensitivities ranging from 0.0113 to 0.0227. The greatest pass rate of 88.00% is achieved using best-fit RI=1.346 of the matching liquid. The adoption of mismatching RI decreases the gamma pass rate by 2.63% to 16.75% for all three recipes of NIPAM gel dosimeters. In addition, the maximum average deviation is less than 0.1% for the red and transparent matching liquids. Thus, the color of the matching liquid does not affect the measurement accuracy of the NIPAM gel dosimeter, as measured by optical CT.

  14. Optical detection enhancement in porous volumetric microfluidic capture elements using refractive index matching fluids

    PubMed Central

    Wiederoder, M. S.; Peterken, L.; Lu, A. X.; Rahmanian, O. D.; Raghavan, S. R.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Porous volumetric capture elements in microfluidic sensors are advantageous compared to planar capture surfaces due to higher reaction site density and decreased diffusion lengths that can reduce detection limits and total assay time. However a mismatch in refractive indices between the capture matrix and fluid within the porous interstices results in scattering of incident, reflected, or emitted light, significantly reducing the signal for optical detection. Here we demonstrate that perfusion of an index-matching fluid within a porous matrix minimizes scattering, thus enhancing optical signal by enabling the entire capture element volume to be probed. Signal enhancement is demonstrated for both fluorescence and absorbance detection, using porous polymer monoliths in a silica capillary and packed beds of glass beads within thermoplastic microchannels, respectively. Fluorescence signal was improved by a factor of 3.5× when measuring emission from a fluorescent compound attached directly to the polymer monolith, and up to 2.6× for a rapid 10 min direct immunoassay. When combining index matching with a silver enhancement step, a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL human IgG and a 5 log dynamic range was achieved. The demonstrated technique provides a simple method for enhancing optical sensitivity for a wide range of assays, enabling the full benefits of porous detection elements in miniaturized analytical systems to be realized. PMID:26160546

  15. Optical detection enhancement in porous volumetric microfluidic capture elements using refractive index matching fluids.

    PubMed

    Wiederoder, M S; Peterken, L; Lu, A X; Rahmanian, O D; Raghavan, S R; DeVoe, D L

    2015-08-21

    Porous volumetric capture elements in microfluidic sensors are advantageous compared to planar capture surfaces due to higher reaction site density and decreased diffusion lengths that can reduce detection limits and total assay time. However a mismatch in refractive indices between the capture matrix and fluid within the porous interstices results in scattering of incident, reflected, or emitted light, significantly reducing the signal for optical detection. Here we demonstrate that perfusion of an index-matching fluid within a porous matrix minimizes scattering, thus enhancing optical signal by enabling the entire capture element volume to be probed. Signal enhancement is demonstrated for both fluorescence and absorbance detection, using porous polymer monoliths in a silica capillary and packed beds of glass beads within thermoplastic microchannels, respectively. Fluorescence signal was improved by a factor of 3.5× when measuring emission from a fluorescent compound attached directly to the polymer monolith, and up to 2.6× for a rapid 10 min direct immunoassay. When combining index matching with a silver enhancement step, a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1) human IgG and a 5 log dynamic range was achieved. The demonstrated technique provides a simple method for enhancing optical sensitivity for a wide range of assays, enabling the full benefits of porous detection elements in miniaturized analytical systems to be realized. PMID:26160546

  16. DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

    2008-05-01

    Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic

  17. Refractive Index Matching for Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Fluid Mixing in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, E. J.; Tigera, R. G.; Crimaldi, J. P.; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research in porous media is often hampered by the difficulty in making pore-scale observations. By selecting porous media that is refractive index matched (RIM) to the pore fluid, the media becomes transparent. This allows optical imaging techniques such as static light scattering (SLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), confocal microscopy, and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be employed. RIM is particularly useful for research concerning contaminant remediation in the subsurface, permitting visual observation of plume dynamics at the pore scale. The goal of this research is to explore and assess candidate combinations of porous media, fluid, and fluorescent dye. The strengths and weaknesses of each combination will then be evaluated in terms of safety, cost, and optical quality in order to select the best combination for use with PLIF. Within this framework, top-ranked RIM combinations include Pyrex glass beads, water beads, or granular Nafion saturated in vegetable glycerin, deionized water, and an aqueous solution of 48% isopropanol, respectively. This research lays the groundwork for future efforts to build a flow chamber in which the selected RIM porous media, solution, and dye will be used in evaluating subsurface pumping strategies designed to impose chaotic plume spreading in porous media. Though the RIM porous media explored in this research are selected based on the specifications of a particular experiment, the methods developed for working with and evaluating RIM porous media should be of utility to a wide variety of research interests.

  18. Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eric J; Mont-Eton, Michael E; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C; Mays, David C

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media. PMID:26628117

  19. Flow over interacting barchan dunes studied in a refractive-index-matched environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z.; Jiang, N.; Blois, G.; Barros, J. M.; Best, J. L.; Christensen, K. T.

    2013-11-01

    Barchan dunes are three-dimensional topographic features characterized by a crescentic shape. Very common on Earth's surface, barchans are produced by unidirectional flows in regions of sediment starvation and are characterized by migration rates that are a function of their volume. This results in complex dune-to-dune interaction mechanisms that are poorly understood. In order to quantify the flow structure produced by interacting barchans, PIV measurements were made wherein the dune models were immersed in a flowing fluid that was refractive-index-matched to the dune material. Doing so provided full optical access to the obstructed regions of flow and eliminated reflections from the liquid-solid boundaries, allowing near-wall data to be collected. Clear barchan models with different volumetric ratios were arranged in tandem, and flow-field measurements were made in multiple streamwise-wall-normal and streamwise-spanwise planes. Ensemble-averaged flow fields and Reynolds stresses were obtained for different barchan spacings and compared to the reference case of an isolated barchan. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis was employed to study the spatial characteristics of the energy distribution both between and downstream of the aligned dunes.

  20. Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Eric J.; Mont-Eton, Michael E.; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C.; Mays, David C.

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media.

  1. Estimated Uncertainties in the Idaho National Laboratory Matched-Index-of-Refraction Lower Plenum Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Donald M. McEligot; Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Ryan C. Johnson

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for typical Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use optical techniques, primarily particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the INL MIR flow system. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The objective of the present report is to develop understanding of the magnitudes of experimental uncertainties in the results to be obtained in such experiments. Unheated MIR experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique, which will not even handle constant properties properly. This report addresses the general background, requirements for benchmark databases, estimation of experimental uncertainties in mean velocities and turbulence quantities, the MIR experiment, PIV uncertainties, positioning uncertainties, and other contributing measurement uncertainties.

  2. Refractive index matched suspensions as a tool for investigating entrainment by avalanches and debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Belinda; Ancey, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical gravity flows such as avalanches and debris flows are complicated mixtures of fluid and solids, often containing particle sizes of many orders of magnitude. In a debris flow, for example, the composition varies from head to tail, and from bottom to top due to particle size segregation and recirculation. In addition the solid components may have different masses and mechanical properties. For this reason, a complete understanding of substrate entrainment by this type of flow is still out of reach. A common strategy for advancing our understanding of the physics of processes like entrainment is to use a greatly simplified laboratory model of a debris flow, and take internal and bulk measurements. This idealized technique forms the basis of this study, in which a two-phase, monodisperse suspension of PMMA beads in a refractive-index matched suspending fluid flowed down a flume, encountering an entrainable region of the same suspension on the way. This study represents the first attempt of taking continuous internal velocity measurements inside a flowing, entraining model avalanche or debris flow in the laboratory. Interior PIV measurements of flow velocity were taken in the entrainable region, along with surface height measurements, to shed some light on the entrainment mechanisms and to see how the bulk flow responded. Further, some differential pressure measurements were made in the entrainable bed to see if pore-pressure peaks had any correlation with significant events during entrainment. We present our preliminary findings and discuss the suitability of the method to entrainment investigations.

  3. Low hazard refractive index and density-matched fluid for quantitative imaging of concentrated suspensions of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Knapp, Y.; Deplano, V.

    2016-05-01

    A novel refractive index and density-matched liquid-solid suspension system taking into account chemical hazard and health concerns was developed and characterized. The solid phase is made of PMMA spheres, the refractive index of which being adapted with a mixture of 2,2'-thiodiethanol and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), while the density is adapted with a mixture of PBS and glycerol. The proposed chemicals present low hazard characteristics in comparison with former solutions. Data collected from density and refractive index measurements of the solid phase and of the different fluid constituents are used to define a specific ternary mixture adapted to commercial grade micron-size particles. The defined mixture is validated in a micron-sized granular flow experiment. The described method can be applied to other low-density solids.

  4. MATCHED-INDEX-OF-REFRACTION FLOW FACILITY FOR FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Donald M. McEligot; Richard Skifton; Hugh McIlroy

    2014-11-01

    Significant challenges face reactor designers with regard to thermal hydraulic design and associated modeling for advanced reactor concepts. Computational thermal hydraulic codes solve only a piece of the core. There is a need for a whole core dynamics system code with local resolution to investigate and understand flow behavior with all the relevant physics and thermo-mechanics. The matched index of refraction (MIR) flow facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a unique capability to contribute to the development of validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes through the use of state-of-the-art optical measurement techniques, such as Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV is a non-intrusive velocity measurement technique that tracks flow by imaging the movement of small tracer particles within a fluid. At the heart of a PIV calculation is the cross correlation algorithm, which is used to estimate the displacement of particles in some small part of the image over the time span between two images. Generally, the displacement is indicated by the location of the largest peak. To quantify these measurements accurately, sophisticated processing algorithms correlate the locations of particles within the image to estimate the velocity (Ref. 1). Prior to use with reactor deign, the CFD codes have to be experimentally validated, which requires rigorous experimental measurements to produce high quality, multi-dimensional flow field data with error quantification methodologies. Computational thermal hydraulic codes solve only a piece of the core. There is a need for a whole core dynamics system code with local resolution to investigate and understand flow behavior with all the relevant physics and thermo-mechanics. Computational techniques with supporting test data may be needed to address the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant during the transition from turbulent to laminar flow, including the possibility of an early

  5. Digital holographic PTV for complicated flow in a water by two cameras and refractive index-matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuniyasu, Masataka; Aoyagi, Yusuke; Unno, Noriyuki; Satake, Shin-ichi; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Seki, Yohji

    2016-06-01

    A basic heat transfer promoter such as packed beds of spheres is one of the technologies of the promotion of heat transfer using the turbulent mixture. We carried out 3-D visualization of digital holographic PTV to understand the complicated flow in a sphere-packed pipe (SPP) using a refractive index-matching method with a water used as a working fluid, the spheres was made of MEXFLON, whose refractive index is the same as that of a water. To visualize the detail flow structure around the spheres in water, we performed three-dimensional simultaneous measurements of velocity field in a water flow in the SPP are performed by our proposed holography technique with two cameras. The velocity field by two cameras could obtain finer flow structures than that by one camera.

  6. Digital holographic PTV for complicated flow in a water by two cameras and refractive index-matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuniyasu, Masataka; Aoyagi, Yusuke; Unno, Noriyuki; Satake, Shin-ichi; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Seki, Yohji

    2016-03-01

    A basic heat transfer promoter such as packed beds of spheres is one of the technologies of the promotion of heat transfer using the turbulent mixture. We carried out 3-D visualization of digital holographic PTV to understand the complicated flow in a sphere-packed pipe (SPP) using a refractive index-matching method with a water used as a working fluid, the spheres was made of MEXFLON, whose refractive index is the same as that of a water. To visualize the detail flow structure around the spheres in water, we performed three-dimensional simultaneous measurements of velocity field in a water flow in the SPP are performed by our proposed holography technique with two cameras. The velocity field by two cameras could obtain finer flow structures than that by one camera.

  7. Evaluation of match criteria used for the comparison of refractive index of glass fragments.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Elizabeth J; Koons, Robert D

    2011-03-01

    For comparative glass examinations, the refractive indices (RIs) of recovered glass fragments are often compared to a test interval defined by measurements from a broken glass object. RI measurements from five modern float glasses were used via resampling to assess the frequencies of false exclusion errors for eight test criteria as functions of the number of measurements. The test criteria were based on ranges, fixed intervals, and multiples of standard deviations of the known source measurements. The observed error rates for the eight tests studied are between zero and c. 35%, depending upon the match criteria, the number of measurements, and the RI distribution for a glass source. The results of this study can be used to predict the false exclusion rate for a test criterion under a given set of conditions or to select test criteria that result in a desired error rate for these typical sheet glasses. PMID:21342192

  8. Fabrication of rigid and flexible refractive-index-matched flow phantoms for flow visualisation and optical flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoghegan, P. H.; Buchmann, N. A.; Spence, C. J. T.; Moore, S.; Jermy, M.

    2012-05-01

    A method for the construction of both rigid and compliant (flexible) transparent flow phantoms of biological flow structures, suitable for PIV and other optical flow methods with refractive-index-matched working fluid is described in detail. Methods for matching the in vivo compliance and elastic wave propagation wavelength are presented. The manipulation of MRI and CT scan data through an investment casting mould is described. A method for the casting of bubble-free phantoms in silicone elastomer is given. The method is applied to fabricate flexible phantoms of the carotid artery (with and without stenosis), the carotid artery bifurcation (idealised and patient-specific) and the human upper airway (nasal cavity). The fidelity of the phantoms to the original scan data is measured, and it is shown that the cross-sectional error is less than 5% for phantoms of simple shape but up to 16% for complex cross-sectional shapes such as the nasal cavity. This error is mainly due to the application of a PVA coating to the inner mould and can be reduced by shrinking the digital model. Sixteen per cent variation in area is less than the natural patient to patient variation of the physiological geometries. The compliance of the phantom walls is controlled within physiologically realistic ranges, by choice of the wall thickness, transmural pressure and Young's modulus of the elastomer. Data for the dependence of Young's modulus on curing temperature are given for Sylgard 184. Data for the temperature dependence of density, viscosity and refractive index of the refractive-index-matched working liquid (i.e. water-glycerol mixtures) are also presented.

  9. Investigation of a low-cost optical-CT system with minimal refractive index-matching fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bache, S.; Malcolm, J.; Adamovics, J.; Oldham, M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a method for visualizing 3dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. Projection images are acquired by collimating a visible light point source into parallel-beam geometry and imaging differential absorption through the sample dosimeter. Practical challenges involved in optical-CT imaging were addressed through the investigation of an in-house Fresnel-based optical-CT system with considerably less refractive index-matching fluid. The "DFOS" (Duke Fresnel-based Optical- CT System) system differed from current optical-CT systems by replacing cumbersome convex telecentric lenses with a lighter and much less expensive Fresnel system. A second major modification was the replacement of the refractive index-matching fluid bath with a solid polyurethane tank. PRESAGE radiochromic dosimeters were irradiated with orthogonal parallel-opposed treatments and dose distributions were readout by the DFOS system and compared to both treatment planning software prediction and two other in-house optical-CT systems. Gamma index passing rate at the 3%/3mm threshold in relation to Eclipse treatment planning software for the treatment was 92.2%%, compared to 96.8% and 95.6% for two other systems featuring a traditional setup. The DFOS system showed promise for 3D dosimetry, but the performance is still substantially inferior at present to the gold-standard systems.

  10. Extratympanic observation of middle ear structure using a refractive index matching material (glycerol) and an infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Soo-Keun; Chon, Kyong-Myong; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Il-Woo; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution computed tomography has been used mainly in the diagnosis of middle ear disease, such as high-jugular bulb, congenital cholesteatoma, and ossicular disruption. However, certain diagnoses are confirmed through exploratory tympanotomy. There are few noninvasive methods available to observe the middle ear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glycerol as a refractive index matching material and an infrared (IR) camera system for extratympanic observation. 30% glycerol was used as a refractive index matching material in five fresh cadavers. Each material was divided into four subgroups; GN (glycerol no) group, GO (glycerol out) group, GI (glycerol in) group, and GB (glycerol both) group. A printed letter and middle ear structures on the inside tympanic membrane were observed using a visible and IR ray camera system. In the GB group, there were marked a transilluminated letter or an ossicle on the inside tympanic membrane. In particular, a footplate of stapes was even transilluminated using the IR camera system in the GB group. This method can be useful in the diagnosis of diseases of the middle ear if it is clinically applied through further studies.

  11. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid.

    PubMed

    Bache, Steven; Malcolm, Javian; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS-Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner) is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K) and the use of a 'solid tank' (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1 ltr to 10 cc). The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2 h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm). DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system. PMID:27019460

  12. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Bache, Steven; Malcolm, Javian; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS—Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner) is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K) and the use of a ‘solid tank’ (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1ltr to 10cc). The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm). DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system. PMID:27019460

  13. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  14. Three-dimensional particle tracking around microstructures in water via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and refractive-index-matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Noriyuki; Nakata, Shuichiro; Satake, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry (MnPIV) with a refractive-index-matching method is powerful technique for x- y- z (3D) flow measurement, because it can detect the 3D position of fluorescent particles with submicron resolution. In MnPIV, the intensity of fluorescence of a particle is used to estimate its z-position. However, it has been difficult to measure 3D flows around microstructures in water by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy because of light scattering caused by the different refractive indices of the structures and the working fluid. By using a thermal nanoimprinting technique, we succeeded in fabricating microstructures from a polymer resin whose refractive index is equal to that of water, and we used these microstructures to perform MnPIV in water. As a result of the match between the refractive index of water and that of the microstructures, we were able to perform 3D tracking of nanoparticles around the microstructures in water.

  15. Kilowatt-level direct-'refractive index matching liquid'-cooled Nd:YLF thin disk laser resonator.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhibin; Liu, Chong; Tu, Bo; Wang, Ke; Gao, Qingsong; Tang, Chun; Cai, Zhen

    2016-01-25

    A direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YLF thin disk laser resonator is presented, which features the use of refractive index matching liquid (RIML) as coolant. Highly uniform pump intensity distribution with rectangular shape is realized by using metallic planar waveguides. Much attention has been paid on the design of the gain module, including how to achieve excellent cooling ability with multi-channel coolers and how to choose the doping levels of the crystals for realizing well-distributed pump absorption. The flow velocity of the coolant is found to be a key parameter for laser performance and optimized to keep it in laminar flow status for dissipating unwanted heat load. A single channel device is used to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) at different flow velocities. Accordingly, the thermal stress in the disk is analyzed numerically and the maximum permissible thermal load is estimated. Experimentally, with ten pieces of a-cut Nd:YLF thin disks of different doping levels, a linear polarized laser with an average output power of 1120 W is achieved at the pump power of 5202 W, corresponding to an optical-optical efficiency of 21.5%, and a slope efficiency of 30.8%. Furthermore, the wavefront aberration of the gain module is measured to be quite weak, with a peak to valley (PV) value of 4.0 μm when it is pumped at 5202 W, which enables the feasibility of its application in an unstable resonator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of kilowatt-level direct-'refractive index matching liquid'-cooled Nd:YLF thin disk laser resonator. PMID:26832554

  16. Eliminating the need for refractive index matching in optical CT scanners for radiotherapy dosimetry: I. Concept and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Simon J.; Yatigammana, Dylan N. B.

    2012-02-01

    Optical computed tomography has now become a well-established method for making empirical measurements of 3D dose distributions in radiotherapy treatment verification. The requirement for effective refractive index matching as part of the scanning process has long been an inconvenience for users, limiting the speed of sample throughput. We propose a new method for reconstructing data that takes explicit account of the refracted path of the light rays and demonstrate theoretically the conditions under which there are sufficient data to create a good reconstruction. Examples of the performance of the algorithm are given. For smoothly varying data, reconstructed images of very high quality are obtained, with RMS deviation of under 1% from the original, provided that the irradiated region lies entirely within a critical radius. For the dosimeter material PRESAGE®, this critical value is approximately 0.65 of the sample radius. Regions outside this are not reconstructed successfully, but we argue that there are many cases where this disadvantage is outweighed by the benefits of the technique.

  17. On the rheology of refractive-index-matched, non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids for PIV experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Hinke, Jessica A.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Four commonly used refractive-index (RI)-matched Newtonian blood-analog fluids are reviewed, and different non-Newtonian blood-analogs, with RI of 1.372-1.495, are investigated. Sodium iodide (NaI), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and potassium thiocyanate are used to adjust the RI of blood-analogs to that of test sections for minimizing optical distortions in particle image velocimetry data, and xanthan gum (XG) is added to the fluids to give them non-Newtonian properties (shear thinning and viscoelasticity). Our results support the general belief that adding NaI to Newtonian fluids matches the RI without changing the kinematic viscosity. However, in contrast to claims made in a few studies that did not measure rheology, our investigation revealed that adding NaI or NaSCN to XG-based non-Newtonian fluids changes the viscosity of the fluids considerably and reduces the shear-thinning property. Therefore, the RI of non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids with XG cannot be adjusted easily by varying the concentration of NaI or NaSCN and needs more careful rheological study.

  18. Application of Plenoptic PIV for 3D Velocity Measurements Over Roughness Elements in a Refractive Index Matched Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Brian; Johnson, Kyle; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Best, Jim; Christensen, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The application of Plenoptic PIV in a Refractive Index Matched (RIM) facility housed at Illinois is presented. Plenoptic PIV is an emerging 3D diagnostic that exploits the light-field imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera. Plenoptic cameras utilize a microlens array to measure the position and angle of light rays captured by the camera. 3D/3C velocity fields are determined through application of the MART algorithm for volume reconstruction and a conventional 3D cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The RIM facility is a recirculating tunnel with a 62.5% aqueous solution of sodium iodide used as the working fluid. Its resulting index of 1.49 is equal to that of acrylic. Plenoptic PIV was used to measure the 3D velocity field of a turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth wall, a single wall-mounted hemisphere and a full array of hemispheres (i.e. a rough wall) with a k/ δ ~ 4.6. Preliminary time averaged and instantaneous 3D velocity fields will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1235726.

  19. Investigating the turbulent to laminar flow transition across a permeable wall using Refractive-Index Matching (RIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.; Best, J.; Sambrook Smith, G.

    2013-12-01

    Permeable boundaries occur in a variety of natural environments. Turbulent flow overlying such boundaries is perhaps one of the most common, yet one of the most complex, types of flow found in any geophysical environment (e.g. river beds, forests). Unlike flows over impermeable walls, which have been widely studied, the characteristics of flow generated by permeable walls is relatively poorly understood. This work considers the flow both above and within a permeable bed focusing on the linkage between the free flow and the Darcian layer through an experimental investigation of the transitional (Brinkman) layer. To overcome the challenges related with the complex geometry of porous structures, a Refractive-Index-Matching (RIM) approach was employed to gain full optical access to the fluid flowing across a permeable wall. A permeable wall, made by packing acrylic spheres in a cubic arrangement, was immersed in an aqueous solution of Sodium Iodide (NaI). With such an arrangement the refractive index of the two phases was accurately matched, thus providing unobstructed optical access within the permeable bed. Data was collected on the flow across the wall interface and the turbulent attributes of these surface-subsurface interactions were quantified. The first part of this paper highlights the fundamental differences between flows above permeable and impermeable beds, and examines the implications of these differences for the mechanisms of mass and momentum exchange. For example, permeable beds have significant injection and suction events that move fluid across the interface, and result in an absence of low-speed streaks that are ubiquitous over impermeable beds. Additionally, in contrast to flow over impermeable surfaces, ejection events dominate over sweep events above a permeable wall, this has significant implications for the mechanisms of drag and thus energy dissipation that occur within the transition layer. The second part of the paper examines the complexity

  20. On the use of refractive-index-matched hydrogel for fluid velocity measurement within and around geometrically complex solid obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzman, Joel S.; Samuel, Lianna C.; Craig, Anna E.; Zeller, Robert B.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory-based particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure current-driven hydrodynamics within and around a collection of complex obstacles. These obstacles were fabricated using a specialty superabsorbent hydrogel produced through the free-radical copolymerization of sodium acrylate and acrylamide. The optical properties of this gel were found to be nearly identical to those of liquid water. Because of refractive index matching (RIM) of both the fluid and solid media, PIV laser light sheets passed through the obstructions without significant degradation or modification. As a result, all tracer particles suspended in the flow were uniformly illuminated, regardless of their position or proximity relative to individual obstacle features. PIV light sheets were also successfully imaged through the hydrogel, enabling accurate velocity measurement in regions that would otherwise be optically inaccessible. These outcomes were reached without reliance on unconventional fluids or specialized flow facilities. For many experimenters interested in fluid-solid interactions, hydrogel-based RIM may thus be less costly and more adaptable than methods that rely on the existing suite of techniques.

  1. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  2. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  3. High refractive index photocurable resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morford, Robert V.; Mercado, Ramil L.; Planje, Curtis E.; Flaim, Tony D.

    2005-04-01

    The performance of optoelectronic devices can be increased by incorporating a high refractive index layer into the system. This paper describes several potential high refractive index resin candidates. Our materials include the added advantages over other systems because the new materials are cationically photocurable and free flowing, have low shrinkage upon cure, have no (or little) volatile organic components, are applicable by a variety of methods (dip coating, roller coating, injection molding, or film casting), can be applied in a variety of thicknesses (10-100 m), are fast-curing, and possess robust physical properties. Particular attention focuses on the refractive index in the visible spectrum, light transmission, and formulation viscosity.

  4. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  5. Study on the refractive index matching effect of ultrasound on optical clearing of bio-tissues based on the derivative total reflection method

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huanhuan; Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Mei, Jianchun; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the tissue optical clearing (OC) technique in the biomedicine field has drawn lots of attention. Various physical and chemical methods have been introduced to improve the efficacy of OC. In this study, the effect of the combination of glycerol and ultrasound treatment on OC of in vitro porcine muscle tissues has been investigated. The refractive index (RI) matching mechanism of OC was directly observed based on the derivative total reflection method. A theoretical model was used to simulate the proportion of tissue fluid in the illuminated area. Moreover, the total transmittance spectra have been obtained by a spectrometer over the range from 450 nm to 700 nm. The administration of glycerol and ultrasound has led to an increase of the RI of background medium and a more RI matching environment was achieved. The experimental results support the validity of the ultrasound treatment for OC. The RI matching mechanism has been firstly quantitatively analyzed based on the derivative total reflection method. PMID:25360366

  6. Precise determination of the refractive index of suspended particles: light transmission as a function of refractive index mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClymer, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Many fluids appear white because refractive index differences lead to multiple scattering. In this paper, we use safe, low-cost commercial index matching fluids to quantitatively study light transmission as a function of index mismatch, reduce multiple scattering to allow single scattering probes, and to precisely determine the index of refraction of suspended material. The transmission profile is compared with Rayleigh-Gans and Mie theory predictions. The procedure is accessible as a student laboratory project, while providing advantages over other standard methods of measuring the refractive index of an unknown nanoparticle, making it valuable to researchers.

  7. Influence of refraction index strength on the light propagation in dielectrics material with periodic refraction index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Arif; Latifah, Eny; Kurniati, Diana; Wisodo, Hari

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of refraction index strength on the light propagation in refraction index-varied dielectric material. This dielectric material served as photonic lattice. The behavior of light propagation influenced by variation of refraction index in photonic lattice was investigated. Modes of the guiding light were determined numerically using squared-operator iteration method. It was found that the greater the strength of refraction index, the smaller the guiding modes.

  8. Formation of bulk refractive index structures

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jr., Barrett George; Potter, Kelly Simmons; Wheeler, David R.; Jamison, Gregory M.

    2003-07-15

    A method of making a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure in photosensitive materials using photo-patterning where first determined is the wavelength at which a photosensitive material film exhibits a change in refractive index upon exposure to optical radiation, a portion of the surfaces of the photosensitive material film is optically irradiated, the film is marked to produce a registry mark. Multiple films are produced and aligned using the registry marks to form a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure.

  9. Optical Improvement of ZnO-Coated Glass with New Refractive-Index Matching Layer Inserted at Glass/ZnO Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janthong, Bancha; Hongsingthong, Aswin; Moriya, Yuki; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Wronski, Christophe R.; Konagai, Makoto

    2012-10-01

    We prepared and applied a-SiOx thin films to hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon solar cells (µc-Si:H) as a front antireflection layer (FAL) in order to reduce optical reflection loss. By inserting the optimized SiOx FAL with a refractive index of ˜1.75 into the glass/ZnO interface a relative increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) by 5% could be obtained which corresponded to an improved spectral response in the 550-950 nm wavelength regions. In addition, this optimized FAL did not deteriorate the properties of the ZnO layer because no significant changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) were observed. As a result, the cell with an efficiency of as high as 8.28% (Voc=0.495 V, Jsc=25.09 mA/cm2, FF=0.667) could be obtained.

  10. The refractive index of relic gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The dynamical evolution of the refractive index of the tensor modes of the geometry produces a specific class of power spectra characterized by a blue (i.e. slightly increasing) slope which is directly determined by the competition of the slow-roll parameter and of the rate of variation of the refractive index. Throughout the conventional stages of the inflationary and post-inflationary evolution, the microwave background anisotropies measurements, the pulsar timing limits and the big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints set stringent bounds on the refractive index and on its rate of variation. Within the physically allowed region of the parameter space the cosmic background of relic gravitons leads to a potentially large signal for the ground-based detectors (in their advanced version) and for the proposed space-borne interferometers. Conversely, the lack of direct detection of the signal will set a qualitatively new bound on the dynamical variation of the refractive index.

  11. Refractive index measurement using comparative interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojan, Mihaela; Apostol, D.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Garoi, F.; Iordache, Iuliana

    2007-05-01

    The refractive index of a material medium is an important optical parameter since it exhibits the optical properties of the material. The adulteration problem is increasing day by day and hence simple, automatic and accurate measurement of the refractive index of materials is of great importance these days. For solid thin films materials Abeles method was reconsidered. Quick, measurements of refractive index using simple techniques and refractometers can help controlling adulteration of liquids of common use to a greater extent. Very simple interferometric set-up using Fizeau fringe patterns compares the fringe pitch as obtained in a cell with two levels: one down level with the unknown refractive index liquids and the upper level with gas air. A CCD matrix and a PC can handle the data and produce the results up to for digits.

  12. On the effective refractive index of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahmad-Rohen, Alexander; Contreras-Tello, Humberto; Morales-Luna, Gesuri; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index {n}{eff} of blood as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm; we employed van de Hulst’s theory, together with the anomalous diffraction approximation, for the calculation. We modelled blood as a mixture of plasma and erythrocytes. Our results indicate that erythrocyte orientation has a strong effect on {n}{eff}, making blood an optically anisotropic medium except when the erythrocytes are randomly oriented. In the case in which their symmetry axis is perpendicular to the wave vector, {n}{eff} equals the refractive index of plasma at certain wavelengths. Furthermore, the erythrocytes’ shape affects their contribution to {n}{eff} in an important way, implying that studies on the effective refractive index of blood should avoid approximating them as spheres or spheroids. Finally, the effective refractive index of blood predicted by van de Hulst’s theory is different from what would be obtained by averaging the refractive indices of its constituents weighted by volume; such a volume-weighted average is appropriate only for haemolysed blood. We then measured the real part of the refractive index of various blood solutions using two different experimental setups. One of the most important results of our expriment is that {n}{eff} is measurable to a good degree of precision even for undiluted blood, although not all measuring apparatuses are appropriate. The experimental data is self-consistent and in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  13. Refractive index change in dissociating shocked benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    A calculation is made of the refractive index of a shocked solution of hydrocarbon species and spheroidal carbon particles that would be the dissociation products of benzene. The results is evaluated for benzene shocked to 15 GPa, both for an arbitrary endpoint distribution of products and reactant, and for a specific endpoint distribution suggested by a statistical-mechanical calculation. In the case of diamond particles, the refractive index is predicted to decrease by a small amount (from 1.96 to 1.75) as the dissociation proceeds. In the case of graphite particles of large oblateness, the refractive index could increase significantly through the dissociation (from 1.96 to 2.75 for infinitely oblate platelets). Thus the measurement of the time dependent refractive index through the dissociation of shocked benzene can indicate the morphology of the carbon particulates as well as the time scale for this reaction. We propose using the refractive index as a measure of completion of the dissociation reaction. This would allow a determination of the instantaneous amount of carbon in particulate form, information which is valuable in conjunction with Mie scattering experiments for example.

  14. A Liquid Prism for Refractive Index Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmiston, Michael D.

    2001-11-01

    A hollow glass prism filled with liquid becomes a "liquid prism". A simple method for constructing hollow glass prisms is presented. A method is given for a demonstration that uses the liquid prism with a laser or laser pointer so the audience can observe differences in refractive index for various liquids. The demonstration provides a quick and easy determination of the sugar content of soft drinks and juices. The prism makes it easy to determine a numerical value for the refractive index of a liquid.

  15. Plasmonic crystal enhanced refractive index sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Benedikt; Devaux, Eloïse; Genet, Cyriaque Ebbesen, Thomas W.

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate experimentally how the local anisotropy of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon modes propagating over periodic metal gratings can lead to an enhancement of the figure of merit of refractive index sensors. Exploiting the possibility to acquire defocused images of the Fourier space of a highly stable leakage radiation microscope, we report a twofold increase in sensing sensitivity close to the band gap of a one-dimensional plasmonic crystal where the anisotropy of the band structure is the most important. A practical sensing resolution of O(10{sup −6}) refractive index units is demonstrated.

  16. Interferometric investigation and simulation of refractive index in glass matrixes containing nanoparticles of varying sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, Michael Gerard; Ince, Rabia; Yukselici, Mehmet Hikmet; Allahverdi, Cagdas

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between refractive index and nanoparticle radii of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles embedded within glass matrixes was investigated experimentally and by simulations. A homemade automated Michelson interferometer arrangement employing a rotating table and a He-Ne laser source at a wavelength of 632.8 nm determined the refractive index versus nanoparticle radii of embedded cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles. The refractive index was found to decrease linearly with nanoparticle radius increase. However, one sample showed a step increase in refractive index; on spectroscopic analysis, it was found that its resonant wavelength matched that of the He-Ne source wavelength. The simulations showed that two conditions caused the step increase in refractive index: low plasma frequency and matched sample and source resonances. This simple interferometer setup defines a new method of determining the radii of nanoparticles embedded in substrates and enables refractive index tailoring by modification of exact annealing conditions.

  17. Perfect conformal invisible device with feasible refractive indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang; Tyc, Tomáš; Xie, Yangbo; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Optical conformal mapping has been used to construct several isotropic devices with novel functionalities. In particular, a conformal cloak could confer omnidirectional invisibility. However, the maximum values of the refractive indexes needed for current designs are too large to implement, even in microwave experiments. Furthermore, most devices designed so far have had imperfect impedance matching and therefore incomplete invisibility functionalities. Here we describe a perfect conformal invisible device with full impedance matching everywhere. The maximum value of refractive index required by our device is just about five, which is feasible for microwave and terahertz experiments using current metamaterial techniques. To construct the device, we use a logarithmic conformal mapping and a Mikaelian lens. Our results should enable a conformal invisible device with almost perfect invisibility to be made soon.

  18. Optofluidic refractive-index sensor in step-index fiber with parallel hollow micro-channel.

    PubMed

    Lee, H W; Schmidt, M A; Uebel, P; Tyagi, H; Joly, N Y; Scharrer, M; Russell, P St J

    2011-04-25

    We present a simple refractive index sensor based on a step-index fiber with a hollow micro-channel running parallel to its core. This channel becomes waveguiding when filled with a liquid of index greater than silica, causing sharp dips to appear in the transmission spectrum at wavelengths where the glass-core mode phase-matches to a mode of the liquid-core. The sensitivity of the dip-wavelengths to changes in liquid refractive index is quantified and the results used to study the dynamic flow characteristics of fluids in narrow channels. Potential applications of this fiber microstructure include measuring the optical properties of liquids, refractive index sensing, biophotonics and studies of fluid dynamics on the nanoscale. PMID:21643070

  19. Two-dimensional refractive index profiling of optical fibers by modified refractive near-field technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, A.; Pilz, Soenke; Ryser, Manuel; Romano, Valerio

    2016-02-01

    The refractive index distribution in the core-cladding region of an optical fiber plays an important role in determining the transmission and dispersion properties of the waveguide. The refracted near-field technique (RNF) is among the most widespread techniques used for measuring the refractive index profile of optical fibers and is based on illuminating the end-facet of a fiber with a focused beam whose vertex angle greatly exceeds the acceptance angle of the fiber, which is immersed in an index matching liquid. What one observes are then the refracted unguided rays rather than the guided rays. Nevertheless, the standard refracted near-field technique cannot be applied to a wide range of optical fibers e.g. if their shapes are not axially symmetric. In this work we demonstrate a modified method which allows 2-D imaging of the refractive index profile and thereby overcoming the axial symmetric limitation of the standard RNF. The new system is operating at 630 nm and based on the same principle of the RNF, but the optical path is reversed so that the light at the fiber end-facet is collected by an objective lens and detected by a CCD camera. The method does not require scanning over the fiber end-facet. Thus the system is faster and less sensitive to vibrations and external conditions compared to the standard RNF, furthermore it allows averaging to improve the signal to noise ratio. The spatial resolution of the system is determined by the numerical aperture of the objective and by the resolution of the CCD camera. To calibrate the setup, a reference multi-step index fiber provided by National Physical Laboratory was used.

  20. Refractive index measurement of nanoparticles by immersion refractometry based on a surface plasmon resonance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Hiroshi; Iseda, Ayumu; Ohenoja, Katja; Niskanen, Ilpo

    2016-06-01

    Accurate determination of the refractive index of nanoparticles has important ramifications for applications, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, paints, textiles, and inks. We describe a new method to determine the refractive index of nanoparticles by immersion refractometry with a surface plasmon resonance sensor. With this method, the refractive index of the nanoparticles is perfectly matched with that of the surrounding liquid. We demonstrate this method for calcium fluoride nanoparticles that have an average diameter of 100 nm; the results achieve an accuracy of better than 0.002 refractive index units.

  1. The Use of Index-Matched Beads in Optical Particle Counters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhishang; Ripple, Dean C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of 2-pyridinemethanol (2P) aqueous solutions as a refractive index matching liquid. The high refractive index and low viscosity of 2P-water mixtures enables refractive index matching of beads that cannot be index matched with glycerol-water or sucrose-water solutions, such as silica beads that have the refractive index of bulk fused silica or of polymethylmethacrylate beads. Suspensions of beads in a nearly index-matching liquid are a useful tool to understand the response of particle counting instruments to particles of low optical contrast, such as aggregated protein particles. Data from flow imaging and light obscuration instruments are presented for bead diameters ranging from 6 µm to 69 µm, in a matrix liquid spanning the point of matched refractive index. PMID:26601049

  2. The Use of Index-Matched Beads in Optical Particle Counters

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhishang; Ripple, Dean C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of 2-pyridinemethanol (2P) aqueous solutions as a refractive index matching liquid. The high refractive index and low viscosity of 2P-water mixtures enables refractive index matching of beads that cannot be index matched with glycerol-water or sucrose-water solutions, such as silica beads that have the refractive index of bulk fused silica or of polymethylmethacrylate beads. Suspensions of beads in a nearly index-matching liquid are a useful tool to understand the response of particle counting instruments to particles of low optical contrast, such as aggregated protein particles. Data from flow imaging and light obscuration instruments are presented for bead diameters ranging from 6 µm to 69 µm, in a matrix liquid spanning the point of matched refractive index. PMID:26601049

  3. Refractive index determination by coherence scanning interferometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, H; Kaminski, P M; Smith, R; Walls, J M; Mansfield, D

    2016-05-20

    Coherence scanning interferometry is established as a powerful noncontact, three-dimensional, metrology technique used to determine accurate surface roughness and topography measurements with subnanometer precision. The helical complex field (HCF) function is a topographically defined helix modulated by the electrical field reflectance, originally developed for the measurement of thin films. An approach to extend the capability of the HCF function to determine the spectral refractive index of a substrate or absorbing film has recently been proposed. In this paper, we confirm this new capability, demonstrating it on surfaces of silicon, gold, and a gold/palladium alloy using silica and zirconia oxide thin films. These refractive index dispersion measurements show good agreement with those obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry. PMID:27411157

  4. Uncladded sensing fiber for refractive index measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, V.; Gangwar, R. K.; Pathak, A. K.; Singh, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of chemically etched optical fiber for use in refractive index sensor is addressed. This presented design of a refractive index (RI) sensor is based on recording the power loss exhibited by radiation propagating through an etched multimode fiber (MMF) immersed in the liquid under study. The decreasing diameters of fibers are found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and etchant composition. This experiment was performed for different unclad etched fibers for same sensing length and the RI changes from 1.33 RIU to 1.38 RIU. When the multimode fiber (MMF) is etched for 12 hours the sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 204.25dBm/RIU, which is larger than without etched fiber having sensitivity 127.2dBm/RIU.

  5. Scanning focused refractive-index microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Teng-Qian; Ye, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Mei, Jian-Chun; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-07-01

    We present a novel scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) technique to obtain the refractive index (RI) profiles of objects. The method uses a focused laser as the light source, and combines the derivative total reflection method (DTRM), projection magnification, and scanning technique together. SFRIM is able to determine RIs with an accuracy of 0.002, and the central spatial resolution achieved is 1 µm, which is smaller than the size of the focal spot. The results of measurements carried out on cedar oil and a gradient-refractive-index (GRIN) lens agree well with theoretical expectations, verifying the accuracy of SFRIM. Furthermore, using SFRIM, to the best of our knowledge we have extracted for the first time the RI profile of a periodically modulated photosensitive gelatin sample. SFRIM is the first RI profile-resolved reflected light microscopy technique that can be applied to scattering and absorbing samples. SFRIM enables the possibility of performing RI profile measurements in a variety of applications, including optical waveguides, photosensitive materials and devices, photorefractive effect studies, and RI imaging in biomedical fields.

  6. Scanning focused refractive-index microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Teng-Qian; Ye, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Mei, Jian-Chun; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) technique to obtain the refractive index (RI) profiles of objects. The method uses a focused laser as the light source, and combines the derivative total reflection method (DTRM), projection magnification, and scanning technique together. SFRIM is able to determine RIs with an accuracy of 0.002, and the central spatial resolution achieved is 1 µm, which is smaller than the size of the focal spot. The results of measurements carried out on cedar oil and a gradient-refractive-index (GRIN) lens agree well with theoretical expectations, verifying the accuracy of SFRIM. Furthermore, using SFRIM, to the best of our knowledge we have extracted for the first time the RI profile of a periodically modulated photosensitive gelatin sample. SFRIM is the first RI profile-resolved reflected light microscopy technique that can be applied to scattering and absorbing samples. SFRIM enables the possibility of performing RI profile measurements in a variety of applications, including optical waveguides, photosensitive materials and devices, photorefractive effect studies, and RI imaging in biomedical fields. PMID:25008374

  7. Scanning focused refractive-index microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Teng-Qian; Ye, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Mei, Jian-Chun; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) technique to obtain the refractive index (RI) profiles of objects. The method uses a focused laser as the light source, and combines the derivative total reflection method (DTRM), projection magnification, and scanning technique together. SFRIM is able to determine RIs with an accuracy of 0.002, and the central spatial resolution achieved is 1 µm, which is smaller than the size of the focal spot. The results of measurements carried out on cedar oil and a gradient-refractive-index (GRIN) lens agree well with theoretical expectations, verifying the accuracy of SFRIM. Furthermore, using SFRIM, to the best of our knowledge we have extracted for the first time the RI profile of a periodically modulated photosensitive gelatin sample. SFRIM is the first RI profile-resolved reflected light microscopy technique that can be applied to scattering and absorbing samples. SFRIM enables the possibility of performing RI profile measurements in a variety of applications, including optical waveguides, photosensitive materials and devices, photorefractive effect studies, and RI imaging in biomedical fields. PMID:25008374

  8. Tissue refractive index as marker of disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    The gold standard in histopathology relies on manual investigation of stained tissue biopsies. A sensitive and quantitative method for in situ tissue specimen inspection is highly desirable, as it would allow early disease diagnosis and automatic screening. Here we demonstrate that quantitative phase imaging of entire unstained biopsies has the potential to fulfill this requirement. Our data indicates that the refractive index distribution of histopathology slides, which contains information about the molecular scale organization of tissue, reveals prostate tumors and breast calcifications. These optical maps report on subtle, nanoscale morphological properties of tissues and cells that cannot be recovered by common stains, including hematoxylin and eosin. We found that cancer progression significantly alters the tissue organization, as exhibited by consistently higher refractive index variance in prostate tumors versus normal regions. Furthermore, using the quantitative phase information, we obtained the spatially resolved scattering mean free path and anisotropy factor g for entire biopsies and demonstrated their direct correlation with tumor presence. In essence, our results show that the tissue refractive index reports on the nanoscale tissue architecture and, in principle, can be used as an intrinsic marker for cancer diagnosis.

  9. Complex refractive index of Martian dust - Mariner 9 ultraviolet observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, K.; Ajello, J. M.; Hord, C. W.; Egan, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer observations of the 1971 dust clouds obscuring the surface of Mars have been analyzed by matching the observed dust phase function with Mie scattering calculations for size distributions of homogeneous and isotropic material. Preliminary results indicate an effective particle radius of not less than 0.2. The real component of the index of refraction is not less than 1.8 at both 268 and 305 nm; corresponding values for the imagery component are 0.02 and 0.01. These values are consistent with those found by Mead (1970) for the visible and near-visible wavelengths. The refractive index and the absorption coefficient increase rapidly with decreasing wavelength in going from the visible to the ultraviolet, indicating the presence of an ultraviolet absorption band which may shield organisms from ultraviolet irradiation.

  10. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  11. Study of the index matching for different photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Roberto; Gallego, Sergi; Márquez, Andrés.; Ortuño, Manuel; Marini, Stephan; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2015-09-01

    One of the most promising phase optical recording mediums are photopolymers. In these materials, the use of an index matching component permits a better conservation of the stored information and, additionally, the study of the molecules migration and shrinkage/swelling phenomena separately. In general, the transmitted beam has the information of the thickness and refractive index modulation mixed. Therefore, we propose the introduction of a coverplate besides with an index matching liquid in order to improve the characterization and the conservation. The index matching techniques have been classically used for holographic recording materials. In principle, to obtain an accurate index matching we have to choose a liquid with refractive index very close to the mean of the polymer one. Then, when shrinkage takes place during recording, mainly due to the polymerization, the liquid will fill up the generated grooves minimizing the diffractive effects produced by the relief structure. In fact, in this work we study different index matching components for different photopolymers. The photopolymers analyzed in this work have a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder and two different main monomers: one has acrylamide and the other one sodium acrylate. We have recorded very low diffractive gratings and studied their conservation for different index matching components.

  12. Effects of refractive index on glories.

    PubMed

    Laven, Philip

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric glories are caused by backscattering of sunlight from spherical droplets of water (e.g., from fog or clouds). But what would glories look like if they were caused by scattering from more exotic substances, such as clouds of ethane as found on Titan? Examining backscattering as a function of the refractive index n of spherical droplets leads to the surprising conclusion that a glory's appearance is almost independent of n (at least for 1.03

  13. The refractive index of reciprocal electromagnetic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Martin W.; Kinsler, Paul; Topf, Renè D. M.

    2016-04-01

    We study the electromagnetics of media described by identical inhomogeneous relative dielectric and magnetic tensors, {\\boldsymbol{ε }}={\\boldsymbol{μ }}. Such media occur generically as spatial transformation media, i.e. electromagnetic media that are defined by a deformation of space. We show that such media are completely described by a refractive index n({r},\\hat{{s}}) that depends on position {r} and direction \\hat{{s}}, but is independent of polarization. The phase surface is always ellipsoidal, and n({r},\\hat{{s}}) is therefore represented by the radius vector to the surface of the ellipsoid. We apply our method to calculate the angular dependence of the refractive index in the well-studied cylindrical cloak and to a new kind of structurally chiral medium induced by a twist deformation. By way of a simple example we also show that media for which {\\boldsymbol{ε }}={\\boldsymbol{μ }} do not in general preserve the impedance properties of vacuum. The implications of this somewhat surprising conclusion for the field of transformation optics are discussed.

  14. A Simple Method to Determine the Refractive Index of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Se-yuen

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for determining the refractive index. Discusses the experiment procedure and mathematical expression for calculating the index. Provides two geometrical diagrams and a graph for determining the index with a typical data. (YP)

  15. Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid (HIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamatsu, Takashi; Wang, Yong; Shima, Motoyuki; Kusumoto, Shiro; Chiba, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Hieda, Katsuhiko; Shimokawa, Tsutomu

    2005-05-01

    ArF immersion lithography is considered as the most promising next generation technology which enables to a 45 nm node device manufacturing and below. Not only depth of focus enlargement, immersion lithography enables to use hyper numerical aperture (NA) larger than 1.0 and achieve higher resolution capability. For 193nm lithography, water is an ideal immersion fluid, providing suitable refractive index and transmission properties. Furthermore the higher refractive index fluid is expected to provide a potential extension of optical lithography to the 32 nm node. This paper describes the material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid. We have developed promising high refractive index fluids which satisfy the requirement for immersion fluid by screening wide variety of organic compounds. The physical and chemical properties of this high refractive index fluid are discussed in detail. Also the topcoat material which has good matching with high refractive index fluid is developed. While this topcoat material is soluble into aqueous TMAH developer, it does not dissolve into water or high refractive index fluid and gives suitable contact angle for immersion scan exposure. Immersion exposure experiments using high refractive index fluid with and w/o topcoat material was carried out and its lithographic performance is presented in this paper.

  16. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  17. Determination of refractive index by Moiré deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Madanipour, Khosro; Javadianvarjovi, Soheila

    2015-06-01

    Determination of refractive index is an important characteristic of material which is crucial parameter for physicists and engineers. Moiré deflectometry technique is convenient, easy-aligning, nondestructive, non-contact and fairly accurate method for refractive index measurement of gas, liquid, solid. In this paper we investigate the theory of the technique and simulate some relations then finally measure refractive index of a glassy lamella, n=1.536.

  18. The effects of refractive index heterogeneity within kidney tissue on multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Young, P A; Clendenon, S G; Byars, J M; Dunn, K W

    2011-05-01

    Although multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy has improved the depth at which useful fluorescence images can be collected in biological tissues, the reach of multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy is nonetheless limited by tissue scattering and spherical aberration. Scattering can be reduced in fixed samples by mounting in a medium whose refractive index closely matches that of the fixed material. Using optical 'clearing', the effects of refractive index heterogeneity on signal attenuation with depth are investigated. Quantitative measurements show that by mounting kidney tissue in a high refractive index medium, less than 50% of signal attenuates in 100 μm of depth. PMID:21118239

  19. Fresnel reflectance in refractive index estimation of light scattering solid particles in immersion liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räty, J.; Niskanen, I.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2010-06-01

    The refractive index of homogenous particle population can be determined by the so-called immersion liquid method. The idea is to find a known liquid whose refractive index matches the index of the particles. We report on a method that simultaneously obtains the refractive index of particles and that of the immersion liquid. It is based on a system using internal light reflection and Fresnel's theory. The method includes a series of straightforward reflection measurements and a fitting procedure. The validity of the method was tested with CaF2 particles. The method has applications within scientific studies of microparticles and nanoparticles or micro-organism in suspensions. It can be also be utilized in industry for the detection of the refractive index of products involving particles for the purpose of improvement of product quality.

  20. String and Sticky Tape Experiments: Refractive Index of Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple method of measuring the refractive index of a liquid using a paper cup, a liquid, a pencil, and a ruler. Uses the ratio between the actual depth and the apparent depth of the cup to calculate the refractive index. (GA)

  1. Measurement of Refractive Index Using a Michelson Interferometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendley, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a novel and simple method of measuring the refractive index of transparent plates using a Michelson interferometer. Since it is necessary to use a computer program when determining the refractive index, undergraduates could be given the opportunity of writing their own programs. (Author/JN)

  2. A covariant approach to the gravitational refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaciu, I.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.

    A covariant formulation of the Maxwell's field equations in a gravitational field, based on the bimetric interpretation of general relativity Theory, is given. The purpose of the work is in adequate definition of the gravitational refractive index in agreement with both wave equations propagation and a relationship between refractive index and the Minkovskian tensor of gravitational permitivity.

  3. Ionization effect on arc plasma's optical diagnosis by the measurement of the refractive index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-yun; Zhang, Cheng-yi; Gu, Fang; Wang, Qing-hua; Li, Zhen-hua

    2012-06-01

    The effect of arc plasma ionization on its temperature diagnosis by the measurement of the refractive index is discussed. The refractive index of arc plasma in two conditions is compared: 1) only the first ionization is considered and 2) both the first and second ionizations are considered. In order to facilitate plasma temperature reconstruction, two corresponding refractive index models are deduced. For the sake of making this study universal, both the monatomic and dual-atomic molecule arc plasmas are chosen as typical examples for theoretical deduction and analysis. A condition, which can be adopted to estimate whether the second ionization should be considered in temperature reconstruction, is proposed. Finally, an argon arc plasma is chosen as an example for experiment, and the experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis. This study is crucial to arc plasma's optical diagnosis, which is based on the measurement of the refractive index. PMID:22695575

  4. Computed tomography of refractive index by low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Ma, Zhenhe; Zhou, Hongxian

    2015-03-01

    We present a 3D imaging system for simultaneously imaging the distributions of refractive index and optical absorption using a transmission Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometer. The forward-scattering light travelling through a sample interferes with a reference light beam. The projections of refractive index and optical absorption within the sample are calculated from measured interference fringes. We acquire the projections at sufficient angular views and reconstruct the distributions of refractive index and optical absorption using the filter back-projection algorithm. The proposed method is experimentally verified by using a plastic tube phantom.

  5. Refractive index and temperature nanosensor with plasmonic waveguide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yan; Qiu, Peng; Wei, Qi; Quan, Wei; Wang, Shouyu; Qian, Weiying

    2016-07-01

    A surface plasmon polariton sensor consisting of two metal-insulator-metal waveguides and a transverse rectangular resonator is proposed. Both refractive index and temperature sensing characteristics are analyzed by investigating the transmission spectra which demonstrates that the transmission peak wavelength shifting satisfies linear relation with environmental refractive index and temperature, respectively. The proposed design provides high refractive index and temperature sensitivity as 3.38×106%/RIU and 82%/K estimated by integrated response of the sensor, and owns the potentials for high-throughput array sensing. It is believed that the nanoscale sensor can be applied in spot detection for high speed multi-parameter sensing and accurate measurements.

  6. Determining the Thickness and Refractive Index of a Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    When a laser beam reflects from a back surface glass mirror and falls on a screen, a pattern of discrete bright spots is created by partial reflection and refraction of the light at the air-glass interface and reflection at the mirror surface (Fig. 1). This paper explains how this phenomenon can be used to determine the refractive index and the…

  7. Automated measurement of the refractive index of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pixton, Bruce M.; Greivenkamp, John E

    2008-04-01

    A method for automating refractive-index measurements of fluids has been developed. An encoded rotation stage and position-sensitive detector enable automated reading of angles typically acquired by visual means. Two tunable lasers are used to obtain index measurements at ten discrete wavelengths across the visible spectrum. This method has been implemented on a Hilger-Chance refractometer from which the bulk refractive-index values for various transparent fluids have been measured. An index measurement accuracy of better than one part in the fourth decimal place for distilled water and a few parts in the fourth decimal place for higher index fluids is obtained.

  8. Miniature interferometer for refractive index measurement in microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghui; Geiser, Martial; Truffer, Frederic; Song, Chengli

    2012-12-01

    The design and development of the miniaturized interferometer for measurement of the refractive index or concentration of sub-microliter volume aqueous solution in microfludic chip is presented. It is manifested by a successful measurement of the refractive index of sugar-water solution, by utilizing a laser diode for light source and the small robust instrumentation for practical implementation. Theoretically, the measurement principle and the feasibility of the system are analyzed. Experimental device is constructed with a diode laser, lens, two optical plate and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Through measuring the positional changes of the interference fringes, the refractive index change are retrieved. A refractive index change of 10-4 is inferred from the measured image data. The entire system is approximately the size of half and a deck of cards and can operate on battery power for long time.

  9. Spatially Varying Index of Refraction: An Open Ended Undergraduate Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an experiment on the bending of light in a medium with a continuously varying index of refraction. Several theoretical approaches for the analysis of this experiment, designed for college physics students, are also presented. (HM)

  10. Engineering a resonant nanocoating for an optical refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialiayeu, A.; Ianoul, A.; Albert, J.

    2014-03-01

    We proposing to boost the performance of refractive index sensors based on the tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) structure by resonant coupling of small spherical nanoparticles to the TFBG resonances. The optimal choice of nanoparticle parameters is discussed.

  11. Refractive-index-profile determinations by using Lloyd's mirage.

    PubMed

    Allman, B E; Klein, A G; Nugent, K A; Opat, G I

    1994-04-01

    A method is presented for the experimental determination of refractive-index profiles for planar media of monotonically decreasing refractive index, such as those used for optical waveguides. The technique is based on a generalization of the classical experiment of Lloyd's mirror, involving the interference pattern formed by a point source and its mirage, i.e., its reflection in such a graded planar medium. PMID:20885511

  12. Biexciton induced refractive index changes in a semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of linear and third order nonlinear refractive index changes in a optically driven disk-like GaN quantum dot. In our numerical calculations, we consider the three level system containing biexciton, exciton, and ground states and use the compact density matrix formalism and iterative method to obtain refractive index changes. Variational method through effective mass approximation are employed to calculate the ground state energy of biexciton and exciton states. The evolution of refractive index changes around one, two and three photon resonance is investigated and discussed for different quantum dot sizes and light intensities. Size-dependent three-photon nonlinear refractive index change versus incident photon energy compared to that of two-photon is obtained and analyzed. As main result, we found that around resonance frequency at exciton-biexciton transition the quantum confinement has great influence on the linear change in refractive index so that for very large quantum dots, it decreases. Moreover, it was found that third order refractive index changes for three photon process is strongly dependent on QD size and light intensity. Our study reveals that considering our simple model leads to results which are in good agreement with other rare numerical results. Comparison with experimental results has been done.

  13. Photoresist Exposure Parameter Extraction from Refractive Index Change during Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Soo; Sung, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Eun-Mi; Oh, Jin-Kyung; Byun, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Yeon-Un; Oh, Hye-Keun; An, Ilsin; Lee, Kun-Sang; Park, In-Ho; Cho, Joon-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    1998-12-01

    The refractive indices of photoresist are usually measured byan ellipsometer or spectrophotometer, but the values are limited to pre-exposure. It is known thatthe real and imaginary indices are changed during the exposure.But there is little report on these variations since itis difficult to measure this refractive index change at deep ultraviolet. The DillABC parameters show a significant variation with the resist and substrate thicknessas well as the experimental conditions.A method is suggested to extract the parameters from the refractive index changes.We can get the refractive index change and extract the Dill ABC exposure parameters from that.The multiple thin film interference calculation is used to fit the measured transmittance data.The results of our experiments and calculations for several resists including193 nm chemically amplified resists are compared with other methods.The results are agreed well with the full multilayer thin film simulation.

  14. Experimental determination of refractive index of condensed reflectin in squid iridocytes.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Amitabh; DeMartini, Daniel G; Eck, Elizabeth; Morse, Daniel E

    2014-06-01

    Loliginid squid dynamically tune the structural iridescence of cells in their skin for active camouflage and communication. Bragg reflectors in these cells consist of membrane-bound lamellae periodically alternating with low refractive index extracellular spaces; neuronal signalling induces condensation of the reflectin proteins that fill the lamellae, consequently triggering the expulsion of water. This causes an increase in refractive index within the lamellae, activating reflectance, with the change in lamellar thickness and spacing progressively shifting the wavelength of reflected light. We used micro-spectrophotometry to measure the functionally relevant refractive index of the high-index lamellae of the Bragg reflectors containing the condensed reflectins in chemically fixed dermal iridocytes of the squid, Doryteuthis opalescens. Our high-magnification imaging spectrometer allowed us to obtain normalized spectra of optically distinct sections of the individual, subcellular, multi-layer Bragg stacks. Replacement of the extracellular fluid with liquids of increasing refractive index allowed us to measure the reflectivity of the Bragg stacks as it decreased progressively to 0 when the refractive index of the extracellular medium exactly matched that of the reflectin-filled lamellae, thus allowing us to directly measure the refractive index of the reflectin-filled lamellae as ncondensed lamellae ≈ 1.44. The measured value of the physiologically relevant ncondensed lamellae from these bright iridocytes falls within the range of values that we recently determined by an independent optical method and is significantly lower than values previously reported for dehydrated and air-dried reflectin films. We propose that this directly measured value for the refractive index of the squid's Bragg lamellae containing the condensed reflectins is most appropriate for calculations of reflectivity in similar reflectin-based high-index layers in other molluscs. PMID:24694894

  15. Effects of refractive index mismatch in optical CT imaging of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki S, Sharath; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proposing an image reconstruction technique, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc). The proposed method takes care of refractive index mismatches present in gel dosimeter scanner at the boundary, and also corrects for the interior ray refraction. Polymer gel dosimeters with high dose regions have higher refractive index and optical density compared to the background medium, these changes in refractive index at high dose results in interior ray bending. Methods: The inclusion of the effects of refraction is an important step in reconstruction of optical density in gel dosimeters. The proposed ray tracing algorithm models the interior multiple refraction at the inhomogeneities. Jacob’s ray tracing algorithm has been modified to calculate the pathlengths of the ray that traverses through the higher dose regions. The algorithm computes the length of the ray in each pixel along its path and is used as the weight matrix. Algebraic reconstruction technique and pixel based reconstruction algorithms are used for solving the reconstruction problem. The proposed method is tested with numerical phantoms for various noise levels. The experimental dosimetric results are also presented. Results: The results show that the proposed scheme ART-rc is able to reconstruct optical density inside the dosimeter better than the results obtained using filtered backprojection and conventional algebraic reconstruction approaches. The quantitative improvement using ART-rc is evaluated using gamma-index. The refraction errors due to regions of different refractive indices are discussed. The effects of modeling of interior refraction in the dose region are presented. Conclusions: The errors propagated due to multiple refraction effects have been modeled and the improvements in reconstruction using proposed model is presented. The refractive index of the dosimeter has a mismatch with the surrounding medium (for dry air or water scanning). The algorithm

  16. Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegrist, K. M.; Thrush, E.; Airola, M.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D. M.; Boggs, N. T.; Thomas, M. E.; Carter, C. C.

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of biological agents can make it difficult to identify the important factors impacting scattering characteristics among variables such as size, shape, internal structure and biochemical composition, particle aggregation, and sample additives. This difficulty is exacerbated by the environmentally interactive nature of biological organisms. In particular, bacterial spores equilibrate with environmental humidity by absorption/desorption of water which can affect both the complex refractive index and the size/shape distributions of particles - two factors upon which scattering characteristics depend critically. Therefore accurate analysis of experimental data for determination of refractive index must take account of particle water content. First, spectral transmission measurements to determine visible refractive index done on suspensions of bacterial spores must account for water (or other solvent) uptake. Second, realistic calculations of aerosol scattering cross sections should consider effects of atmospheric humidity on particle water content, size and shape. In this work we demonstrate a method for determining refractive index of bacterial spores bacillus atropheus (BG), bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAs) which accounts for these effects. Visible index is found from transmission measurements on aqueous and DMSO suspensions of particles, using an anomalous diffraction approximation. A simplified version of the anomalous diffraction theory is used to eliminate the need for knowledge of particle size. Results using this approach indicate the technique can be useful in determining the visible refractive index of particles when size and shape distributions are not well known but fall within the region of validity of anomalous dispersion theory.

  17. Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang

    2016-02-01

    We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.

  18. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  19. Enhanced Nonlinear Refractive Index in ε-Near-Zero Materials.

    PubMed

    Caspani, L; Kaipurath, R P M; Clerici, M; Ferrera, M; Roger, T; Kim, J; Kinsey, N; Pietrzyk, M; Di Falco, A; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A; Faccio, D

    2016-06-10

    New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here, we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the ε-near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a sixfold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index (n_{2}) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to ultrafast light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics. PMID:27341234

  20. Enhanced Nonlinear Refractive Index in ɛ -Near-Zero Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspani, L.; Kaipurath, R. P. M.; Clerici, M.; Ferrera, M.; Roger, T.; Kim, J.; Kinsey, N.; Pietrzyk, M.; Di Falco, A.; Shalaev, V. M.; Boltasseva, A.; Faccio, D.

    2016-06-01

    New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here, we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the ɛ -near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a sixfold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index (n2) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to ultrafast light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics.

  1. Terahertz refractive index sensors using dielectric pipe waveguides.

    PubMed

    You, Borwen; Lu, Ja-Yu; Yu, Chin-Ping; Liu, Tze-An; Peng, Jin-Long

    2012-03-12

    A dielectric pipe waveguide is successfully demonstrated as a terahertz refractive index sensor for powder and liquid-vapor sensing. Without additional engineered structures, a simple pipe waveguide can act as a terahertz resonator based on anti-resonant reflecting guidance, forming multiple resonant transmission-dips. Loading various powders in the ring-cladding or inserting different vapors into the hollow core of the pipe waveguide leads to a significant shift of resonant frequency, and the spectral shift is related to the refractive-index change. The proven detection limit of molecular density could be reduced to 1.6nano-mole/mm3 and the highest sensitivity is demonstrated at around 22.2GHz/refractive-index-unit (RIU), which is comparable to the best THz molecular sensor [Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171113 (2009)]. PMID:22418463

  2. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood.

    PubMed

    Yahya, M; Saghir, M Z

    2016-02-21

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient's condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy. PMID:26807785

  3. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, M.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy.

  4. Dual interferometer system for measuring index of refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Eric Peter

    The optical power of a lens is determined by the surface curvature and the refractive index, n. Knowledge of the index is required for accurate lens design models and for examining material variations from sample to sample. The refractive index of glass can be accurately measured using a prism spectrometer, but measuring the index of soft contact lens materials presents many challenges. These materials are non-rigid, thin, and must remain hydrated in a saline solution during testing. Clearly an alternative to a prism spectrometer must be used to accurately measure index. A Dual Interferometer System has been designed, built and characterized as a novel method for measuring the refractive index of transparent optical materials, including soft contact lens materials. The first interferometer is a Low Coherence Interferometer in a Twyman-Green configuration with a scanning reference mirror. The contact lens material sample is placed in a measurement cuvette, where it remains hydrated. By measuring the locations of the multiple optical interfaces, the physical thickness t of the material is measured. A new algorithm has been developed for processing the low coherence signals obtained from the reflection at each optical interface. The second interferometer is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a tunable HeNe laser light source. This interferometer measures the optical path length (OPL) of the test sample in the cuvette in transmission as a function of five wavelengths in the visible spectrum. This is done using phase-shifting interferometry. Multiple thickness regions are used to solve 2pi phase ambiguities in the OPL. The outputs of the two interferometers are combined to determine the refractive index as a function of wavelength: n(lambda) = OPL(lambda)/t. Since both t and OPL are measured using a detector array, n is measured at hundreds of thousands of data points. A measurement accuracy of 0.0001 in refractive index is achieved with this new instrument, which is

  5. Refractive index change and curvature in shock waves by angled beam refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, J. H.; Manson, A. C.

    1981-09-01

    Observations of front geometry and refractive index jump across shock waves in rare gases have been made with a new particularly simple technique. The technique involves determination of the angular deflection of a narrow laser beam intersecting the shock front at a shallow angle. Measured refractive index jumps in rare gases are in excellent agreement with those calculated using Snell's law and ideal shock theory. The apparent shock curvature is in close accord with deBoer's theory for loading pressures below 20 Torr, but above this pressure there is evidence of an indentation near tube center.

  6. Quantum dot-embedded microspheres for remote refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shuo; Beckham, Richard E; Meissner, Kenith E

    2008-06-01

    We present a refractometric sensor based on quantum dot-embedded polystyrene microspheres. Optical resonances within a microsphere, known as whispering-gallery modes (WGMs), produce narrow spectral peaks. For sensing applications, spectral shifts of these peaks are sensitive to changes in the local refractive index. In this work, two-photon excited luminescence from the quantum dots couples into several WGMs within the microresonator. By optimizing the detection area, the spectral visibility of the WGMs is improved. The spectral shifts are measured as the surrounding index of the refraction changes. The experimental sensitivity is about five times greater than that predicted by the Mie theory. PMID:19488403

  7. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyal, Ravinder Kumar; Raghavendra Prasad, B.

    2007-03-01

    We report the pump--probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.

  8. Quantum dot-embedded microspheres for remote refractive index sensing

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Shuo; Beckham, Richard E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a refractometric sensor based on quantum dot-embedded polystyrene microspheres. Optical resonances within a microsphere, known as whispering-gallery modes (WGMs), produce narrow spectral peaks. For sensing applications, spectral shifts of these peaks are sensitive to changes in the local refractive index. In this work, two-photon excited luminescence from the quantum dots couples into several WGMs within the microresonator. By optimizing the detection area, the spectral visibility of the WGMs is improved. The spectral shifts are measured as the surrounding index of the refraction changes. The experimental sensitivity is about five times greater than that predicted by the Mie theory. PMID:19488403

  9. How effective can optical-CT 3D dosimetry be without refractive fluid matching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankine, L.; Oldham

    2013-06-01

    Achieving accurate optical CT 3D dosimetry without the use of viscous refractive index (RI) matching fluids would greatly increase convenience. Software has been developed to simulate optical CT 3D dosimetry for a range of scanning configurations including parallel-beam, point and converging light sources. For each configuration the efficacy of 3 refractive media were investigated: air, water, and a fluid closely matched to Presage (RI = 1.00, 1.33 and 1.49 respectively). The results revealed that the useable radius of the dosimeter (i.e. where data was within 2% of truth) reduced to 68% for water-matching, and 31% for dry-scanning in air. Point source incident ray geometry produced slightly more favourable results, although variation between the three geometries was relatively small. The required detector size however, increased by a factor six for dry-scanning, introducing cost penalties. For applications where dose information is not required in the periphery, some dry and low-viscous matching configurations may be feasible.

  10. Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Lin; Hong Hang, Zhi; Chen, Huanyang

    2014-05-12

    In this Letter, we find that high efficient unidirectional transmission occurs for an array of prisms made of zero-refractive-index metamaterials. As a specific demonstration, we further design the device using Dirac-cone-like photonic crystals. The device can function for a broadband of spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the one-way wave functionality.

  11. Nano-imprint gold grating as refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Saswat; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.

    2016-05-01

    Large scale of fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures has been a challenging task due to time consuming process and requirement of expensive nanofabrication tools such as electron beam lithography system, focused ion beam system, and extreme UV photolithography system. Here, we present a cost-effective fabrication technique so called soft nanoimprinting to fabricate nanostructures on the larger sample area. In our fabrication process, a commercially available optical DVD disc was used as a template which was imprinted on a polymer glass substrate to prepare 1D polymer nano-grating. A homemade nanoimprinting setup was used in this fabrication process. Further, a label-free refractive index sensor was developed by utilizing the properties of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a gold coated 1D polymer nano-grating. Refractive index sensing was tested by exposing different solutions of glycerol-water mixture on the surface of gold nano-grating. The calculated bulk refractive index sensitivity was found to be 751nm/RIU. We believed that our proposed SPR sensor could be a promising candidate for developing low-cost refractive index sensor with high sensitivity on a large scale.

  12. Optical glass: refractive index change with wavelength and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Marion; Hartmann, Peter; Reichel, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    With the catalog of 1992 SCHOTT introduced two formulae each with six parameters for a better representation of the refractive index of optical glasses. The Sellmeier-equation improved the characterization of dispersion at room temperature and the Hoffmann equation that of its temperature dependence. Better representation had been expected because both formulae were derived from general dispersion theory. The original publication of Hoffmann et al. from 1992 contains first results on the accuracy of the fits. The extended use of the formulae has led to a collection of data allowing reviewing the adequacy of the Sellmeier-equation approach on a much broader basis. We compare fitted refractive index values with measured values for all wavelengths used at our precision refractive index goniometer. Data sets are available for specific melts of the four representative glass types N-BK7, N-FK5, LF5 and IRG2. For some materials, the optical glass N-LAF21, the IR glass IRG2 and the crystal CaF2, several sets of data for the temperature dependence of the refractive index are available thus giving evidence for the variation of these properties among melts of the same material.

  13. Refractive index modification of polymers using nanosized dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanemann, Thomas; Boehm, Johannes; Müller, Claas; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, Eberhard

    2008-04-01

    The addition of nanosized inorganic or organic dopants to polymers allows the modification of the polymers physical properties enabling the realization of functionalized polymers with new application fields e.g. in microoptics. Exemplarily electron rich organic dopants, solved in polymers, cause a pronounced increase of the refractive index. Polymer based reactive resins like PMMA, solved in MMA, or unsaturated polyester, solved in styrene, can be cured to thermoplastic polymers. The resin's low viscous flow behaviour enables an easy composite formation by solving the organic dopants in the liquid up to a dopant content of 50 wt%, followed by solidification to a thermoplastic. The addition of simple organic molecules like phenanthrene or benzochinoline allows a refractive index elevation at 633 nm from 1.56 up to 1.60 retaining the good transmission properties. In comparison the refractive index of PMMA can be increased from the initial value of 1.49 up to values around 1.58 (@633 nm). All composites show an almost linear correlation between dopant content and refractive index. Using these composites devices like 3dB-couplers or an electrooptical modulator applying injection molded or hot embossed substrates have been realized.

  14. Giant Kerr nonlinearities using refractive-index enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, D. D.; Sikes, D. E.

    2010-03-15

    By utilizing refractive-index enhancement with vanishing absorption, a scheme is suggested that achieves giant Kerr nonlinearities between two weak laser beams. One application of this scheme is discussed and an all-optical distributed Bragg reflector is proposed that works at very low light levels.

  15. Refractive index of Lithosil and Suprasil 312 at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Olivieri, Monica; Mondello, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Measurements of the refractive index of two different Lithosil samples and a sample of Suprasil 312 at cryogenic temperature and at 293 K are reported for the spectral range from 480 nm to 894 nm. Such data are useful for the design of fused silica optical components and systems destined for space missions.

  16. Structures with negative index of refraction

    DOEpatents

    Soukoulis, Costas M.; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Koschny, Thomas; Zhang, Lei; Tuttle, Gary

    2011-11-08

    The invention provides simplified negative index materials (NIMs) using wire-pair structures, 4-gap single ring split-ring resonator (SRR), fishnet structures and overleaf capacitor SRR. In the wire-pair arrangement, a pair of short parallel wires and continuous wires are used. In the 4-gap single-ring SRR, the SRRs are centered on the faces of a cubic unit cell combined with a continuous wire type resonator. Combining both elements creates a frequency band where the metamaterial is transparent with simultaneously negative .di-elect cons. and .mu.. In the fishnet structure, a metallic mesh on both sides of the dielectric spacer is used. The overleaf capacitor SRR changes the gap capacities to small plate capacitors by making the sections of the SRR ring overlap at the gaps separated by a thin dielectric film. This technique is applicable to conventional SRR gaps but it best deploys for the 4-gap single-ring structures.

  17. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Steven J.; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering. PMID:26488650

  18. Refractive index of nanostructured optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, Francois; Escoubas, Ludovic; Drouard, Emmanuel; Lazarides, Basile

    2002-06-01

    Thanks to progresses in photolithography techniques optical materials can now be structured to a scale of a few tens of a nanometer. This has opened a wide field of new applications. When concerned with a scale of some tens of a micron down to a few microns, microlens and integrated optic components can be made. When the material is structured with a scale in the order of the wavelength of light, different filtering functions can be made. This concerns Bragg mirrors or more generally Photonic Crystals. A structuration in a scale small in front of the wavelength is also of a great interest. In this case the material does not diffract the light anymore an dit behaves like a homogeneous one. The calculated transmittance of a laser mirror is used to determine the effective index of the single layer equivalent to the multilayer stack. The artificial anisotropy of thin films structured with a one-dimension sub wavelength grating made by holography is measured. The limitation of the first order homogenization theory is given for two different grating steps. Polarizing coatings or polarization rotators are designed to work in normal incidence by inserting anisotropic films in simple multilayer structures.

  19. Refractive index and birefringence of 2H silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The refractive indices of 2H SiC were measured over the wavelength range 435.8 to 650.9 nm by the method of minimum deviation. At the wavelength lambda = 546.1 nm, the ordinary index n sub 0 was 2.6480 and the extraordinary index n sub e was 2.7237. The estimated error (standard deviation) in the measured values is 0.0006 for n sub 0 and 0.0009 for n sub e. The experimental data were curve fitted to the Cauchy equation for the index of refraction as a function of wavelength. The birefringence of 2H SiC was found to vary from 0.0719 at lambda = 650.9 nm to 0.0846 at lambda = 435.8 nm.

  20. Temperature-dependent Refractive Index of Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are perhaps the two most well-understood semiconductor materials in the context of solid state device technologies and more recently micromachining and nanotechnology. Meanwhile, these two materials are also important in the field of infrared lens design. Optical instruments designed for the wavelength range where these two materials are transmissive achieve best performance when cooled to cryogenic temperatures to enhance signal from the scene over instrument background radiation. In order to enable high quality lens designs using silicon and germanium at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of multiple prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For silicon, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K at wavelengths from 1.1 to 5.6 pin, while for germanium, we cover temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K and wavelengths from 1.9 to 5.5 microns. We compare our measurements with others in the literature and provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. Citing the wide variety of values for the refractive indices of these two materials found in the literature, we reiterate the importance of measuring the refractive index of a sample from the same batch of raw material from which final optical components are cut when absolute accuracy greater than k5 x 10" is desired.

  1. Modelling refractive index changes due to molecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Manoj

    2016-03-01

    There are a large number of sensing techniques which use optical changes to monitor interactions between molecules. In the absence of fluorophores or other labels, the basic signal transduction mechanism relies on refractive index changes arising from the interactions of the molecules involved. A quantitative model incorporating molecular transport, reaction kinetics and optical mixing is presented which reveals important insights concerning the optimal detection of molecular interactions optically. Although conceptually simple, a comprehensive model such as this has not been reported anywhere. Specifically, we investigate the pros and cons of detecting molecular interactions in free solution relative to detecting molecular interactions on surfaces using surface bound receptor molecules such as antibodies. The model reveals that the refractive index change produced in surface based sensors is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that from interactions in free solution. On the other hand, the model also reveals that it is indeed possible to distinguish specific molecular interactions from non-specific ones based on free-solution bulk refractometry without any washing step necessary in surface based sensors. However, the refractive index change for free solution interactions predicted by the model is smaller than 10-7 RIU, even for large proteins such as IgG in sufficiently high concentrations. This value is smaller than the typical 10-6 RIU detection limit of most state of the art optical sensing techniques therefore requiring techniques with substantially higher index sensitivity such as Back Scattering Interferometry.

  2. The whistler mode refractive index as a function of gyrofrequency

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J. M.

    2011-08-15

    The refractive index for a constant-frequency whistler mode wave in an electron-proton plasma is considered as a function of position, through the local gyrofrequencies {Omega}{sub e,i}. The full cold plasma dispersion relation is used. The wave frequency can take any value up to the smaller of {Omega}{sub e} and the plasma frequency {omega}{sub pe}, but {omega}{sub pe} is allowed to take any fixed value, as is the wavenormal angle. It is rigorously established that the refractive index is a decreasing function of {Omega}{sub e}. One application of this is to finding locations of Landau and cyclotron resonances, to evaluate the effects of whistler mode waves on radiation belt electrons.

  3. INDEX OF REFRACTION OF SHOCK LOADED SODA-LIME GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C. S.

    2009-12-28

    Soda-lime glass (SLG) is a potential low-cost VISAR window for use at moderate shock pressures (up to 2430 GPa) where the material remains transparent. In order for SLG to be practical as a VISAR window, the correction factor, which describes the frequency correction related to the strain dependence of the refractive index, and hence the index of refraction itself, must be characterized as a function of pressure. Characterization data are reported in this paper and compared to previous results. The present data show good agreement with those of Dandekar [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6614 (1998)] and separate study results by Gibbons and Ahrens [J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5489 (1971)] up to 7 GPa. However, at stresses over 7 GPa, marked discrepancies are evident between the present data and that of Gibbons and Ahrens. Differences in test methods may explain these discrepancies.

  4. Refractive index compensation in over-determined interferometric systems.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej; Čížek, Martin; Hrabina, Jan; Buchta, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    We present an interferometric technique based on a differential interferometry setup for measurement under atmospheric conditions. The key limiting factor in any interferometric dimensional measurement are fluctuations of the refractive index of air representing a dominating source of uncertainty when evaluated indirectly from the physical parameters of the atmosphere. Our proposal is based on the concept of an over-determined interferometric setup where a reference length is derived from a mechanical frame made from a material with a very low thermal coefficient. The technique allows one to track the variations of the refractive index of air on-line directly in the line of the measuring beam and to compensate for the fluctuations. The optical setup consists of three interferometers sharing the same beam path where two measure differentially the displacement while the third evaluates the changes in the measuring range, acting as a tracking refractometer. The principle is demonstrated in an experimental setup. PMID:23202037

  5. Refractive Index Compensation in Over-Determined Interferometric Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej; Čížek, Martin; Hrabina, Jan; Buchta, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    We present an interferometric technique based on a differential interferometry setup for measurement under atmospheric conditions. The key limiting factor in any interferometric dimensional measurement are fluctuations of the refractive index of air representing a dominating source of uncertainty when evaluated indirectly from the physical parameters of the atmosphere. Our proposal is based on the concept of an over-determined interferometric setup where a reference length is derived from a mechanical frame made from a material with a very low thermal coefficient. The technique allows one to track the variations of the refractive index of air on-line directly in the line of the measuring beam and to compensate for the fluctuations. The optical setup consists of three interferometers sharing the same beam path where two measure differentially the displacement while the third evaluates the changes in the measuring range, acting as a tracking refractometer. The principle is demonstrated in an experimental setup. PMID:23202037

  6. Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Choi, Jeongmook; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Choi, Hyunyong; Min, Bumki

    2013-01-01

    Modulation of the refractive index of materials is elementary, yet it is crucial for the manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Relying on the inherent properties of natural materials, it has been a long-standing challenge in device engineering to increase the index-modulation contrast. Here, we demonstrate a significant amount of ultrafast index modulation by optically exciting non-equilibrium Dirac fermions in the graphene layer integrated onto a high-index metamaterial. Furthermore, an extremely-large electrical modulation of refractive index up to Δn ~ −3.4 (at 0.69 THz) is achieved by electrical tuning of the density of the equilibrium Dirac fermion in the graphene metamaterial. This manifestation, otherwise remaining elusive in conventional semiconductor devices, fully exploits the characteristic ultrafast charge relaxation in graphene as well as the strong capacitive response of the metamaterial, both of which enable us to drastically increase the light-matter interaction of graphene and the corresponding index contrast in the graphene metamaterials. PMID:23823715

  7. Enhanced refractive index without absorption in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Shui, Tao; Qian, Biqi; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the absorptive-dispersive properties of a weak probe field in a ladder-type quantum dot. It is found that the enhanced refraction index without absorption can be easily controlled via adjusting properly the corresponding parameters of the system. Our scheme may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in dispersion compensation and solid-state quantum communication for quantum information processing.

  8. Fiber Optic-Based Refractive Index Sensing at INESC Porto

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Pedro A. S.; Silva, Susana O.; Gouveia, Carlos; Tafulo, Paula; Coelho, Luis; Caldas, Paulo; Viegas, Diana; Rego, Gaspar; Baptista, José M.; Santos, José L.; Frazão, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    A review of refractive index measurement based on different types of optical fiber sensor configurations and techniques is presented. It addresses the main developments in the area, with particular focus on results obtained at INESC Porto, Portugal. The optical fiber sensing structures studied include those based on Bragg and long period gratings, on micro-interferometers, on plasmonic effects in fibers and on multimode interference in a large spectrum of standard and microstructured optical fibers. PMID:22969405

  9. Measurement of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index of Cs vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Michelle O.; de S. Cavalcante, Hugo L. D.; Oriá, Marcos; Chevrollier, Martine; de Silans, Thierry Passerat; Castro, Romeu; Moretti, Danieverton

    2013-12-01

    Atomic vapors are systems well suited for nonlinear optics studies but very few direct measurements of their nonlinear refractive index have been reported. Here we use the z-scan technique to measure the Kerr coefficient, n2, for a Cs vapor. Our results are analyzed through a four-level model, and we show that coherence between excited levels as well as cross-population effects contribute to the Kerr nonlinearity.

  10. Energy gap refractive index relations in semiconductors An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra, N. M.; Ganapathy, Preethi; Choi, Jinsoo

    2007-03-01

    An overview of the understanding of correlations between energy gap and refractive index of semiconductors is presented here. The atomic approach of Moss, the nearly free electron model of Penn, the oscillator concept of Wemple and the optical polarizability approach of Finkenrath are considered in this study. The Ravindra relation is discussed in the context of alternate approaches that have been presented in the literature. Case studies of applications of these relations to infrared materials and wide band gap semiconductors are presented.

  11. Organic Plasmon-Emitting Diodes for Detecting Refractive Index Variation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A photo-excited organic layer on a metal thin film with a corrugated substrate was used to generate surface plasmon grating coupled emissions (SPGCEs). Directional emissions corresponded to the resonant condition of surface plasmon modes on the Au/air interface. In experimental comparisons of the effects of different pitch sizes on the plasmonic band-gap, the obtained SPGCEs were highly directional, with intensity increases as large as 10.38-fold. The FWHM emission spectrum was less than 70 nm. This method is easily applicable to detecting refractive index changes by using SP-coupled fluorophores in which wavelength emissions vary by viewing angle. The measurements and calculations in this study confirmed that the color wavelength of the SPGCE changed from 545.3 nm to 615.4 nm at certain viewing angles, while the concentration of contacting glucose increased from 10 to 40 wt%, which corresponded to a refractive index increase from 1.3484 to 1.3968. The organic plasmon-emitting diode exhibits a wider linearity range and a resolution of the experimental is 1.056 × 10−3 RIU. The sensitivity of the detection limit for naked eye of the experimental is 0.6 wt%. At a certain viewing angle, a large spectral shift is clearly distinguishable by the naked eye unaided by optoelectronic devices. These experimental results confirm the potential applications of the organic plasmon-emitting diodes in a low-cost, integrated, and disposable refractive-index sensor. PMID:23812346

  12. Microvolume index of refraction determinations by interferometric backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhop, Darryl J.

    1995-06-01

    A new method has been applied to the determination of fluid bulk properties in small detection volumes. Through the use of an unfocused He-Ne laser beam and a cylindrical tube of capillary dimensions, relative refractive-index measurements are possible. The backscattered light from the illumination of a tube of capillary dimensions produces an interference pattern that is spatially defined and that contains information related to the bulk properties of the fluid contained in the tube. Positional changes in the intensity-modulated beam profile (interference fringes) are directly related to the refractive index of the fluid in the tube. The determination of dn/n at the 10-7 level is possible in probe volumes of 350 pL. The technique has been applied to tubes as small as 75 mu m inner diameter and as large as 1.0 mm inner diameter. No modification of the simple optical bench is required for facilitating the determination of refractive index for the complete range of tube diameters.

  13. Direct determination of the refractive index of natural multilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2011-05-01

    It is well known that the metal-like strong reflection observed in the elytra of some kinds of beetles is produced by multilayer thin-film interference. For the quantitative analyses of the structural colors in these elytra, it is necessary to know accurate values of the refractive indices of the materials that comprise the multilayer structure. However, index determination is not an easy task: The elytron surface is not flat but curved and usually contains many irregular bumps, which cause scattering loss. These structural characteristics prevent us from directly applying conventional optical techniques for index determination, such as ellipsometry, since these techniques require a perfectly specular surface. In this paper, we report a new experimental procedure that can directly determine the refractive indices of individual layers in natural multilayer systems. This procedure involves semi-frontal thin-sectioning of the sample and subsequent optical examinations using a microspectrophotometer. We demonstrate that the complex refractive index and its wavelength dependence can be successfully determined for one kind of beetle.

  14. Evanescent field sensing: cavity-coupled refractive index sensor (CRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindvold, Lars R.; Lading, Lars

    1998-03-01

    A new concept for the detection of very small changes in the refractive index of a small sample of transparent material is given. The concept is based on measuring the frequency difference between two modes of a laser (possibly a twin- laser), where the evanescent field of one mode is affected by small refractive index changes. Intracavity sensing allows for orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than with external sensing. The frequency difference is obtained by light beating of the two modes. An imbedded diffractive element ensures proper modematching for the light beating. The relative frequency change is equal to the relative change in refractive index properly averaged over the waveguide. The performance of the intracavity system is compared with a system based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The intracavity system may achieve a resolution that is 104 - 106 higher than the sensitivity of a system based on an external interferometer. The effect of thermal instability is investigated and it is discussed how the required very low thermal off-set can be maintained. Injection locking can be a problem. The problem may be solved by either introducing a fixed frequency off- set or by proper design of the cavity structure. An implementation based on III-V materials with a waveguide configuration and Bragg-mirrors is possible with existing technologies. A concept based on a polymer configuration is proposed.

  15. 3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Cheng; Huang, Su-Juan; Miao, Zhuang; Chang, Zheng; Zeng, Jun-Zhang; Wang, Ting-Yun

    2016-09-01

    A digital holographic microscopic chromatography-based approach with considerably improved accuracy, simplified configuration and performance stability is proposed to measure three dimensional refractive index of special optical fibers. Based on the approach, a measurement system is established incorporating a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer and lab-developed supporting software for data processing. In the system, a phase projection distribution of an optical fiber is utilized to obtain an optimal digital hologram recorded by a CCD, and then an angular spectrum theory-based algorithm is adopted to extract the phase distribution information of an object wave. The rotation of the optic fiber enables the experimental measurements of multi-angle phase information. Based on the filtered back projection algorithm, a 3D refraction index of the optical fiber is thus obtained at high accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, both PANDA fibers and special elliptical optical fiber are considered in the system. The results measured in PANDA fibers agree well with those measured using S14 Refractive Index Profiler, which is, however, not suitable for measuring the property of a special elliptical fiber.

  16. Determining index of refraction from polarimetric hyperspectral radiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jacob A.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2015-09-01

    Polarimetric hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI) combines two of the most common remote sensing modalities. This work leverages the combination of these techniques to improve material classification. Classifying and identifying materials requires parameters which are invariant to changing viewing conditions, and most often a material's reflectivity or emissivity is used. Measuring these most often requires assumptions be made about the material and atmospheric conditions. Combining both polarimetric and hyperspectral imaging, we propose a method to remotely estimate the index of refraction of a material. In general, this is an underdetermined problem because both the real and imaginary components of index of refraction are unknown at every spectral point. By modeling the spectral variation of the index of refraction using a few parameters, however, the problem can be made overdetermined. A number of different functions can be used to describe this spectral variation, and some are discussed here. Reducing the number of spectral parameters to fit allows us to add parameters which estimate atmospheric downwelling radiance and transmittance. Additionally, the object temperature is added as a fit parameter. The set of these parameters that best replicate the measured data is then found using a bounded Nelder-Mead simplex search algorithm. Other search algorithms are also examined and discussed. Results show that this technique has promise but also some limitations, which are the subject of ongoing work.

  17. High refractive index immersion liquid for superresolution 3D imaging using sapphire-based aplanatic numerical aperture increasing lens optics.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Junaid M; Shravan Kumar, P; Herminghaus, Stephan; Daniels, Karen E; Schröter, Matthias

    2016-04-20

    Optically transparent immersion liquids with refractive index (n∼1.77) to match the sapphire-based aplanatic numerical aperture increasing lens (aNAIL) are necessary for achieving deep 3D imaging with high spatial resolution. We report that antimony tribromide (SbBr3) salt dissolved in liquid diiodomethane (CH2I2) provides a new high refractive index immersion liquid for optics applications. The refractive index is tunable from n=1.74 (pure) to n=1.873 (saturated), by adjusting either salt concentration or temperature; this allows it to match (or even exceed) the refractive index of sapphire. Importantly, the solution gives excellent light transmittance in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range, an improvement over commercially available immersion liquids. This refractive-index-matched immersion liquid formulation has enabled us to develop a sapphire-based aNAIL objective that has both high numerical aperture (NA=1.17) and long working distance (WD=12  mm). This opens up new possibilities for deep 3D imaging with high spatial resolution. PMID:27140083

  18. Refractive index of glass and its dipersion for visible light.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. Y.; Karstens, W.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of optical glass and empirical relations between the refractive index and its dispersion are discussed in terms of moments of the glass's IR and UV absorption spectra. The observed linear dependence of index on dispersion within glass families is shown to arise primarily from the approximately linear superposition of the electronic absorptions of glass former and glass modifiers. The binary classification into crown and flint glasses is also based primarily on electronic spectra: Crown glasses are 'wide-gap' materials with excitation energies greater than {approx}12.4 eV, while flint glasses are their 'narrow-gap' counterpart.

  19. Novel high refractive index fluids for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, Julius; Otoguro, Akihiko; Itani, Toshiro; Fujii, Kiyoshi; Kagayama, Akifumi; Nakano, Takashi; Nakayama, Norio; Tamatani, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Shin

    2006-03-01

    Despite the early skepticism towards the use of 193-nm immersion lithography as the next step in satisfying Moore's law, it continuous to meet expectations on its feasibility in achieving 65-nm nodes and possibly beyond. And with implementation underway, interest in extending its capability for smaller pattern sizes such as the 32-nm node continues to grow. In this paper, we will discuss the optical, physical and lithographic properties of newly developed high index fluids of low absorption coefficient, 'Babylon' and 'Delphi'. As evaluated in a spectroscopic ellipsometer in the 193.39nm wavelength, the 'Babylon' and 'Delphi' high index fluids were evaluated to have a refractive index of 1.64 and 1.63 with an absorption coefficient of 0.05/cm and 0.08/cm, respectively. Lithographic evaluation results using a 193-nm 2-beam interferometric exposure tool show the imaging capability of both high index fluids to be 32-nm half pitch lines and spaces.

  20. Engineering properties of high-refractive index optical gels for photonic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David S.; Connor, Samantha R.

    2000-04-01

    We have investigated a new class of high refractive index, non-yellowing, viscoelastic optical gels. Refractive indices for these materials can be adjusted from that needed to match fused silica to above nD equals 1.6 to match the higher index engineering glasses, plastics, and semiconductors. These materials are designed for permanent optically clear encapsulation in devices where severe mechanical shock or differential thermal expansion, such as occurs during PCB soldering operations, may render conventional high strength optical epoxies unusable. These low shear stress gels can also be customized to exhibit a wide range of rheological 'stiffness'. We have demonstrated quasi-fluid versions with apparent viscosities of 500,000 cP to hard-rubber-like consistencies registering on the high end of the Shore 00 durometer scale. In this paper, we present measurements of engineering properties on both elastometer-like curing optical gels, and thixotropic non- curing optical gels for: a) optical properties from near UV to near IR: refractive index over temperature, dispersion, and optical absorption; b) rheological properties: viscosity vs. shear rate, Shore hardness and cone penetration. Validation of ultra-low volatility and high temperature thermo oxidative stability required for long-lived photonic devices is discussed. Use of gel technology in fiber splices and photonic devices is described.

  1. Polymeric nanolayered gradient refractive index lenses: technology review and introduction of spherical gradient refractive index ball lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shanzuo; Yin, Kezhen; Mackey, Matthew; Brister, Aaron; Ponting, Michael; Baer, Eric

    2013-11-01

    A nanolayered polymer films approach to designing and fabricating gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses with designer refractive index distribution profiles and an independently prescribed lens surface geometry have been demonstrated to produce a new class of optics. This approach utilized nanolayered polymer materials, constructed with polymethylmethacrylate and a styrene-co-acrylonitrile copolymer with a tailorable refractive index intermediate to bulk materials, to fabricate discrete GRIN profile materials. A process to fabricate nanolayered polymer GRIN optics from these materials through thermoforming and finishing steps is reviewed. A collection of technology-demonstrating previously reported nanolayered GRIN case studies is presented that include: (1) the optical performance of a f/# 2.25 spherical GRIN plano-convex singlet with one quarter (2) the weight of a similar BK7 lens and a bio-inspired aspheric human eye GRIN lens. Original research on the fabrication and characterization of a Luneburg inspired GRIN ball lens is presented as a developing application of the nanolayered polymer technology.

  2. Foldable antibacterial acrylic intraocular lenses of high refractive index.

    PubMed

    Parra, F; Vázquez, B; Benito, L; Barcenilla, J; San Román, J

    2009-11-01

    Hydrophilic copolymers with high refractive index and bactericide properties based on quaternary ammonium salts monomers and methacrylates bearing benzothiazole moieties have been developed for application as foldable intraocular lenses. Composition of the systems was adjusted to get materials with optimized flexibility, wettability, and refractive properties. All the materials have been characterized in terms of optical properties, glass transition temperature, water content, and wettability. Water contact values oscillated between 37 and 15% and refractive index values in the wet state between 1.49 and 1.53, depending on composition. Glass transition temperature interval was 63-77 degrees C. Values of surface free energy of the solid ranged from 49 to 54 mN/m, characteristic of IOL hydrogel materials. Bactericide properties of the quaternary ammonium salts methacrylates were higher than that of the benzothiazole derivative, showing inhibition halos as high as 23-25 mm in antibiogram tests against S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa , strains found in the ocular cavity and responsible for most postsurgical endolphthalmitis. Biocompatibility of the systems was evaluated in cell cultures using human fibroblasts. Cellular viability was higher than 90%, and close to 100% in many cases, for the extracts of selected formulations collected at different periods of time. PMID:19795830

  3. Imaging based refractometer for hyperspectral refractive index detection

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S.; Boudreaux, Philip R.

    2015-11-24

    Refractometers for simultaneously measuring refractive index of a sample over a range of wavelengths of light include dispersive and focusing optical systems. An optical beam including the range of wavelengths is spectrally spread along a first axis and focused along a second axis so as to be incident to an interface between the sample and a prism at a range of angles of incidence including a critical angle for at least one wavelength. An imaging detector is situated to receive the spectrally spread and focused light from the interface and form an image corresponding to angle of incidence as a function of wavelength. One or more critical angles are identified and corresponding refractive indices are determined.

  4. Extraction of complex refractive index dispersion from SPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakkach, Mohamed; Moreau, Julien; Canva, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonnance (SPR) techniques have been mostly set-up as angular reflectivity interrogation mode using quasi-monochromatic light or as spectral reflectivity interrogation mode at one given wavelength, providing information about variation of effective optical thickness ▵n.e above the metal surface. In this communication we present a dual mode sensor working both in angular and spectral interrogation modes. A white light illuminates the sensor surface and the reflectivity spectra in TE and TM polarization are measured with a spectrometer. By changing the angular coupling conditions, a complete reflectivity surface R(θ, λ) can be measured. The 2D reflectivity decrease valley is affected by both the real and imaginary part of the optical index of the dielectric medium as well as their spectral dispersion. With such experimental data set, it is possible to back calculate the dispersion of the complex refractive index of the dielectric layer. This is demonstrated using a turquoise dye doped solution. According to the Kramers-Kronig relations, the imaginary part of the refractive index for an absorbing medium is proportional to the absorption while the real part presents a large dispersion around the absorption wavelength. The reflectivity surface R(θ, λ) was measured from 500 nm to 750 nm over about 8° angular range. The whole complex refractive optical index of the doped solution, absorbing around 630 nm, was reconstructed from the SPR reflectivity experimental data, using a homemade program based on an extended Rouard method to fit the experimental angular plasmon data for each wavelength. These results show that the classical SPR technique can be extended to acquire precise spectral information about biomolecular interactions occurring on the metallic layer.

  5. High refractive index and temperature sensitivity LPGs for high temperature operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, I. M.; Gouveia, C.; Jana, Surnimal; Bera, Susanta; Baptista, J. M.; Moreira, Paulo; Biwas, Palas; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Jorge, Pedro A. S.

    2013-11-01

    A fiber optic sensor for high sensitivity refractive index and temperature measurement able to withstand temperature up to 450 °C is reported. Two identical LPG gratings were fabricated, whereas one was coated with a high refractive index (~1.78) sol-gel thin film in order to increase its sensitivity to the external refractive index. The two sensors were characterized and compared in refractive index and temperature. Sensitivities of 1063 nm/RIU (1.338 - 1.348) and 260 pm/°C were achieved for refractive index and temperature, respectively.

  6. Plasmonic nanoshell functionalized etched fiber Bragg gratings for highly sensitive refractive index measurements.

    PubMed

    Burgmeier, Jörg; Feizpour, Amin; Schade, Wolfgang; Reinhard, Björn M

    2015-02-15

    A novel fiber optical refractive index sensor based on gold nanoshells immobilized on the surface of an etched single-mode fiber including a Bragg grating is demonstrated. The nanoparticle coating induces refractive index dependent waveguide losses, because of the variation of the evanescently guided part of the light. Hence the amplitude of the Bragg reflection is highly sensitive to refractive index changes of the surrounding medium. The nanoshell functionalized fiber optical refractive index sensor works in reflectance mode, is suitable for chemical and biochemical sensing, and shows an intensity dependency of 4400% per refractive index unit in the refractive index range between 1.333 and 1.346. Furthermore, the physical length of the sensor is smaller than 3 mm with a diameter of 6 μm, and therefore offers the possibility of a localized refractive index measurement. PMID:25680146

  7. Quantum vacuum emission from a moving refractive index front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, M.; König, F.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the spontaneous emission of light from the quantum vacuum in a dispersive dielectric at a moving Refractive Index Front (RIF). Our aim is to develop further an existing analytical model to fully characterize the emission and calculate its spectrum in different configurations. We show in which conditions the RIF acts as a point of non-return, an artificial black hole event horizon, for modes of the field. We calculate the spectrum of this emission and the number of photons emitted from the vacuum in the unique escaping mode as a function of the RIF height and velocity in the medium.

  8. Tissue Refractive Index Fluctuations Report on Cancer Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    The gold standard in histopathology relies on manual investigation of stained tissue biopsies. A sensitive and quantitative method for in situ tissue specimen inspection is highly desirable, as it will allow early disease diagnosis and automatic screening. Here we demonstrate that quantitative phase imaging of entire unstained biopsies has the potential to fulfill this requirement. Our data indicates that the refractive index distribution of histopathology slides, which contains information about the molecular scale organization of tissue, reveals prostate tumors. These optical maps report on subtle, nanoscale morphological properties of tissues and cells that cannot be recovered by common stains, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). We found that cancer progression significantly alters the tissue organization, as exhibited in our refractive index maps. Furthermore, using the quantitative phase information, we obtained the spatially resolved scattering mean free path and anisotropy factor g for entire biopsies and demonstrated their direct correlation with tumor presence. We found that these scattering parameters are able to distinguish between two adjacent grades, which is a difficult task and relevant for determining patient treatment. In essence, our results show that the tissue refractive index reports on the nanoscale tissue architecture and, in principle, can be used as an intrinsic marker for cancer diagnosis. [4pt] [1] Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla and G. Popescu, Tissue refractive index as marker of disease, Journal of Biomedical Optics, in press).[0pt] [2] Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette and G. Popescu, Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM), Optics Express, 19, 1016 (2011).[0pt] [3] Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth and G. Popescu, Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT), Optics Express, 19, 19907-19918 (2011

  9. Compensation for refractive-index variations in laser Doppler anemometry.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, A B; Desai, P V

    1987-07-01

    Techniques to compensate for index of refraction variations in the application of a laser Doppler anemometer are examined. For discontinuous plane-layered media a method of discrete elements is employed. An alternative set of equations is derived for continuous cylindrically layered media and simplified to make comparisons with available results for a single cylinder. Results of velocity measurements in a Plexiglas model of a cylindrically layered nuclear fuel assembly are presented to establish a positioning accuracy of the method to within 0.025 cm. PMID:20489924

  10. Refractive index change detection based on porous silicon microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weirong; Jia, Zhenhong; Li, Peng; Lv, Guodong; Lv, Xiaoyi

    2016-05-01

    By combining photolithography with the electrochemical anodization method, a microarray device of porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal was fabricated on the crystalline silicon substrate. The optical properties of the microarray were analyzed with the transfer matrix method. The relationship between refractive index and reflectivity of each array element of the microarray at 633 nm was also studied, and the array surface reflectivity changes were observed through digital imaging. By means of the reflectivity measurement method, reflectivity changes below 10-3 can be observed based on PS microarray. The results of this study can be applied to the detection of biosensor arrays.

  11. Electromagnetic Wave Chaos in Gradient Refractive Index Optical Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, P. B.; Fromhold, T. M.; Taylor, R. P.; Micolich, A. P.

    2001-06-11

    Electromagnetic wave chaos is investigated using two-dimensional optical cavities formed in a cylindrical gradient refractive index lens with reflective surfaces. When the planar ends of the lens are cut at an angle to its axis, the geometrical ray paths are chaotic. In this regime, the electromagnetic mode spectrum of the cavity is modulated by both real and ghost periodic ray paths, which also {open_quotes}scar{close_quotes} the electric field intensity distributions of many modes. When the cavity is coupled to waveguides, the eigenmodes generate complex series of resonant peaks in the electromagnetic transmission spectrum.

  12. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J. M.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  13. Dark Matter Constraints from a Cosmic Index of Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Susan; Latimer, David C.

    2009-04-01

    The dark-matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects: the real part yields dispersive effects in propagation, and the imaginary part yields such in attenuation. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts to limit the charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter to |{var_epsilon}|/M < 1.8 x 10{sup -5} eV{sup -1} at 95% CL.

  14. Dark matter constraints from a cosmic index of refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Susan; Latimer, David C.

    2010-09-01

    The dark matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects in the propagation and attenuation of light. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter and a new possibility for its direct detection. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of distant gamma-ray bursts to realize a direct limit on the electric charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter of |ɛ|/M<1×10-5eV-1 at 95% C.L.

  15. The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Janos

    2004-07-01

    The structure of the adsorbing layers of native and denatured proteins (fibrinogen, gamma-immunoglobulin, albumin, and lysozyme) was studied on hydrophilic TiO(2) and hydrophobic Teflon-AF surfaces using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy techniques. The density and the refractive index of the adsorbing protein layers could be determined from the complementary information provided by the two in situ instruments. The observed density and refractive index changes during the protein-adsorption process indicated the presence of conformational changes (e.g., partial unfolding) in general, especially upon contact with the hydrophobic surface. The structure of the formed layers was found to depend on the size of the proteins and on the experimental conditions. On the TiO(2) surface smaller proteins formed a denser layer than larger ones and the layer of unfolded proteins was less dense than that adsorbed from the native conformation. The hydrophobic surface induced denaturation and resulted in the formation of thin compact protein films of albumin and lysozyme. A linear correlation was found between the quartz crystal microbalance measured dissipation factor and the total water content of the layer, suggesting the existence of a dissipative process that is related to the solvent molecules present inside the adsorbed protein layer. Our measurements indicated that water and solvent molecules not only influence the 3D structure of proteins in solution but also play a crucial role in their adsorption onto surfaces. PMID:15240488

  16. Dark matter constraints from a cosmic index of refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Susan; Latimer, David C.

    2010-09-15

    The dark matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects in the propagation and attenuation of light. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter and a new possibility for its direct detection. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of distant gamma-ray bursts to realize a direct limit on the electric charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter of |{epsilon}|/M<1x10{sup -5} eV{sup -1} at 95% C.L.

  17. Deflectometry for measuring inhomogeneous refractive index fields in two-dimensional gradient-index elements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Di; Teichman, Jeremy; Leger, James R

    2015-05-01

    We present a numerical method for calculating inhomogeneous refractive index fields in rectangular gradient-index (GRIN) elements from measured boundary positions and slopes of a collection of rays that transit the medium. The inverse problem is reduced to a set of linear algebraic equations after approximating ray trajectories from the measured boundary values and is solved using a pseudo-inverse algorithm for sparse linear equations. The ray trajectories are subsequently corrected using an iterative ray trace procedure to ensure consistency in the solution. We demonstrate our method in simulation by reconstructing a hypothetical rectangular GRIN element on a  15×15 discrete grid using 800 interrogating rays, in which RMS refractive index errors less than 0.5% of the index range (n(max)-n(min)) are achieved. Furthermore, we identify three primary sources of error and assess the importance of data redundancy and system conditioning in the reconstruction process. PMID:26366925

  18. High-refractive index particles in counter-propagating optical tweezers - manipulation and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, Astrid

    2006-09-01

    motorized actuators. Because we used image analysis of the patterned structure to accurately find back the starting position and compensate for drift of the sample, we could move far away from the patterning region. This enabled us to select particles from a separate reservoir of a mixture of particles, and, one-by-one, position them at chosen locations. By time-sharing the laser beam using acousto-optic deflectors, we created multiple counter-propagating tweezers. We trapped an array of high-refractive index particles, and were able to move those particles individually. We used such a dynamic array of counter-propagating tweezers to create line-optical tweezers in which we trapped semi-conducting high-refractive index nanorods in three dimensions. We demonstrate full 3D translational and in-plane rotational control over the rods, which could not be held in single-beam line-tweezers. The configuration of two opposing objectives was also used for simultaneous trapping with one objective and confocal imaging of the fluorescently labeled particles using the other objective. By trapping particles with a refractive index contrast in a dispersion of index-matched particles, crystallization could be induced, which was imaged in three dimensions using confocal microscopy.

  19. Optical Enhancement in Optoelectronic Devices Using Refractive Index Grading Layers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Illhwan; Park, Jae Yong; Gim, Seungo; Kim, Kisoo; Cho, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Chung Sock; Song, Seung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2016-02-10

    We enhanced the optical transmittance of a multilayer barrier film by inserting a refractive index grading layer (RIGL). The result indicates that the Fresnel reflection, induced by the difference of refractive indices between Si(x)N(y) and SiO2, is reduced by the RIGL. To eliminate the Fresnel reflection while maintaining high transmittance, the optimized design of grading structures with the RIGL was conducted using an optical simulator. With the RIGL, we achieved averaged transmittance in the visible wavelength region by 89.6%. It is found that the optimized grading structure inserting the multilayer barrier film has a higher optical transmittance (89.6%) in the visible region than that of a no grading sample (82.6%). Furthermore, luminance is enhanced by 14.5% (from 10,190 to 11,670 cd m(-2) at 30 mA cm(-2)) when the grading structure is applied to organic light-emitting diodes. Finally, the results offer new opportunities in development of multilayer barrier films, which assist industrialization of very cost-effective flexible organic electronic devices. PMID:26800204

  20. Dispersion optimization of photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for a high-sensitivity refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanka, Jiri

    2011-05-01

    Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings (PCF-LPGs) operating near the phase-matching turning point to achieve high sensitivity to the refractive index of gas and liquid analytes infiltrated into cladding air holes are designed by numerical optimization. The vectorial finite element method is employed for the modal analysis of an index-guiding PCF and the calculation of the phase matching curves. The geometrical parameters of PCF (pitch and diameter of air holes arranged in a periodic triangular array) are optimized by using the down-hill simplex technique to engineer the dispersion of modes coupled by a LPG to obtain the turning point in the phase-matching curve at a desired wavelength for a given analyte refractive index. The resonant wavelength is subsequently extremely sensitive to the analyte refractive index, however, its large shifts can be detected with a substantially reduced resolution because the resonance dip in the LPG transmission spectrum is very broad. On the other hand, the broad resonance provides a broadband operation of a PCF-LPG sensor and its high sensitivity to the refractive index can still be achieved by relying on changes in the coupling strength (and consequently in the transmission loss) rather than in the resonant wavelength of LPG. We consider coupling between the fundamental core mode and the first-order symmetric cladding mode. We also explore an alternative approach based on coupling between the fundamental core mode and the fundamental space-filling mode instead of the individual cladding mode. The PCF-LPG structure optimized for refractive-index sensing is also assessed for label-free biosensing.

  1. Measurement of complex refractive index of human blood by low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the usefulness of the optical technique for measurements of blood complex refractive index has been examined. Measurement of optical properties of human blood is difficult to perform because of its nonuniform nature. However, results of my investigation have shown the usefulness of low-coherence interferometry for measurement complex refractive index of human blood. Furthermore, mathematical analysis of spectrum of measured signal have made possible to determined relationship between complex refractive index and hematocrit level in human blood.

  2. Scattering and refractive index properties of skin obtained with OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuettel, Alexander R.; Bonev, Slavtcho M.; Knaak, W.

    2003-10-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides more parameters than pure morphology does. In a recent paper we have shown that the refractive index (RI) can be evaluated in a localized manner in skin tissue under in vivo conditions. Further evaluation provides scattering parameters (scatter width) of turbid materials down to penetration depths of some 100 μm. Measurements have been done in vitro in pig skin and in vivo in human skin with our OCT scanner SkinDex 300. The parameters RI and scatter width may have a viable impact on skin research and clinical diagnoses. In addition, we demonstrate the breakdown of the ballistic light propagation in turbid material and tissue due to multiple forward scattering.

  3. Loop-mirror-based slot waveguide refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jun-long; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-12-01

    Loop mirror has been widely used in fiber optical devices and systems for it provides a smart way to make use of the fiber birefringence properties and can enhance the sensitivity greatly. On the other hand, slot waveguide is very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper, we propose and analyze a loop-mirror-based slot waveguide (LMSW) sensor which can be routinely fabricated in modern high-volume complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The finite element method (FEM) simulation results show that the birefringence can be as high as 0.8 which is orders of magnitude than that in conventional birefringent fiber loop mirror. High sensitivity up to 6 × 103 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) is achieved by this scheme.

  4. Full field imaging based instantaneous hyperspectral absolute refractive index measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral refractometers typically measure refractive index (RI) at discrete monochromatic wavelengths via a serial process. We report on the demonstration of a white light full field imaging based refractometer capable of instantaneous multispectral measurement of absolute RI of clear liquid/gel samples across the entire visible light spectrum. The broad optical bandwidth refractometer is capable of hyperspectral measurement of RI in the range 1.30 1.70 between 400nm 700nm with a maximum error of 0.0036 units (0.24% of actual) at 414nm for a = 1.50 sample. We present system design and calibration method details as well as results from a system validation sample.

  5. Controlling a microdisk laser by local refractive index perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Ge, Li; Redding, Brandon; Solomon, Glenn S.; Cao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a simple yet effective approach of controlling lasing in a semiconductor microdisk by photo-thermal effect. A continuous wave green laser beam, focused onto the microdisk perimeter, can enhance or suppress lasing in different cavity modes, depending on the position of the focused beam. Its main effect is a local modification of the refractive index of the disk, which results in an increase in the power slope of some lasing modes and a decrease of others. The boundary roughness breaks the rotational symmetry of a circular disk, allowing the lasing process to be tuned by varying the green beam position. Using the same approach, we can also fine tune the relative intensity of a quasi-degenerate pair of lasing modes. Such post-fabrication control, enabled by an additional laser beam, is flexible and reversible, thus enhancing the functionality of semiconductor microdisk lasers.

  6. Group refractive index reconstruction with broadband interferometric confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Daniel L.; Schlachter, Simon C.; Zysk, Adam M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel method of measuring the group refractive index of biological tissues at the micrometer scale. The technique utilizes a broadband confocal microscope embedded into a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, with which spectral interferograms are measured as the sample is translated through the focus of the beam. The method does not require phase unwrapping and is insensitive to vibrations in the sample and reference arms. High measurement stability is achieved because a single spectral interferogram contains all the information necessary to compute the optical path delay of the beam transmitted through the sample. Included are a physical framework defining the forward problem, linear solutions to the inverse problem, and simulated images of biologically relevant phantoms. PMID:18451922

  7. Spatially varying index of refraction: An open ended undergraduate topic

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, D.A.

    1980-03-01

    There are many commonplace examples of waves moving along a curved path in an inhomogeneous media. There are reports of a simple lecture demonstration of light bending in a sugar solution being used to motivate students in physics, geophysics, and acoustics courses. For those students who wish to pursue this topic we discuss many avenues of additional research. With relatively simple equipment one can measure the index of refraction n (y,t) and its first and second spatial derivatives as well as the time dependence. The analysis can be approached from a generalization of Snell's law, the equations for the eikonal, Fermat's principle, and the classical approximation and analogies with trajectories of particles.

  8. Semiconductor laser devices having lateral refractive index tailoring

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Hohimer, John P.; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1990-01-01

    A broad-area semiconductor laser diode includes an active lasing region interposed between an upper and a lower cladding layer, the laser diode further comprising structure for controllably varying a lateral refractive index profile of the diode to substantially compensate for an effect of junction heating during operation. In embodiments disclosed the controlling structure comprises resistive heating strips or non-radiative linear junctions disposed parallel to the active region. Another embodiment discloses a multi-layered upper cladding region selectively disordered by implanted or diffused dopant impurities. Still another embodiment discloses an upper cladding layer of variable thickness that is convex in shape and symmetrically disposed about a central axis of the active region. The teaching of the invention is also shown to be applicable to arrays of semiconductor laser diodes.

  9. Monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present optical design and simulation results of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that incorporate monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating (MHCG) mirrors - a new variety of HCG mirror that is composed of high index material surrounded only on one side by low index material. We show the impact of an MHCG mirror on the performance of 980 nm VCSELs designed for high bit rate and energy-efficient optical data communications. In our design, all or part of the all-semiconductor top coupling distributed Bragg reflector mirror is replaced by an undoped gallium-arsenide MHCG. We show how the optical field intensity distribution of the VCSEL's fundamental mode is controlled by the combination of the number of residual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror periods and the physical design of the topmost gallium-arsenide MHCG. Additionally, we numerically investigate the confinement factors of our VCSELs and show that this parameter for the MHCG DBR VCSELs may only be properly determined in two or three dimensions due to the periodic nature of the grating mirror.

  10. Fractal anisotropy in tissue refractive index fluctuations: potential role in precancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Chatterjee, Subhasri; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, P. K.; Pradhan, A.; Ghosh, N.

    2014-05-01

    Differential interference contrast images (DIC) are the direct representation of the refractive index fluctuations of human cervical tissues. These refractive index fluctuations are known to follow self-similar behaviour and in general are multifractal in nature. In this present study, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) on refractive index fluctuations from DIC images has been performed by unfolding the tissue-images horizontally and vertically. Our analysis clearly shows that refractive index fluctuations of human cervical tissues are anisotropic-fractal in nature and anisotropy reduced as cancer progress.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Long-Period Grating Refractive Index Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidhi; Kaler, R. S.; Kapur, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of the response of long-period gratings as a refractive index sensor. Cladding modes are calculated, and results are compared with Optigrating 4.2.2 (Optiwave Systems Inc., Ottawa, Canada). The response has been checked for refractive indices ranging from 1 to 1.458. Theoretically simulated results are in accordance with the experimental results. It was found that the software package calculated values correctly up to the seventh decimal point. The ambient refractive index response of a long-period grating over a much wider index range has been modeled for values both less and more than the cladding refractive index.

  12. Change in refractive index of muscle tissue during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Chen, Meimei; Liu, Shupeng; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-period fiber-grating (LPG) based Michelson interferometric refractometry to monitor the change in refractive index of porcine muscle during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). As the wavelength of RI interferometer alters with the change in refractive index around the probe, the LPG based refractometry is combined with LITT system to measure the change in refractive index of porcine muscle when irradiated by laser. The experimental results show the denaturation of tissue alters the refractive index significantly and the LPG sensor can be applied to monitor the tissue state during the LITT. PMID:24211967

  13. 3-D photo-patterning of refractive index structures in photosensitive thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jr., Barrett George; Potter, Kelly Simmons

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a three-dimensional refractive index structure in a photosensitive material using photo-patterning. The wavelengths at which a photosensitive material exhibits a change in refractive index upon exposure to optical radiation is first determined and then a portion of the surface of the photosensitive material is optically irradiated at a wavelength at which the photosensitive material exhibits a change in refractive index using a designed illumination system to produce a three-dimensional refractive index structure. The illumination system can be a micro-lenslet array, a macroscopic refractive lens array, or a binary optic phase mask. The method is a single-step, direct-write procedure to produce a designed refractive index structure.

  14. On the feasibility of optical-CT imaging in media of different refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, Leith; Oldham, Mark

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Achieving accurate optical-CT 3D dosimetry without the use of viscous refractive index (RI) matching fluids would greatly increase convenience. Methods: Software has been developed to simulate optical-CT 3D dosimetry for a range of scanning configurations including parallel-beam, point, and converging light sources. For each configuration the efficacy of three refractive media was investigated: air, water, a fluid closely matched to PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, and perfect matching (RI = 1.00, 1.33, 1.49, and 1.501 respectively). Reconstructions were performed using both filtered backprojection (FBP) and algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The efficacy of the three configurations and the two algorithms was evaluated by calculating the usable radius (i.e., the outermost radius where data were accurate to within 2%), and gamma ({Gamma}) analysis. This definition recognizes that for optical-CT imaging, errors are greatest near the edge of the dosimeter, where refraction can be most pronounced. Simulations were performed on three types of dose distribution: uniform, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and brachytherapy (Cs-137). Results: For a uniformly irradiated dosimeter the usable radius achieved with filtered backprojection was 68% for water-matching and 31% for dry-scanning in air. Algebraic reconstruction gave usable radii of 99% for both water and air (dry-scanning), indicating greater recovery of useful data for the uniform distribution. FBP and ART performed equally well for a VMAT dose distribution where less dose is delivered near the edge of the dosimeter. In this case, the usable radius was 86% and 53% for scanning in water and air, respectively. For brachytherapy, the usable radius was 99% and 98% for scanning in water and air, respectively using FBP, and a major decrease was seen with ART. Point source geometry provided 1%-2% larger usable radii than parallel geometry. Converging geometry recovered less usable dosimetry data (up to

  15. Fermat's principle and the formal equivalence of local light-ray rotation and refraction at the interface between homogeneous media with a complex refractive index ratio.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes

    2009-02-01

    We derive a formal description of local light-ray rotation in terms of complex refractive indices. We show that Fermat's principle holds, and we derive an extended Snell's law. The change in the angle of a light ray with respect to the normal of a refractive index interface is described by the modulus of the refractive index ratio; the rotation around the interface normal is described by the argument of the refractive index ratio. PMID:19183663

  16. Conical photonic crystals for enhancing light extraction efficiency from high refractive index materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Gil; Hsieh, Chih-Hung; Choi, Hyungryul J; Gardener, Jules; Singh, Bipin; Knapitsch, Arno; Lecoq, Paul; Barbastathis, George

    2015-08-24

    We propose, analyze and optimize a two-dimensional conical photonic crystal geometry to enhance light extraction from a high refractive index material, such as an inorganic scintillator. The conical geometry suppresses Fresnel reflections at an optical interface due to adiabatic impedance matching from a gradient index effect. The periodic array of cone structures with a pitch larger than the wavelength of light diffracts light into higher-order modes with different propagating angles, enabling certain photons to overcome total internal reflection (TIR). The numerical simulation shows simultaneous light yield gains relative to a flat surface both below and above the critical angle and how key parameters affect the light extraction efficiency. Our optimized design provides a 46% gain in light yield when the conical photonic crystals are coated on an LSO (cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate) scintillator. PMID:26368241

  17. Optical refractive index of massive particles and physical meanings of left-handed media [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2005-09-01

    In this Letter the expression for the refractive index of de Broglie wave in the presence of a potential field is obtained and based on this, the physical meanings of negative index of refraction is revealed. We demonstrate that the electromagnetic wave propagation in a left-handed medium with negative refractive index behaves just like that of antiphotons, which is required of the complex vector field theory. It is believed that the complex vector field theory is helpful in considering the wave propagation and photonic band gap structures in the left-handed medium photonic crystals with a periodicity in negative and positive indices of refraction.

  18. Nonlinearity of the refractive index due to an excitonic molecule resonance state in CdS

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, R.; Broser, I.; Buschick, K.

    1986-08-01

    The authors report the observation of an intensity-dependent refractive-index nonlinearity in CdS due to a resonance state where an excitonic molecule is created by induced absorption of light. The refractive index n as a function of the incident laser photon energy E is measured directly by light refraction in thin crystal prisms. A renormalized dielectric function describes the measured n(E) spectra well. This strong refractive-index nonlinearity is well suited to produce an optical bistability and to further strengthen the evidence of CdS to be an important material for laser-induced dynamic gratings.

  19. Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhuo; Yao, X. Steve; Yao, Hui; Liang, Yan; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Yanni; Wang, Guanhua; Lan, Shoufeng

    2009-05-01

    We describe a novel method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the accurate measurement of the refractive index of in vitro human teeth. We obtain the refractive indices of enamel, dentin, and cementum to be 1.631+/-0.007, 1.540+/-0.013, and 1.582+/-0.010, respectively. The profile of the refractive index is readily obtained via an OCT B scan across a tooth. This method can be used to study the refractive index changes caused by dental decay and therefore has great potential for the clinical diagnosis of early dental caries.

  20. Determination of the complex refractive index of cell cultures by reflectance spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Calin, Marian Romeo; Munteanu, Constantin

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to using reflectance spectrometry in connection with the Kramers-Kronig analysis for the determination of the complex refractive index of biological cells. Applying this procedure, the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index (refractive index and extinction coefficient) can be simultaneously determined. The accuracy of this procedure in the determination of the refractive index and extinction coefficient of culture media proved to be comparable with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Applying this procedure on the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), the results obtained from time-series measurements showed significant changes in the complex refractive index of cell cultures within 72h, the most important increases for both real and imaginary parts of the refractive index being recorded in the first 24h, when synthesis processes are happening. Thus, the analysis of the time-dependent changes in the complex refractive index provides information about the frequencies of the modifications that occur on both organizational structure and cells composition during the cell cycle. In conclusion, the combination of reflectance spectrometry with the Kramers-Kronig analysis is a feasible way to determine the complex refractive index of biological cells and to assess the events taking place during the cell cycle.

  1. Refractive Index Sensitivity of Tilted Long Period Fibre Gratings Written in Thinned Cladding Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunhe; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated the fabrication of tilted long period fibre gratings written in the thinned cladding fibre by CO2 laser. The refractive index characteristics of the gratings with different tilted angles were investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the grating with larger tilted angle has higher sensitivity to the surrounding refractive index changes.

  2. RELATIONSHIP OF FLY ASH COMPOSITION, REFRACTIVE INDEX, AND DENSITY TO IN-STACK OPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the refractive index, density, and composition of fly ash from coal-fired boilers, aimed at determining: (1) the interrelationship of refractive index and composition, and (2) the significance of ash properties on in-stack plume opa...

  3. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  4. A FORTRAN Program for Computing Refractive Index Using the Double Variation Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Frank N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer program which calculates a best estimate of refractive index and dispersion from a large number of observations using the double variation method of measuring refractive index along with Sellmeier constants of the immersion oils. Program listing with examples will be provided on written request to the author. (Author/JM)

  5. Interband and intraband contributions to refractive index and dispersion in narrow-gap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, K. H.; Melzer, V.; Müller, U.

    1993-04-01

    This review covers experimental methods and results for the determination of refractive index. It discusses various empirical relations between refractive index and energy gap (Moss relation, Ravindra and Gopal formulae and the Wemple DiDomenico approach). Effects of free carriers and temperature are included. Finally, the Kramers-Kronig transformation of absorption or reflection spectra is considered.

  6. Low-repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides in KTP crystals: analysis of anisotropic refractive index changes.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Ali; Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Romero, Carolina; Moreno, Pablo; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Aguiló, Magdalena; Solé, Rosa Maria; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2015-06-15

    We report on the direct low-repetition rate femtosecond pulse laser microfabrication of optical waveguides in KTP crystals and the characterization of refractive index changes after the thermal annealing of the sample, with the focus on studying the potential for direct laser fabricating Mach-Zehnder optical modulators. We have fabricated square cladding waveguides by means of stacking damage tracks, and found that the refractive index decrease is large for vertically polarized light (c-axis; TM polarized) but rather weak for horizontally polarized light (a-axis; TE polarized), this leading to good near-infrared light confinement for TM modes but poor for TE modes. However, after performing a sample thermal annealing we have found that the thermal process enables a refractive index increment of around 1.5x10(-3) for TE polarized light, while maintaining the negative index change of around -1x10(-2) for TM polarized light. In order to evaluate the local refractive index changes we have followed a multistep procedure: We have first characterized the waveguide cross-sections by means of Raman micro-mapping to access the lattice micro-modifications and their spatial extent. Secondly we have modeled the waveguides following the modified region sizes obtained by micro-Raman with finite element method software to obtain a best match between the experimental propagation modes and the simulated ones. Furthermore we also report the fabrication of Mach-Zehnder structures and the evaluation of propagation losses. PMID:26193514

  7. Behavior of 157 nm excimer-laser-induced refractive index changes in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Charlene M.; Borrelli, Nicholas F.

    2006-09-15

    This study describes the observation of large induced refractive index changes produced by 157 nm excimer laser exposure in high-purity synthetic silica glasses. With 157 nm exposure, large induced changes are observed within a few hundred thousand pulses of exposure. Similar to 193 nm exposures, exposure with polarized 157 nm light yields polarization-induced birefringence (PIB). However, the 157 nm exposure also exhibits a behavior not observed with 193 nm exposures; namely, the initial response of the glass is a decrease in refractive index, followed by an increase with continued exposure. An explanation of the behaviors for both wavelength results is proposed where the induced refractive index is considered to arise from two different concurrent phenomena. One produces a decreased refractive index and also accounts for the PIB. The other, which accounts for the increased refractive index, is associated with an isotropic laser-induced volume change.

  8. [The refractive index sensing characteristics of polarization maintaining microstructured optical fiber chirped grating].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuan; Bi, Wei-Hong; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The refractive index sensing characteristics of the polarization maintaining (PM) microstructured optical fiber (MOF) chirped grating was systematically investigated based on finite element method (FEM) and transfer matrix method (TMM). The chirp Bragg grating reflection spectrum was numerically analyzed with the fiber air holes injected with different refractive index medium, and the relation between the reflection spectrum area and the analyte refractive index is discussed here. The analysis results show that when the analyte refractive index increases, the reflection spectrum area will be reduced; and the detection demodulation is simplified with the light intensity demodulation. Moreover, the dependence of the reflection spectrum on the center big holes size, the chirp coefficient and the site function was studied. Since two polarization modes respond similarly to the outside perturbation, the fiber possesses high stability. The results provide the theoretical basis for the application of PM-MOF grating in the optical fiber refractive index sensor and the optical fiber label-free biosensing. PMID:23586270

  9. Theoretical study of polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change of multiple quantum well.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingyuan; Zhou, Qunjie; Cui, Jun; He, Ping-An; Huang, Dexiu

    2014-12-29

    Characteristics of polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change of 1.55 μm tensile-strained multiple quantum well (MQW) are theoretically investigated. A comprehensive MQW model is proposed to effectively extend the application range of previous models. The model considers the temperature variation as well as the nonuniform distribution of injected carrier in MQW. Tensile-strained MQW is expected to achieve polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change over a wide wavelength range as temperature varies from 0°C to 40°C, while the magnitude of refractive index change keeps a large value (more than 3 × 10-3). And that the polarization insensitivity of refractive index change can maintain for a wide range of carrier concentration. Multiple quantum well with different material and structure parameters is anticipated to have the similar polarization insensitivity of refractive index change, which shows the design flexibility. PMID:25607157

  10. The role of refractive index gradient on sensitivity and limit of detection of microdisk sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Zohreh; Vahedi, Mohammad; Behjat, Abbas

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new type of microdisk resonator sensor with a gradient refractive index (GRIN) that can achieve higher sensitivity with respect to constant refractive index disks. The behavior of the microdisk resonator is simulated by 2D-FDTD method. The shift in the resonance frequency for different thicknesses of the absorbed layer and different refractive index gradients of the microdisks are studied. The best refractive index gradient function is found that leads to the largest sensitivity and smallest limit of detection. The sensitivity of a GRIN microresonator sensor (GMS) with a convex quadratic refractive index function is approximately 11 times as much as that of homogeneous microdisk sensor, which is the best record among GMSs.

  11. Decoupling the refractive index from the electrical properties of transparent conducting oxides via periodic superlattices.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, David; Norton, Emma; Coileáin, Cormac Ó; Smith, Christopher M; Bulfin, Brendan; Farrell, Leo; Shvets, Igor V; Fleischer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an alternative approach to tuning the refractive index of materials. Current methodologies for tuning the refractive index of a material often result in undesirable changes to the structural or optoelectronic properties. By artificially layering a transparent conducting oxide with a lower refractive index material the overall film retains a desirable conductivity and mobility while acting optically as an effective medium with a modified refractive index. Calculations indicate that, with our refractive index change of 0.2, a significant reduction of reflective losses could be obtained by the utilisation of these structures in optoelectronic devices. Beyond this, periodic superlattice structures present a solution to decouple physical properties where the underlying electronic interaction is governed by different length scales. PMID:27623228

  12. Plasmonic circular resonators for refractive index sensors and filters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    A plasmonic refractive index sensor based on a circular resonator is proposed. With all three dimensions below 1 μm, the sensor has a compact and simple structure granting it ease-of-fabrication and ease-of-use. It is capable of sensing trace amounts of liquid or gas samples. The sensing properties are investigated using finite elements method. The results demonstrate that the plasmonic sensor has a relatively high sensitivity of 1,010 nm/RIU, and the corresponding sensing resolution is 9.9 × 10(-5) RIU. The sensor has a relatively high quality factor of 35, which is beneficial for identifying each transmission spectrum. More importantly, the sensitivity is not sensitive to changes of structure parameters, which means that the sensitivity of the sensor is immune to the fabrication deviation. In addition, with a transmittance of 5% at the resonant wavelength, this plasmonic structure can also be employed as a filter. In addition, by filling material like LiNbO3 or liquid crystal in the circular resonator, this filter can realize an adjustable wavelength-selective characteristic in a wide band. PMID:25991915

  13. Gradient shadow pattern reveals refractive index of liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wonkyoung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple method that uses a gradient shadow pattern (GSP) to measure the refractive index nL of liquids. A light source generates a “dark-bright-dark” GSP when it is projected through through the back of a transparent, rectangular block with a cylindrical chamber that is filled with a liquid sample. We found that there is a linear relationship between nL and the proportion of the bright region in a GSP, which provides the basic principle of the proposed method. A wide range 1.33 ≤ nL ≤ 1.46 of liquids was measured in the single measurement setup with error <0.01. The proposed method is simple but robust to illuminating conditions, and does not require for any expensive or precise optical components, so we expect that it will be useful in many portable measurement systems that use nL to estimate attributes of liquid samples.

  14. Gradient shadow pattern reveals refractive index of liquid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonkyoung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple method that uses a gradient shadow pattern (GSP) to measure the refractive index nL of liquids. A light source generates a "dark-bright-dark" GSP when it is projected through through the back of a transparent, rectangular block with a cylindrical chamber that is filled with a liquid sample. We found that there is a linear relationship between nL and the proportion of the bright region in a GSP, which provides the basic principle of the proposed method. A wide range 1.33 ≤ nL ≤ 1.46 of liquids was measured in the single measurement setup with error <0.01. The proposed method is simple but robust to illuminating conditions, and does not require for any expensive or precise optical components, so we expect that it will be useful in many portable measurement systems that use nL to estimate attributes of liquid samples. PMID:27302603

  15. Gradient shadow pattern reveals refractive index of liquid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonkyoung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple method that uses a gradient shadow pattern (GSP) to measure the refractive index nL of liquids. A light source generates a “dark-bright-dark” GSP when it is projected through through the back of a transparent, rectangular block with a cylindrical chamber that is filled with a liquid sample. We found that there is a linear relationship between nL and the proportion of the bright region in a GSP, which provides the basic principle of the proposed method. A wide range 1.33 ≤ nL ≤ 1.46 of liquids was measured in the single measurement setup with error <0.01. The proposed method is simple but robust to illuminating conditions, and does not require for any expensive or precise optical components, so we expect that it will be useful in many portable measurement systems that use nL to estimate attributes of liquid samples. PMID:27302603

  16. Silica Bottle Resonator Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate a bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude and with alength several of hundreds of microns made on the top of the fiber with a radius of tens microns for refractive index and temperature sensor applications. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in the resonators can be excited with a taper fiber placed on the top of the resonator. These sensors can be considered as an alternative to fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors.The sensitivity of TM-polarized modes is higher than the sensitivity of the TE-polarized modes, but these values are comparable and both polarizations are suitable for sensor applications. The sensitivity ~150 (nm/RIU) can be reached with abottle resonator on the fiber with the radius 10 μm. It can be improved with theuse of a fiber with a smaller radius. The temperature sensitivity is found to be ~10 pm/K. The temperature sensitivity can decrease ~10% for a fiber with a radius rco = 10 μm instead of a fiber with a radius rco = 100 μm. These sensors have sensitivities comparable to FBG sensors. A bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude made on the top of the fiber can be easily integrated in any fiber scheme. PMID:26761011

  17. Silica Bottle Resonator Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements.

    PubMed

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate a bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude and with alength several of hundreds of microns made on the top of the fiber with a radius of tens microns for refractive index and temperature sensor applications. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in the resonators can be excited with a taper fiber placed on the top of the resonator. These sensors can be considered as an alternative to fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors.The sensitivity of TM-polarized modes is higher than the sensitivity of the TE-polarized modes, but these values are comparable and both polarizations are suitable for sensor applications. The sensitivity ~150 (nm/RIU) can be reached with abottle resonator on the fiber with the radius 10 μm. It can be improved with theuse of a fiber with a smaller radius. The temperature sensitivity is found to be ~10 pm/K. The temperature sensitivity can decrease ~10% for a fiber with a radius r(co) = 10 μm instead of a fiber with a radius r(co) = 100 μm. These sensors have sensitivities comparable to FBG sensors. A bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude made on the top of the fiber can be easily integrated in any fiber scheme. PMID:26761011

  18. Double high refractive-index contrast grating VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, Michał; Sarzała, Robert P.; Lott, J. A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are typically used as the highly reflecting mirrors of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In order to provide optical field confinement, oxide apertures are often incorporated in the process of the selective wet oxidation of high aluminum-content DBR layers. This technology has some potential drawbacks such as difficulty in controlling the uniformity of the oxide aperture diameters across a large-diameter (≥ 6 inch) production wafers, high DBR series resistance especially for small diameters below about 5 μm despite elaborate grading and doping schemes, free carrier absorption at longer emission wavelengths in the p-doped DBRs, reduced reliability for oxide apertures placed close to the quantum wells, and low thermal conductivity for transporting heat away from the active region. A prospective alternative mirror is a high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) monolithically integrated with the VCSEL cavity. Two HCG mirrors potentially offer a very compact and simplified VCSEL design although the problems of resistance, heat dissipation, and reliability are not completely solved. We present an analysis of a double HCG 980 nm GaAs-based ultra-thin VCSEL. We analyze the optical confinement of such a structure with a total optical thickness is ~1.0λ including the optical cavity and the two opposing and parallel HCG mirrors.

  19. Polymer-based composite with outstanding mechanically tunable refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Hinojosa, Moisés; González, Virgilio; Rodil, Sandra. E.

    2016-08-01

    A composite with high visible light transmittance, mechanically tunable refractive index (RI) and rubber-like mechanical properties, based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and barium titanate nanoparticles (BT) was prepared on three steps. First, BT nanoparticles were obtained by high-energy milling. Second, the nanoparticles were embedded in PDMS by in-situ polymerization; the BT content was varied up to 1.0 wt% (0.17 vol%). Finally, ∼0.5 mm membranes were prepared by solvent casting. The effect of the BT concentration was examined. Powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy revealed a tetragonal crystal structure for the nanoparticles. SEM images confirmed a mean particle size of ∼64 nm and together with EDX mappings showed a moderate dispersion of the nanoparticles in some membranes, whereas other exhibited agglomerates at the surface. The normal transmittance of the membranes was measured with a spectroscopic ellipsometer while they were stretched in-situ at different percentages. The RI variations as a function of strain were calculated from the transmittance spectra. The results exhibit surprising variations in the RI, up to ∼5 times higher than those associated to PDMS alone, implying that the presence of BT significantly influences the optical response of the PDMS when stretched. However, the response is neither linear nor well understood; further studies must be performed to clarify this new interaction.

  20. Estimating index of refraction from polarimetric hyperspectral imaging measurements.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jacob A; Gross, Kevin C

    2016-08-01

    Current material identification techniques rely on estimating reflectivity or emissivity which vary with viewing angle. As off-nadir remote sensing platforms become increasingly prevalent, techniques robust to changing viewing geometries are desired. A technique leveraging polarimetric hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI), to estimate complex index of refraction, N̂(ν̃), an inherent material property, is presented. The imaginary component of N̂(ν̃) is modeled using a small number of "knot" points and interpolation at in-between frequencies ν̃. The real component is derived via the Kramers-Kronig relationship. P-HSI measurements of blackbody radiation scattered off of a smooth quartz window show that N̂(ν̃) can be retrieved to within 0.08 RMS error between 875 cm-1 ≤ ν̃ ≤ 1250 cm-1. P-HSI emission measurements of a heated smooth Pyrex beaker also enable successful N̂(ν̃) estimates, which are also invariant to object temperature. PMID:27505760

  1. Determination of the index of refraction for [alpha]-NTO and DAAF using the Becke test

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenborg, M. R.; Peterson, P. D.; Lee, K. Y.

    2004-01-01

    NTO and DAAF are insensitive high explosives developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the defense and civilian sectors have particular interest in these types of materials for applications ranging from weapons to air bag design. The performance of explosives is highly dependent on particle size. Many common techniques for measuring particle size distributions require knowledge of the material's index of refraction. To-date the principle refractive indices of {alpha}-NTO and DAAF have not been determined. We present the three principle indices of refraction for the triclinic explosive {alpha}-NTO and an averaged index of refraction for DAAF found using the Becke Test. In addition, by comparing particle size distributions based on different refractive indices we show the importance of using the true index of refraction in measuring fine particles.

  2. Determination of average refractive index of spin coated DCG films for HOE fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, T. J.; Campbell, Eugene W.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    1993-01-01

    The refractive index of holographic emulsions is an important parameter needed for designing holographic optical elements (HOE's). Theoretical calculations of the accuracy required for the refractive index and thickness of emulsions needed to meet predetermined Bragg angle conditions are presented. A modified interferometric method is used to find average refractive index of the unexposed and the developed dichromated gelatin holographic films. Slanted transmission HOE's are designed considering the index and thickness variations, and used to verify the index measurement results. The Brewster angle method is used to measure surface index of the unexposed and the developed films. The differences between average index and surface index are discussed. Theoretical calculation of the effects of index variation on diffraction efficiency, and experimental results for index modulation variation caused by process changes are also presented.

  3. Analyzing the effect of absorption and refractive index on image formation in high numerical aperture transmission microscopy of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Ryan L.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-02-01

    Transmission bright-field microscopy is the clinical mainstay for disease diagnosis where image contrast is provided by absorptive and refractive index differences between tissue and the surrounding media. Different microscopy techniques often assume one of the two contrast mechanisms is negligible as a means to better understand the tissue scattering processes. This particular work provides better understanding of the role of refractive index and absorption within Optical Projection Tomographic Microscopy (OPTM) through the development of a generalized computational model based upon the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The model mimics OPTM by simulating axial scanning of the objective focal plane through the cell to produce projection images. These projection images, acquired from circumferential positions around the cell, are reconstructed into isometric three-dimensional images using the filtered backprojection normally employed in Computed Tomography (CT). The model provides a platform to analyze all aspects of bright-field microscopes, such as the degree of refractive index matching and the numerical aperture, which can be varied from air-immersion to high NA oil-immersion. In this preliminary work, the model is used to understand the effects of absorption and refraction on image formation using micro-shells and idealized nuclei. Analysis of absorption and refractive index separately provides the opportunity to better assess their role together as a complex refractive index for improved interpretation of bright-field scattering, essential for OPTM image reconstruction. This simulation, as well as ones in the future looking at other effects, will be used to optimize OPTM imaging parameters and triage efforts to further improve the overall system design.

  4. Sensing of refractive index based on mode interference in a five-layer slab waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tingting; Ma, Wenying; Liu, Wenli; He, Xiujun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a refractive index sensor based on the mode interference in a five-layer waveguide. The propagation properties are analyzed by the coupled mode theory, and the function of the waveguide as a refractive index sensor is also explored based on simulation results. Taking into consideration a trade-off between the sensitivity and the size of the proposed sensor, we can get a very compact device of 10.8 μm×1 μm, and the sensing resolution of the proposed refractive index can reach 2.25×10-5 RIU for index change at around 1.455.

  5. Index of Refraction Measurements Using a Laser Distance Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Romulo; Fiorillo, Richard; Ochoa, Cris

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine the refractive indices of transparent media using a laser distance meter. Indices of refraction have been obtained by measuring the speed of light in materials. Some speed of light techniques use time-of-flight measurements in which pulses are emitted by lasers and the time interval is measured for the pulse…

  6. Liposomes with High Refractive Index Encapsulants as Tunable Signal Amplification Tools in Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Christoph; Hirsch, Thomas; Baeumner, Antje J

    2015-11-01

    One major goal in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is the reliable detection of small molecules as well as low analyte concentrations. This can be achieved by a viable signal amplification strategy. We therefore investigated optimal liposome characteristics for use as a signal enhancement system for SPR sensors, as liposomes excel not only at versatility but also at colloidal stability and ease of functionalization. These characteristics include the encapsulation of high refractive index markers, lipid composition, liposome size, and surface modifications to best match the requirements of the SPR system. Our studies of the binding of biotinylated liposomes to surface-immobilized streptavidin show that the refractive index of the encapsulant has a major influence on the SPR signal and outweighs the influence of the thin lipid bilayer. Thus, the signal amplification properties of liposomes can be adjusted to the respective needs of any analytical task by simply exchanging the encapsulant solution. In this work, a maximum enhancement factor of 23 was achieved by encapsulating a 500 mM sucrose solution. Dose-response studies with and without liposome enhancement revealed an improvement of the limit of detection from 10 nmol L(-1) to 320 pmol L(-1) streptavidin concentration with a much higher sensitivity of 3 mRIU per logarithmic unit of the concentration between 500 pmol L(-1) and 10 nmol L(-1). PMID:26455696

  7. Spatial variation of stratospheric aerosol acidity and model refractive index - Implications of recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hamill, P.

    1984-01-01

    Recent experimental results indicate that little or no solid ammonium sulfate is present in background stratospheric aerosols. Other results allow straightforward calculation of sulfuric acid/water droplet properties (acidity, specific gravity, refractive index) as functions of stratospheric temperature and humidity. These results are combined with a variety of latitudinal and seasonal temperature and humidity profiles to obtain corresponding profiles of droplet properties. These profiles are used to update a previous model of stratospheric aerosol refractive index. The new model retains the simplifying approximation of vertically constant refractive index in the inner stratosphere, but has sulfuric acid/water refractive index values that significantly exceed the previously used room temperature values. Mean conversion ratios (e.g., extinction-to-number, backscatter-to-volume) obtained using Mie scattering calculations with the new refractive indices are very similar to those obtained for the old indices, because the effects of deleting ammonium sulfate and increasing acid indices tend to cancel each other.

  8. Refractive index change during exposure for 193-nm chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hye-Keun; Sohn, Young-Soo; Sung, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Eun-Mi; Byun, Sung Hwan; An, Ilsin; Lee, Kun-Sang; Park, In-Ho

    1999-06-01

    Some of the important areas to be improved for lithography simulation are getting correct exposure parameters and determining the change of refractive index. It is known that the real and imaginary refractive indices are changed during exposure. We obtained these refractive index changes during exposure for 193 nm chemically amplified resists. The variations of the transmittance as well as the resist thickness were measured during ArF excimer laser exposure. We found that the refractive index change is directly related to the concentration of the photo acid generator and de-protected resin. It is important to know the exact values of acid concentration from the exposure parameters since a small difference in acid concentration magnifies the variation in the amplified de-protection during post exposure bake. We developed and used a method to extract Dill ABC exposure parameters for 193 nm chemically amplified resist from the refractive index change upon exposure.

  9. Detection of analyte refractive index and concentration using liquid-core photonic Bragg fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwen; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate detection of liquid analyte refractive index by using a hollow-core photonic Bragg fiber. We apply this fiber sensor to monitor concentrations of commercial cooling oil. The sensor operates on a spectral modality. Variation in the analyte refractive index modifies the bandgap guidance of a fiber, leading to spectral shifts in the fiber transmission spectrum. The sensitivity of the sensor to changes in the analyte refractive index filling in the fiber core is found to be 1460nm/Refractive index unit (RIU). By using the spectral modality and effective medium theory, we determine the concentrations of commercial fluid from the measured refractive indices with an accuracy of ~0.42%. The presented fiber sensor can be used for on-line monitoring of concentration of many industrial fluids and dilutions with sub-1%v accuracy.

  10. Terahertz multi-metal-wire hybrid-cladding hollow waveguide for refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Ying, Yu; Xu-You, Li; Kun-Peng, He; Bo, Sun

    2016-02-01

    We propose a design of terahertz refractive index sensing based on the multi-metal-wire (MMW) hybrid-cladding hollow waveguide. The proposed terahertz hybrid-cladding hollow waveguide comprises one air core in the center surrounding MMW surrounded dielectric. The central air core is used for filling lossless measurands and transmitting terahertz light. In particular, the refractive index sensing is realized by measuring the mode field area (MFA) variation of radially polarized mode. The modal effective refractive index, mode field intensity distribution, and mode field area properties responding to the measurand refractive indexes for different operating frequencies and structure dimensions are investigated, respectively. Simulations show that the proposed terahertz refractive index sensor can realize easily the measurement of the measurand refractive index. Meanwhile, the effects of operating frequency and structure parameters on sensitivity and measurement accuracy are also studied. In view of the trade-off between sensitivity and measurement accuracy, the reasonable choice of the operating frequency and structure parameters can optimize appropriately the sensitivity and measurement accuracy, and the sensitivity can reach approximately 0.585 mm2/RIU (RIU is short for refraction index units) with the proper frequency and structure parameter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51309059).

  11. Bent induced refractive index profile variation and mode field distribution of step-index multimode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokkar, T. Z. N.; Ramadan, W. A.; Shams El-Din, M. A.; Wahba, H. H.; Aboleneen, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of bending of step-index optical fiber on its refractive index profile and the mode field distribution were investigated. An enhanced slab model is suggested in this investigation. A qualitative study has been done on a bent step-index optical fiber. A very small radius of bending curvature (R) has been reached, practically R is 9.25 mm. In this case a dramatic change of the refractive index profile has been observed with an induced birefringence. The refractive index profile is recovered from the interferograms which were generated by Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The interferogram has been analyzed using advanced image analyses software. We have proposed another approach to calculate the refractive index profile of bent optical fiber. In this approach the fiber is divided into layers and slabs, simultaneously. The induced refractive index profile variation of the bent optical fiber, for parallel and perpendicular components of the light beam, is calculated considering the refraction of the light beam traversing the fiber. The mode field distribution and mode numbers in these two directions of polarizations are determined for both straight and bent fibers.

  12. Shape matching utilizing indexed hypotheses generation and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Rajiv; Grosky, William I.

    1989-01-01

    An indexing mechanism is developed as part of an overall scheme called SMITH (shape matching utilizing indexed hypothesis generation and testing) for two-dimensional model-based object recognition. The approach is based on a dynamic programming implementation of attributed string matching, is computationally efficient, and works effectively for both nonoccluded and occluded shapes. Another advantage of this technique is that models may be inserted or deleted with relatively little cost.

  13. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-10-10

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  14. Refractive index modulation in polymer film doped with diazo Meldrum's acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Villa, Filippo; Bertarelli, Chiara; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diazo Meldrum's acid undergoes a photoreaction induced by UV light and it is used as photosensitizer in photoresists. Upon photoreaction, a change in refractive index occurs, which makes this system interesting for volume holography. We report on the sublimation effect at room temperature and the effect of photoirradiation on the refractive index in thin films of CAB (Cellulose acetate butyrate) doped with different amount of diazo Meldrum's acid. A net modulation of the refractive index of 0.01 is achieved with 40% of doping ratio together with a reduction of the film thickness.

  15. Tapered-fiber-based refractive index sensor at an air/solution interface.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Harris, Jeremie; Wang, Xiaozhen; Lin, Ganbin; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2012-10-20

    An approach to achieve refractive index sensing at an air and aqueous glycerol solution interface is proposed using a tapered-fiber-based microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MFMZI). Compared to a surrounding uniform medium of air or solutions, the spectral interference visibility of the MFMZI at the air/solution interface is significantly reduced due to a weak coupling between the fundamental cladding mode and high-order asymmetric cladding modes, which are extremely sensitive to the external refractive index. The MFMZI is experimentally demonstrated as an evanescent wave refractive index sensor to measure concentrations of glycerol solutions by monitoring average power attenuation of the tapered fiber. PMID:23089794

  16. Reflectivity of a disordered monolayer estimated by graded refractive index and scattering models.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Ruth; Garcí-Valenzuela, Augusto; Fernández-Guasti, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Reflectivity of a random monolayer, consisting of transparent spherical particles, is estimated using a graded refractive index model, an effective medium approach, and two scattering models. Two cases, a self-standing film and one with a substrate, are considered. Neither the surrounding medium nor the substrate are absorbing materials. Results at normal incidence, with different particle sizes, covering ratios and refractive indexes, are compared. The purpose of this work is to find under which circumstances, for reflectivity at normal incidence, a particle monolayer behaves as a graded refractive index film. PMID:23201948

  17. The temperature dependence of refractive index of hemoglobin at the wavelengths 930 and 1100 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareva, Ekaterina N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the refractive index of hemoglobin was measured at different temperatures within a physiological range and above that is characteristic to light-blood interaction at laser therapy. Measurements were carried out using the multi-wavelength Abbe refractometer (Atago, Japan). The refractive index was measured at two NIR wavelengths of 930 nm and 1100 nm. Samples of hemoglobin solutions with concentration of 80, 120 and 160 g/l were investigated. The temperature was varied between 25 and 55 °C. It was shown that the dependence of the refractive index of hemoglobin is nonlinear with temperature, which may be associated with changes in molecular structure of hemoglobin.

  18. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the index of refraction on the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux in semitransparent materials, such as some ceramics, is investigated analytically. In the case considered here, a plane layer of a ceramic material is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces; the material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. It is shown that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained in a simple manner from the results for an index of refraction of unity.

  19. Self-organization of dissipationless solitons in positive- and negative-refractive-index materials

    SciTech Connect

    Skarka, V.; Aleksic, N. B.; Berezhiani, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    A generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation describing dissipative solitons dynamics in negative-refractive-index materials is derived from Maxwell equations. This equation having only real terms with opposite sign differs from the usual Ginzburg-Landau equation for positive-refractive-index media. A cross-compensation between the saturating nonlinearity excess, losses, and gain makes obtained self-organized solitons dissipationless and exceptionally robust. In the presence of such solitons medium becomes effectively dissipationless. The compensation of losses is of particular interest for media with resonant character of interactions like negative-refractive-index materials.

  20. Method of producing optical quality glass having a selected refractive index

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2000-01-01

    Optical quality glass having a selected refractive index is produced by a two stage drying process. A gel is produced using sol-gel chemistry techniques and first dried by controlled evaporation until the gel volume reaches a pre-selected value. This pre-selected volume determines the density and refractive index of the finally dried gel. The gel is refilled with solvent in a saturated vapor environment, and then dried again by supercritical extraction of the solvent to form a glass. The glass has a refractive index less than the full density of glass, and the range of achievable refractive indices depends on the composition of the glass. Glasses having different refractive indices chosen from an uninterrupted range of values can be produced from a single precursor solution.

  1. Omnidirectional reflectors with novel low-refractive-index material for light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Jingqun

    Solid state lighting technology requires high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high light-extraction efficiency. A very promising approach to improve the light-extraction efficiency of devices is to integrate a high reflectivity omnidirectional reflector (ODR) with low-refractive-index (low-n) material onto LED chips. ODRs are defined as reflectors with reflectivity close to 100% at any incident angle for both polarizations. Low-n material is a new class of optical thin film material, which has great potential in application of not only ODRs but also other optical filters. In this dissertation, internal ODRs with low-n material are discussed. Two kinds of ODRs are reviewed. One is a triple-layer ODR, which consists of a semiconductor, a quarter-wavelength thick low- n layer, and a reflective metal layer such as Ag or Al. The other one is a dielectric-multilayer ODR, which consists of a thick low- n material and a one-dimensional photonic crystal. Both reflectors have high reflectivity at any incident angle in the semiconductor ambient. Low-n material is the key component for the ODRs. A novel low-n material with refractive index as low as n = 1.05, has been demonstrated to have advantages over conventional optical thin films. A single-pair distributed Bragg reflector using such low-n material is demonstrated to have enhanced reflectivity in the visible spectrum. A graded-index anti-reflection coating with index matching condition enabled by the low-n material is demonstrated to have reflectivity lower than 0.3% over wide spectrum range and angle of incidence. A conductive low-n material is obtained by oblique-angle deposition of indium-tin oxide (ITO). Such material has a much lower refractive index than conventional transparent dense ITO material while still having good conductivity. A GalnN with triple-layer ODR using a conductive low-n material is successfully fabricated and incorporated into an LED that is shown to have enhanced light

  2. Vacuum birefringence in strong magnetic fields: (II) Complex refractive index from the lowest Landau level

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori

    2013-07-15

    We compute the refractive indices of a photon propagating in strong magnetic fields on the basis of the analytic representation of the vacuum polarization tensor obtained in our previous paper. When the external magnetic field is strong enough for the fermion one-loop diagram of the polarization tensor to be approximated by the lowest Landau level, the propagating mode in parallel to the magnetic field is subject to modification: The refractive index deviates from unity and can be very large, and when the photon energy is large enough, the refractive index acquires an imaginary part indicating decay of a photon into a fermion–antifermion pair. We study dependences of the refractive index on the propagating angle and the magnetic-field strength. It is also emphasized that a self-consistent treatment of the equation which defines the refractive index is indispensable for accurate description of the refractive index. This self-consistent treatment physically corresponds to consistently including the effects of back reactions of the distorted Dirac sea in response to the incident photon. -- Highlights: •Vacuum birefringence and photon decay are described by the complex refractive index. •Resummed photon vacuum polarization tensor in the lowest Landau level is used. •Back reactions from the distorted Dirac sea are self-consistently taken into account. •Self-consistent treatment drastically changes structure in photon energy dependence. •Dependences on photon propagation angle and magnetic-field strength are presented.

  3. Simulation of imperfections in plastic lenses - transferring local refractive index changes into surface shape modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, Josep; Pizarro, Carles; Blanco, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Injection molded plastic lenses have continuously improved their performance regarding optical quality and nowadays are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, during the manufacturing process unavoidable fluctuations in material density occur, resulting in local changes in the distribution of refractive index, which degrade the imaging properties of the polymer lens. Such material density fluctuations correlate to phase delays, which opens a path for their mapping. However, it is difficult to transfer the measured variations in refractive index into conventional optical simulation tool. Thus, we propose a method to convert the local variations in refractive index into local changes of one surface of the lens, which can then be described as a free-form surface, easy to introduce in conventional simulation tools. The proposed method was tested on a commercial gradient index (GRIN) lens for a set of six different object positions, using the MTF sagittal and tangential cuts to compare the differences between the real lens and a lens with homogenous refractive index, and the last surface converted into a free-form shape containing the internal refractive index changes. The same procedure was used to reproduce the local refractive index changes of an injected plastic lens with local index changes measured using an in-house built polariscopic arrangement, showing the capability of the method to provide successful results.

  4. Determination of refractive index of a simple negative, positive, or zero power lens using wedged plated interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, R. P.; Perera, G. M.; George, M. C.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    1990-01-01

    A nondestructive technique for measuring the refractive index of a negative lens using a wedged plate interferometer is described. The method can be also used for measuring the refractive index of convex or zero power lenses. Schematic diagrams are presented for the use of a wedged plate interferometer for measuring the refractive index of a concave lens and of a convex lens.

  5. Measuring the refractive index of thin transparent films using an extended cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetjen, Christopher; Hallsted, Jonathan; Kleinert, Michaela

    2013-12-01

    We report on a novel method for determining refractive indices of thin layers of liquids or gases, based on the use of extended cavity diode lasers. Measurements for air, water, and vegetable oil show excellent agreement with accepted values. Applications in determining the refractive index of thin optical coatings and biological cells are discussed.

  6. Refractive index measurements of double-cylinder structures found in natural spider silks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.

    2014-05-01

    The silks of Orb-Weaver spiders (family Araneidae) are emerging as fascinating optical materials due to their biocompatibility, ecological sustainability and mechanical robustness. Natural spider silks are mainly spun as double cylinders, with diameters ranging from 0.05 to 10 μm, depending on the species and maturity of the spider. This small size makes the silks difficult to characterize optically with traditional techniques. Here, we present a technique that is capable of measuring both the real and imaginary refractive index components of spider silks. This technique is also a new capability for characterizing micro-optics more generally. It is based on the measurement and analysis of refracted light through the spider silk, or micro-optic, while it is immersed in a liquid of known refractive index. It can be applied at any visible wavelength. Results at 540 nm are reported. Real refractive indices in the range of 1.54-1.58 were measured, consistent with previous studies of spider silks. Large silk-to-silk variability of the p-polarized refractive index was observed of around 0.015, while variability in the s-polarized refractive index was negligible. No discernible difference in the refractive indices of the two cylinders making up the double cylinder silk structure were observed. Measured imaginary refractive indices corresponded to an optical loss of around 14 dB/mm at 540 nm.

  7. Measurement of Refractive Index Gradients by Deflection of a Laser Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, A. J.; Ahlborn, B.

    1975-01-01

    In this simple experiment for an undergraduate laboratory a laser beam is passed through the mixing zone of two liquids with different refractive indices. The spatial variation of the refractive index, at different times during the mixing, can be determined from the observed deflection of the beam. (Author)

  8. Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index of Cleartran® ZnS to Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Doug; Frey, Brad

    2013-01-01

    First, let's talk about the CHARMS facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center: Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS); design features for highest accuracy and precision; technologies we rely on; data products and examples; optical materials for which we've measured cryogenic refractive index.

  9. Refractive Index Measurement of the Isolated Crystalline Lens Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhorn, Stephen R.; Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    An optical coherence tomography system has been developed that was designed specifically for imaging the isolated crystalline lens. Cross-sectional OCT images were recorded on 40 lenses from 32 human donors with an age range of 6 – 82 years. A method has been developed to measure the axial thickness and average refractive index of the lens from a single recorded image. The measured average group refractive index at the measurement wavelength of 825 nm was converted to the average phase refractive index at 589 nm using lens dispersion data from the literature. The average refractive index for all lenses measured was 1.408 ± 0.005 which agrees well with recent MRI measurements of the lens index gradient. A linear regression of the data resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the average refractive index with age, but a simple linear model was insufficient to explain the age dependence. The results presented here suggest that the peak refractive index in the nucleus is closer to 1.420, rather than the previously accepted value of 1.406. PMID:18824191

  10. Measurement of the refractive index of transparent materials using null polarimetry near Brewster's angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nee, Soe-Mie F.

    1998-10-01

    The nondestructive measurement of refractive index of transmissive materials using null polarimetry is simple, accurate and does not require much on sample preparation. In null polarimetry, the ellipsometric parameter (psi) for reflection from a sample is measured. (psi) for transparent material is defined by tan (psi) equals rp/rs where rp and rs are coefficients of reflection for the p- and s-polarization respectively. By choosing the angle of incidence (Theta) near the Brewster angle, refractive index can be computed from (Theta) and (psi) directly. The only requirement on the sample is that no back surface reflection is allowed to mess up the front surface reflection. Precision in the refractive index is about 0.0004. Spectra of refractive index for quartz are measured and compared with the spectra quoted from existing Handbooks.

  11. Velocity Measurement by Scattering from Index of Refraction Fluctuations Induced in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lading, Lars; Saffman, Mark; Edwards, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Induced phase screen scattering is defined as scatter light from a weak index of refraction fluctuations induced by turbulence. The basic assumptions and requirements for induced phase screen scattering, including scale requirements, are presented.

  12. High Accuracy, Absolute, Cryogenic Refractive Index Measurements of Infrared Lens Materials for JWST NIRCam using CHARMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas; Frey, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The current refractive optical design of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) uses three infrared materials in its lenses: LiF, BaF2, and ZnSe. In order to provide the instrument s optical designers with accurate, heretofore unavailable data for absolute refractive index based on actual cryogenic measurements, two prismatic samples of each material were measured using the cryogenic, high accuracy, refraction measuring system (CHARMS) at NASA GSFC, densely covering the temperature range from 15 to 320 K and wavelength range from 0.4 to 5.6 microns. Measurement methods are discussed and graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient for these three materials are presented along with estimates of uncertainty. Coefficients for second order polynomial fits of measured index to temperature are provided for many wavelengths to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures.

  13. Sensitive Real-Time Monitoring of Refractive Indexes Using a Novel Graphene-Based Optical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fei; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Kong, Xiang-Tian; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xu-Dong; Ye, Qing; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the polarization-sensitive absorption of graphene under conditions of total internal reflection, a novel optical sensor combining graphene and a microfluidic structure was constructed to achieve the sensitive real-time monitoring of refractive indexes. The atomic thickness and strong broadband absorption of graphene cause it to exhibit very different reflectivity for transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes in the context of a total internal reflection structure, which is sensitive to the media in contact with the graphene. A graphene refractive index sensor can quickly and sensitively monitor changes in the local refractive index with a fast response time and broad dynamic range. These results indicate that graphene, used in a simple and efficient total internal reflection structure and combined with microfluidic techniques, is an ideal material for fabricating refractive index sensors and biosensor devices, which are in high demand. PMID:23205270

  14. Characterization and simulation on antireflective coating of amorphous silicon oxide thin films with gradient refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu; Jin, Qi; Qu, Xingling; Jin, Jing; Jiang, Chaochao; Yang, Weiguang; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    The optical reflective properties of silicon oxide (SixOy) thin films with gradient refractive index are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thin films are widely used in photovoltaic as antireflective coatings (ARCs). An effective finite difference time domain (FDTD) model is built to find the optimized reflection spectra corresponding to structure of SixOy ARCs with gradient refractive index. Based on the simulation analysis, it shows the variation of reflection spectra with gradient refractive index distribution. The gradient refractive index of SixOy ARCs can be obtained in adjustment of SiH4 to N2O ratio by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The optimized reflection spectra measured by UV-visible spectroscopy confirms to agree well with that simulated by FDTD method.

  15. A Refractive Index Sensor Based on the Resonant Coupling to Cladding Modes in a Fiber Loop

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Mauricio; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martínez-Ríos, Alejandro; Silvestre, Enrique; Díez, Antonio; Cruz, José Luis; Andrés, Miguel V.

    2013-01-01

    We report an easy-to-build, compact, and low-cost optical fiber refractive index sensor. It consists of a single fiber loop whose transmission spectra exhibit a series of notches produced by the resonant coupling between the fundamental mode and the cladding modes in a uniformly bent fiber. The wavelength of the notches, distributed in a wavelength span from 1,400 to 1,700 nm, can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the fiber loop and are sensitive to refractive index changes of the external medium. Sensitivities of 170 and 800 nm per refractive index unit for water solutions and for the refractive index interval 1.40–1.442, respectively, are demonstrated. We estimate a long range resolution of 3 × 10−4 and a short range resolution of 2 × 10−5 for water solutions. PMID:23979478

  16. Photoacoustic measurement of refractive index of dye solutions and myoglobin for biosensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Mehta, Smit; Mosley, Jeff; Walter, Chris; Whiteside, Paul J. D.; Hunt, Heather K.; Viator, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Current methods of determining the refractive index of chemicals and materials, such as ellipsometry and reflectometry, are limited by their inability to analyze highly absorbing or highly transparent materials, as well as the required prior knowledge of the sample thickness and estimated refractive index. Here, we present a method of determining the refractive index of solutions using the photoacoustic effect. We show that a photoacoustic refractometer can analyze highly absorbing dye samples to within 0.006 refractive index units of a handheld optical refractometer. Further, we use myoglobin, an early non-invasive biomarker for malignant hyperthermia, as a proof of concept that this technique is applicable for use as a medical diagnostic. Comparison of the speed, cost, simplicity, and accuracy of the techniques shows that this photoacoustic method is well-suited for optically complex systems. PMID:24298407

  17. Development of interferometer for refractive index measurement of aqueous solution in a microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. H.; Geiser, M.; Truffer, F.; Song, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the design and development of an interferometer for the measurement of the refractive index or concentration of a sub-microliter volume of aqueous solution in a microfluidic chip. This proposed interferometer is manifested by the successful measurement of the refractive index of a sugar-water solution, using a He-Ne laser as a light source and robust instrumentation for practical implementation. The measurement principle and the feasibility of the system are analyzed theoretically. The experimental device is constructed with a He-Ne laser, two lenses, two optical plates and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor detector. The refractive index change is determined by measuring the positional changes of the interference fringes. A refractive index change of 10-4 is inferred from the measured image data.

  18. Methods for Prediction of Refractive Index in Glasses for the Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.

    2011-06-14

    It is often useful to obtain custom glasses that meet particular requirements of refractive index and dispersion for high-end optical design and applications. In the case of infrared glasses, limited experimental data are available due to difficulties in processing of these glasses and also measuring refractive indices accurately. This paper proposes methods to estimate refractive index and dispersion as a function of composition for selected infrared-transmitting glasses. Methods for refractive index determination are reviewed and evaluated, including Gladstone-Dale, Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator, Optical basicity, and Lorentz-Lorenz total polarizability. Various estimates for a set of PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 (heavy metal oxide) and As-S (chalcogenide) glasses will be compared with measured values of index and dispersion.

  19. Refraction of nonlinear beams by localized refractive index changes in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assanto, Gaetano; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2010-11-01

    The propagation of solitary waves in nematic liquid crystals in the presence of localized nonuniformities is studied. These nonuniformities can be caused by external electric fields, other light beams, or any other mechanism which results in a modified director orientation in a localized region of the liquid-crystal cell. The net effect is that the solitary wave undergoes refraction and trajectory bending. A general modulation theory for this refraction is developed, and particular cases of circular, elliptical, and rectangular perturbations are considered. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

  20. Refraction of nonlinear beams by localized refractive index changes in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Assanto, Gaetano; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2010-11-15

    The propagation of solitary waves in nematic liquid crystals in the presence of localized nonuniformities is studied. These nonuniformities can be caused by external electric fields, other light beams, or any other mechanism which results in a modified director orientation in a localized region of the liquid-crystal cell. The net effect is that the solitary wave undergoes refraction and trajectory bending. A general modulation theory for this refraction is developed, and particular cases of circular, elliptical, and rectangular perturbations are considered. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

  1. New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Jared J; Namnabat, Soha; Kim, Eui Tae; Himmelhuber, Roland; Moronta, Dominic H; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam G; Kim, Kyung-Jo; van der Laan, John; Nguyen, Ngoc A; Dereniak, Eustace L; Mackay, Michael E; Char, Kookheon; Glass, Richard S; Norwood, Robert A; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2014-05-21

    Polymers for IR imaging: The preparation of high refractive index polymers (n = 1.75 to 1.86) via the inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur is reported. High quality imaging in the near (1.5 μm) and mid-IR (3-5 μm) regions using high refractive index polymeric lenses from these sulfur materials was demonstrated. PMID:24659231

  2. The eye lens: age-related trends and individual variations in refractive index and shape parameters.

    PubMed

    Pierscionek, Barbara; Bahrami, Mehdi; Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Regini, Justyn; Yagi, Naoto

    2015-10-13

    The eye lens grows throughout life by cell accrual on its surface and can change shape to adjust the focussing power of the eye. Varying concentrations of proteins in successive cell layers create a refractive index gradient. The continued growth of the lens and age-related changes in proteins render it less able to alter shape with loss of capacity by the end of the sixth decade of life. Growth and protein ageing alter the refractive index but as accurate measurement of this parameter is difficult, the nature of such alterations remains uncertain. The most accurate method to date for measuring refractive index in intact lenses has been developed at the SPring-8 synchrotron. The technique, based on Talbot interferometry, has an X-ray source and was used to measure refractive index in sixty-six human lenses, aged from 16 to 91 years. Height and width were measured for forty-five lenses. Refractive index contours show decentration in some older lenses but individual variations mask age-related trends. Refractive index profiles along the optic axis have relatively flat central sections with distinct micro-fluctuations and a steep gradient in the cortex but do not exhibit an age-related trend. The refractive index profiles in the equatorial aspect show statistical significance with age, particularly for lenses below the age of sixty that had capacity to alter shape in vivo. The maximum refractive index in the lens centre decreases slightly with age with considerable scatter in the data and there are age-related variations in sagittal thickness and equatorial height. PMID:26416418

  3. The eye lens: age-related trends and individual variations in refractive index and shape parameters

    PubMed Central

    Pierscionek, Barbara; Bahrami, Mehdi; Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Regini, Justyn; Yagi, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The eye lens grows throughout life by cell accrual on its surface and can change shape to adjust the focussing power of the eye. Varying concentrations of proteins in successive cell layers create a refractive index gradient. The continued growth of the lens and age-related changes in proteins render it less able to alter shape with loss of capacity by the end of the sixth decade of life. Growth and protein ageing alter the refractive index but as accurate measurement of this parameter is difficult, the nature of such alterations remains uncertain. The most accurate method to date for measuring refractive index in intact lenses has been developed at the SPring-8 synchrotron. The technique, based on Talbot interferometry, has an X-ray source and was used to measure refractive index in sixty-six human lenses, aged from 16 to 91 years. Height and width were measured for forty-five lenses. Refractive index contours show decentration in some older lenses but individual variations mask age-related trends. Refractive index profiles along the optic axis have relatively flat central sections with distinct micro-fluctuations and a steep gradient in the cortex but do not exhibit an age-related trend. The refractive index profiles in the equatorial aspect show statistical significance with age, particularly for lenses below the age of sixty that had capacity to alter shape in vivo. The maximum refractive index in the lens centre decreases slightly with age with considerable scatter in the data and there are age-related variations in sagittal thickness and equatorial height. PMID:26416418

  4. Change in the refractive index of a photorefractive crystal during formation of a spatially screened soliton

    SciTech Connect

    Assel'born, Sergei A; Kundikova, Nataliya D; Novikov, Igor' V

    2010-02-28

    A change in the refractive index of a photorefractive barium-sodium niobate crystal in an alternating electric field during the propagation of intensity-modulated coherent radiation in it is studied. It is shown experimentally that a change in the refractive index in the soliton regime in a photorefractive crystal with a small nonlocal response is independent of the external-field amplitude and intensity-modulation depth. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  5. Simple and precise measurement of the complex refractive index and thickness for thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu; Li, Wei

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate applications of a novel scheme which is used for measuring refractive index and thickness of thin film by analyzing the relative phase difference and reflected ratio at reflection point of a monolithic folded Fabry-Perot cavity (MFC). The complex refractive index and the thickness are calculated according to the Fresnel formula. Results show that the proposed method has an improvement in accuracy with simple and clear operating process compared with the conventional Ellipsometry.

  6. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-08-24

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  7. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  8. Refraction index of shock compressed water in the megabar pressure range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batani, D.; Jakubowska, K.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Cavazzoni, C.; Danson, C.; Hall, T.; Kimpel, M.; Neely, D.; Pasley, J.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M.; Telaro, B.

    2015-11-01

    We compressed water to megabar pressures by laser-driven shock waves and evidenced transparent, opaque and reflecting phases as pressure increases. The refraction index of water in the first two states was measured using a VISAR system. At high compression a sharp increase of the real and imaginary part of the refraction index is observed. Experiments were performed at the LULI and RAL laboratories.

  9. Polarimetry of moonlight: A new method for determining the refractive index of the lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, Andrew; Masding, Philip; Hooker, Chris

    2016-04-01

    We present a new method for remotely measuring the refractive index of the lunar regolith, using polarised moonlight. Umov's Law correlates the polarisation (Pmax) of scattered moonlight and the albedo (A) of the scattering lunar regolith. We discuss how deviations from this correlation have previously been linked to the so-called 'Polarimetric Anomaly Parameter', (Pmax)aA, which was proposed by Shkuratov and others as being related to variations in regolith grain size. We propose a reinterpretation of that parameter. We develop models of light scattering by regolith grains which predict that variation in the refractive index of regolith grains causes deviations from Umov's Law. Variations in other grain parameters such as grain size and degree of space weathering do not produce this deviation. The models are supported by polarimetric measurements on powdered terrestrial materials of differing refractive index. We derive a simple formula to express the relationship between refractive index and the deviation from Umov's Law and apply it to telescopic measurements of regions of the lunar surface. We show that the Aristarchus Plateau and the Marius Hills regions both comprise materials of unusually low refractive index. These results are consistent with recent estimates of the mineralogy of those areas. Picard and Peirce craters, in Mare Crisium, are shown to contain material of low refractive index similar to highland regions, as has been suggested by earlier studies of these craters.

  10. Refractive index measurements of single, spherical cells using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Mirjam; Scholze, Jana; Müller, Paul; Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Chalut, Kevin J; Guck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we introduce digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a marker-free method to determine the refractive index of single, spherical cells in suspension. The refractive index is a conclusive measure in a biological context. Cell conditions, such as differentiation or infection, are known to yield significant changes in the refractive index. Furthermore, the refractive index of biological tissue determines the way it interacts with light. Besides the biological relevance of this interaction in the retina, a lot of methods used in biology, including microscopy, rely on light-tissue or light-cell interactions. Hence, determining the refractive index of cells using DHM is valuable in many biological applications. This chapter covers the main topics that are important for the implementation of DHM: setup, sample preparation, and analysis. First, the optical setup is described in detail including notes and suggestions for the implementation. Following that, a protocol for the sample and measurement preparation is explained. In the analysis section, an algorithm for the determination of quantitative phase maps is described. Subsequently, all intermediate steps for the calculation of the refractive index of suspended cells are presented, exploiting their spherical shape. In the last section, a discussion of possible extensions to the setup, further measurement configurations, and additional analysis methods are given. Throughout this chapter, we describe a simple, robust, and thus easily reproducible implementation of DHM. The different possibilities for extensions show the diverse fields of application for this technique. PMID:25640428