Science.gov

Sample records for refueling station siting

  1. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  2. LNG to CNG refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

  3. Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

  4. Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

    1991-01-01

    The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template. Hydrogen Refueling Station.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine; Muna, Alice Baca; Groth, Katrina M.

    2015-08-01

    Building a hydrogen infrastructure system is critical to supporting the development of alternate- fuel vehicles. This report provides a methodology for implementing a performance-based design of an outdoor hydrogen refueling station that does not meet specific prescriptive requirements in NFPA 2, The Hydrogen Technologies Code . Performance-based designs are a code-compliant alternative to meeting prescriptive requirements. Compliance is demonstrated by comparing a prescriptive-based fueling station design with a performance-based design approach using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods and hydrogen risk assessment tools. This template utilizes the Sandia-developed QRA tool, Hydrogen Risk Analysis Models (HyRAM), which combines reduced-order deterministic models that characterize hydrogen release and flame behavior with probabilistic risk models to quantify risk values. Each project is unique and this template is not intended to account for site-specific characteristics. Instead, example content and a methodology are provided for a representative hydrogen refueling site which can be built upon for new hydrogen applications.

  6. Insights from Hydrogen Refueling Station Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayyas, Ahmad

    2015-12-18

    In work for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), NREL is currently collaborating with Great Lakes Wind Network in conducting a comprehensive hydrogen refueling stations manufacturing competitiveness and supply chain analyses. In this project, CEMAC will be looking at several metrics that will facilitate understanding of the interactions between and within the HRS supply chain, such metrics include innovation potential, intellectual properties, learning curves, related industries and clustering, existing supply chains, ease of doing business, and regulations and safety. This presentation to Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition 2015 highlights initial findings from CEMAC's analysis.

  7. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  8. The dynamics of a space station tethered refueling facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, P.; Rudolph, L. K.; Fester, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The fluid stored in a tethered orbital refueling facility is settled at the bottom of the storage tanks by gravity-gradient forces. The fluid motions (slosh) induced by outside disturbances must be limited to ensure the tank outlet is not uncovered during a fluid transfer. The dynamics of a LO2/LH2 TORF attached to the space station have been analyzed to identify design parameters necessary to limit fluid motion. Using the worst case disturbance of a shuttle docking at the space station, the fluid motion was found to be a function of tether length and allowable facility swing angle. Acceptable fluid behavior occurs for tether lengths of at least 1000 ft. To ensure motions induced by separate disturbances do not add to unacceptable values, a slosh damping coefficient of 5 percent is recommended.

  9. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  10. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Tara Ruttley, Associate ISS Program Scientist, during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows safety cap removal and refueling during Roboti...

  11. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Robotic Refueling Mission (Narrated)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Tara Ruttley, Associate ISS Program Scientist, during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows safety cap removal and refueling during Roboti...

  12. Building an alternative fuel refueling network: How many stations are needed and where should they be placed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Michael Anselm

    Gasoline stations are so numerous that the fear of running out of fuel is likely not a top concern among drivers. This may not be the case with the introduction of a new alternative fuel such as hydrogen or electricity. The next three chapters, originally written as peer reviewed journal papers[1,2,3], examine the characteristics of refueling in today's gasoline network and compares these characteristics to hypothetical new alternative fuel networks. Together, they suggest that alternative fuel networks with many fewer stations than exist in the gasoline network could be acceptable to future consumers. This acceptability is measured in three ways. The first chapter examines the distance from home to the nearest station and finds that if alternative fuel stations were one-third as numerous as gasoline stations, the travel time to the nearest station was virtually identical to that of gasoline stations. The results suggest that even for station networks numbering only one-twentieth the current number of outlets, the difference in travel time with respect to gasoline is relatively small. Acceptability was examined in the second chapter by analyzing the spatial refueling patterns of gasoline. This reveals that the volume of fuel sold is greater around the highways and that the route from home to the nearest highway entrance may account for a large portion of refueling. This suggests that the first alternative fuel stations could be sited along the highway near entrances and could provide acceptable access to fuel for those who use these highway entrances to access the wider region. Subsequent stations could be sited closer to the homes of customers. The third chapter estimates acceptability, measured in terms of initial vehicle purchase price, of refueling away from one's own town. A pilot survey using a map-based questionnaire was distributed to 20 respondents. Respondents chose ten stations locations to enable their most important destinations. The alternative fuel

  13. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  14. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  15. Considering the dynamic refueling behavior in locating electric vehicle charging stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Sun, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) will certainly play an important role in addressing the energy and environmental challenges at current situation. However, location problem of EV charging stations was realized as one of the key issues of EVs launching strategy. While for the case of locating EV charging stations, more influence factors and constraints need to be considered since the EVs have some special attributes. The minimum requested charging time for EVs is usually more than 30minutes, therefore the possible delay time due to waiting or looking for an available station is one of the most important influence factors. In addition, the intention to purchase and use of EVs that also affects the location of EV charging stations is distributed unevenly among regions and should be considered when modelling. Unfortunately, these kinds of time-spatial constraints were always ignored in previous models. Based on the related research of refuelling behaviours and refuelling demands, this paper developed a new concept with dual objectives of minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for locating EV charging stations - named as Time-Spatial Location Model (TSLM). The proposed model and the traditional flow-capturing location model are applied on an example network respectively and the results are compared. Results demonstrate that time constraint has great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model has some obvious advantages and will help energy providers to make a viable plan for the network of EV charging stations.

  16. Risk associated with the use of barriers in hydrogen refueling stations.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Phillips, Jesse; Houf, William G.

    2010-03-01

    Separation distances are used in hydrogen refueling stations to protect people, structures, and equipment from the consequences of accidental hydrogen releases. Specifically, hydrogen jet flames resulting from ignition of unintended releases can be extensive in length and pose significant radiation and impingement hazards. Depending on the leak diameter and source pressure, the resulting separation distances can be unacceptably large. One possible mitigation strategy to reduce exposure to hydrogen flames is to incorporate barriers around hydrogen storage, process piping, and delivery equipment. The effectiveness of barrier walls to reduce hazards at hydrogen facilities has been previously evaluated using experimental and modeling information developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The effect of barriers on the risk from different types of hazards including direct flame contact, radiation heat fluxes, and overpressures associated with delayed hydrogen ignition has subsequently been evaluated and used to identify potential reductions in separation distances in hydrogen facilities. Both the frequency and consequences used in this risk assessment and the risk results are described. The results of the barrier risk analysis can also be used to help establish risk-informed barrier design requirements for use in hydrogen codes and standards.

  17. Tethered orbital refueling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, Dale A.; Rudolph, L. Kevin; Kiefel, Erlinda R.; Abbott, Peter W.; Grossrode, Pat

    1986-01-01

    One of the major applications of the space station will be to act as a refueling depot for cryogenic-fueled space-based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), Earth-storable fueled orbit maneuvering vehicles, and refurbishable satellite spacecraft using hydrazine. One alternative for fuel storage at the space station is a tethered orbital refueling facility (TORF), separated from the space station by a sufficient distance to induce a gravity gradient force that settles the stored fuels. The technical feasibility was examined with the primary focus on the refueling of LO2/LH2 orbital transfer vehicles. Also examined was the tethered facility on the space station. It was compared to a zero-gravity facility. A tethered refueling facility should be considered as a viable alternative to a zero-gravity facility if the zero-gravity fluid transfer technology, such as the propellant management device and no vent fill, proves to be difficult to develop with the required performance.

  18. Analysis of Cost-Effective Off-Board Hydrogen Storage and Refueling Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Barnes; William Liss

    2008-11-14

    This report highlights design and component selection considerations for compressed gas hydrogen fueling stations operating at 5000 psig or 350 bar. The primary focus is on options for compression and storage – in terms of practical equipment options as well as various system configurations and how they influence delivery performance and station economics.

  19. A flight study of the use of direct-lift-control flaps to improve station keeping during in-flight refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneill, W. E.; Gerdes, R. M.; Innis, R. C.; Ratcliff, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of fast-acting flaps as direct-lift-control (DLC) devices on a fighter airplane, the aileron servo systems of an F-100C variable-stability airplane were modified to provide symmetrical actuation of the surfaces. Initial flight tests using DLC indicated that the task of formation flying and, hence, in-flight refueling could be eased by actuating the DLC flaps through the conventional control stick, with the degree of improvement depending on the basic stability of the receiver aircraft. Results of refueling approaches and connections with U.S. Air Force tankers indicated a moderate overall improvement in vertical station-keeping performance (approximately 19 percent) and a sizeable overall decrease in receiver airplane motions and control activity (approximately 40 percent) with DLC.

  20. New concept of small power reactor without on-site refueling for non-proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W., LLNL

    1998-07-13

    more pre-conceptual designs. The pre-conceptual designs will be used to confirm the adequacy of the requirements through iteration and trade studies. A down selection to a preferred and backup concept would be made following a 12-18 month design effort. The selected designs, system design specifications, and the necessary R&D programs would be developed in greater detail over the next three and one-half years. A reactor in the 50 to 150 MWe class, nominally 100 MWe, shows the best potential for meeting these challenges. The system will have unique characteristics to achieve proliferation resistance, and will maximize the reliance on passive safety features to reduce the risk of serious accidents and their consequences, simplify operations and maintenance, and reduce the need for the developing country to establish a sophisticated and expensive nuclear infrastructure. In particular, to eliminate all on- site refueling, the reactor will be equipped with a long-life core that will be returned to the supplier when spent. This process will be managed under international control to further both overall non- proliferation objectives and to reduce the infrastructure burden on the developing country. It will also reduce the anticipated burden and expense to the International Atomic Energy Agency for assuring security associated with expanded international use of nuclear energy. An integral part of the program will be the development of new approaches for implementing international safeguards applicable to the entire fuel cycle including recycling and waste disposal. The report discusses the preliminary requirements and the rationale for selecting them. It then discusses the four nuclear system technologies and how they might proceed to meet the requirements. Brief discussions are provided on the approaches to stimulating the appropriate international and industrial participation necessary to finance development of a design with improved proliferation resistance that is useful

  1. Developing Study Stations on Your School Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Natural Resources, Columbus. Office of Information and Education.

    The school site is a convenient location for study stations since it is available for short periods of time and can be used consistently. Special preparations, such as transportation, required for off-site fieldtrips can be eliminated. In addition, on-site activities provide students with concrete experiences necessary to understand difficult…

  2. ANSS Backbone Station Installation and Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meremonte, M.; Leeds, A.; Overturf, D.; McMillian, J.; Allen, J.; McNamara, D.

    2004-12-01

    During 2004 several new broadband seismic stations have been deployed as a part of the USGS's Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone and regional networks. New stations include: ERPA, MNTX, OGLA, AMTX, NATX, KCCO, BMO, MARC, TZTN, LAO, DGMT, REDW, KSU1, MOOW, TPAW, LOHW, RAMW. Permanent station locations were chosen to minimize the local noise conditions by recording continuous data and using a quantitative analysis of the statistical distribution of noise power estimates. For each one-hour segment of continuous data, a power spectral density (PSD) is estimated and smoothed in full octave averages at 1/8 octave intervals. Powers for each 1/8 period interval were then accumulated in one dB power bins. A statistical analysis of power bins yields probability density functions (PDFs) as a function of noise power for each of the octave bands at each station and component. Examination of earthquake signal, artifacts related to station operation and episodic cultural noise in the PDFs allow us to estimate both the overall station quality and the level of earth noise at each potential backbone site. The main function of a seismic network, such as the ANSS, is to provide high quality data for earthquake monitoring, source studies, and Earth structure research. The utility of seismic data is greatly increased when noise levels are reduced. A good quantification and understanding of seismic noise is a first step at reducing noise levels in seismic data and improving overall data quality from the ANSS backbone network.

  3. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. 35. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CONTROL ROOM OF ELECTRIC POWER STATION WITH DIESEL ENGINE POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATION EQUIPMENT IN BACKGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 14. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 70 EAST AT SW CORNER OF BUILDING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 36. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CLOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CLOSE UP VIEW OF 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 37. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - ELEVATED VIEW OF FIVE (5) 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY - POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 38. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR - OBLIQUE VIEW AT FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SET NUMBER 5. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. 34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, Michigan, Modification of Electrical Distribution, General Site Plan, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  10. Mission planning optimization for multiple geosynchronous satellites refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Yan, Ye; Huang, Xu; Kong, Linjie

    2015-12-01

    The scheduling problem of multiple geosynchronous satellites refueling mission with a servicing satellite and a fuel station is studied in this paper. In the proposed mission scenario, a number of geosynchronous satellites require a specified weight of fuel to be delivered. The servicing satellite and the fuel station are initially parked in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). The capacitated servicing satellite is expected to visit and refuel these fuel-deficient GEO targets with the fuel received from the fuel station. In general, the fuel station will refuel the servicing satellite more than once. The refueling order and binary decision variable are used as design variables, whereas the total fuel consumed by orbital maneuvers is used as a design objective. A one-level optimization model and a two-level optimization model are formulated to find the optimal refueling order and decision variable. Genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to address the one-level optimization problem. For the two-level optimization problem, the up-level GA that optimizes the refueling order is combined with the low-level random search that can quickly locate the near-optimal binary decision variable. Finally, the proposed methods are applied to numerical test cases to demonstrate that they are valid for mission planning optimization for multiple GEO targets refueling.

  11. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  12. 15. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 55° EAST AT FIVE DIESEL ENGINE/ GENERATOR SILENCER SYSTEM EXHAUST STACKS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  14. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. Orbital Spacecraft Consumables Resupply System (OSCRS): Monopropellant application to space station and OMV automatic refueling impacts of an ELV launch, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The use of orbital spacecraft consumables resupply system (OSCRS) at the Space Station is investigated, its use with the orbital maneuvering vehicle, and launch of the OSCRS on an expendable launch vehicles. A system requirements evaluation was performed initially to identify any unique requirements that would impact the design of OSCRS when used at the Space Station. Space Station documents were reviewed to establish requirements and to identify interfaces between the OSCRS, Shuttle, and Space Station, especially the Servicing Facility. The interfaces between OSCRS and the Shuttle consists of an avionics interface for command and control and a structural interface for launch support and for grappling with the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. For use of the OSCRS at the Space Station, three configurations were evaluated using the results of the interface definition to increase the efficiency of OSCRS and to decrease the launch weight by Station-basing specific OSCRS subsystems. A modular OSCRS was developed in which the major subsystems were Station-based where possible. The configuration of an OSCRS was defined for transport of water to the Space Station.

  19. Thermal Design Considerations of the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Teri H.; Newman, Miles

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) is a flight demonstration of the tasks required to perform robotic refueling of orbiting spacecraft. RRM will be mounted to an ExPress Adapter Plate (ExPA) for launch and installed onto the International Space Station (ISS) Express Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4). RRM operations will be conducted using the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) robotic arm on the ISS with the ORU/Tool Changeout Mechanism (OTCM) for grasping tools and completing the refueling demonstration tasks. This paper presents the thermal considerations and design of the RRM including the tools required for the tasks.

  20. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  1. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1995-05-02

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor is disclosed whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced. 2 figs.

  2. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Meuschke, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  3. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  4. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Holcomb, David Eugene; Bradley, Eric Craig; Zaharia, Nathaniel M; Cooper, Eliott J

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the levels of

  5. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Bradley, E.C.; Zaharia, N.M.; Cooper, E.J.

    2012-07-15

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt–cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published [1], and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the

  6. Arra-Funded Geotechnical Characterization of Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, W. S.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K. H.; Diehl, J.; Martin, A. J.; Jack, S.

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the USGS allocated funding to help support research capabilities, as well as improve and upgrade facilities in the bureau. As part of this effort, the USGS contracted a consortium consisting of principals from academia and commerce to perform geotechnical site characterization at 189 seismographic station sites—185 in California and four in the central U.S. In this pilot project of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), site characterizations will be conducted at: 130 Southern California Seismographic Network (SCSN), 25 California Geological Survey (CGS), 30 Northern California Seismographic Network (NCSN), and four Central U.S. (CEUS) sites. Each site investigation, involving passive and active surface-wave techniques, includes one or more of established approaches such as the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), 2-D array microtremor, 1-D refraction microtremor (ReMi), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), and multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) methods. From this multi-method approach, we determine Vs (shear-wave velocity) profiles and the calculated Vs30 (the average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth) for each site. In general, preliminary results based on field reports indicate observed records match expected values for surficial geologic conditions. Unexpected results are typically attributable to inaccurate or coarse map information and alternative explanations are verified through interpretations of local geologic structure observed during field investigations. For example, we find map-based geology to be consistent with observed records at the SCSN station CI.PLS, but not the case for CI.CWC, where inaccurate map information are at odds with our recorded velocities. At station CI.TIN (near edge of basalt outcrop) and NCSN station NC.MMLB (on rhyolite outcrop), the records observed in the shallow surface do not match expected rock values. Our pilot

  7. Vision-based sensing for autonomous in-flight refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.; Toal, M.; Dale, J.

    2007-04-01

    A significant capability of unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV's) is that they can operate tirelessly and at maximum efficiency in comparison to their human pilot counterparts. However a major limiting factor preventing ultra-long endurance missions is that they require landing to refuel. Development effort has been directed to allow UAV's to automatically refuel in the air using current refueling systems and procedures. The 'hose & drogue' refueling system was targeted as it is considered the more difficult case. Recent flight trials resulted in the first-ever fully autonomous airborne refueling operation. Development has gone into precision GPS-based navigation sensors to maneuver the aircraft into the station-keeping position and onwards to dock with the refueling drogue. However in the terminal phases of docking, the accuracy of the GPS is operating at its performance limit and also disturbance factors on the flexible hose and basket are not predictable using an open-loop model. Hence there is significant uncertainty on the position of the refueling drogue relative to the aircraft, and is insufficient in practical operation to achieve a successful and safe docking. A solution is to augment the GPS based system with a vision-based sensor component through the terminal phase to visually acquire and track the drogue in 3D space. The higher bandwidth and resolution of camera sensors gives significantly better estimates on the state of the drogue position. Disturbances in the actual drogue position caused by subtle aircraft maneuvers and wind gusting can be visually tracked and compensated for, providing an accurate estimate. This paper discusses the issues involved in visually detecting a refueling drogue, selecting an optimum camera viewpoint, and acquiring and tracking the drogue throughout a widely varying operating range and conditions.

  8. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  9. Externally refuelled optical filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheller, Maik; Mills, Matthew S.; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Cheng, Weibo; Moloney, Jerome V.; Kolesik, Miroslav; Polynkin, Pavel; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2014-04-01

    Plasma channels produced in air through femtosecond laser filamentation hold great promise for a number of applications, including remote sensing, attosecond physics and spectroscopy, channelling microwaves and lightning protection. In such settings, extended filaments are desirable, yet their longitudinal span is limited by dissipative processes. Although various techniques aiming to prolong this process have been explored, the substantial extension of optical filaments remains a challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the natural range of a plasma column can be enhanced by at least an order of magnitude when the filament is prudently accompanied by an auxiliary beam. In this arrangement, the secondary low-intensity `dressing' beam propagates linearly and acts as a distributed energy reservoir, continuously refuelling the optical filament. Our approach offers an efficient and viable route towards the generation of extended light strings in air without inducing premature wave collapse or an undesirable beam break-up into multiple filaments.

  10. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  11. Climatographic analysis of the Zion nuclear power station site

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Venne, M.G.; Keen, C.S.; Miller, C.W.; Whitcomb, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example, a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities.

  12. Climatographic analysis of the Zion Nuclear Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Whitcomb, R.C. ); Lyons, W.A.; Venne, M.G.; Keen, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this papers is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities. A conceptual framework for allocating resources in developing an adequate emergency response system includes three major factors: (1) frequency of the mesoscale regimes; (2) extent to which the regime can result in high concentrations/doses; (3) ease with which it can be modeled, with due consideration given for input data requirements.

  13. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office Dan Huot interviews Jill McGuire, the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) Project Manager at Goddard Space Flight Center, about the current RRM operation taking place outside...

  14. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly conducts a phone interview with Benjamin Reed, Deputy Program Manager of NASA’s Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office, about this week’s Robotic Refuel...

  15. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  16. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  17. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this... Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations,'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  18. 17. TOP 3/1. Site plan of the woodward pumping station. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TOP 3/1. Site plan of the woodward pumping station. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  19. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the potential for using "Limbo Lands" as sites for renewable energy generating stations. Limbo Lands are considered as underused, formerly contaminated sites, and include former Superfund sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, former industrial...

  20. Method and system for vehicle refueling

    DOEpatents

    Surnilla, Gopichandra; Leone, Thomas G; Prasad, Krishnaswamy Venkatesh; Argarwal, Apoorv; Hinds, Brett Stanley

    2012-11-20

    Methods and systems are provided for facilitating refueling operations in vehicles operating with multiple fuels. A vehicle operator may be assisted in refueling the multiple fuel tanks of the vehicle by being provided one or more refueling profiles that take into account the vehicle's future trip plans, the predicted environmental conditions along a planned route, and the operator's preferences.

  1. Method and system for vehicle refueling

    DOEpatents

    Surnilla, Gopichandra; Leone, Thomas G; Prasad, Krishnaswamy Venkatesh; Agarwal, Apoorv; Hinds, Brett Stanley

    2014-06-10

    Methods and systems are provided for facilitating refueling operations in vehicles operating with multiple fuels. A vehicle operator may be assisted in refueling the multiple fuel tanks of the vehicle by being provided one or more refueling profiles that take into account the vehicle's future trip plans, the predicted environmental conditions along a planned route, and the operator's preferences.

  2. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR SITING AIR MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews relevant research findings for the purpose of establishing a set of uniform national criteria for designating locations of air monitoring stations. Data first are presented showing the difficulty, in the absence of uniform criteria, of interpreting measurements...

  4. Installation restoration program. Decision document, UST site 450, 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, geophysical surveys failed to find a UST at this location (northern-most point on curve of B Street). The report documents no further action need be taken at this the UST site. The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, geophysical surveys failed to find a UST at this location (northern-most point on curve of B Street). The report documents no further action need be taken at this the UST site.

  5. Installation restoration program final remedial investigation report IRP sites 8 and 10. 151st air refueling group Utah Air National Guard, Salt Lake City, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results from a Remedial Investigation (RI) for two sites at the Utah Air National Guard (UANG) Base located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The two sites investigated are identified as Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Site 8, a former underground storage tank (UST) location, and IRP Site 10, an existing petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) yard. The RI was conducted as outlined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan prepared by Stone Webster and submitted to and approved by the ANG in May 1993. The field work associated with the RI was performed in June, July, and August 1995.

  6. Site Effects Estimation by a Transfer-Station Generalized Inversion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Yu, Xiangwei

    2016-04-01

    Site effect is one of the essential factors in characterizing strong ground motion as well as in earthquake engineering design. In this study, the generalized inversion technique (GIT) is applied to estimate site effects. Moreover, the GIT is modified to improve its analytical ability.GIT needs a reference station as a standard. Ideally the reference station is located at a rock site, and its site effect is considered to be a constant. For the same earthquake, the record spectrum of an interested station is divided by that of the reference station, and the source term is eliminated. Thus site effects and the attenuation can be acquired. In the GIT process, the amount of earthquake data available in analysis is limited to that recorded by the reference station, and the stations of which site effects can be estimated are also restricted to those stations which recorded common events with the reference station. In order to improve the limitation of the GIT, a modified GIT is put forward in this study, namely, the transfer-station generalized inversion method (TSGI). Comparing with the GIT, this modified GIT can be used to enlarge data set and increase the number of stations whose site effects can be analyzed. And this makes solution much more stable. To verify the results of GIT, a non-reference method, the genetic algorithms (GA), is applied to estimate absolute site effects. On April 20, 2013, an earthquake with magnitude of MS 7.0 occurred in the Lushan region, China. After this event, more than several hundred aftershocks with ML<3.0 occurred in this region. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the site effects and Q factor for this area based on the aftershock strong motion records from the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System. Our results show that when the TSGI is applied instead of the GIT, the total number of events used in the inversion increases from 31 to 54 and the total number of stations whose site effect can be estimated

  7. 28. Site Plan: AF Station P67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan: AF Station P-67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot Plan (to accompany FY 1956 project planning report), USACOE, 22 July 1954. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  8. Installation restoration program: Decision document, UST site 120, 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. UST 130 was removed from the area south of Building 130 in January 1991. Remaining soil was above the Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), but it is believed to be limited to the clayey soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report documents no further action need be taken at this UST site.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-DR-1, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-035

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-09-22

    Radiological characterization, decommissioning and demolition of the 132-DR-1 site, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1987. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  10. Temporal reduction of repeat-station measurements by using on-site variometer records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadasz, Gergely; Csontos, Andras; Heilig, Balazs; Kovacs, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The temporal reduction of repeat-station (RS) data is usually carried out by the use of the variometer records of observatories. In stations located far from reference observatories, the accuracy of the reduction can be eventually increased by the installation of an on-site variometer. The site of the variometer station must be carefully selected in order to ensure low level of magnetic and mechanical noise, as well as temperature stability. The variometer record is referenced to the repeat station by carrying out the absolute measurements. In order to collect enough data from quiet geomagnetic condition, the variometer recording must be operated for at least one or two months. Thus, the station operates as a temporal observatory whose records can also improve the accuracy of global models of the geomagnetic field inferred from satellite data. During the last two repeat-station campaigns of Hungary carried out in 2012 and 2014, a three-component DIDD magnetometer was installed in the Baradla cave, near to our Aggtelek repeat station. In the poster, we present the variometer site, the installation of the DIDD variometer and the results of the recordings. The improvement of the reduction accuracy is also shown by comparing the reduced RS magnetic components obtained with and without the use of the DIDD variometer records.

  11. 40 CFR 1033.825 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements of this section is a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(b). ... requirements. (a) If your locomotive operates using a volatile fuel, your refueling equipment must be designed and used to minimize the escape of fuel vapors. This means you may not use refueling equipment in...

  12. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  13. Accuracy of site coordinates obtainable by a mobile lunar laser station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loumos, G. L.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Silverberg, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy with which a mobile lunar laser station can be located was the subject of a modeling study. The influence of the number and accuracy of fixed lunar ranging stations, the uncertainty in polar motion, and data loss due to weather and similar factors were considered, and the results are given in a cartographic form. In general, all three coordinates (for coordinates to latitude + or - 60 deg) were determined to better than the pole uncertainty, given three or more fixed sites and reasonable weather. This result indicates that one or more mobile stations would be suitable for the study of geotectonics.

  14. Cryogenic Autogenous Pressurization Testing for Robotic Refueling Mission 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Francis, J.; Mustafi, S.; Li, X.; Barfknecht, P.; DeLee, C. H.; McGuire, J.

    2015-01-01

    A wick-heater system has been selected for use to pressurize the Source Dewar of the Robotic Refueling Mission Phase 3 on-orbit cryogen transfer experiment payload for the International Space Station. Experimental results of autogenous pressurization of liquid argon and liquid nitrogen using a prototype wick-heater system are presented. The wick-heater generates gas to increase the pressure in the tank while maintaining a low bulk fluid temperature. Pressurization experiments were performed in 2013 to characterize the performance of the wick heater. This paper describes the experimental setup, pressurization results, and analytical model correlations.

  15. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Refueling equipment used by a locomotive operator for locomotives fueled with a volatile fuel shall be designed in such a manner so as not to render inoperative or reduce the effectiveness of the controls...

  16. Low Gravity Issues of Deep Space Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the technologies required to develop deep space refueling of cryogenic propellants and low cost flight experiments to develop them. Key technologies include long term storage, pressure control, mass gauging, liquid acquisition, and fluid transfer. Prior flight experiments used to mature technologies are discussed. A plan is presented to systematically study the deep space refueling problem and devise low-cost experiments to further mature technologies and prepare for full scale flight demonstrations.

  17. Performance of radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux stations at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Lesht, B.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Holdridge, D.J.; Martin, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The performance of several routinely operating observational systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been evaluated. The results of a few specific investigations are shown here for Radar Wind Profilers (RWPs) and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASSs), Balloon-Borne Sounding Systems (BBSSs), and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) stations.

  18. Site selection for the future stations of the french permanent broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jérôme; Charade, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    RESIF (REseau SIsmologique et géodésique Français) is a new French research infrastructure dedicated to the observation of earth deformation based on seismic and geodetic instruments mainly located in France. One of its major component, called RESIF-CLB (Construction Large Bande), is devoted to the evolution of the permanent seismic broadband network in metropolitan France with the objective to complement the 45 existing stations with ~155 new stations within the next eight years. This network will be used for various scientific objectives including deep structures imaging and national seismicity monitoring. The chosen network topology consists in a backbone of homogeneously distributed stations (long wavelength array) completed by additional stations in seismically active regions. Management of the RESIF-CLB project is carried out by the technical division of INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers) who will rely on eight regional observatories and the CEA-LDG for the construction and operation of the stations. To optimize the performance of the network, we put a strong emphasis on the standardization of the stations in term of vault types, scientific and technical instrumentation and operation procedures. We also set up a procedure for site selection requiring that every potential site has to be tested for at least 3 weeks with a minimalist installation. Analysis of the continuous ambient noise records is then included in a standardized report submitted to all committed partners for acceptance. During the last two years, about 60 potential new sites have been tested, spanning various places and environments. We present a review of the seismic noise measurements at these sites and discuss the influence of different types of noise sources depending on the frequency band of interest. For example, we show that regional population distribution can be used as a proxy to infer the noise level at frequencies higher than 1 Hz. Based on similar noise analyses

  19. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  20. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  1. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  2. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  3. Explosion site recognition; neural net discriminator using single three-component stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, Yu. V.; Husebye, Eystein S.; Ruud, Bent O.

    1999-06-01

    In monitoring of local seismicity, the occurrence of many chemical explosions poses sever practical problems of two kinds: (i) such recordings add significantly to the analyst workload and (ii) in extreme cases, pollute the seismicity data base to the extent of rendering it useless for serious scientific studies. In some countries, the local seismicity is equivalent to felt earthquakes but the problem remains since both earthquakes and explosions are and will be recorded by local stations. These events will therefore enter the network data center processing system, and thus, be subjected to further analysis. Source classification schemes are not always well suited for this kind of needed analysis at local distance ranges (not easily transportable). Besides, epicenter determinations may be less accurate in cases of few station reportings. The common denominator for failures is the modest usages of the information potential contained in seismic recordings being represented by a few time/amplitude parameters for the Pn- and Lg-phases. On the other hand, seismic waveform similarities for closely spaced earthquakes and explosions in particular are well established observationally. In this study period, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. To ensure adequate sampling, we used the nine different complex covariance time domain elements in combination with a suit of 12 bandpass filters equivalent to 108 observation pieces for a single event recording. We used a neural net scheme for teaching the computer to recognize new explosion recordings from a specific site through scanning of hundreds of detector segmented waveform files. No epicenter information was used in this analysis. The output was a single number between Zero and Four (log-scale) with an acceptance threshold (repeated explosion) of 1

  4. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  5. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-07-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  6. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (ReFUEL). ReFUEL is a world-class research and testing facility dedicated to future fuels and advanced heavy-duty vehicle research, located in Denver, Colorado.

  7. Siting of USArray Seismic Stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia: Experience of NC-1 Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Howard, J.; Horne, T.

    2012-12-01

    The USArray component of the EarthScope, a transportable array of 400 seismometers installed in a grid about 70 km apart, is in the next two years entering its final stage with station deployment along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Here, we present the experience of the student-faculty team from North Carolina Central University (NCCU) in finding and documenting the suitable sites for the twenty five USArray stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia. The ideal sites are easily accessible yet far from traffic and other sources of noise, with good cell phone coverage, sun exposure and out of flood-prone areas. Although the initial selection of potential locations was done using geospatial mapping and analysis software provided by EarthScope, finding and finalizing the sites involved driving more then 1,000 miles each week for over two months inspecting possible site locations. Aside from driving, the majority of time was spent talking about the EarthScope project and hosting of USArray stations to mostly reluctant landowners. In addition to facing various challenges in finding appropriate sites due to land use issues, such as suburban sprawl of central North Carolina, or topography factors, such as low lying flood prone coastal areas, by far the major challenge was finding the landowners willing to host the seismic station for the necessary three years. In addition to involving students from an HBCU in seismology related project and increasing the visibility of NCCU geophysics program in the University and local community through publicity releases in local media and on university web site, the project had an important outreach component. As North Carolina is located along the seismically quiet, passive Atlantic margin, most residents are not familiar with earthquakes and seismology and the siting experience provided students an opportunity to practice explaining the earthquake research to the general public. The dialog also highlighted science

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-D-3, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-033

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-09

    Decommissioning and demolition of the 132-D-3 site, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1986. Decommissioning included removal of equipment, water, and sludge for disposal as radioactive waste. The at- and below-grade structure was demolished to at least 1 m below grade and the resulting rubble buried in situ. The area was backfilled to grade with at least 1 m of clean fill and contoured to the surrounding terrain. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  9. Site surveys at the fundamental geodetic station in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierulf, H. P.; Bockmann, L.; Kristiansen, O.; Plag, H.-P.

    2003-04-01

    The Space-Geodetic Observatory at Ny-Ålesund, Kings Bay, Svalbard, which is operated by the Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), has developed over recent years into a fundamental geodetic station. The geodetic infrastructure at the observatory, includes a 20-m VLBI-antenna, several GPS and GPS/GLONASS receivers, a tide gauge, a super-conducting gravimeter and a co-located DORIS station. Repeated absolute gravity measurements complement the observations. At such fundamental sites, detailed knowledge of the stability of the station is essential for geodetic and geophysical applications of the observations. The foot-print is determined by the stability of the monument with respect to the surrounding ground, but also by the representativity of the location with respect to the surrounding area and even region. The extensive foot-print study carried out over the past five years includes repeated GPS campaigns on a 50 km by 30 km control network. These GPS campaigns indicates relative movements of the campaign stations and consequently neo-tectonic activity in the area. The observed movements are in good accordance with the complex fault system in the Kings Bay area.

  10. Potential Release Site Sediment Concentrations Correlated to Storm Water Station Runoff through GIS Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C.T. McLean

    2005-06-01

    This research examined the relationship between sediment sample data taken at Potential Release Sites (PRSs) and storm water samples taken at selected sites in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The PRSs had been evaluated for erosion potential and a matrix scoring system implemented. It was assumed that there would be a stronger relationship between the high erosion PRSs and the storm water samples. To establish the relationship, the research was broken into two areas. The first area was raster-based modeling, and the second area was data analysis utilizing the raster based modeling results and the sediment and storm water sample results. Two geodatabases were created utilizing raster modeling functions and the Arc Hydro program. The geodatabase created using only Arc Hydro functions contains very fine catchment drainage areas in association with the geometric network and can be used for future contaminant tracking. The second geodatabase contains sub-watersheds for all storm water stations used in the study along with a geometric network. The second area of the study focused on data analysis. The analytical sediment data table was joined to the PRSs spatial data in ArcMap. All PRSs and PRSs with high erosion potential were joined separately to create two datasets for each of 14 analytes. Only the PRSs above the background value were retained. The storm water station spatial data were joined to the table of analyte values that were either greater than the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP) benchmark value, or the Department of Energy (DOE) Drinking Water Defined Contribution Guideline (DWDCG). Only the storm water stations were retained that had sample values greater than the NPDES MSGP benchmark value or the DOE DWDCG. Separate maps were created for each analyte showing the sub-watersheds, the PRSs over background, and the storm water stations greater than the NPDES MSGP benchmark value or the

  11. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Jones, C.R.

    1998-12-15

    A refueling machine is disclosed having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images. 11 figs.

  12. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy Clifford; Jones, Cecil Roy

    1998-01-01

    A refueling machine having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images.

  13. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refueling requirements. 92.1006 Section 92.1006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Requirements Applicable to Owners and Operators of Locomotives and...

  14. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refueling requirements. 92.1006 Section 92.1006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Requirements Applicable to Owners and Operators of Locomotives and...

  15. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Refueling requirements. 92.1006 Section 92.1006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Requirements Applicable to Owners and Operators of Locomotives and...

  16. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  17. An autodissemination station for the transfer of an insect growth regulator to mosquito oviposition sites.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, R; Suman, D; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    A prototype autodissemination station to topically contaminate oviposition-seeking container-dwelling mosquitoes with the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, was developed and tested in the laboratory. Our test subject was the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), an urban species that colonizes small-volume cryptic larval habitats and is a skip ovipositor that visits multiple containers. The station consists of a water reservoir to attract gravid females, which is joined to a transfer chamber designed to contaminate visiting mosquitoes. The unit is easily constructed by moulding wet shredded cardboard using corn starch as a binder. The essential criteria that must be met to prove the efficacy of an autodissemination station require it to demonstrate effectiveness in attracting the target insect, in transferring the toxicant to the insect that will disperse the agent, and in facilitating the subsequent transfer of the toxicant from the insect to target habitats at a lethal concentration. Cage experiments demonstrated that the unit was readily accepted by gravid females as an oviposition site. A powder formulation of pyriproxyfen-impregnated silica particles adhered to visiting Ae. albopictus females (mean: 66 particles/female), although particles were lost over time. In cage (2.2 m(3) ) trials, pyriproxyfen-charged stations resulted in 100% inhibition of adult emergence, whereas in small-room (31.1 m(3) ) trials, 81% emergence inhibition was recorded. The venereal transfer of pyriproxyfen from contaminated males to virgin females was also observed, and pyriproxyfen was subsequently transferred to water-holding containers at concentrations that inhibited emergence. Key autodissemination station features include lack of maintenance requirements, biodegradable construction, low cost and low risk. PMID:21689125

  18. Semi-active magnetorheological refueling probe systems for aerial refueling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-09-01

    This study analyzes the feasibility of applying a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) damper to a naval hose-drogue based aerial refueling system to minimize undesirable hose-drogue vibrations. The semi-active smart aerial refueling probe system consists of a probe, a coil spring, and a MR damper. The dynamics of the smart refueling probe system were derived and incorporated into an analysis of the coupled hose-drogue dynamics, so as to evaluate the load reduction of the refueling hose at the drogue position effected by the MR damper. The simulated responses of the smart refueling probe system using a MR damper were conducted at different maximum closure velocities of 1.56 and 5 ft s-1 and different tanker flight speeds of 185 and 220 knots. The simulations demonstrate that the smart refueling probe system using a MR damper enables large reductions in probe-and-drogue motions, as well as preventing the onset of large and undesirable hose-drogue motions resulting from tension loads during engagement of the probe.

  19. Search for an Astronomical Site in Kenya (SASKYA) update: Installation of on-site automatic meteorological stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Edward; Vaughan, Richard; Buckley, David; Tirima, Koi

    2015-04-01

    At present, there are few large telescopes (1-metre diameter mirror or larger) in subSaharan Africa, and the objective of the Search for an Astronomical Site in Kenya (“SASKYA”) project has been find the best possible sites in Kenya for such an observatory. An initial study using ERA-interim reanalyses and high resolution meteorological model output identified three preferential sites, based on a selection of thirteen candidate mountain peaks across Kenya. These three sites are Mount Kulal (2.72°N, 36.93°E, 2293m); OlDonyoNyiro (2.09°N, 36.85°E, 2752m) and Warges (0.95°N, 37.40°E, 2688m). Recently (as of Spring 2014), an automatic meteorological station has been installed on the summit of Warges mountain, but security issues have prevented the installation of one on Mount Kulal. Furthermore, at the former site, the lack of suitable roadway through the heavily forested mountain-side will probably preclude further investigation. Hence, an additional but lower site, near to Warges (Ololokwe mountain, 0.83°N, 37.53°E, 1920m), which has a road to the summit, will be investigated for suitability in the near future. Following a period of successful meteorological observation at either or all of the above-mentioned sites, comparison and validation studies will be enacted using climate reanalyses. If further funding permits, all-sky cameras will be installed and high resolution EUMETSAT satellite imagery will also be consulted to determine local cloudiness coefficients.

  20. Preliminary data on boulders at station 6, Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G. H.; Butler, P., Jr.; Simonds, C. H.; Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J.; Schmitt, H. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Pearce, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cluster of boulders at Station 6 (Apollo 17 landing site) consists of breccias derived from the North Massif. Three preliminary lithologic units were established, on the basis of photogeologic interpretations; all lithologies identified photogeologically were sampled. Breccia clasts and matrices studied petrographically and chemically fall into two groups by modal mineralogy: (1) low-K Fra Mauro or high basalt composition, consisting of 50-60% modal feldspar, approximately 45% orthopyroxene and 1-7% Fe-Ti oxide; (2) clasts consisting of highland basalt composition, consisting of 70% feldspar, 30% orthopyroxene and olivine and a trace of Fe-Ti oxide.

  1. Near Surface Characterization and Estimated Site-Response at POLARIS Seismograph Stations in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C.; Eaton, D.

    2002-12-01

    Shallow seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been collected in southern Ontario, Canada near current and planned seismograph stations for the POLARIS network. All five of the sites are characterized by glaciolacustrine overburden, consisting of silt, sand, and/or clay, on the order of a few metres to ten's of metres. Bedrock at all of the sites is mapped as Paleozoic limestone and shale, and is located at depths ranging from a few metres to ten's of metres. The objectives of these surveys are to obtain shallow velocity models (P and S-wave) at each site for earthquake site-response determination, and to investigate the utility of GPR data for siting underground vaults. The seismic surveys were acquired using 24- or 48-channel systems, with several different sources (an in-hole shotgun or a sledge hammer). The use of a twelve pound sledge hammer to strike a steel I-beam perpendicular to its length, oriented in-line with the geophone spread, was found to produce strong SH waves. In order to constrain the velocities at both very shallow (< 4 m) and deeper (4-30 m) depth intervals, two geophone spreads were collected, one with a one metre geophone spacing and another with a five metre geophone spacing. Velocity models derived by refraction analysis provide the basis for classification of each site according to the NEHRP scheme. In addition, a comparison of the response at each site is being undertaken by visco-elastic finite-difference modeling of the ground motion induced by incident wavefields of various types (both regional and teleseismic). Where possible, these results are compared with empirical site-response determined from regional events using the H/V method. The site response obtained for each station will be used in the future for calibration of the POLARIS network. In one case, the GPR data led to the discovery of a probable underground drainage channel that would have been an inappropriate location for a seismograph vault.

  2. Recent Experience Using Active Love Wave Techniques to Characterize Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Salomone, L.

    2014-12-01

    Active-source Love waves recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2011, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 189 seismographic stations—185 in California and 4 in the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in the investigation it became evident that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not effective at characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. The MASLW technique was deployed at a total of 38 sites, in addition to other methods, and used as the primary technique to characterize 22 sites, 5 of which were also characterized using Rayleigh wave techniques. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites—the remaining 9 sites and 2 overlapping sites were characterized by University of Texas, Austin. Of the 24 sites characterized by GEOVision, 16 were characterized using MASLW data, 4 using both MASLW and MASRW data and 4 using MASRW data. Love wave techniques were often found to perform better, or at least yield phase velocity data that could be more readily modeled using the fundamental mode assumption, at shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in Love wave data. At such sites, it may be possible

  3. Nuclear cost control focuses on refueling outages

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Extending operating cycles and shortening refueling outages are the mainstays of utility efforts to improve the economics of nuclear generation. Here are key management approaches that have contributed to recent successes. Improving operating efficiency remains the byword of nuclear power producers, as they intensify their drive to reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and survive--even thrive--in a competitive environment. Because replacement-power and other costs can incur penalties of $0.5-million or more for each that a nuclear unit is inoperative--and almost $3-million/day, for one utility--refueling outages are an obvious focal point for such efforts, By the same token, the impact on the bottom line is greater and more dramatic here than for other cost-saving activities.

  4. Refueling with In-Situ Produced Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In-situ produced propellants have been identified in many architecture studies as key to implementing feasible chemical propulsion missions to destinations beyond lunar orbit. Some of the more noteworthy ones include: launching from Mars to return to Earth (either direct from the surface, or via an orbital rendezvous); using the Earth-Moon Lagrange point as a place to refuel Mars transfer stages with Lunar surface produced propellants; and using Mars Moon Phobos as a place to produce propellants for descent and ascent stages bound for the Mars surface. However successful implementation of these strategies require an ability to successfully transfer propellants from the in-situ production equipment into the propellant tankage of the rocket stage used to move to the desired location. In many circumstances the most desirable location for this transfer to occur is in the low-gravity environment of space. In support of low earth orbit propellant depot concepts, extensive studies have been conducted on transferring propellants in-space. Most of these propellant transfer techniques will be applicable to low gravity operations in other locations. Even ground-based transfer operations on the Moon, Mars, and especially Phobos could benefit from the propellant conserving techniques used for depot refueling. This paper will review the literature of in-situ propellants and refueling to: assess the performance benefits of the use in-situ propellants for mission concepts; review the parallels with propellant depot efforts; assess the progress of the techniques required; and provide recommendations for future research.

  5. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  6. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  7. Structure of the lunar crust at highland site Apollo Station 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The seismic crustal structure of the moon is known in the region of Oceanus Procellarum from the analysis of artificial impact data. To extend this knowledge we have used data from natural lunar seismic events to search for secondary seismic wave arrivals in the form of peg-leg multiples caused by reflections at crustal interfaces and converted arrivals caused by refractions at crustal interfaces. A polarization filter has been applied to the data to enhance the rectilinear particle motion expected for the onset of these body wave arrivals in the scattered coda of lunar seismograms. The results of this work tentatively indicate that the highland site at station 16 has a 75 km thick crust with an intermediate 20 km interface, compared to the 60 km crust and 20 km interface in Oceanus Procellarum, a mare region. Since the 20 km upper crust appears to exist at both highland and mare sites, it probably does not represent a mare basalt layer but rather a more general feature of the crust. Crustal thickness may partially control elevation by isostasy.

  8. CONNECTING TRANSITIONS IN GALAXY PROPERTIES TO REFUELING

    SciTech Connect

    Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Weinberg-Wolf, Jennifer; Wei, Lisa H.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Pisano, D. J.; Baker, Andrew J.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Laine, Seppo; Jogee, Shardha; Lepore, Natasha; Hough, Loren E.

    2013-11-01

    We relate transitions in galaxy structure and gas content to refueling, here defined to include both the external gas accretion and the internal gas processing needed to renew reservoirs for star formation. We analyze two z = 0 data sets: a high-quality ∼200 galaxy sample (the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, data release herein) and a volume-limited ∼3000 galaxy sample with reprocessed archival data. Both reach down to baryonic masses ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} and span void-to-cluster environments. Two mass-dependent transitions are evident: (1) below the 'gas-richness threshold' scale (V ∼ 125 km s{sup –1}), gas-dominated quasi-bulgeless Sd-Im galaxies become numerically dominant; while (2) above the 'bimodality' scale (V ∼ 200 km s{sup –1}), gas-starved E/S0s become the norm. Notwithstanding these transitions, galaxy mass (or V as its proxy) is a poor predictor of gas-to-stellar mass ratio M{sub gas}/M{sub *}. Instead, M{sub gas}/M{sub *} correlates well with the ratio of a galaxy's stellar mass formed in the last Gyr to its preexisting stellar mass, such that the two ratios have numerically similar values. This striking correspondence between past-averaged star formation and current gas richness implies routine refueling of star-forming galaxies on Gyr timescales. We argue that this refueling underlies the tight M{sub gas}/M{sub *} versus color correlations often used to measure 'photometric gas fractions'. Furthermore, the threshold and bimodality scale transitions reflect mass-dependent demographic shifts between three refueling regimes—accretion-dominated, processing-dominated, and quenched. In this picture, gas-dominated dwarfs are explained not by inefficient star formation but by overwhelming gas accretion, which fuels stellar mass doubling in ∼<1 Gyr. Moreover, moderately gas-rich bulged disks such as the Milky Way are transitional, becoming abundant only in the narrow range between the threshold and bimodality scales.

  9. Verification and Validation of the GNSS Stations at the Prototype Core Site for NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, J.; Haines, B. J.; Stowers, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Two operational GNSS stations, GODN and GODS, were established within 100 m of each other at the prototype core site of NASA's next generation Space Geodesy Network. The planned network will co-locate each of the four space geodetic techniques, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of meeting modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. This prototype site is located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two GNSS stations at the prototype site have been producing tracking data from the GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo constellations since January 17, 2012. We present results from the verification and validation of these two stations, focusing in particular on GPS-based positioning of these two sites to monitor their relative baseline vector. We compare baseline recovery from independent precise point positioning of each station to a network-based approach. We also show the impact on the baseline as well as station repeatability from various improvements to our processing approach, namely the application of empirical antenna calibrations, elevation-dependent weighting, and site-specific troposphere modeling. Together, these approaches have resulted in a factor of two improvement in the precision of the baseline length. The standard deviation of the baseline vector, when using independent precise positioning of each station, is 0.5, 0.4, 1.6, and 0.4 mm in the east, north, up, and length components. The difference between the GPS-based baseline length and that from an independent local tie survey is < 1 mm.

  10. 40 CFR 1066.970 - Refueling test for liquid fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in § 1066.975, test vehicles for refueling emissions as described in 40 CFR 86.150-98, 86.151-98, 86.152-98, and 86.154-98. Keep records as described in 40 CFR 86.155-98. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refueling test for liquid fuels....

  11. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; refueling test. 86.156-98 Section 86.156-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.156-98 Calculations; refueling test. (a) The...

  12. Instrumentation and Control Technologies for Refueling the AHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Varma, Venugopal Koikal

    2012-01-01

    The process and mechanisms for refueling the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) are currently undergoing preconceptual design. The instrumentation and controls (I&C) required for the fuel transfer are simultaneously under design as part of this process. Overall, the AHTR's refueling system will consist of a fully automated, optically guided mechanical transfer system with operator intervention only required for exception handling. The refueling system design remains too immature to enable selection of particular instrumentation components. This paper provides an overview of the refueling process for the AHTR, the I&C requirements for the refueling, the current I&C design and technology status, and the envisioned process for developing and validating the required technology.

  13. Application of solid state lighting in aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey; Walker, Richard; Ferguson, Joseph; Kemp, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Operating at altitude and often in turbulent, low visibility conditions, in-flight refueling of aircraft is a challenging endeavor, even for seasoned aviators. The receiving aircraft must approach a large airborne tanker; take position within a "reception window" beneath and/or behind the tanker and, dependent upon the type of receiving aircraft, mate with an extended refueling boom or hose and drogue. Light is used to assist in the approach, alignment and refuel process of the aircraft. Robust solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an appropriate choice for use in the challenging environments that these aircraft operate within. This paper examines how LEDs are incorporated into several unique lighting applications associated with such aerial refueling operations. We will discuss the design requirements, both environmental and photometric that defined the selection of different LED packages for use in state-of-the-art airborne refueling aircraft Formation Lights, Hose Drum/Drogue Unit lights and Pilot Director Lights.

  14. Fault identification using multidisciplinary techniques at the Mars/Uranus Station antenna sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santo, D. S.; Schluter, M. B.; Shlemon, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A fault investigation was performed at the Mars and Uranus antenna sites at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in the Mojave desert. The Mars/Uranus Station consists of two large-diameter reflector antennas used for communication and control of deep-space probes and other missions. The investigation included interpretation of Landsat thematic mapper scenes, side-looking airborne radar transparencies, and both color-infrared and black-and-white aerial photography. Four photolineaments suggestive of previously undocumented faults were identified. Three generally discrete morphostratigraphic alluvial-fan deposits were also recognized and dated using geomorphic and soil stratigraphic techniques. Fourteen trenches were excavated across the four lineaments; the trenches show that three of the photolineaments coincide with faults. The last displacement of two of the faults occurred between about 12,000 and 35,000 years ago. The third fault was judged to be older than 12,000 years before present (ybp), although uncertainty remains. None of the surface traces of the three faults crosses under existing antennas or structures; however, their potential activity necessitates appropriate seismic retrofit designs and loss-prevention measures to mitigate potential earthquake damage to facilities and structures.

  15. An astronomical site survey at the Barcroft Facility of the White Mountain Research Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvil, J.; Ansmann, M.; Childers, J.; Cole, T.; Davis, G. V.; Hadjiyska, E.; Halevi, D.; Heimberg, G.; Kangas, M.; Levy, A.; Leonardi, R.; Lubin, P.; Meinhold, P.; O'Neill, H.; Parendo, S.; Quetin, E.; Stebor, N.; Villela, T.; Williams, B.; Wuensche, C. A.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a distillation of weather and sky condition data collected from September 2001 to November 2004 at the University of California White Mountain Research Station, Barcroft Facility. Our conclusion is that Barcroft is an excellent site for microwave observation because of a cold microwave zenith temperature, low precipitable water, and a high percentage of clear days. The solar intensity was above 80% of the theoretical maximum 66% of the time. About 71% of the daytime, the cloud cover was acceptable for observing. Median precipitable water vapor was estimated to be 1.75 mm. We measure a median opacity at 225 GHz of 0.11, which corresponds to a transmission of 89.6%. Zenith sky temperatures were determined to be 9.0 ± 0.2 K and 10.0 ± 0.6 K in Q-band (38-46 GHz) and W-band (81-98 GHz), respectively. We also demonstrate a correlation between measurements of precipitable water vapor from a weatherstation and a 225 GHz radiometer.

  16. Geologic setting of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17 landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Boulder 1 at Station 2 is one of three boulders sampled by Apollo 17 at the base of the South Massif, which rises 2.3 km above the floor of a linear valley interpreted as a graben formed by deformation related to the southern Serenitatis impact. The boulders probably rolled from the upper part of the massif after emplacement of the light mantle. Orbital gravity data and photogeologic reinterpretation suggest that the Apollo 17 area is located approximately on the third ring of the southern Serenitatis basin, approximately 1.25 times larger than the analogous but fresher Orientale basin structure. The massif exposures are interpreted to represent the upper part of thick ejecta deposited by the southern Serenitatis impact near the rim of the transient cavity. Basin ring structure and the radial grabens that give the massifs definition were imposed on this ejecta at a slightly later stage in the basin-forming process. There is no clear-cut compositional, textural, or photogeologic evidence that Imbrium ejecta was collected at the Apollo 17 site. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.

  17. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  18. A description of the index of active Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized index of water-data collection activities and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the index is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Evaluating PRISM precipitation grid data as possible surrogates for station data at four sites in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of climate-sensitive decision support for agriculture or water resource management requires long time series of monthly precipitation for specific locations. Archived station data for many locations is available, but time continuity, quality, and spatial coverage of station data rem...

  20. Fault diagnosis in orbital refueling operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.

    1988-01-01

    Usually, operation manuals are provided for helping astronauts during space operations. These manuals include normal and malfunction procedures. Transferring operation manual knowledge into a computerized form is not a trivial task. This knowledge is generally written by designers or operation engineers and is often quite different from the user logic. The latter is usually a compiled version of the former. Experiments are in progress to assess the user logic. HORSES (Human - Orbital Refueling System - Expert System) is an attempt to include both of these logics in the same tool. It is designed to assist astronauts during monitoring and diagnosis tasks. Basically, HORSES includes a situation recognition level coupled to an analytical diagnoser, and a meta-level working on both of the previous levels. HORSES is a good tool for modeling task models and is also more broadly useful for knowledge design. The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  1. Plasma lipid metabolites and refueling performance of Semi palmated Sandpipers at migratory stopovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, J.E.; Collazo, J.A.; Guglielmo, C.

    2005-01-01

    Assessing stopover habitat quality and refueling performance of individual birds is crucial to the conservation and management of migratory shorebirds. Plasma lipid metabolites indicate the trajectory of mass change in individuals and may be a more accurate measure of refueling performance at a particular site than static measures such as nutrient reserves. We measured lipid metabolites of Semipalmated Sandpipers at 4 coastal stopover sites during northward migration: Merritt Island, FL; Georgetown, SC; Pea Island, NC; and Delaware Bay, NJ. We described spatial and temporal variation in metabolic profiles among the 4 stopovers and evaluated the effects of body mass, age, and date on metabolite concentrations. Triglyceride concentration, an indicator of fat deposition, declined during the migration, whereas B-OH-Butyrate, a measure of fasting, increased. Triglyceride concentration correlated with phospholipids and inversely related to B-OH-butyrate, but was not related to body mass or age. Triglyceride levels and estimated percent fat were greater at Delaware Bay than at any stopovers to the south. Plasma metabolite profiles accurately reflected stopover refueling performance and provide an important new technique for assessing stopover habitat quality for migratory shorebirds.

  2. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  3. Systematic Site Characterization at Seismic Stations combined with Empirical Spectral Modeling: critical data for local hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Clotaire; Hobiger, Manuel; Edwards, Benjamin; Poggi, Valerio; Burjanek, Jan; Cauzzi, Carlo; Kästli, Philipp; Fäh, Donat

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service operates one of the densest national seismic networks in the world, still rapidly expanding (see http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/monitor/index_EN). Since 2009, every newly instrumented site is characterized following an established procedure to derive realistic 1D VS velocity profiles. In addition, empirical Fourier spectral modeling is performed on the whole network for each recorded event with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Besides the source characteristics of the earthquakes, statistical real time analyses of the residuals of the spectral modeling provide a seamlessly updated amplification function w.r. to Swiss rock conditions at every station. Our site characterization procedure is mainly based on the analysis of surface waves from passive experiments and includes cross-checks of the derived amplification functions with those obtained through spectral modeling. The systematic use of three component surface-wave analysis, allowing the derivation of both Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves, also contributes to the improved quality of the retrieved profiles. The results of site characterisation activities at recently installed strong-motion stations depict the large variety of possible effects of surface geology on ground motion in the Alpine context. Such effects range from de-amplification at hard-rock sites to amplification up to a factor of 15 in lacustrine sediments with respect to the Swiss reference rock velocity model. The derived velocity profiles are shown to reproduce observed amplification functions from empirical spectral modeling. Although many sites are found to exhibit 1D behavior, our procedure allows the detection and qualification of 2D and 3D effects. All data collected during the site characterization procedures in the last 20 years are gathered in a database, implementing a data model proposed for community use at the European scale through NERA and EPOS (www.epos-eu.org). A web stationbook derived from it

  4. Revised description of index of Florida water data collection active stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, Linda H.

    1983-01-01

    The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative index of active data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. District offices with extensive data-collection activities will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The index is updated routinely. (USGS)

  5. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  6. Minimizing or eliminating refueling of nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Doncals, Richard A.; Paik, Nam-Chin; Andre, Sandra V.; Porter, Charles A.; Rathbun, Roy W.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.; Petras, Diane S.

    1989-01-01

    Demand for refueling of a liquid metal fast nuclear reactor having a life of 30 years is eliminated or reduced to intervals of at least 10 years by operating the reactor at a low linear-power density, typically 2.5 kw/ft of fuel rod, rather than 7.5 or 15 kw/ft, which is the prior art practice. So that power of the same magnitude as for prior art reactors is produced, the volume of the core is increased. In addition, the height of the core and it diameter are dimensioned so that the ratio of the height to the diameter approximates 1 to the extent practicable considering the requirement of control and that the pressure drop in the coolant shall not be excessive. The surface area of a cylinder of given volume is a minimum if the ratio of the height to the diameter is 1. By minimizing the surface area, the leakage of neutrons is reduced. By reducing the linear-power density, increasing core volume, reducing fissile enrichment and optimizing core geometry, internal-core breeding of fissionable fuel is substantially enhanced. As a result, core operational life, limited by control worth requirements and fuel burnup capability, is extended up to 30 years of continuous power operation.

  7. Initial field trials of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station waste oil and solvents disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.S.; Douglas, D.H.; Sharp, M.K.; Olsen, R.A.; Comes, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    At the request of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Southern Division, Charleston, SC, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted the initial field trial of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS), Jacksonville FL. This work was carried out by a field crew consisting of personnel from WES and the Naval Ocean Systems Center during the period of 16 July 1990 to 14 August 1990. The SCAPS investigation at the Jacksonville NAS has two primary objectives: (a) to provide data that could be useful in formulating remediation plans for the facility and (b) to provide for the initial field trial of the SCAPS currently under development by WES for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), now the U.S. Army Environmental Center. The original concepts for the SCAPS was to develop an integrated site screening characterization system whose capabilities would include (a) surface mapping, (b) geophysical surveys using magnetic, induced electromagnetic, and radar instruments, (c) measurements of soil strength, soil electrical resistivity, and laser-induced soil fluorometry Cone penetrometer, Site Characterization and Analysis Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF), Penetrometer System(SCAPS) POL Contamination, using screening instrumentation mounted in a soil penetrometer, (d) soil and fluid samplers, and (e) computerized data acquisition, interpretation, and visualization. The goal of the SCAPS program is to provide detailed, rapid, and cost-effective surface and subsurface data for input to site assessment/remediation efforts.

  8. Sterling landing fuel tanks site environmental baseline survey: Tatalina Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of the environmental baselines survey (EBS) was to document the existence of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and to identify potential environmental liabilities to the US. Air Force (USAF) associated with the fuel storage tanks at Sterling Landing on the Tatalina Long Range Radar Station (LRRS).

  9. The installation campaign of 9 seismic stations around the KTB site to test anisotropy detection by the Receiver Function Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Gribovski, K.; Bokelmann, G.

    2015-09-01

    The project at hand is a field test around the KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz, Southeastern Germany, at the northwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif. The region has been extensively studied through the analysis of several seismic reflection lines deployed around the drilling site. The deep borehole had been placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and it descended down to a depth of 9101 m. In our experiment, we aim to recover structural information as well as anisotropy of the upper crust using the receiver function technique. This retrieved information is the basis for comparing the out-coming anisotropy amount and orientation with information of rock samples from up to 9 km depth, and with high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. For that purpose, we installed 9 seismic stations, and recorded seismicity continuously for two years from June 2012 to July 2014.

  10. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, IRP sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 106th Civil Engineering Flight, New York Air National Guard, Roslyn Air National Guard Station, Roslyn, New York. Volume 1. Site Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Site Investigation (SI) conducted at IRP Sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 at the 106th Civil Engineering Flight (CEF) located at Roslyn Air National Guard Station (ANGS), Roslyn, Long Island, New York. A Preliminary Assessment (PA) (AD-A238 847) of the 106th CEF resulted in the identification of two potentially contaminated waste holding areas and a waste sludge application site. These sites were identified as IRP Site No. 1 (Access Road to Aerospace Ground Equipment `AGE` Shop), IRP Site No. 2 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 1), and IRP Site No. 3 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 2) and recommended for further investigation under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  11. Aerial Refueling Process Rescheduling Under Job Related Disruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2011-01-01

    The Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem (ARSP) can be defined as determining the refueling completion times for each fighter aircraft (job) on the multiple tankers (machines) to minimize the total weighted tardiness. ARSP assumes that the jobs have different release times and due dates. The ARSP is dynamic environment and unexpected events may occur. In this paper, rescheduling in the aerial refueling process with a time set of jobs will be studied to deal with job related disruptions such as the arrival of new jobs, the departure of an existing job, high deviations in the release times and changes in job priorities. In order to keep the stability and to avoid excessive computation, partial schedule repair algorithm is developed and its preliminary results are presented.

  12. CLEO: a knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Kocher, L.F.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-11-01

    A computer software system, CLEO, is used to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. CLEO, an acronym for Cloned LEO, is a logic-based computer program written in Pascal. It imitates the processes that the refueling expert for FFTF performs in organizing the refueling of FFTF. The computer assistant seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects that tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field.

  13. Autonomous Robotic Refueling System (ARRS) for rapid aircraft turnaround

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.

    An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.

  14. Testing of a refuelable zinc/air bus battery

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Koopman, R.; Hargrove, D.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.

    1995-02-22

    We report tests of a refuelable zinc/air battery of modular, bipolar-cell design, intended for fleet electric busses and vans. The stack consists of twelve 250-cm{sup 2} cells built of two units: (1) a copper-clad glass-reinforced epoxy board supporting anode and cathode current collectors, and (2) polymer frame providing for air- and electrolyte distribution and zinc fuel storage. The stack was refueled in 4 min. by a hydraulic transfer of zinc particles entrained in solution flow.

  15. Optical ground station site diversity for Deep Space Optical Communications the Mars Telecom Orbiter optical link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K.; Parvin, B.; Fugate, R.; Kervin, P.; Zingales, S.

    2003-01-01

    Future NASA deep space missions will fly advanced high resolution imaging instruments that will require high bandwidth links to return the huge data volumes generated by these instruments. Optical communications is a key technology for returning these large data volumes from deep space probes. Yet to cost effectively realize the high bandwidth potential of the optical link will require deployment of ground receivers in diverse locations to provide high link availability. A recent analysis of GOES weather satellite data showed that a network of ground stations located in Hawaii and the Southwest continental US can provide an average of 90% availability for the deep space optical link. JPL and AFRL are exploring the use of large telescopes in Hawaii, California, and Albuquerque to support the Mars Telesat laser communications demonstration. Designed to demonstrate multi-Mbps communications from Mars, the mission will investigate key operational strategies of future deep space optical communications network.

  16. Nuclear fuel, refueling, fuel handling, and licensing and regulation. Volume eleven

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume eleven covers nuclear fuel (what is nuclear fuel, the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium mining, milling, and refining, uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing), refueling and fuel handling (fuel assembly identification, fuel handling equipment, the fueling and refueling process, PWR refueling, BWR refueling), and licensing and regulation requirements (development of nuclear energy, federal licensing and regulatory organization, schedule for nuclear power plants, contents of reports to the Federal regulatory agency, nuclear power plant operator qualification).

  17. Calculated Drag of an Aerial Refueling Assembly Through Airplane Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jake; Ray, Ronald; Calianno, Carl

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews NASA Dryden's work on Aerial refueling, with specific interest in calculating the drag of the refueling system. The aerodynamic drag of an aerial refueling assembly was calculated during the Automated Aerial Refueling project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An F/A-18A airplane was specially instrumented to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to determine engine thrust

  18. Preliminary site characterization summary and engineering evaluation/cost analysis for Site 2, New Fuel Farm, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. ); Schlosser, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    This report addresses subsurface contamination associated with Site 2, the New Fuel Farm at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada and is an integral part of Phase 2 of the Installation Restoration Program (IR Program) currently underway at the facility. This report: (1) reviews and assesses environmental information characterizing Site 2; (2) determine if site-characterization information is sufficient to design and evaluate removal actions; and, (3) investigates, develops, and describes any removal actions deemed feasible. Previous environmental investigations at Site 2 indicate the presence of floating product (primarily JP-5, jet fuel) on the water table underlying the facility. While the extent of floating-produce plumes has been characterized, the degree of associated soil and groundwater contamination remains uncertain. A comprehensive characterization of soil and groundwater contamination will be completed as the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study progresses. Corrective actions are recommended at this time to remove free-phase floating product. Implementing these removal actions will also provide additional information which will be used to direct further investigations of the extent, mobility, and potential environmental threat from soil and groundwater contaminants at this side.

  19. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the "anti-wind" lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called "3G" technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its "2G" counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  20. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evaporative/refueling family...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling family... evaporative/refueling family. Manufacturers shall use good engineering judgment to determine...

  1. Application of index of biotic integrity (IBI) to fixed station water quality monitoring sites

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Biological monitoring aspects of Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (SWMS) Fixed Station Ambient Monitoring Network include sampling and analysis of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The principal objective of the biological monitoring portions of SWMS is to assess the health'' or quality of the aquatic environment in given stream reaches. This report deals with two aspects of biological monitoring, structural and physical characteristics of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. These are considered relative to physical and chemical aquatic environmental conditions in an attempt to identify likely causes of any recognizable perturbations of the aquatic biological communities. Specifically, fish are sampled to measure species richness, species composition, trophic structure, fish abundance, and condition. Benthic macroinvertebrates are sampled to allow an assessment of species richness, taxonomic composition, and community structure. Biological monitoring, incorporated into SWMS in 1986, was continued for the third year in 1988 with a repeat of 1986 sampling. This report presents 1988 findings and discusses differences between 1988 and 1987 findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  2. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations; refueling test. 86.156-98 Section 86.156-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  3. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement procedure; refueling test. 86.154-98 Section 86.154-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  4. Risk Analysis of On-Orbit Spacecraft Refueling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    On-orbit refueling of spacecraft has been proposed as an alternative to the exclusive use of Heavy-lift Launch Vehicles to enable human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In these scenarios, beyond LEO spacecraft are launched dry (without propellant) or partially dry into orbit, using smaller or fewer element launch vehicles. Propellant is then launched into LEO on separate launch vehicles and transferred to the spacecraft. Refueling concepts are potentially attractive because they reduce the maximum individual payload that must be placed in Earth orbit. However, these types of approaches add significant complexity to mission operations and introduce more uncertainty and opportunities for failure to the mission. In order to evaluate these complex scenarios, the authors developed a Monte Carlo based discrete-event model that simulates the operational risks involved with such strategies, including launch processing delays, transportation system failures, and onorbit element lifetimes. This paper describes the methodology used to simulate the mission risks for refueling concepts, the strategies that were evaluated, and the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that scenarios that employ refueling concepts will likely have to include long launch and assembly timelines, as well as the use of spare tanker launch vehicles, in order to achieve high levels of mission success through Trans Lunar Injection.

  5. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation; refueling test... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  6. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health. PMID:24289020

  7. Integrated mild gasification processing at the Homer City Electric Power Generating Station site. Final report, July 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.J.; Zawadzki, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    A new process for the production of commercial grade coke, char, and carbon products has been evaluated by Penelec/NYSEG. The process, developed by Coal Technology Corporation, CTC, utilizes a unique screw reactor to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of coals for the production of commercial grade coke for use in blast furnaces, foundries, and other processes requiring high quality coke. This process is called the CTC Mild Gasification Process (MGP). The process economics are significantly enhanced by integrating the new technology into an existing power generating complex. Cost savings are realized by the coke producer, the coke user, and the electric utility company. Site specific economic studies involving the Homer City Generating Station site in Western Pennsylvania, confirmed that an integrated MGP at the Homer City site, using coal fines produced at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant, would reduce capital and operating costs significantly and would enable the HC Owners to eliminate thermal dryers, obtain low cost fuel in the form of combustible gases and liquids, and obtain lower cost replacement coal on the spot market. A previous report, identified as the Interim Report on the Project, details the technical and economic studies.

  8. Site Characteristics Of Chia-Yi City, Taiwan, Estimated from Array And Single-Station Records Of Microtremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.

    2003-12-01

    The site characteristics in the Chia-Yi City of Taiwan were investigated using the H/V ratios of microtremors. Only five strong-motion stations were deployed in Chia-Yi City, the microtremor measurements at 94 points and the microtremor array measurements at four sites therefore are necessary to conduct in the study. The predominant frequencies obtained from H/V ratios of earthquake recordings are consistent with those from microtremor data although the amplification factors of microtremors are underestimated. On the basis of the H/V ratios of microtremors, the site response can be divided into three groups by shape and match well with the geological condition. Basically, the western area of Chia-Yi City is composed of alluvial structure with higher amplification factors and lower predominant frequencies (1.1-1.9Hz) while the eastern side is the mountainous area with unclear or higher predominant frequency. It indicates that the depths of the alluvium gradually increase from the eastern side to the western side. Besides, the highest ground vulnerability index (Kg) values appear in the southwestern part of the Chia-Yi City.

  9. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration, Phase I Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small

  10. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration: Phase I Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small.

  11. Principal facts of gravity stations with gravity and magnetic profiles from the Southwest Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, as of January, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jansma, P.E.; Snyder, D.B.; Ponce, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Three gravity profiles and principal facts of 2,604 gravity stations in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site are documented in this data report. The residual gravity profiles show the gravity measurements and the smoothed curves derived from these points that were used in geophysical interpretations. The principal facts include station label, latitude, longitude, elevation, observed gravity value, and terrain correction for each station as well as the derived complete Bouguer and isostatic anomalies, reduced at 2.67 g/cm 3. Accuracy codes, where available, further document the data.

  12. Water supply for the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard Arden

    1972-01-01

    The Nuclear Rocket Development Station, in Jackass Flats, occupies about 123 square miles in the southwestern part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site. Jackass Flats, an intermontane valley bordered by highlands on all sides except for a drainage outlet in the southwestern corner, has an average annual rainfall of 4 inches. Jackass Flats is underlain by alluvium, colluvium, and volcanic rocks of Cenozoic age and, at greater depth, by sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The alluvium and the colluvium lie above the saturated zone throughout nearly all of Jackass Flats. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks contain limestone and dolomite units that are excellent water producers elsewhere ; however, these units are too deep in Jackass Flats to be economic sources of water. The only important water-producing unit known in the vicinity of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is a welded-tuff aquifer, the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, which receives no significant recharge. This member contains about 500 feet of highly fractured rock underlying an area 11 miles long and 3 miles wide in western Jackass Flats. Permeability of the aquifer is derived mostly from joints and fractures; however, some permeability may be derived from gas bubbles in the upper part of the unit. Transmissivity, obtained from pumping tests, ranges from 68,000 to 488,000 gallons per day per foot. Volume of the saturated part of the aquifer is about 3.5 cubic miles, and the average specific yield probably ranges from 1 to 5 percent. The volume of ground water in storage is probably within the range of 37-187 billion gallons. This large amount of water should be sufficient to supply the needs of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station for many years. Water at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is used for public supply, construction, test-cell coolant, exhaust cooling, and thermal shielding during nuclear reactor and engine testing, and washdown. Present (1967) average

  13. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    analysis, it was determined by a proprietary hydrogen-analysis model that hydrogen produced from the station at a rate of 1500 kg/day and when produced at 1000 stations per year would be able to deliver hydrogen at a price of $3.03/kg (gge) H2. The station’s efficiency was measured to be 65.1%, and the PSA was tested and ran at an efficiency of 82.1%, thus meeting the project targets. From the study, it was determined that more research was needed in the area of hydrogen fueling. The overall cost of the hydrogen energy station, when combined with the required plot size for scaled-up hydrogen demands, demonstrated that a station using steam methane reforming technology as a means to produce on–site hydrogen would have limited utility in the marketplace. Alternative hydrogen supplies, such as liquid or pipeline delivery to a refueling station, need to be included in the exploration of alternative energy site layouts. These avenues need to be explored before a definitive refueling station configuration and commercialization pathway can be determined.

  14. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  15. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  16. Subsidence in geopressured geothermal resource test sites: Monitoring assessment combining geodetic leveling and tidal control stations in southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; John, C.J. ); Trahan, D.B. )

    1989-09-01

    The Louisiana Geological Survey has an ongoing environmental monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, at geopressured geothermal prospect well sites in southwestern Louisiana. This paper presents the results from monitoring subsidence at some of these reservoir sites. Over 1,000 km of first-order surveys and data from several NOAA and US Army Corps of Engineers tidal control stations were examined to determine regional trends. Tidal records were used to examine the history of sea level with respect to the land surface. Relative rates of land subsidence can be determined by comparing rates of water level rise over time with rates of rise from a stable craton. Regional subsidence ranges from 3 to 5 mm/year. First-order bench-mark networks established at Parcperdue, Sweet Lake, and Gladys McCall prospects were used to determine local trends of subsidence. Repeated leveling surveys before, during, and after fluid withdrawal from Parcperdue and Gladys McCall indicate that an increase in subsidence was observed during the drilling of the wells. Data suggest subsidence was possibly due to surface loading by heavy drilling equipment. Historical leveling in the Sweet Lake region indicates differential compaction between sediments as a possible cause for subsidence. However, in all cases, virtually no increase in subsidence was observed during and after times of fluid withdrawal.

  17. Modeling & analysis of criticality-induced severe accidents during refueling for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Georgevich, V.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Jackson, S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for evaluating the potential and resulting consequences of a hypothetical criticality accident during refueling of the 330-MW Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor. The development of an analytical capability is described. Modeling and problem formulation were conducted using concepts of reactor neutronic theory for determining power level escalation, coupled with ORIGEN and MELCOR code simulations for radionuclide buildup and containment transport Gaussian plume transport modeling was done for determining off-site radiological consequences. Nuances associated with modeling this blast-type scenario are described. Analysis results for ANS containment response under a variety of postulated scenarios and containment failure modes are presented. It is demonstrated that individuals at the reactor site boundary will not receive doses beyond regulatory limits for any of the containment configurations studied.

  18. Core testing of zinc/air refuelable battery modules

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J. F., LLNL

    1998-08-20

    We are developing a refuelable zinc/air battery (6-cells) for evaluation under the five USABC `core` test protocols. In the first half of the two year project ($1OOK, FY1997), an advanced refuelable design was developed, fabricated and tested at power levels up to 415 W. Performance matched or exceeded that of earlier multicell systems. A computer program was developed for automated data acquisition and drive cycle simulation. Small mockup cells (80 cm 2) were constructed for rapid testing of components. In the follow-on effort (FY1998, $1OOK) we will make minor advances in system design and fabrication efficiency, and seek to improve cathode performance and life, before delivery of two final units for test at DOE laboratory.

  19. Safety implications of onboard refueling vapor recovery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-06-01

    The safety implications of requiring onboard refueling vapor recovery systems on gasoline powered passenger cars, light trucks and heavy duty vehicles are evaluated. Special attention is given to the analysis of the design considerations for a safe onboard system and other measures necessary to insure that the design considerations incorporated are capable of providing a high level of in-use fuel system integrity. Concerns over the potential safety implications of onboard systems were raised. These concerns can be grouped into 4 areas. These include requirements to pass the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration safety test, the effects of tampering and system defects, refueling operations, and in-use fuel system safety. All of these concerns are presented as well as design considerations for a safe system. In use fuel system safety is also presented as well as cost and leadtime considerations for implementing a safe system.

  20. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  1. Toxic effects of wastewaters collected at upstream and downstream sites of a purification station in cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Risso-de Faverney, C; Devaux, A; Lafaurie, M; Girard, J P; Rahmani, R

    2001-08-01

    The toxic effects of wastewater samples, collected in December 1998, from upstream (U) and downstream (D) sites of the purification station of the town of Nice (South-East France on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) were assessed undiluted and at various dilutions (75%, 50%, and 25% of collected water sample), on trout hepatocyte cultures treated for 48 or 72 h. Chemical contamination (PCBs, PAHs, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) was also evaluated by chemical analysis. The water samples from the upstream site were more cytotoxic than those from the downstream site. The induction of CYP1A enzyme and metallothioneins (MTs) were selected as specific indicators of exposure to organic contaminants and metals, respectively. CYP1A-related EROD activity as well as protein expression were found to be greatly induced after 72 h exposure of the hepatocytes to the undiluted water samples (U(100%) and D(100%)), but CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly overexpressed only by samples from the upstream site. Maximal MT levels were reached after 48 h of treatment with the least concentrated water samples (U(25%) and D(25%)). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were similarly increased under the same conditions. On the other hand, there was no significant glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity response. Induction of apoptosis was analyzed by using as markers both the fragmentation of the nuclear DNA into oligonucleosomal-length fragments recognized as a "DNA ladder" and the activation of DEVD (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp)-dependent protease considered as the central mediator of programmed cell death. Significant DNA cleavage was only detectable after 72-h exposure to the most concentrated water samples from upstream sites (U(75%) and U(100%)). DEVD-dependent protease activities were significantly increased, mainly in cells exposed to U(75%) and D(25%) for 72 h. In addition, pollution-related DNA damage assessed by using the Comet assay was approximatively 1.5 times greater than that of the control level

  2. Design of a refueling tanker delivering liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lourme, Daniel; Barnier, Caroline; Faure, Sabine; Pompei, Marie-Helene; Pruniaux, Karine

    1992-01-01

    A refueling tanker that could deliver 155,000 lb of liquid hydrogen to a hypersonic tanker in 15 min was designed. A flying boom system was chosen to fit strict delivery criteria. Tank design and material specification were also addressed. To assure the flow required, it was important to cancel the pressure drop phenomenon. Geometry, aerodynamics, weight considerations, propulsion, stability, and performance for the tanker were also considered. Finally, the cost of developing three prototypes was estimated.

  3. Optimal scheduling of multispacecraft refueling based on cooperative maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bingxiao; Zhao, Yong; Dutta, Atri; Yu, Jing; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2015-06-01

    The scheduling of multispacecraft refueling based on cooperative maneuver in a circular orbit is studied in this paper. In the proposed scheme, both of the single service vehicle (SSV) and the target satellite (TS) perform the orbital transfer to complete the rendezvous at the service places. When a TS is refueled by the SSV, it returns to its original working slot to continue its normal function. In this way, the SSV refuels the TS one by one. A MINLP model for the mission is first built, then a two-level hybrid optimization approach is proposed for determining the strategy, and the optimal solution is successfully obtained by using an algorithm which is a combination of Multi-island Genetic Algorithm and Sequential Quadratic Programming. Results show the cooperative strategy can save around 27.31% in fuel, compared with the non-cooperative strategy in which only the SSV would maneuver in the example considered. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the numerical simulations for the evenly distributed constellations. Firstly, in the cooperative strategy one of the service positions is the initial location of the SSV, other service positions are also target slots, i.e. not all targets need to maneuver, and there may be more than one TS serviced in a given service position. Secondly, the efficiency gains for the cooperative strategy are higher for larger transferred fuel mass. Thirdly, the cooperative strategy is less efficient for targets with larger spacecraft mass.

  4. Powering future vehicles with the refuelable zinc/air battery

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    A recent road test at LLNL underscored the zinc/air battery`s capacity to give electric vehicles some of the attractive features of gas-driven cars: a 400-km range between refueling, 10-minute refueling, and highway-safe acceleration. Developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the battery weights only one-sixth as much as standard lead/acid batteries and occupies one-third the space, yet costs less per mile to operate. What`s more, because the battery is easily refuelable, it promises trouble-free, nearly 24-hour-a-day operation for numerous kinds of electric vehicles, from forklifts to delivery vans and possibly, one day, personal automobiles. The test of a Santa Barbara Municipal Transit bus with a hybrid of zinc/air and lead/acid batteries capped a short development period for the zinc/air battery. The test run indicated the zinc/air battery`s potential savings in vehicle weight from 5.7 to 4.0 metric tons, in battery weight from 2.0 to 0.3 metric tons, in battery volume from 0.79 to 0.25 m{sup 3}, and in electricity cost from 5.6 cents per mile to 4.7 cents per mile. The power, however, remains the same.

  5. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  6. The development of a UGV-mounted automated refueling system for VTOL UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Mike; Burmeister, Aaron; Nelson, Travis; Denewiler, Thomas; Mullens, Kathy

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the latest efforts to develop an Automated UAV Mission System (AUMS) for small vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In certain applications such as force protection, perimeter security, and urban surveillance a VTOL UAV can provide far greater utility than fixed-wing UAVs or ground-based sensors. The VTOL UAV can operate much closer to an object of interest and can provide a hover-and-stare capability to keep its sensors trained on an object, while the fixed wing UAV would be forced into a higher altitude loitering pattern where its sensors would be subject to intermittent blockage by obstacles and terrain. The most significant disadvantage of a VTOL UAV when compared to a fixed-wing UAV is its reduced flight endurance. AUMS addresses this disadvantage by providing forward staging, refueling, and recovery capabilities for the VTOL UAV through a host unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), which serves as a launch/recovery platform and service station. The UGV has sufficient payload capacity to carry UAV fuel for multiple launch, recovery, and refuel iterations. The UGV also provides a highly mobile means of forward deploying a small UAV into hazardous areas unsafe for personnel, such as chemically or biologically contaminated areas. Teaming small UAVs with large UGVs can decrease risk to personnel and expand mission capabilities and effectiveness. There are numerous technical challenges being addressed by these development efforts. Among the challenges is the development and integration of a precision landing system compact and light enough to allow it to be mounted on a small VTOL UAV while providing repeatable landing accuracy to safely land on the AUMS. Another challenge is the design of a UGV-transportable, expandable, self-centering landing pad that contains hardware and safety devices for automatically refueling the UAV. A third challenge is making the design flexible enough to accommodate different types of VTOL UAVs

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during February 1999. Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method. Soil samples were collected at 0.6-m (2-ft) intervals from the surface to 1.8 m (6 ft) below ground surface. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1999b). Soil sample results indicated that two locations in the bermed area contain total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel at concentrations of 124 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 377 mg/kg. This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). The TPH-impacted soil will be removed and disposed as part of the corrective action.

  8. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  9. Investigation of Historic Seismic and Infrasound Records from Events Occurred at the Region of Novaya Zemplya Test Site by the USSR Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Located in the north the Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used in Soviet time for conducting unique nuclear weapon tests in different mediums. 130 nuclear explosions with total yield 265 megatons were conducted at the Test Site for the period 1955-1990. During this period the following nuclear explosions were conducted: 1 surface explosion, 85 air explosions, 2 above water explosions, 3 underwater explosions and 39 underground explosions (in boreholes and tunnels). In addition, tectonic earthquakes and induced earthquakes caused by multi-megatons UNE occur near the Test Site. Unfortunately, only few seismic events occurred on the territory of the Test Site were recorded by digital stations. However, the archives of different seismological organizations of the USSR contain huge amount of analogue seismograms recorded by permanent and temporary stations. Historical seismograms of nuclear explosions and earthquakes from Novaya Zemlya Test site territory were digitized by the Complex Seismological Expedition IPE RAS and by the Institute of Geophysical Researches RK; a database of the events from the Test Site containing 470 seismograms at epicentral distance 2100-3800 was created. The database includes seismic records of air, underground nuclear explosions, and records of underwater nuclear explosion conducted within "Korall" exercise. In addition, infrasound records of waves from multi-megatons air nuclear explosions recorded by a microbarograph installed at Talgar seismic station at distance ~3600 km from the Test Site were digitized. Kinematic and dynamic parameters of nuclear explosions records conducted in different mediums (air, under water and underground) were investigated by the digitized records from events at Novaya Zemlya Test Site; specific features of wave pattern for each class of events were found.

  10. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics of distribution that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and for some time to come. The authors model for liquid transfer to a 120 L vehicle tank shows that tank filling times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The authorsmodel for compressed gas transfer shows that vehicle tank underfilling of nearly 30 percent can occur during rapid refueling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates the underfilling problem.

  11. CLEO: A knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Kocher, L.F.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    CLEO is computer software system to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility. It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. The computer system seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects which tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field.

  12. NGV stations based on mobile tube trailers: An economic analysis. Final report, June 1994-January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Keder, J.; Darrow, K.

    1995-01-01

    This report assesses the technical and economic issues associated with the use of mobile tube trailers for Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) refueling stations. Specifically, this report examines the mobile tube trailer concept developed by Pacific Cryongenics, Inc. and Pacific Gas and Electric. Mobile tube trailers are filled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at an underutilized compressor station and transported to satellite station locations. NGVs are filled at the satellite stations usig compressed gas from the tube trailer. Results of the economic analysis show that, under various operating conditions, the mobile tube trailer concept provides a cost effective alternative to NGV refueling stations with permanent compressors. In addition, the tube trailers were found to provide a substantial load for undertutilized compressor stations, resulting in reduced CNG costs at existing stations.

  13. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  14. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  15. An analysis of bipropellant neutralization for spacecraft refueling operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, David

    1987-01-01

    Refueling of satellites on orbit with storable propellants will involve venting part or all of the pressurant gas from the propellant tanks. This gas will be saturated with propellant vapor, and it may also have significant amounts of entrained fine droplets of propellant. The two most commonly used bipropellants, monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), are highly reactive and toxic. Various possible ways of neutralizing the vented propellants are examined. The amount of propellant vented in a typical refueling operation is shown to be in the range of 0.2 to 5% of the tank capacity. Four potential neutralization schemes are examined: chemical decomposition, chemical reaction, condensation and adsorption. Chemical decomposition to essentially inert materials is thermodynamically feasible for both MMH and N2O4. It would be the simplest and easiest neutralization method to implement. Chemical decomposition would require more complex control. Condensation would require a refrigeration system and a very efficent phase separator. Adsorption is likely to be much heavier. A preliminary assessment of the four neutralization shemes is presented, along with suggested research and development plans.

  16. Quantification of uncertainties in the 100-year flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station and its application in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Huidae; Bones, Emma

    2016-08-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has introduced the concept of the "1-percent plus" flow to incorporate various uncertainties in estimation of the 100-year or 1-percent flow. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no clear directions for calculating the 1-percent plus flow have been defined in the literature. Although information about standard errors of estimation and prediction is provided along with the regression equations that are often used to estimate the 1-percent flow at ungaged sites, uncertainty estimation becomes more complicated when there is a nearby gaged station because regression flows and the peak flow estimate from a gage analysis should be weighted to compute the weighted estimate of the 1-percent flow. In this study, an equation for calculating the 1-percent plus flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station is analytically derived. Also, a detailed process is introduced for calculating the 1-percent plus flow for an ungaged site near a gaged station in Georgia as an example and a case study is performed. This study provides engineers and practitioners with a method that helps them better assess flood risks and develop mitigation plans accordingly.

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility of using the data collection system to operate a network of hydrological and climatological stations at sites remote from normal communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The General Electric DCP has proven to be a versatile, rugged piece of hardware and has surpassed original expectation; it is very simple to use and does not require skilled staff for its use, installation, and operation. It is well suited for use in remote sites where no power is available. From this experience, it is concluded that the data collection system will be very useful in operating a network of hydrometeorological stations situated in sites remote from normal communication links.

  18. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center and Rogers Dry Lake on December 11, 2002. The aircraft is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  19. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  20. Comparison of salinity and temperature at continuous monitoring stations and nearby monthly measurement sites in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, L.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Salinity and temperature are crucial state variables affecting estuarine habitat an d, thus, are measured by various San Francisco Estuary programs. This article presents a comparison of salinity and temperature data collected at seven continuo us monitoring stations throughout San Francisco Bay (Figure 1) with data collected monthly by the US Geological Survey (USGS) research vessel ( RV ) Polaris . The data comparison was done to determine if the continuous monitoring stations, which mostly are located near shore and always on structures in the water, are representative of water conditions in the main channel of the estuary where the RV Polaris collects measurements.

  1. Vehicular volatile organic compounds losses due to refueling and diurnal process in China: 2010-2050.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Huan; Cui, Hongyang; Man, Hanyang; Fu, Mingliang; Hao, Jiming; He, Kebin

    2015-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are crucial to control air pollution in major Chinese cities since VOCs are the dominant factor influencing ambient ozone level, and also an important precursor of secondary organic aerosols. Vehicular evaporative emissions have become a major and growing source of VOC emissions in China. This study consists of lab tests, technology evaluation, emissions modeling, policy projections and cost-benefit analysis to draw a roadmap for China for controlling vehicular evaporative emissions. The analysis suggests that evaporative VOC emissions from China's light-duty gasoline vehicles were approximately 185,000 ton in 2010 and would peak at 1,200,000 ton in 2040 without control. The current control strategy implemented in China, as shown in business as usual (BAU) scenario, will barely reduce the long-term growth in emissions. Even if Stage II gasoline station vapor control policies were extended national wide (BAU+extended Stage II), there would still be over 400,000 ton fuel loss in 2050. In contrast, the implementation of on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) on new cars could reduce 97.5% of evaporative VOCs by 2050 (BAU+ORVR/BAU+delayed ORVR). According to the results, a combined Stage II and ORVR program is a comprehensive solution that provides both short-term and long-term benefits. The net cost to achieve the optimal total evaporative VOC control is approximately 62 billion CNY in 2025 and 149 billion CNY in 2050. PMID:26141881

  2. RESOLVE and ECO: Galaxy Refueling Transitions in Environmental Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, A. J.; Eckert, K. D.; Stark, D.; Norris, M. A.; Berlind, A. A.; the RESOLVE Team

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that galaxies undergo two key transitions in refueling. Below the threshold mass (baryonic mass Mbar 10^10 Msun or 125 km/s), gas-dominated late-type galaxies and blue, disk-building E/S0 galaxies become abundant, reflecting an increase in accretion-dominated states. Between the threshold mass and the bimodality mass (Mbar 10^10.6 Msun or 200 km/s), "normal" intermediate gas content bulged spiral galaxies like our Milky Way become most common, reflecting reduced accretion, while at higher masses quenched E/S0s start to dominate. Notwithstanding these results, the high scatter in gas and long-term star formation trends as a function of galaxy mass implies that mass is a secondary driver of refueling, motivating an inquiry into the role of environment. We present two surveys designed to meet this need: the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey and the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog encompassing it. Initially selected from the SDSS, both surveys offer enhanced redshift completeness and custom reprocessed NUV+ugriz+JHK photometry. RESOLVE comprises >1500 galaxies down to baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun, for which we are building a comprehensive census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and environment data. The RESOLVE database includes spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from SOAR, SALT, and Gemini in both high-resolution kinematic mode and low-resolution stellar population mode, as well as deep 21cm observations from the GBT and Arecibo aimed at detecting HI down to 5%-10% of each galaxy's stellar mass. ECO has nearly ten times larger volume than RESOLVE, with matched environment and stellar mass metrics as well as shallower HI data inherited from the 21cm ALFALFA survey, but only SDSS spectroscopy. Here we use the first wave of gas, star formation, and environment data for RESOLVE and ECO to explore the halo mass dependence of refueling, finding that both gas-dominated galaxies and blue

  3. Corticosterone, food intake and refueling in a long-distance migrant.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Bairlein, Franz; Stöwe, Mareike; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Elevated baseline corticosterone levels function to mobilize energy in predictable life-history stages, such as bird migration. At the same time, baseline corticosterone has a permissive effect on the accumulation of fat stores (fueling) needed for migratory flight. Most migrants alternate flight bouts with stopovers, during which they replenish the fuel used during the preceding flight (refueling). The role of corticosterone in refueling is currently unclear. In a fasting-re-feeding experiment on northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) in autumn we found that baseline total and free corticosterone levels were negatively related with both food intake and the rate of fuel deposition after fasting. This confirms our earlier findings in wild conspecifics in spring and indicates that corticosterone does not stimulate stopover refueling. Whether the negative relationship between baseline corticosterone level and fuel deposition rate is causal is questionable, because within-individual comparison of corticosterone metabolite levels in droppings did not reveal differences between refueling and control periods. In other words, corticosterone does not appear to be down-regulated during refueling, which would be expected if it directly hampers refueling. We discuss possible correlates of corticosterone level that may explain the negative association between corticosterone and stopover refueling. Additionally, we found that fasting decreases total corticosterone level, which contrasts with previous studies. We propose that the difference is due to the other studies being conducted outside of the migration life-history stage, and provide a possible explanation for the decrease in corticosterone during fasting in migrating birds. PMID:24721337

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary. PMID:26282739

  5. Technical Analysis of the Hydrogen Energy Station Concept, Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    TIAX, LLC

    2005-05-04

    Phase I Due to the growing interest in establishing a domestic hydrogen infrastructure, several hydrogen fueling stations already have been established around the country as demonstration units. While these stations help build familiarity with hydrogen fuel in their respective communities, hydrogen vehicles are still several years from mass production. This limited number of hydrogen vehicles translates to a limited demand for hydrogen fuel, a significant hurdle for the near-term establishment of commercially viable hydrogen fueling stations. By incorporating a fuel cell and cogeneration system with a hydrogen fueling station, the resulting energy station can compensate for low hydrogen demand by providing both hydrogen dispensing and combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The electrical power generated by the energy station can be fed back into the power grid or a nearby facility, which in turn helps offset station costs. Hydrogen production capacity not used by vehicles can be used to support building heat and power loads. In this way, an energy station can experience greater station utility while more rapidly recovering capital costs, providing an increased market potential relative to a hydrogen fueling station. At an energy station, hydrogen is generated on-site. Part of the hydrogen is used for vehicle refueling and part of the hydrogen is consumed by a fuel cell. As the fuel cell generates electricity and sends it to the power grid, excess heat is reclaimed through a cogeneration system for use in a nearby facility. Both the electrical generation and heat reclamation serve to offset the cost of purchasing the equivalent amount of energy for nearby facilities and the energy station itself. This two-phase project assessed the costs and feasibility of developing a hydrogen vehicle fueling station in conjunction with electricity and cogenerative heat generation for nearby Federal buildings. In order to determine which system configurations and operational

  6. Terrestrial flora and fauna in the vicinity of the Delmarva power and light station and proposed expansion site. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Deusen, M.; Otto, R.G.

    1980-04-01

    The results of field surveys of the terrestrial vegetation, birds and mammals in the vicinity of the Delmarva Power and Light Company Vienna Steam Electric Station and proposed expansion area in Dorchester County, Maryland are presented. Four major habitats were identified: forest, oldfield, marsh and cultivated land. Qualitative surveys of flora and fauna were conducted to determine species present. Commercially important waterfowl, upland game birds and mammals and furbearers are discussed.

  7. 40 CFR 1066.971 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning for the refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 86.153-98. ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Evaporative Emission Test Procedures Evaporative and Refueling Emission Test Procedures for Motor Vehicles § 1066.971 Vehicle and...

  8. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  9. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the flight test from the autonomous airborne refueling system. It includes information on the prototype system that can autonomously perform fueling, including during a turn or mild turbulence, and the autonomous rendezvous capability.

  10. This NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No. 847) is acting as an in-flight refueling tanker in the study to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refueling system for unmanned vehicles. A 300-gallon aerodynamic pod containing air-refueling equipment is seen beneath the fuselage. The hose and refueling basket are extended during an assessment of their dynamics on the F/A-18A.

  11. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  12. Refueling emissions from cars in Japan: Compositions, temperature dependence and effect of vapor liquefied collection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Refueling emissions from cars available on the Japanese market, which were not equipped with specific controlling devices, were investigated. For the composition analysis, a proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry (PTR + SRI-MS), which is capable of real-time measurement, was used. In addition, the performance of a vapor liquefied collection system (VLCS), which is a recently developed controlling device, was evaluated and compared with an onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) system. The refueling emission factor of uncontrolled vehicles at 20 °C was 1.02 ± 0.40 g/L in the case dispensing 20 L of fuel. The results of composition analysis indicated that the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) of refueling emissions in Japan was 3.49 ± 0.83. The emissions consist of 80% alkanes and 20% alkenes, and aromatics and di-enes were negligible. C4 alkene had the highest impact on the MIR of refueling emissions. The amounts of refueling emissions were well reproduced by a function developed by MOVE2010 in the temperature range of 5-35 °C. The compositions of the refueling emissions varied in this temperature range, but the change in MIR was negligible. The trapping efficiency of VLCS was the same level as that of the ORVR (over 95%). The MIRs of refueling and evaporative emissions were strongly affected by that of the test fuel. This study and our previous study indicated that MIRbreakthrough ≈ MIRrefueling ≈ MIRfuel + 0.5 and MIRpermeation ≈ MIRfuel. The real-world estimated average MIRfuel in Japan was about 3.0.

  13. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of the NASA/DARPA automatic probe and drogue refueling flight test. The program met several of its objectives including the design, development and successful testing of a prototype system to autonomously perform probes to drogue refueling; demonstrated acquisition and tracking capability of the video tracking system; demonstrated autonomous rendezvous capability; demonstrated ability to plug in a turn; and, demonstrated ability to plug in mild turbulence.

  14. A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shuji; Yamanoi, Shun; Murata, Kenichi; Mita, Hiroki; Samukawa, Tsunetoshi; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from renewable fuels, such as carbohydrates, must be reusable through repeated refuelling, should these devices be used in consumer electronics. We demonstrate the stable generation of electricity from a glucose-powered mediated biofuel cell through multiple refuelling cycles. This refuelability is achieved by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an electron-transfer mediator, and redox enzymes in high concentrations on porous carbon particles constituting an anode while maintaining their electrochemical and enzymatic activities after the immobilization. This bioanode can be refuelled continuously for more than 60 cycles at 1.5 mA cm-2 without significant potential drop. Cells assembled with these bioanodes and bilirubin-oxidase-based biocathodes can be repeatedly used to power a portable music player at 1 mW cm-3 through 10 refuelling cycles. This study suggests that the refuelability within consumer electronics should facilitate the development of long and repeated use of the mediated biofuel cells as well as of NAD-based biosensors, bioreactors, and clinical applications.

  15. A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shuji; Yamanoi, Shun; Murata, Kenichi; Mita, Hiroki; Samukawa, Tsunetoshi; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from renewable fuels, such as carbohydrates, must be reusable through repeated refuelling, should these devices be used in consumer electronics. We demonstrate the stable generation of electricity from a glucose-powered mediated biofuel cell through multiple refuelling cycles. This refuelability is achieved by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an electron-transfer mediator, and redox enzymes in high concentrations on porous carbon particles constituting an anode while maintaining their electrochemical and enzymatic activities after the immobilization. This bioanode can be refuelled continuously for more than 60 cycles at 1.5 mA cm−2 without significant potential drop. Cells assembled with these bioanodes and bilirubin-oxidase-based biocathodes can be repeatedly used to power a portable music player at 1 mW cm−3 through 10 refuelling cycles. This study suggests that the refuelability within consumer electronics should facilitate the development of long and repeated use of the mediated biofuel cells as well as of NAD-based biosensors, bioreactors, and clinical applications. PMID:24820210

  16. Calculated Drag of an Aerial Refueling Assembly Through Airplane Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael Jacob; Ray, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of an aerial refueling assembly was calculated during the Automated Aerial Refueling project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An F/A-18A airplane was specially instrumented to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to determine engine thrust. A standard Navy air refueling store with a retractable refueling hose and paradrogue was mounted to the centerline pylon of the F/A-18A airplane. As the paradrogue assembly was deployed and stowed, changes in the calculated thrust of the airplane occurred and were equated to changes in vehicle drag. These drag changes were attributable to the drag of the paradrogue assembly. The drag of the paradrogue assembly was determined to range from 200 to 450 lbf at airspeeds from 170 to 250 KIAS. Analysis of the drag data resulted in a single drag coefficient of 0.0056 for the paradrogue assembly that adequately matched the calculated drag for all flight conditions. The drag relief provided to the tanker airplane when a receiver airplane engaged the paradrogue is also documented from 35 to 270 lbf at the various flight conditions tested. The results support the development of accurate aerodynamic models to be used in refueling simulations and control laws for fully autonomous refueling.

  17. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport near Jacksonville, Florida, was simulated with a two-layer finite-difference model as part of an investigation conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The model was calibrated to 229 water-level measurements from 181 wells during three synoptic surveys (July 17, 1995; July 31, 1996; and October 24, 1996). A quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer was needed to evaluate remedial-action alternatives under consideration by the Naval Station Mayport to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites on the station. Multi-well aquifer tests, single-well tests, and slug tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system, which was divided into three geohydrologic units?an S-zone and an I-zone separated by a marsh-muck confining unit. The recharge rate was estimated to range from 4 to 15 inches per year (95 percent confidence limits), based on a chloride-ratio method. Most of the simulations following model calibration were based on a recharge rate of 8 inches per year to unirrigated pervious areas. The advective displacement of saline pore water during the last 200 years was simulated using a particle-tracking routine, MODPATH, applied to calibrated steady-state and transient models of the Mayport peninsula. The surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport has been modified greatly by natural and anthropogenic forces so that the freshwater flow system is expanding and saltwater is being flushed from the system. A new MODFLOW package (VAR1) was written to simulate the temporal variation of hydraulic properties caused by construction activities at Naval Station Mayport. The transiently simulated saltwater distribution after 200 years of displacement described the chloride distribution in the I-zone (determined from measurements made during 1993 and 1996) better than the steady-state simulation. The

  18. Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of the "Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology" study. This study identifies cryogenic fluid management technologies that require low-gravity flight experiments bring technology readiness levels to 5 to 6; examines many possible flight experiment options; and develops near-term low-cost flight experiment concepts to mature the core technologies. A total of 25 white papers were prepared by members of the project team in the course of this study. The full text of each white paper is included and 89 relevant references are cited. The team reviewed the white papers that provided information on new or active concepts of experiments to pursue and assessed them on the basis of technical need, cost, return on investment, and flight platform. Based on on this assessment the "Centaur Test Bed for Cryogenic Fluid Management" was rated the highest. "Computational Opportunities for Cryogenics for Cryogenic and Low-g Fluid Systems" was ranked second, based on its high scores in state of the art and return on investment, even though scores in cost and time were second to last. "Flight Development Test Objective Approach for In-space Propulsion Elements" was ranked third.

  19. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  20. Use of indigenous small mammal populations to assess a National Priority List site: A case study at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island

    SciTech Connect

    Hummell, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Prior disposal activities at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island resulted in the release of heavy metals and organic chemicals into the environment resulting in the site being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. This presentation reports an ecotoxicological study of indigenous populations of voles on the NPL site. The study attempted to provide three endpoints: (1) exposure, (2) individual effects, (3) population effects. Exposure was quantified during the study by comparing chemical concentrations in the tissues of voles live captured on site to tissue concentrations of mammals captured at site specific reference locations. Live trapped voles were also aged according to eye lens weights. Effects exerted on individuals were evaluated based on physiological measurements of the liver, kidney, and whole body as they correlated with age and chemical concentrations. Capture-recapture techniques and age structure analyses were used to develop survivorship curves and evaluate population stability and fitness. The study provides data that can be used to support ecological risk assessments required for CIRCLE investigations.

  1. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 4: Inhouse Advanced Development and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Trieve (Editor); Clearwater, Yvonne A. (Editor); Cohen, Marc M. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    A variety of human factors studies related to space station design are presented. Subjects include proximity operations and window design, spatial perceptual issues regarding displays, image management, workload research, spatial cognition, virtual interface, fault diagnosis in orbital refueling, and error tolerance and procedure aids.

  2. Centaur operations at the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J.; Thompson, W.; Bennett, F.; Holdridge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of using a Centaur vehicle as a testbed to demonstrate critical OTV technologies at the Space Station. Two Technology Demonstration Missions (TDMs) were identified: (1) Accommodations, and (2) Operations. The Accommodations TDM contained: (1) berthing, (2) checkout, maintenance and safing, and (3) payload integration missions. The Operations TDM contained: (1) a cryogenic propellant resupply mission, and (2) Centaur deployment activities. A modified Space Station Co-Orbiting Platform (COP) was selected as the optimum refueling and launch node due to safety and operational considerations. After completion of the TDMs, the fueled Centaur would carry out a mission to actually test deployment and help offset TDM costs. From the Station, the Centaur could carry a single payload in excess of 20,000 pounds to geosynchronous orbit or multiple payloads.

  3. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  4. Pellet refuelling of particle loss due to ELM mitigation with RMPs in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak at low collisionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovič, M.; Lang, P. T.; Kirk, A.; Suttrop, W.; Cavedon, M.; Cseh, G.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, L. R.; Garzotti, L.; Guimarais, L.; Kocsis, G.; Mlynek, A.; Plőckl, B.; Scannell, R.; Szepesi, T.; Tardini, G.; Thornton, A.; Viezzer, E.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-06-01

    The complete refuelling of the plasma density loss (pump-out) caused by mitigation of edge localised modes (ELMs) is demonstrated on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma is refuelled by injection of frozen deuterium pellets and ELMs are mitigated by external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In this experiment relevant dimensionless parameters, such as relative pellet size, relative RMP amplitude and pedestal collisionality are kept at the ITER like values. Refuelling of density pump out of the size of Δ n/n∼ 30% requires a factor of two increase of nominal fuelling rate. Energy confinement and pedestal temperatures are not restored to pre-RMP values by pellet refuelling.

  5. Station descriptions and availability of discharge and water-quality data through 1985 for eastern Montana stream sites not included in the National Water Data Exchange Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groskinsky Link, B. L.; Cary, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Stations were selected to monitor water discharge and water quality of streams in eastern Montana. This report describes the stations and indicates the availability of hydrologic data through 1985. Included are stations that are operated by organizations that do not belong to the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) program operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each station description contains a narration of the station 's history including location, drainage area, elevation, operator, period of record, type of equipment and instruments used at the station, and data availability. The data collected at each station have been identified according to type: water discharge, chemical quality, and suspended sediment. Descriptions are provided for 113 stations. These data have potential uses in characterizing small hydrologic basins, as well as other uses. A map of eastern Montana shows the location of the stations selected. (USGS)

  6. On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a coastal-rural site at El Arenosillo Station (SW - Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorribas, M.; de La Morena, B. A.; Wehner, B.; López, J. F.; Prats, N.; Mogo, S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2011-11-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days). The mean total concentration (NT) was 8660 cm-3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT) and accumulation (NACC) particle size ranges were 2830 cm-3, 4110 cm-3 and 1720 cm-3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm-3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC). Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles moved offshore due to the land breeze and had an impact on the particle burden at noon, especially when the wind was blowing from the NW sector in the morning during summer time. This increased NNUC and NAIT by factors of 3

  7. Migratory refueling affects non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, but does not increase lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Jönsson, Johanna; Fritzsch, Anna; Wang, Hong-Lei; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    All aerobic organisms are to some degree affected by oxidative stress, which is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former. Pro-oxidants can damage DNA, proteins and lipids, and as such oxidative stress can carry considerably fitness costs. In mammals excessive calorie intake is a known cause of oxidative stress. We investigated whether in migrant birds, which typically engage in over-eating in between flights (refueling), high food intake causes oxidative stress. In an experiment we compared levels of plasmatic total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (AOX) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) between migrants repeatedly fasted and refed (simulating the flight-refuel cycle of wild migrants), and migrants on ad libitum food. We found that refueling increased AOX, an effect mainly attributable to an increase in uric acid level, an antioxidant that is produced during protein metabolism. Accordingly, variation in AOX was mainly explained by the refueling birds' food intake. However, food intake in migrants on ad libitum food did not explain any variation in AOX. Refueling did not affect lipid peroxidation, nor were its levels explained by food intake. We propose that over-eating migrants retain uric acid, which might be a very low cost mechanism to forego oxidative damage. PMID:26921098

  8. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because

  9. The NASA Dryden AAR Project: A Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented.

  10. The NASA Dryden Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented

  11. Development of a simple 5-15 litre per hour LNG refueling system

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Sarangi, S.; Hall, J.L.; Barclay, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A variable capacity, small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) refueling system has been designed, built, and tested at the Cryofuel Systems` Laboratory, University of Victoria, Canada. The system, designed to continuously liquefy between 5 and 15 litres of NG, utilizes liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) as its cold source and contains most of the components found in a typical commercial refueling system; i.e. purification system, liquefier, LNG storage, automatic control and monitoring system. This paper describes the design of the system as well as the results of a set of LNG production trials. The performance of the system exceeded expected LNG production rates, but at levels of efficiency somewhat less than predicted. Cryofuel Systems expects to use this system to implement an LNG vehicle demonstration program and to gain experience in the integration of LNG refueling systems which exploit advanced liquefaction technology such as magnetic refrigeration.

  12. Constant propellant use rendezvous scenario across a launch window for refueling missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hametz, M. E.; Whittier, R.

    1990-01-01

    Active rendezvous of an unmanned spacecraft with the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle for refueling missions is investigated. The operational constraints facing both the maneuvering spacecraft and the Shuttle during a rendezvous sequence are presented. For example, the user spacecraft must arrive in the generic Shuttle control box at a specified time after Shuttle launch. In addition, the spacecraft must be able to initiate the transfer sequence from any point in its orbit. The standard four-burn rendezvous sequence, consisting of two Hohmann transfers and an intermediate phasing orbit, is presented as a low-energy solution for rendezvous and retrieval missions. However, for refueling missions, the Shuttle must completely refuel the spacecraft and return to Earth with no excess fuel. This additional constraint is not satisfied by the standard four-burn sequence. Therefore, a variation of the four-burn rendezvous, the constant delta-V scenario, was developed to satisfy the added requirement.

  13. Weather monitor station and 225 GHz radiometer system installed at Sierra Negra: the Large Millimeter Telescope site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50-m dish antenna designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.85 to 4 mm at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra Puebla, Mexico. The telescope has a new atmospheric monitoring system that allows technical staff and astronomers to evaluate the conditions at the site and have enough information to operate the antenna in safe conditions, atmospheric data is also useful to schedule maintenance activities and conduct scientific observations, opacity data is used to calibrate the astronomical data and evaluate the quality of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we describe the integration of a weather atmospheric monitoring system and a 225 GHz radiometer to the facilities around the telescope and also describe the hardware integration of these systems and the software methodology used to save and process the data and then make it available in real time to the astronomers and outside world through an internet connection. Finally we present a first set of atmospheric measurements and statistics taken with this new equipment during the wet and dry seasons of 2013/2014.

  14. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  15. Study of the transfer of 137Cs from fodder to cow milk in the region around Narora Atomic Power Station NPP Site, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Sharma, A K; Singh, B; Ravi, P M; Sarkar, P K

    2013-09-01

    Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the villages around Narora, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 17 y, is presented in this paper. In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, Fm, is an important parameter. The transfer coefficient value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Narora region, and the result ranged from 4.28E-03 to 3.30E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 1.15E-03 d l(-1). The highest and the lowest values were only below one order of magnitude different from the mean, regardless of the type of diet, milk yield and age of the cow. The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 6.92E-03 to 8.01E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 7.45E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large-area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Narora. The ingestion dose from fallout (137)Cs through milk intake for adult and child is also estimated. PMID:23535080

  16. Space Station flight telerobotic servicer functional requirements development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberright, John; Mccain, Harry; Whitman, Ruth I.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), a flight robotic system for use on the first Space Station launch, is described. The objectives of the FTS program include: (1) the provision of an alternative crew EVA by supporting the crew in assembly, maintenance, and servicing activities, and (2) the improvement of crew safety by performing hazardous tasks such as spacecraft refueling or thermal and power system maintenance. The NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model provides the generic, hierarchical, structured functional control definition for the system. It is capable of accommodating additional degrees of machine intelligence in the future.

  17. Nuclear Safety Risk Management in Refueling Outage of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meijing Wu; Guozhang Shen

    2006-07-01

    The NPP is used to planning maintenance, in-service inspection, surveillance test, fuel handling and design modification in the refueling outage; the operator response capability will be reduced plus some of the plant systems out of service or loss of power at this time. Based on 8 times refueling outage experiences of the Qinshan NPP, this article provide some good practice and lesson learned for the nuclear safety risk management focus at four safety function areas of Residual Heat Removal Capability, Inventory Control, Power availability and Reactivity control. (authors)

  18. A Three Corner Hat-based analysis of station position time series for the assessment of inter-technique precision at ITRF co-located sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Hurst, K. J.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.; Altamimi, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the uncertainty in geodetic positioning is a crucial factor when combining independent space-geodetic solutions for the computation of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). ITRF is a combined product based on the stacking of VLBI, GPS, SLR and DORIS solutions and merging the single technique reference frames with terrestrial local tie measurements at co-located sites. In current ITRF realizations, the uncertainty evaluation of the four techniques relies on the analysis of the post-fit residuals, which are a by-product of the combination process. An alternative approach to the assessment of the inter-technique precision can be offered by a Three Corner Hat (TCH) analysis of the non-linear residual time series obtained at ITRF co-location sites as a by-product of the stacking procedure. Non-linear residuals of station position time series stemming from global networks of the four techniques can be modeled as a composition of periodic signals (commonly annual and semi-annual) and stochastic noise, typically characterized as a combination of flicker and white noise. Pair-wise differences of station position time series of at least three co-located instruments can be formed with the aim of removing the common geophysical signal and characterizing the inter-technique precision. The application of TCH relies on the hypothesis of absence of correlation between the error processes of the four techniques and assumes the stochastic noise to be Gaussian. If the hypothesis of statistical independence between the space-geodetic technique errors is amply verified, the assumption of pure white noise of the stochastic error processes appears to be more questionable. In fact, previous studies focused on geodetic positioning consistently showed that flicker noise generally prevails over white noise in the analysis of global network GPS time series, whereas in VLBI, SLR and DORIS time series Gaussian noise is predominant. In this investigation, TCH is applied

  19. [CFD numerical simulation onto the gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior during vehicle refueling process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Zhu, Ling; Shang, Chao

    2011-12-01

    With the gradual improvement of environmental regulations, more and more attentions are attracted to the vapor emissions during the process of vehicle refueling. Research onto the vehicle refueling process by means of numerical simulation has been executed abroad since 1990s, while as it has never been involved so far domestically. Through reasonable simplification about the physical system of "Nozzle + filler pipe + gasoline storage tank + vent pipe" for vehicle refueling, and by means of volume of fluid (VOF) model for gas-liquid two-phase flow and Re-Normalization Group kappa-epsilon turbulence flow model provided in commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software Fluent, this paper determined the proper mesh discretization scheme and applied the proper boundary conditions based on the Gambit software, then established the reasonable numerical simulation model for the gas-liquid two-phase flow during the refueling process. Through discussing the influence of refueling velocity on the static pressure of vent space in gasoline tank, the back-flowing phenomenon has been revealed in this paper. It has been demonstrated that, the more the flow rate and the refueling velocity of refueling nozzle is, the higher the gross static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank. In the meanwhile, the variation of static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank can be categorized into three obvious stages. When the refueling flow rate becomes higher, the back-flowing phenomenon of liquid gasoline can sometimes be induced in the head section of filler pipe, thus making the gasoline nozzle pre-shut-off. Totally speaking, the theoretical work accomplished in this paper laid some solid foundation for self-researching and self-developing the technology and apparatus for the vehicle refueling and refueling emissions control domestically. PMID:22468545

  20. Core and Refueling Design Studies for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Ilas, Dan; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Kelly, Ryan P; Gehin, Jess C

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central generating station type [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. This report presents the current status of ongoing design studies of the core, in-vessel structures, and refueling options for the AHTR. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity as important material, structural, neutronic, and hydraulic issues remain to be addressed. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. An illustration of the current AHTR core, reactor vessel, and nearby structures is shown in Fig. ES1. The AHTR core design concept is based upon 252 hexagonal, plate fuel assemblies configured to form a roughly cylindrical core. The core has a fueled height of 5.5 m with 25 cm of reflector above and below the core. The fuel assembly hexagons are {approx}45 cm across the flats. Each fuel assembly contains 18 plates that are 23.9 cm wide and 2.55 cm thick. The reactor vessel has an exterior diameter of 10.48 m and a height of 17.7 m. A row of replaceable graphite reflector prismatic blocks surrounds the core radially. A more complete reactor configuration description is provided in Section 2 of this report. The AHTR core design space exploration was performed under a set of constraints. Only low enrichment (<20%) uranium fuel was considered. The coated particle fuel and matrix materials were derived from those being developed and demonstrated under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) advanced gas reactor program. The coated particle volumetric packing fraction was restricted to at most 40%. The pressure

  1. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) refueling during first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 refuels with an Edwards Air Force Base KC-135 during the first flight of the NASA/Rocketdyne/ Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). The flight took place Oct. 31 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It

  2. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  3. Sassafrass conducts an underway refueling operation with the U.S. Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sassafrass conducts an underway refueling operation with the U.S. Coast Guard patrol boat Kiska. The large fuel capacity of the 180s was sometimes used to extend the range of other U.S. Coast Guard assets - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter SASSAFRASS, Marianas Section, Victor Wharf, Agana Heights, Guam, GU

  4. 40 CFR 1066.925 - Enclosure calculations for evaporative and refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 86.143-96. Calculate emissions for refueling emissions as described in 40 CFR 86.143-96... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enclosure calculations for evaporative... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Evaporative Emission Test...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1825-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph. (h) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1845-01 (e). (i) If EPA... conducted by the manufacturer using good engineering judgement. (d) Bench aging refueling durability...) Combined whole-vehicle and bench-aging programs. Manufacturers may combine the results of whole...

  15. 40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test. 86.153-98 Section 86.153-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  16. Metal amounts in the lichen Ramalina duriaei (De Not. ) Bagl. transplanted at biomonitoring sites around a new coal-fired power station after 1 year of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.

    1987-06-01

    The lichen Ramalina duriaei (De Not.) Bagl. was transplanted to 22 biomonitoring sites for 1 year (1981-1982). The amounts of Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe in the lichen material were measured at the end of the transplantation period and the data were compared with the amounts of five of these metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb) which were detected in the same lichen species transplanted in the same study area during the 1979-1980 period. The differences between the amounts of the five metals detected during the two periods are discussed. The increase in amounts of some of the metals in the 1981-1982 lichen material (Pb, Ni, and probably Cr) reflects the increase in the total number of motor vehicles between the two periods within the study area. The decrease of Zn in the lichen after the second period reflects a decrease in the use of Zn as a constituent of foliar nutrients in agriculture used for crop spraying. The increase of Cr and Ni in the transplanted lichen after the 1981-1982 period probably also reflects, apart from vehicle pollution, a certain emission from the 250-m-high stacks of a new coal-fired electricity-generating power station.

  17. Modeling municipal solid waste collection: A generalized vehicle routing model with multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows.

    PubMed

    Son, Le Hoang; Louati, Amal

    2016-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection is a necessary process in any municipality resulting in the quality-of-life, economic aspects and urban structuralization. The intrinsic nature of MSW collection relates to the development of effective vehicle routing models that optimize the total traveling distances of vehicles, the environmental emission and the investment costs. In this article, we propose a generalized vehicle routing model including multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows for MSW collection. It takes into account traveling in one-way routes, the number of vehicles per m(2) and waiting time at traffic stops for reduction of operational time. The proposed model could be used for scenarios having similar node structures and vehicles' characteristics. A case study at Danang city, Vietnam is given to illustrate the applicability of this model. The experimental results have clearly shown that the new model reduces both total traveling distances and operational hours of vehicles in comparison with those of practical scenarios. Optimal routes of vehicles on streets and markets at Danang are given. Those results are significant to practitioners and local policy makers. PMID:27036996

  18. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  19. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-08

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  20. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-01

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute, indicating a refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  1. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  2. SR-71 Mid-air Refueling with KC-135 Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SR-71B, tail number 831, is seen here receiving air refueling from a USAF tanker during a July, 1995 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in

  3. Study on neutronic of very small Pb - Bi cooled no-onsite refueling nuclear power reactor (VSPINNOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Arianto, Fajar; Su'ud, Zaki; Zuhair

    2014-09-30

    A conceptual design study on Very Small Pb-Bi No-Onsite Refueling Cooled Nuclear Reactor (VSPINNOR) with Uranium nitride fuel using MCNPX program has been performed. In this design the reactor core is divided into three regions with different enrichment. At the center of the core is laid fuel without enrichment (internal blanket). While for the outer region using fuel enrichment variations. VSPINNOR fast reactor was operated for 10 years without refueling. Neutronic analysis shows optimized result of VSPINNOR has a core of 50 cm radius and 100 cm height with 300 MWth thermal power output at 60% fuel fraction that can be operated 18 years without refueling or fuel shuffling.

  4. Robotic mobile servicing platform for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, S. H.; Vanerden, L.

    1987-01-01

    The semi-autonomous inspection and servicing of the Space Station's major thermal, electrical, mechanical subsystems are critical needs for the safe and reliable operation of the station. A conceptual design is presented of a self-intelligent, small and highly mobile robotic platform. Equipped with suitable inspection sensors (cameras, ammonia detectors, etc.), this system's primary mission is to perform routine, autonomous inspection of the Station's primary subsystems. Typical tasks include detection of leaks from thermal fluid or refueling lines, as well as detection of micro-meteroid damage to the primary structure. Equipped with stereo cameras and a dexterous manipulator, simple teleoperator repairs and small On-orbit Replacement Unit (ORU) changeout can also be accomplished. More difficult robotic repairs would be left to the larger, more sophisticated Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS). An ancillary function is to ferry crew members and equipment around the station. The primary design objectives were to provide a flexible, but uncomplicated robotic platform, one which caused minimal impact to the design of the Station's primary structure but could accept more advanced telerobotic technology as it evolves.

  5. DAC-3 Pointing Stability Analysis Results for SAGE 3 and Other Users of the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Attachment Sites (PAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Rombado, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide final results of a pointing stability analysis for external payload attachment sites (PAS) on the International Space Station (ISS). As a specific example, the pointing stability requirement of the SAGE III atmospheric science instrument was examined in this paper. The instrument requires 10 arcsec stability over 2 second periods. SAGE 3 will be mounted on the ISS starboard side at the lower, outboard FIAS. In this engineering analysis, an open-loop DAC-3 finite element model of ISS was used by the Microgravity Group at Johnson Space Flight Center to generate transient responses at PAS to a limited number of disturbances. The model included dynamics up to 50 Hz. Disturbance models considered included operation of the solar array rotary joints, thermal radiator rotary joints, and control moment gyros. Responses were filtered to model the anticipated vibration attenuation effects of active control systems on the solar and thermal radiator rotary joints. A pointing stability analysis was conducted by double integrating acceleration transient over a 2 second period. Results of the analysis are tabulated for ISS X, Y, and Z Axis rotations. These results indicate that the largest excursions in rotation during pointing occurred due to rapid slewing of the thermal radiator. Even without attenuation at the rotary joints, the resulting pointing error was limited to less than 1.6 arcsec. With vibration control at the joints, to a maximum 0.5 arcsec over a 2 second period. Based on this current level of model definition, it was concluded that between 0 - 50 Hz, the pointing stability requirement for SAGE 3 will not be exceeded by the disturbances evaluated in this study.

  6. A Discussion of Two Challenges of Non-Cooperative Satellite Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coll, Gregory T.; Aranyos, Thomas J.; Nufer, Brian M.; Tomasic, David; Kandula, Max

    2015-01-01

    There is interest from government and commercial aerospace communities in advancing propellant transfer technology for in-orbit refueling of satellites. This paper introduces two challenges to a Propellant Transfer System (PTS) under development for demonstration of non-cooperative satellite refueling. The PTS is being developed to transfer storable propellant (heritage hypergolic fuels and oxidizers as well as xenon) safely and reliably from one servicer satellite to a non-cooperative typical existing client satellite. NASA is in the project evaluation planning stages for conducting a first time on-orbit demonstration to an existing government asset. The system manages pressure, flow rate totalization, temperature and other parameters to control the condition of the propellant being transferred to the client. It keeps the propellant isolated while performing leak checks of itself and the client interface before transferring propellant. A major challenge is to design a safe, reliable system with some new technologies while maintaining a reasonable cost.

  7. A Discussion of Two Challenges of Non-cooperative Satellite Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coll, Gregory C.; Aranyos, Thomas; Nufer, Brian M.; Kandula, Max; Tomasic, David J.

    2015-01-01

    There is interest from government and commercial aerospace communities in advancing propellant transfer technology for in-orbit refueling of satellites. This paper introduces two challenges to a Propellant Transfer System (PTS) under development for demonstration of non-cooperative satellite refueling. The PTS is being developed to transfer storable propellant (heritage hypergolic fuels and oxidizers as well as xenon) safely and reliably from one servicer satellite to a non-cooperative typical existing client satellite. NASA is in the project evaluation planning stages for conducting a first time on-orbit demonstration to an existing government asset. The system manages pressure, flow rate totalization, temperature and other parameters to control the condition of the propellant being transferred to the client. It keeps the propellant isolated while performing leak checks of itself and the client interface before transferring propellant. A major challenge is to design a safe, reliable system with some new technologies while maintaining a reasonable cost.

  8. Manned mission to Mars with periodic refueling from electrically propelled tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogan, Laura; Melko, Joseph; Wang, Fritz; Lourme, Daniel; Moha, Sophie Ben; Lardon, Christele; Richard, Muriel

    In a joint study by students from the Ecole Polytechnique Feminine, France, and the University of California, Los Angeles, a mission concept that had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of a non-nuclear, yet fast, manned mission to Mars was considered. Ion-engine propelled tankers are postulated that would provide mid-coarse refueling of LOX and LH2 to the manned ship. The scenario is therefore one of a 'split mission', yet with the added feature that the cargo ships include tankers for mid-course refueling. The present study is a continuation of one first conducted last year. Emphasis this year was on the design of the tanker fleet.

  9. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  10. Manned mission to Mars with periodic refueling from electrically propelled tankers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogan, Laura; Melko, Joseph; Wang, Fritz; Lourme, Daniel; Moha, Sophie Ben; Lardon, Christele; Richard, Muriel

    1992-01-01

    In a joint study by students from the Ecole Polytechnique Feminine, France, and the University of California, Los Angeles, a mission concept that had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of a non-nuclear, yet fast, manned mission to Mars was considered. Ion-engine propelled tankers are postulated that would provide mid-coarse refueling of LOX and LH2 to the manned ship. The scenario is therefore one of a 'split mission', yet with the added feature that the cargo ships include tankers for mid-course refueling. The present study is a continuation of one first conducted last year. Emphasis this year was on the design of the tanker fleet.

  11. Conceptual design of a flying boom for air-to-air refueling of passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Ir. H. S.; La Rocca, ir. G., Dr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the conceptual development of a flying boom for air-to-air refuelingof passenger aircraft. This operational concept is currently evaluated within the EC project RECREATE as a possible means to achieve significant increase in overall fuel efficiency. While in military aviation aerial refueling is performed with the tankerflyingahead and above the receiver aircraft, in case of passenger aircraft, safety, cost and comfort criteria suggest to invert the set up. This unconventional configuration would require a different refueling boom, able to extend from the tanker towards the cruiser, against wind and gravity. Amultidisciplinary design optimization framework was set up to size and compare various boom design solutions free of structural divergence and sufficientlycontrollable and with minimum values of weight and drag. Oneconcept, based on an innovative kinematic mechanism, was selected for its ability to meet all design constraints, with weight and drag values comparable to conventional boom designs.

  12. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the results of the refueling flight test conducted by NASA and DARPA. In this test an F-18 jet used automatic engagement of the probe on the drogue of the F-18 to connect with the B707 Tanker aircraft. The tests demonstrated acquisition and tracking capability of the video tracking subsystem, demonstrated autonomous rendezvous capability, demonstrated the ability to plug in a turn and demonstrated the ability to plug in mild turbulence.

  13. Meet the Maximally Exposed Member of the Public: The Service Station Attendant for Spent Nuclear Fuel Going to Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H. E.; Gathers, R.; Halstead, R. J.

    2002-02-28

    According to the 1999 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, members of the public along transportation routes by which spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is shipped will receive annual radiation doses less than 100 mrem/yr, the international (ICRP) and national (Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) radiation limit for members of the public. For the ''Mostly Truck'' national transportation scenario, the DEIS specifically concludes that the maximally exposed member of the public, a service station attendant along the primary shipping route will receive no more than 100 mrem/yr, or 2.4 rem over 24 years. Based on the assumptions in the DEIS scenarios, however, it is highly likely that service station attendants along shipping routes will be called upon to fuel and service the rigs carrying SNF and HLW to Yucca Mountain. After reevaluating the DEIS, and making realistic alternative assumptions where necessary, the authors conclude that these attendants are likely to receive substantially more than 100 mrem/yr external dose, and perhaps several times that dose (up to 500 mrem/yr), unless mitigating measures are adopted. This is particularly true in Western states where refueling opportunities are limited, and the distances between fuel sources in rural areas may be up to 100 miles.

  14. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  15. 24. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, c.1960 GENERAL SITE PLAN OF STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at a high-altitude site on the central Tibetan Plateau (Nam Co Station, 4730 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xin; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yuhong; Wen, Tianxue; Zhang, Guoshuai; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition and size distribution characteristics of atmospheric aerosols have important effects on the environment, human health and climate change. In this paper, we study the size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at the remote and pristine site, Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, in the inland Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on collected size-segregated aerosols during 2012. The samples were quantified using the thermal/optical (TOR) method. The overall average concentrations of OC and EC in TSP, PM9.0, PM2.1, and PM1.0 were 4.61 μg m- 3 and 0.19 μg m- 3, 4.52 μg m- 3 and 0.18 μg m- 3, 2.72 μg m- 3 and 0.11 μg m- 3, and 2.11 μg m- 3 and 0.09 μg m- 3, respectively. Generally, the highest concentration of OC and EC in different aerosol size occurred during winter. The low level of EC indicated that direct anthropogenic disturbances in the interior of the TP still remain insignificant. The size distributions of OC and EC concentrations presented bimodal variations. In winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, the peaks for OC were in droplet mode (0.43-0.65 μm) and coarse mode (4.7-5.8 μm); while in the monsoon period, the coarse mode shifted to a smaller size bin (3.3-4.7 μm). The coarse mode may be due to dust particles while the droplet mode may be due to the growth process of particles. For EC, the peaks variations in coarse mode were as same as OC, while the other peaks were complicated: the peaks during winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon seasons exhibited in droplet mode (1.1-2.1 μm, 0.65-1.1 μm, and 0.43-0.65 μm, respectively), and in post-monsoon period, the peak located in condensation mode. The highest peak concentrations for OC and EC occurred in winter and the pre-monsoon period, while the lowest peak values in the monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The size distribution variations may be caused by deposition, gas/particles exchange, hygroscopic growth, external mixing

  17. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  18. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  19. VOC emission source strengths of tankers during refuelling activities determined by spectroscopic remote sensing and inverse dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Hoffmann, Herbert; Dormuth, Igor; Jahn, Carsten; Emeis, Stefan M.

    2002-02-01

    Tankers are a wide spread and important emission source of VOC's. Up to now emission data are available from measurements inside the storage tanks to investigate explosion protection only. Different emission reduction systems are under discussion such as vapor recovery units. The environmental impact of these alternatives shall be investigated. The VOC emissions of tankers were investigated in a river harbor. Fence-line monitoring by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) was performed to investigate different emission sources during activities of tankers in harbors. Benzene, toluene and p-xylene concentrations were measured by a mono-static DOAS using 3 retro-reflectors. The inverse method was applied on the basis of these non-intrusive measurements of effluent concentrations in the exhaust plume and meteorological measurements to determine the emission source strengths. Inversion of effluent's dispersion was performed by a Lagrangian model driven by wind fields of the Eulerian model MISKAM considering influences from buildings and the orography upon the streaming fields. The emission source strengths were determined from unloading and loading of gasoline, from ventilation of storage tanks of tankers into ambient air which is of common practice if the tankers are operated without load or if the tankers are to be refueled with a different product than before and from using the land-site gasoline vapor recovery unit in a tank farm for ventilation.

  20. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  1. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options: Summary briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Computerized data sorting and analysis techniques were used with a data base accumulated in over 20 years of space station studies to evaluate candidate missions and select a final model of 88 missions. The social, cultural, scientific, technical, and commercial benefits to be accrued from each mission were identified. Requirements were determined for satellite servicing; payload placement and retrieval; refueling; repair; testing; assembly; and construction. Missions drivers determined include crew, remote manipulating system, external parts, instrumentation, extravehicular activity/manned maneuvering unit, and voice/video equipment. User interest for commercial applications were determined. Variable architecture based on a modular concept with multi-use elements is proposed.

  2. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  3. Reference Design for a Simple, Durable and Refuelable Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, B. S.; Tolley, A. M.

    This article describes a reference design for interplanetary vessels, composed mostly of water, that utilize simplified RF engines for low thrust, long duration propulsion, and hydrogen peroxide for short duration, high thrust burns. The electrothermal engines are designed to heat a wide range of liquid materials, possibly also milled solids or surface dusts. The system emphasizes simple components and processes based on older technologies, many well known since the 1960s, that are understandable, can process a variety of materials, and are easily serviced in flight. The goal is to radically simplify systems and their inter-dependencies, to a point where a reasonably skilled person can learn to operate these vessels, not unlike a sailboat, and to eliminate many design and testing bottlenecks in their construction. The use of water, or hydrogen peroxide generated in situ from that water, is multiply advantageous because it can be used for structure, consumption, irrigation, radiation and debris shielding, and thermal regulation, and thus greatly reduce dead weight by creating an almost fully consumable ship. This also enables the ship to utilize a wide range of in situ materials, and eventually obtain reaction mass from lower gravity sites. The ability to switch between low thrust, constant power and high thrust, short duration maneuvers will enable these ships to travel freely and reach many interesting destinations throughout the solar system. One can think of them as “spacecoaches”, not unlike the prairie schooners of the Old West, which were rugged, serviceable by tradesmen, and easily maintained.

  4. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  5. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  6. Pellet acceleration study with a railgun for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J.; Kim, K.

    1984-04-01

    Design, construction, and preliminary testing of a two-stage pellet injection system capable of achieving hydrogen pellet velocities of 5--10 km/s are described. The system, which is intended for the refueling of magnetic fusion devices, combines a gas gun with a small-bore, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun. The gas gun uses hydrogen gas as the propellant and injects a medium-velocity pellet into the railgun. Once inside the railgun, the propellant gas following the pellet is electrically broken down forming a plasma arc armature. The propulsive force of this plasma arc armature further accelerates the pellet to higher velocities.

  7. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Honig, J.

    1984-09-01

    Design, construction, testing, and performance evaluation of a small-bore plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system are described. The railgun system, which is intended for injecting high-velocity hydrogen pellets into the magnetic fusion devices for the purpose of refueling, has two acceleration stages. One consists of a gas gun preaccelerator and the other a railgun booster accelerator. The plasma-arc armature is formed behind the pellet by electrically discharging the propellant gas following the pellet into the railgun from the gas gun.

  8. Evaluation of vapor recovery systems efficiency and personal exposure in service stations in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl; Hernández-Solís, José M; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis G

    2003-06-20

    Results of a field study on the efficiency of vapor recovery systems currently used in gasoline service stations in Mexico City are presented. Nine gasoline stations were studied, representing the several technologies available in Mexico City. The test was applied to a fixed vehicular fleet of approximately 10 private and public service vehicles. Each one of the gasoline service stations tested reported efficiencies above 80% in the recovery of vapor losses from gasoline which is the minimum permissible value by Mexican regulations. Implications to the emissions inventory are discussed. A second goal of this study was to measure the potential exposure of service attendants to three important components of gasoline: benzene; toluene; and xylenes. The influence of spatial location of personnel within the service station was also evaluated by measuring levels of the three compounds both at the refueling area and in the service station office. Results are discussed and compared to a previous study. PMID:12798092

  9. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  10. Surface-wave site characterization at 53 strong-motion recording stations affected by the Parkfield, California, M6.0 earthquake of 28 September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad; Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We present one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles at 52 strong-motion sites that recorded the 28 September 2004 Magnitude 6.0 Parkfield, Calif., earthquake. We estimate the VS profiles with the Spectral Analysis of Surface-Waves (SASW) method. The SASW method is a noninvasive method that indirectly estimates the VS at depth from variations in the Rayleigh wave phase velocity at the surface. To address the uncertainty associated with these measurements, we compare the SASW profiles to surface-source downhole-receiver (SSDR) profiles at four sites. Three of the four SSDR sites are in close agreement with the adjacent SASW site, while the SASW profile is considerably slower than the SSDR profile at one site.

  11. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  12. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

    1995-04-20

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  13. Drogue tracking using 3D flash lidar for autonomous aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao-I.; Stettner, Roger

    2011-06-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling (AAR) is an important capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to increase its flying range and endurance without increasing its size. This paper presents a novel tracking method that utilizes both 2D intensity and 3D point-cloud data acquired with a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor to establish relative position and orientation between the receiver vehicle and drogue during an aerial refueling process. Unlike classic, vision-based sensors, a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor can provide 3D point-cloud data in real time without motion blur, in the day or night, and is capable of imaging through fog and clouds. The proposed method segments out the drogue through 2D analysis and estimates the center of the drogue from 3D point-cloud data for flight trajectory determination. A level-set front propagation routine is first employed to identify the target of interest and establish its silhouette information. Sufficient domain knowledge, such as the size of the drogue and the expected operable distance, is integrated into our approach to quickly eliminate unlikely target candidates. A statistical analysis along with a random sample consensus (RANSAC) is performed on the target to reduce noise and estimate the center of the drogue after all 3D points on the drogue are identified. The estimated center and drogue silhouette serve as the seed points to efficiently locate the target in the next frame.

  14. Meta-RaPS Algorithm for the Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2011-01-01

    The Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem (ARSP) can be defined as determining the refueling completion times for each fighter aircraft (job) on multiple tankers (machines). ARSP assumes that jobs have different release times and due dates, The total weighted tardiness is used to evaluate schedule's quality. Therefore, ARSP can be modeled as a parallel machine scheduling with release limes and due dates to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Since ARSP is NP-hard, it will be more appropriate to develop a pproimate or heuristic algorithm to obtain solutions in reasonable computation limes. In this paper, Meta-Raps-ATC algorithm is implemented to create high quality solutions. Meta-RaPS (Meta-heuristic for Randomized Priority Search) is a recent and promising meta heuristic that is applied by introducing randomness to a construction heuristic. The Apparent Tardiness Rule (ATC), which is a good rule for scheduling problems with tardiness objective, is used to construct initial solutions which are improved by an exchanging operation. Results are presented for generated instances.

  15. Ground-motion site effects from multimethod shear-wave velocity characterization at 16 seismograph stations deployed for aftershocks of the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Angster, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    We characterize shear-wave velocity versus depth (Vs profile) at 16 portable seismograph sites through the epicentral region of the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral (Virginia, USA) earthquake to investigate ground-motion site effects in the area. We used a multimethod acquisition and analysis approach, where active-source horizontal shear (SH) wave reflection and refraction as well as active-source multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive-source refraction microtremor (ReMi) Rayleigh wave dispersion were interpreted separately. The time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), interpreted bedrock depth, and site resonant frequency were estimated from the best-fit Vs profile of each method at each location for analysis. Using the median Vs30 value (270–715 m/s) as representative of a given site, we estimate that all 16 sites are National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class C or D. Based on a comparison of simplified mapped surface geology to median Vs30 at our sites, we do not see clear evidence for using surface geologic units as a proxy for Vs30 in the epicentral region, although this may primarily be because the units are similar in age (Paleozoic) and may have similar bulk seismic properties. We compare resonant frequencies calculated from ambient noise horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) at available sites to predicted site frequencies (generally between 1.9 and 7.6 Hz) derived from the median bedrock depth and average Vs to bedrock. Robust linear regression of HVSR to both site frequency and Vs30 demonstrate moderate correlation to each, and thus both appear to be generally representative of site response in this region. Based on Kendall tau rank correlation testing, we find that Vs30 and the site frequency calculated from average Vs to median interpreted bedrock depth can both be considered reliable predictors of weak-motion site effects in the epicentral region.

  16. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.

  17. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Duleep, Gopal

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  18. Developing a virtual reality application for training nuclear power plant operators: setting up a database containing dose rates in the refuelling plant.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Zarza, I; Burgos, M C; Felipe, A; Sánchez-Mayoral, M L

    2004-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed. PMID:15266073

  19. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling.

    PubMed Central

    Egeghy, P P; Tornero-Velez, R; Rappaport, S M

    2000-01-01

    Although automobile refueling represents the major source of benzene exposure among the nonsmoking public, few data are available regarding such exposures and the associated uptake of benzene. We repeatedly measured benzene exposure and uptake (via benzene in exhaled breath) among 39 self-service customers using self-administered monitoring, a technique rarely used to obtain measurements from the general public (130 sets of measurements were obtained). Benzene exposures averaged 2.9 mg/m(3) (SD = 5.8 mg/m(3); median duration = 3 min) with a range of < 0.076-36 mg/m(3), and postexposure breath levels averaged 160 microg/m(3) (SD = 260 microg/m(3)) with a range of < 3.2-1,400 microg/m(3). Log-transformed exposures and breath levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). We used mixed-effects statistical models to gauge the relative influences of environmental and subject-specific factors on benzene exposure and breath levels and to investigate the importance of various covariates obtained by questionnaire. Model fitting yielded three significant predictors of benzene exposure, namely, fuel octane grade (p = 0.0011), duration of exposure (p = 0.0054), and season of the year (p = 0.032). Likewise, another model yielded three significant predictors of benzene concentration in breath, specifically, benzene exposure (p = 0.0001), preexposure breath concentration (p = 0.0008), and duration of exposure (p = 0.038). Variability in benzene concentrations was remarkable, with 95% of the estimated values falling within a 274-fold range, and was comprised entirely of the within-person component of variance (representing exposures of the same subject at different times of refueling). The corresponding range for benzene concentrations in breath was 41-fold and was comprised primarily of the within-person variance component (74% of the total variance). Our results indicate that environmental rather than interindividual differences are primarily responsible for

  20. 33 CFR 334.293 - Elizabeth River, Craney Island Refueling Pier Restricted Area, Portsmouth VA; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elizabeth River, Craney Island Refueling Pier Restricted Area, Portsmouth VA; naval restricted area. 334.293 Section 334.293 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS §...

  1. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  2. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  3. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  4. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  5. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  7. 47 CFR 25.172 - Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... case of a non-U.S.-licensed space station, prior to commencing operation with U.S. earth stations. (1... earth station(s) communicating with the space station from any site in the United States. (3) The location, by city and country, of any telemetry, tracking, and command earth station that communicates...

  8. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  9. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  10. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  11. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  12. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  13. Conceptual design of a submerged power station

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    Providing safe and sustainable energy to the world`s increasing population will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. At the INEL we are developing the concept of a passively safe submerged power station (SPS), shown. The reactor is located in the forward part of the vessel, while the turbine and generator are mounted in the middle section and the control and crew quarters are located at the opposite end of the vessel. The SPS would be operated in 20 to 100 m of water at a distance of 10 to 30 km from the shore and would generate 600 MWe. Power would be transmitted to shore by AC cables, similar to submarine cables in use today. The SPS would be manufactured in a central shipyard and towed or transported to its operational location. The reactor is designed to operate on a five-year cycle with a capacity factor of 70 percent, after which the station would be returned to a central facility for refueling and maintenance. Thus the SPS has the advantages of centralized fabrication and maintenance.

  14. Conceptual design of a submerged power station

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Providing safe and sustainable energy to the world's increasing population will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. At the INEL we are developing the concept of a passively safe submerged power station (SPS), shown. The reactor is located in the forward part of the vessel, while the turbine and generator are mounted in the middle section and the control and crew quarters are located at the opposite end of the vessel. The SPS would be operated in 20 to 100 m of water at a distance of 10 to 30 km from the shore and would generate 600 MWe. Power would be transmitted to shore by AC cables, similar to submarine cables in use today. The SPS would be manufactured in a central shipyard and towed or transported to its operational location. The reactor is designed to operate on a five-year cycle with a capacity factor of 70 percent, after which the station would be returned to a central facility for refueling and maintenance. Thus the SPS has the advantages of centralized fabrication and maintenance.

  15. Rethinking cardiac metabolism: metabolic cycles to refuel and rebuild the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Genna

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a self-renewing biological pump that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy. The entire process of energy conversion is subject to complex regulation at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Within this system, energy transfer occurs with high efficiency, facilitated by a series of compound-conserved cycles. At the same time, the constituent myocardial proteins themselves are continuously made and degraded in order to adjust to changes in energy demand and changes in the extracellular environment. We recently have identified signals arising from intermediary metabolism that regulate the cycle of myocardial protein turnover. Using a new conceptual framework, we discuss the principle of metabolic cycles and their importance for refueling and for rebuilding the failing heart. PMID:25374668

  16. Comparison of site effect values obtained by HVSR and HVSRN methods for single-station measurements in Tarnówek, South-Western Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendecki, Maciej J.; Bieta, Barbara; Mateuszów, Mateusz; Suszka, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This study compares the HVSR technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio), based on seismic event records, and the HVSRN technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio of Noise) using seismic noise registrations. Both methods allow us to study the amplification phenomenon of a horizontal component of seismic waves when the waves reach loose sediments in subsurface layers. The seismic data were measured at a three-component single seismic station located in the village of Tarnówek, in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District. The results of the study demonstrate that average HVSRN and HVSR maxima can be distinguished: for periods approximately 3.78 s (H/V = 6.2) and 3.969 s (H/V = 8.98) respectively. The evaluated share of the Rayleigh wave component in the recorded values was β = 0.58 and it can be suggested that the Love wave share in surface motion was insignificant. The Love wave share remains unknown.

  17. Airdata sensor based position estimation and fault diagnosis in aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevil, Hakki Erhan

    Aerial refueling is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight. In aerial refueling operations, the receiver aircraft is exposed to nonuniform wind field induced by tanker aircraft, and this nonuniform wind field leads to differences in readings of airdata sensors placed at different locations on the receiver aircraft. There are advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon. As an advantage, it is used as a mechanism to estimate relative position of the receiver aircraft inside the nonuniform wind field behind the tanker. Using the difference in the measurements from multiple identical sensors, a model of the nonuniform wind field that is organized as maps of the airspeed, side slip angle and angle of attack as functions of the relative position is prepared. Then, using the developed algorithms, preformed maps and instant sensor readings, the relative position receiver aircraft is determined. The disadvantage of the phenomenon is that the differences in readings of airdata sensors cause false fault detections in a redundant-sensor-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system developed based on the assumption of identical sensor readings from three airdata sensors. Such FDI algorithm successfully performs detection and isolation of sensor faults when the receiver aircraft flies solo or outside the wake of the tanker aircraft. However, the FDI algorithm yields false fault detection when the receiver aircraft enters the tanker's wake. This problem can be eliminated by modifying the FDI algorithm. For the robustness, the expected values of the sensor measurements are incorporated in the FDI algorithm, instead of the assumption of identical measurements from the sensors. The expected values, which depend on the position of the receiver relative to the tanker, are obtained from the maps of the nonuniform wind field as functions of the relative position. The new robust FDI detects and isolates sensor

  18. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  19. 5. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 6. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2 INTERIOR, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2 INTERIOR, FACING WEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. 3. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1 INTERIOR, FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1 INTERIOR, FACING EAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  2. 2. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING NORTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING NORTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  3. 4. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. 10. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 9. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3 INTERIOR, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3 INTERIOR, FACING NORTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. 1. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING SOUTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING SOUTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. 12. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 INTERIOR, FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 INTERIOR, FACING SOUTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. 7. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. 8. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. 11. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 13. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 CHLORINATOR INTERIOR, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 CHLORINATOR INTERIOR, FACING NORTH - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:15 Miscellaneous Pipelines Associated with the 132-F-6, 1608-F Waste Water Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-031

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-18

    The 100-F-26:15 waste site consisted of the remnant portions of underground process effluent and floor drain pipelines that originated at the 105-F Reactor. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  15. Refueling and density control in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Watt, R.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Buechl, K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of pellet injection and gas puff refueling have been studied in the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch. Multiple deuterium pellets (less than or equal to 6 x 10/sup 19/D atoms/pellet) with velocities ranging from 300 to 700 m/sec have been injected into plasmas with n-bar/sub e/ approx.1 to 5 X 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/, I/sub phi/ approx.100 to 250 kA, T/sub e/(0) approx.150 to 300 eV and discharge durations of less than or equal to 20 msec. Photographs and an array D/sub ..cap alpha../ detectors show substantial deflection of the pellet trajectory in both the poloidal and toroidal planes, due to asymmetric ablation of the pellet by electrons streaming along field lines. To compensate for the poloidal deflection, the injector was moved up +14 cm off-axis, allowing the pellets to curve down to the midplane. In this fashion, central peaking of the pellet density deposition profile can be obtained. Both electron and ion temperatures fall in response to the density rise, such that ..beta../sub theta/(..beta../sub theta/ identical to n-bar/sub e/(T/sub e/(0) + T/sub i/)/(B/sub theta/(a))/sup 2/) remains roughly constant. Energy confinement is momentarily degraded, and typically a decrease in F (F identical to B/sub phi/(a)/(B/sub phi/)) is seen as magnetic energy is converted to plasma energy when the pellet ablates. As a result of pellet injection at I/sub phi/ = 150 kA we observe T/sub e/(0) ..cap alpha.. n-bar/sub e//sup -.9 +- .1/, while the helicity based resistivity eta/sub k/ transiently varies as n-bar/sub e//sup .7 +- .1/. While the achievement of center-peaked density profiles is possible with pellet injection, gas puffing at rates strong enough to show a 50% increase in n-bar/sub e/ over a period of 10 msec (approx.150 torr-litres/sec) leads to hollow density profiles. The refueling requirements for parameters expected in the next generation RFPs (ZTH, RFX) can be extrapolated from these data using modified tokamak pellet ablation codes.

  16. The Refuelable Zinc-air Battery: Alternative Techniques for Zinc and Electrolyte Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J F; Krueger, R

    2006-01-19

    An investigation was conducted into alternative techniques for zinc and electrolyte regeneration and reuse in the refuelable zinc/air battery that was developed by LLNL and previously tested on a moving electric bus using cut wire. Mossy zinc was electrodeposited onto a bipolar array of inclined Ni plates with an energy consumption of 1.8 kWh/kg. Using a H{sub 2}-depolarized anode, zinc was deposited at 0.6 V (0.8 kA/m{sup 2}); the open circuit voltage was 0.45 V. Three types of fuel pellets were tested and compared with results for 0.75 mm cut wire: spheres produced in a spouted bed (UCB); coarse powder produced by gas-atomization (Noranda); and irregular pellets produced by chopping 1-mm plates of compacted zinc fines (Eagle-Picher, Inc.). All three types transported within the cell. The coarse powder fed continuously from hopper to cell, as did the compacted pellets (< 0.83 mm). Large particles (> 0.83 mm; Eagle-Picher and UCB) failed to feed from hopper into cell, being held up in the 2.5 mm wide channel connecting hopper to cell. Increasing channel width to {approx}3.5 mm should allow all three types to be used. Energy losses were determined for shorting of cells during refueling. The shorting currents between adjacent hoppers through zinc particle bridges were determined using both coarse powder and chopped compressed zinc plates. A physical model was developed allowing scaling our results for electrode polarization and bed resistance Shorting was found to consume < 0.02% of the capacity of the cell and to dissipate {approx}0.2 W/cell of heat. Corrosion rates were determined for cut wire in contact with current collector materials and battery-produced ZnO-saturated electrolyte. The rates were 1.7% of cell capacity per month at ambient temperatures; and 0.08% of capacity for 12 hours at 57 C. The total energy conversion efficiency for zinc recovery using the hydrogen was estimated at 34% (natural gas to battery terminals)--comparable to fuel cells. Producing

  17. Drogue detection for vision-based autonomous aerial refueling via low rank and sparse decomposition with multiple features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shibo; Cheng, Yongmei; Song, Chunhua

    2013-09-01

    The technology of vision-based probe-and-drogue autonomous aerial refueling is an amazing task in modern aviation for both manned and unmanned aircraft. A key issue is to determine the relative orientation and position of the drogue and the probe accurately for relative navigation system during the approach phase, which requires locating the drogue precisely. Drogue detection is a challenging task due to disorderly motion of drogue caused by both the tanker wake vortex and atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, the problem of drogue detection is considered as a problem of moving object detection. A drogue detection algorithm based on low rank and sparse decomposition with local multiple features is proposed. The global and local information of drogue is introduced into the detection model in a unified way. The experimental results on real autonomous aerial refueling videos show that the proposed drogue detection algorithm is effective.

  18. Regeneration of zinc anodes for the Electric Fuel{reg_sign} zinc-air refuelable EV battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Koretz, B.; Goldstein, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Electric Fuel Limited (EFL) refuelable zinc-air battery system is currently being tested in a number of electric vehicle demonstration projects, the largest of which is a field test of zinc-air postal vans sponsored chiefly by Deutsche Post AG (the German Post Office). The zinc-air battery is not recharged electrically, but rather is refueled through a series of mechanical and electrochemical steps that will require a special infrastructure in commercial application. As part of the German Post Office field test program, Electric Fuel designed and constructed a pilot zinc anode regeneration plant in Bremen, Germany. This plant is capable of servicing up to 100 commercial vans per week, which is adequate for the field test vehicle fleet. This paper will describe the design and operation of each of the areas and devices within the plant.

  19. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyekyoon

    1987-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of a railgun accelerator to inject hydrogen pellets into a magnetic fusion reactor for refueling purposes. Specific studies in this paper include: 1.5 mm-diameter two-stage fuseless plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun, construction and testing of a 3.2 mm-diameter two-stage railgun and a theoretical analysis of the behavior of a railgun plasma-arc armature inside a railgun. (LSP)

  20. Comparison of hourly solar radiation from ground-based station, remote sensing sensors and weather forecast models: A preliminary study, in a coastal site of South Italy (Lamezia Terme).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Feudo, Teresa; Avolio, Elenio; Gullì, Daniel; Federico, Stefano; Sempreviva, Annamaria; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2015-04-01

    The solar radiation is a very complex parameter to cope with due to its random and nonlinear characteristics depending on changeable weather conditions and complex orography. Therefore it is a critical input parameter to address many climatic, meteorological, and solar energy issues. In this preliminary study we made an intercomparison between the hourly solar MSG SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data product DSSF(Down-welling Surface Short-wave Flux) developed by LSA SAF( Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility), a pyranometer sensor (CNR 4 Net Radiometer - Kipp&Zonen) and two weather forecast models. The solar radiation datasets were obtained from a pyranometer sensor situated in Weather Station of CNR ISAC Lamezia Terme(38,88 LAT 16,24 LON), a satellite based product DSSF with spatial resolution of 3km and outputs of two weather forecast models. Models adopted are WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting) and Rams( Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)running operatively with a 3Km horizontal resolution. Both DSSF and model outputs are extracted at Latitude and Longitude previously defined. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions clear and cloudy sky, and both conditions, additionally, for a quantitative analysis the exact acquisition times of satellite measurements was taken into account. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly, daily and monthly - averaged solar radiation are estimated including clear and sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Comparison between DSSF product, Solar Radiation ground based pyranometer measurements and output of two weather forecast models, made over the period June2013-December2013, showed a good agreement in this costal site and we demonstrated that the forecast models generally overestimate solar radiation respect the ground based sensor and DSSF product. As results in general the RMSE monthly-averaged are

  1. An analysis of ullage heat transfer in the orbital refueling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Orbital Refueling System was an experiment flown on Shuttle Mission STS 41-G in October, 1984. Liquid hydrazine fuel was transferred back and forth from one spherical bladder tank to another using pressurized nitrogen as the driving force. Compressive heating of the ullage gas in the receiving tank could lead to a hazardous situation if any hydrazine leaked through to the ullage side of the bladder and was heated above about 175 F, where it can undergo spontaneous exothermic decomposition. Early analysis of the flight data indicated that the ullage compression process was much closer to an isothermal than an adiabatic one. In this study, a thorough review of the pertinent literature was used to make an a priori best-estimate for the ullage gas heat transfer coefficient (defining the Nusselt Number as a function of Reynolds and Rayleigh Numbers). Experimental data from the flight were analyzed in detail. It is evident that there is considerably more heat transfer than can be accounted for by conduction alone, but the observed increases do not correlate well with Reynolds Number, Rayleigh Number or vehicle acceleration. There are large gaps in the present understanding of convective heat transfer in closed containers with internal heat generation, especially in the presence of vibrations or other random disturbances. A program of experiments to fill in these gaps is suggested, covering both ground and orbital environments.

  2. An analysis of ullage heat transfer in the orbital refueling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, D.

    1986-07-01

    The Orbital Refueling System was an experiment flown on Shuttle Mission STS 41-G in October, 1984. Liquid hydrazine fuel was transferred back and forth from one spherical bladder tank to another using pressurized nitrogen as the driving force. Compressive heating of the ullage gas in the receiving tank could lead to a hazardous situation if any hydrazine leaked through to the ullage side of the bladder and was heated above about 175 F, where it can undergo spontaneous exothermic decomposition. Early analysis of the flight data indicated that the ullage compression process was much closer to an isothermal than an adiabatic one. In this study, a thorough review of the pertinent literature was used to make an a priori best-estimate for the ullage gas heat transfer coefficient (defining the Nusselt Number as a function of Reynolds and Rayleigh Numbers). Experimental data from the flight were analyzed in detail. It is evident that there is considerably more heat transfer than can be accounted for by conduction alone, but the observed increases do not correlate well with Reynolds Number, Rayleigh Number or vehicle acceleration. There are large gaps in the present understanding of convective heat transfer in closed containers with internal heat generation, especially in the presence of vibrations or other random disturbances. A program of experiments to fill in these gaps is suggested, covering both ground and orbital environments.

  3. Acceleration of solid hydrogen pellet using augmented railgun for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Kim, K.; King, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A 1.2-m long electromagnetic railgun with separate augmentation was designed, fabricated, and tested for the purpose of injecting hypervelocity hydrogen pellets into magnetic fusion devices for refueling. A compact configuration of two pairs of coaxial rails insulated by thin Kapton film was employed. Two pulse-forming networks were used to separately control the duration, amplitude, and overlap of the current pulses. Copper sulfate resistors were employed as impedance-matching resistors and bank short resistors. The magnetic field inside the gun bore was boosted by the high current on the augmentation rails, which in turn increased the J x B force without increasing the armature current, resulting in less ablation of the gun bore and pellet. Higher acceleration was achieved due to reduced inertial and viscous frag. Using a 1.2-m augmented railgun, hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.5 km/s were achieved. Hydrogen pellet accelerations as high as 4.4 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s{sup 2} were achieved at a railgun current of 13.5 kA while the acceleration obtained on a conventional railgun was 2.2 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s{sup 2} at 14.1 kA. Computer simulations have been performed using the finite element code MSC/EMAS to analyze the current density, magnetic field, Lorentz force, and inductance gradient of the conventional and augmented railguns.

  4. Deregulation and Station Trafficking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    To test whether the revocation of the Federal Communications Commission's "Anti-Trafficking" rule (requiring television station owners to keep a station for three years before transferring its license to another party) impacted station owner behavior, a study compared the behavior of television station "traffickers" (owners seeking quick turnovers…

  5. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  6. Photogrammetric stations for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1992-03-01

    Photogrammetric stations are used for vision based dynamic control of 3-D related phenomena. The vision sensors are fixed solid-state cameras which are permanently mounted and set up for a specific control task. The on-site calibration of the station allows the continuous processing of the 3-D space coordinates for all object points according to their actual 2-D image locations For automated control processes the object points are targeted using predefined templates extracted from the perspective images. The precision of an object point measured by the station is better than 1:10,000 of the object volume in all three coordinates. The vision application presented here is the locating of car bodies in the 3-D space of a robotic sealing cell.

  7. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  8. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  9. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

  10. 17. VIEW OF RCA COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVING STATION DOWN AVENUE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF RCA COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVING STATION DOWN AVENUE OF MONTEREY CYPRESS. THE TREES WERE CAREFULLY CULTIVATED TO FORM A LANDSCAPED APPROACH TO THE STATION. NOTE ANTENNA FIELD AT LEFT VIEW 312 DEGREES NORTHWEST. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  11. 25. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, c.1939 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE HISTORIC SITE, SHOWS THE LOCATION OF THE TURBINES AND BOILERS WITHIN THE BUILDINGS OF STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  13. Electric vehicles - an alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventionally fuelled vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well. This report discusses electric powered vehicles as an alternative fuels vehicle.

  14. Automated refueling simulations of a CANDU for the exploitation of thorium fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Bradford

    CANDU nuclear reactors are in a unique circumstance where they are able to utilize and exploit a number of different fuel options to provide power as a utility. Thorium, a fertile isotope found naturally, is one option that should be explored. Thorium is more abundant than uranium, which is the typical fuel in the reactor and the availability of thorium makes nuclear energy desirable to more countries. This document contains the culmination of a project that explores, tests, and analyzes the feasibility of using thorium in a CANDU reactor. The project first develops a set of twodimensional lattice and three dimensional control rod simulations using the DRAGON Version 4 nuclear physics codes. This step is repeated for many concentrations of thorium. The data generated in these steps is then used to determine a functional enrichment of thorium. This is done via a procedural elimination and optimization of certain key parameters including but not limited to average exit burnup and reactivity evolution. For the purposes of this project, an enrichment of 1 % thorium was found viable. Full core calculations were done using the DONJON 4 code. CANFUEL, a program which simulates the refueling operations of a CANDU reactor for this fuel type was developed and ran for a simulation period of one hundred days. The program and the fuel selection met all selected requirements for the entirety of the simulation period. CANFUEL requires optimization for fuel selection before it can be used extensively. The fuel selection was further scrutinized when a reactivity insertion event was simulated. The adjuster rod 11 withdrawal from the core was analyzed and compared to classical CANDU results in order to ensure no significant deviations or unwanted evolutions were encountered. For this case, the simulation results were deemed acceptable with no significant deviations from the classical CANDU case.

  15. Space Station Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program are outlined. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on draft and mass requirements are described with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

  16. Space Station power system

    SciTech Connect

    Baraona, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    The strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program are outlined. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on draft and mass requirements are described with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

  17. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs, Aquifer-Isolation Tests, and Water-Quality Data for Sites 1, 3, and 5 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, borehole television surveys, and aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in 2005 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Navy in support of hydrogeological investigations to address ground-water contamination. Data collected for this study are valuable for understanding ground-water flow in the Stockton Formation at the local and regional scale. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB is underlain by the Stockton Formation, which consists of sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The rocks of the Stockton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer with partially connected zones of high permeability. Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and borehole television surveys made in seven boreholes ranging from 70 to 350 ft deep were used to identify potential water-producing fractures and fracture zones and to select intervals for aquifer-isolation tests. An upward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in one borehole, a downward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in four boreholes, both an upward and a downward vertical hydraulic gradient were measured in one borehole, and no flow was measurable in one borehole. The aquifer-isolation tests isolated 30 discrete fractures in the seven boreholes for collection of depth-discrete hydraulic and water-quality data. Of the 30 fractures identified as potentially water producing, 26 fractures (87 percent) produced more than 1 gallon per minute of water. The specific capacity of the isolated intervals producing more than 1 gallon per minute ranged from 0.02 to 5.2 gallons per minute per foot. There was no relation between specific capacity and depth of the fracture. Samples for analysis for volatile organic compounds were collected from each isolated zone. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the most

  18. 12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOMRCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOM-RCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM WAS ORIGINALLY A MOTOR GENERATOR FACILITY AND SUPPLIED DC POWER TO AN EARLIER GENERATION OF POINT-TO-POINT RECEIVERS ON SECOND FLOOR). VIEW SHOWS TRANSMITTER CONTROL STATION AND AUDIO CONTROL STATION (LEFT, WATKINS-JOHNSON WJ-8718-23. HP RECEIVERS AND KENWOOD R-5000 COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVERS (220 DEGREES). - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  19. Space station automation II

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on space station automation. Topics include the following: distributed artificial intelligence for space station energy management systems and computer architecture for tolerobots in earth orbit.

  20. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  1. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that space station planning at NASA began when NASA was created in 1958. However, the initiation of the program for a lunar landing delayed the implementation of plans for a space station. The utility of a space station was finally demonstrated with Skylab, which was launched in 1972. In May 1982, the Space Station Task Force was established to provide focus and direction for space station planning activities. The present paper provides a description of the planning activities, giving particular attention to the power system. The initial space station will be required to supply 75 kW of continuous electrical power, 60 kW for the customer and 15 kW for space station needs. Possible alternative energy sources for the space station include solar planar or concentrator arrays of either silicon or gallium arsenide.

  2. The Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cost constraints to a large degree control the functionality and form of the IOC of the Space Station. Planning of Station missions must be delayed to retain flexibility, a goal also served by modular development of the Station and by multi-use laboratory modules. Early emphasis on servicing other spacecraft is recommended, as is using available Shuttle flight time for R&D on Space Station technologies and operations.

  3. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  4. Canadian Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doetsch, K. H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Canadian Space Station Program is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC), Space Station Freedom assembly milestones, the MB-3 launch configuration, a new workstation configuration, strategic technology development, the User Development Program, the Space Station Program budget, and Canada's future space activities.

  5. ATS-F ground station integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The ATS ground stations were described, including a system description, operational frequencies and bandwidth, and a discussion of individual subsystems. Each station configuration is described as well as its floor plan. The station performance, as tested by the GSI, is displayed in chart form providing a summary of the more important parameters tested. This chart provides a listing of test data, by site, for comparison purposes. Also included is a description of the ATS-6 experiments, the equipment, and interfaces required to perform these experiments. The ADP subsystem and its role in the experiments is also described. A description of each program task and a summary of the activities performed were then given. These efforts were accomplished at the Rosman II Ground Station, located near Rosman N.C., the Mojave Ground Station, located near Barstow Ca., and the GSI Contractors plant located near Baltimore, Md.

  6. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  7. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  8. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-06-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  9. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-01-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  10. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Briefing material: Final review and executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages were assessed for configuration options for a modular 14' diameter space station, a modular aft cargo carrier and a shuttle derived vehicle. Early, intermediate, and mature configurations were defined as well as power requirements, heat rejection, hydrazine usage, and the external scavenging concept. Subsystems were analyzed for propulsion, attitude control, data processing, and communications. Areas of uncertainties, associated costs and benefits, and the cost by phase of the modular and shuttle derived vehicle configurations were identified. Technologies assessed included solar vs nuclear; gravity gradient vs active control; heat pipe radiators vs fluid loops; distributed processors vs centralized, and modular vs shuttle derived configuration. It was determined that the early space station architecture should include: (1) reusable OTV with aerobraking; (2) TMS with telepresence services; (3) OTV/TMS refueling and servicing capability; and (4) attached research laboratories for life sciences and materials processing.

  11. NASA's robotic servicing role for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L.; Goss, R.; Spencer, R.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to evaluations of the relative impacts on and benefits to the Space Station Program of various levels of robotics devices for space servicing operations. The leading robotic candidate concept for the IOC Space Station, the Smart Front End, uses a small, stiff and highly dexterous work effector controlled by a human-in-the-loop from a remote control station. This configuration offers both a quality multifunctional performance capability at the work site as well as technology transparency through the ground teleoperation control mode.

  12. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  13. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  14. Field test of the Electric Fuel{trademark} zinc-air refuelable battery system for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.R.; Koretz, B.; Harats, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The Electric Fuel Limited (EFL) zinc-air refuelable battery system will be tested over the next two years in a number of electric vehicle demonstration projects, the largest of which is an $18-million, 64-vehicle, two-year test sponsored chiefly by Deutsche Post AG (the German Post Corporation). The German field test is the largest-ever EV fleet test of a single advanced-battery technology. It also represents a marked departure from other EV test and demonstration programs, in that it is being sponsored not by government or electric utility interests, but by large fleet operators committed to shifting significant proportions of their vehicles to electric over the next 5--10 years. The Electric Fuel battery has specific energy of 200 Wh/kg, an achievement that allows electric vehicles to go as far on a charge as conventionally fueled vehicles go on a tank of gasoline. Fast, convenient refueling eliminates the need for lengthy electrical recharging, and clean, centralized zinc regeneration plants ensure the most efficient and environment-friendly use of energy resources.

  15. Data quality control of ADSN Broadband stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alili, Azouaou; Yelles-chaouche, Abd el karim; Allili, Toufik; Messemen, Walid

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present the analysis of continuous waveform of the Algerian digital seismic network recorded during five years from 2008 to 2013 for twenty broadband stations using the power spectral densities (PSDs) and their corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) algorithm of McNamara, and Buland (2004). ADSN Broadband stations data quality is one main concern and interest of ADSN technical team. Indeed, the quality of the data from broadband stations is continuously controlled in quasi-realtime using "PQLX" (Pascal Quick Look eXtended) software to compute the PDFs and PSDs during the operation of the stations at different frequency range. At each station the level of noise is shown, which we can see diurnal and seasonal variation. From the data analysis, most of the ADSN Broadband stations display good records in the several frequency domains in relation with their site installation. However some of stations near the urban areas could present some noisy disturbances. This led sometimes to generate some ghost events. In the low frequency, some stations could be still influenced by the temperature variations. This long period of records from 2008 to 2013, led us to analyze and control the several stations year by year taking into account the seasons and to know about their work during five years. This analysis is also very important to improve in the future quality of station installation and choose the optimal station design in aim to reduce cultural noise and large fluctuation of temperature and pressure. Key words: PQLX, PDFs, PSDs, Broad Band

  16. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  17. H2FIRST Reference Station Design Task: Project Deliverable 2-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Joseph; Terlip, Danny; Ainscough, Chris; Kurtz, Jennifer; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-04-20

    This report presents near-term station cost results and discusses cost trends of different station types. It compares various vehicle rollout scenarios and projects realistic near-term station utilization values using the station infrastructure rollout in California as an example. It describes near-term market demands and matches those to cost-effective station concepts. Finally, the report contains detailed designs for five selected stations, which include piping and instrumentation diagrams, bills of materials, and several site-specific layout studies that incorporate the setbacks required by NFPA 2, the National Fire Protection Association Hydrogen Technologies Code. This work identified those setbacks as a significant factor affecting the ability to site a hydrogen station, particularly liquid stations at existing gasoline stations. For all station types, utilization has a large influence on the financial viability of the station.

  18. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  19. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  20. Space Station fluid resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, AL

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space station fluid resupply are presented. Space Station Freedom is resupplied with supercritical O2 and N2 for the ECLSS and USL on a 180 day resupply cycle. Resupply fluids are stored in the subcarriers on station between resupply cycles and transferred to the users as required. ECLSS contingency fluids (O2 and N2) are supplied and stored on station in a gaseous state. Efficiency and flexibility are major design considerations. Subcarrier approach allows multiple manifest combinations. Growth is achieved by adding modular subcarriers.

  1. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  2. Steam Dryer Segmentation and Packaging at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station - 13577

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitman, Paul J.; Sirianni, Steve R.; Pillard, Mark M.

    2013-07-01

    Entergy recently performed an Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) on their Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, near Port Gibson, Mississippi. To support the EPU, a new Steam Dryer Assembly was installed during the last refueling outage. Due to limited access into the containment, the large Replacement Steam Dryer (RSD) had to be brought into the containment in pieces and then final assembly was completed on the refueling floor before installation into the reactor. Likewise, the highly contaminated Original Steam Dryer (OSD) had to be segmented into manageable sections, loaded into specially designed shielded containers, and rigged out of containment where they will be safely stored until final disposal is accomplished at an acceptable waste repository. Westinghouse Nuclear Services was contracted by Entergy to segment, package and remove the OSD from containment. This work was performed on critical path during the most recent refueling outage. The segmentation was performed underwater to minimize radiation exposure to the workers. Special hydraulic saws were developed for the cutting operations based on Westinghouse designs previously used in Sweden to segment ABB Reactor Internals. The mechanical cutting method was selected because of its proven reliability and the minimal cutting debris that is generated by the process. Maintaining stability of the large OSD sections during cutting was accomplished using a custom built support stand that was installed into the Moisture Separator Pool after the Moisture Separator was installed back in the reactor vessel. The OSD was then moved from the Steam Dryer Pool to the Moisture Separator Pool for segmentation. This scenario resolved the logistical challenge of having two steam dryers and a moisture separator in containment simultaneously. A water filtration/vacuum unit was supplied to maintain water clarity during the cutting and handling operations and to collect the cutting chips. (authors)

  3. Potential availability of diesel waste heat at Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy consumption at the Goldstone Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12) is predicted and quantified for a future station configuration which will involve implementation of proposed energy conservation modifications. Cogeneration by the utilization of diesel waste-heat to satisfy site heating and cooling requirements of the station is discussed. Scenarios involving expanded use of on-site diesel generators are presented.

  4. Space station executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

  5. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  6. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  7. The Station System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes an introductory college chemistry course utilizing laboratory stations and laboratory instruction by video taped presentations. Author discusses the general operation of the laboratory, the method used in evaluating students' progress, the teaching effectiveness and economy of the station system. Results of a student questionnaire reveal…

  8. Targeting space station technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Technology Steering Committee has undertaken the definition of the level of technology that is desirable for use in the initial design and operation of an evolutionary, long service life space station, as well as the longer term technology required for the improvement of capabilities. The technology should initially become available in 1986, in order to support a space station launch as early as 1990. Toward this end, the committee seeks to assess technology forecasts based on existing research and testing capacity, and then plan and monitor a program which will move current technology to the requisite level of sophistication and reliability. The Space Shuttle is assumed to be the vehicle for space station delivery, assembly, and support on a 90-day initial cycle. Space station tasks will be military, commercial, and scientific, including on-orbit satellite servicing.

  9. Satellite laser station Helwan status 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, M.; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Novotny, Antonin; Prochazka, Ivan; Baghos, B. B.; Helali, Y.; Tawadros, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Laser Station Helwan has been operated jointly by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in Helwan, Egypt and the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czechslovakia. The station components have been carefully tuned to increase the systems overall stability and reliability critical for the remote location. The mount correction model based on the Gaussian smoothing has been implemented to simplify the blind satellite acquisition and tracking. The on-site normal points generation algorithm has been implemented, the station has been connected to the international information network. The ERS-1 satellite has been included into the tracking schedule. The station range capability has been verified by experimental Etalon 1 ranging by April 1992. The ranging precision of 2-3 centimeters is obtained when ranging to ERS-1, Starlette, and Lageos satellites.

  10. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-12-01

    telepresence/kinetic processes), (3) subsystem tests of advanced nuclear power, nuclear propulsion and communication systems (using boom extensions, remote station-keeping platforms and mobile EVA crew and robots), and (4) logistics support (crew and equipment) and command and control of deep space transport assembly, maintenance, and refueling (using a station-keeping platform).

  11. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    telepresence/kinetic processes), (3) subsystem tests of advanced nuclear power, nuclear propulsion and communication systems (using boom extensions, remote station-keeping platforms and mobile EVA crew and robots), and (4) logistics support (crew and equipment) and command and control of deep space transport assembly, maintenance, and refueling (using a station-keeping platform).

  12. Micro Weather Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

  13. 4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ON RIGHT. NOTE TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Harpers Ferry Station, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  14. SR-71A - in Flight View from Tanker during an Airborne Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows a USAF tanker aircraft Boom Operator's or 'Boomer's' view of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SR-71A, tail number 844, following air refueling during a 1997 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  15. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  16. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  17. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, A. M.; Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the initial operational capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion system (SSPS) to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. These objectives were met by analytical studies and by furnishing a propulsion test bed to the Marshall Space Flight Center for testing.

  18. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  19. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  20. AmeriFlux US-KFS Kansas Field Station

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsell, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KFS Kansas Field Station. Site Description - The study is an abandoned grassland at the Kansas Field Station and Ecological Reserves. The site is located within the tallgrass prairie-deciduous forest ecotonal area. The site was subjected to intensive agriculture from the 1940s through the late 1960s. In the mid-1970s, the site was planted with the cool-season grass Bromus inermis and used as a hay meadow until 1987. Then, mowing and burning approximately every five years maintained it as a grassland until 2007, when the eddy flux tower was installed.

  1. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  2. Multiple Craft Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Mary Sue

    1980-01-01

    Described are three craft stations (claywork, papermaking, and stamp designing) for intermediate grade students, to correlate with their classroom study which focused on Ohio: its history, geography, cities, industries, products and famous natives. (KC)

  3. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  4. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  5. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  6. Destination Station Atlanta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Destination Station was recently in Atlanta from April 15 through April 21. During the week, NASA visited schools, hospitals, museums, and the city’s well known Atlanta Science Tavern Meet Up gro...

  7. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  8. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  9. Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, Gilbert

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on Space Station Freedom. Topics covered include future evolution, man-tended capability, permanently manned capability, standard payload rack dimensions, the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), commercial space projects interfaces, and pricing policy.

  10. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  11. Pilot's Desk Flight Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft flight station designs have generally evolved through the incorporation of improved or modernized controls and displays. In connection with a continuing increase in the amount of information displayed, this process has produced a complex and cluttered conglomeration of knobs, switches, and electromechanical displays. The result was often high crew workload, missed signals, and misinterpreted information. Advances in electronic technology have now, however, led to new concepts in flight station design. An American aerospace company in cooperation with NASA has utilized these concepts to develop a candidate conceptual design for a 1995 flight station. The obtained Pilot's Desk Flight Station is a unique design which resembles more an operator's console than today's cockpit. Attention is given to configuration, primary flight controllers, front panel displays, flight/navigation display, approach charts and weather display, head-up display, and voice command and response systems.

  12. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  13. The Space Station Chronicles

    NASA Video Gallery

    As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

  14. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  15. Station Commander Praises AMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    When asked what's the most important International Space Station experiment, Commander Chris Hadfield names the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2, a state-of-the-art particle physics detector that coul...

  16. Space station proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his State of the Union address on January 25, President Ronald Reagan announced that he was directing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “develop a permanently manned space station, and to do it within a decade.”Included in the NASA budget proposal sent to Congress the following week was $150 million for the station. This is the first request of many; expected costs will total roughly $8 billion by the early 1990's.

  17. Space Station galley design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  18. Compressor station noise-abatement: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bianucci, J.A.; Bush, R.C.; Dooher, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the noise abatement measures incorporated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company into the design of its Brannan Island Compressor Station. This two unit reciprocating compressor station is located within 100 feet of a state park and 600 feet of a camp site. Operating noise level data is presented and compared to design expectations.

  19. 34. View of typical work station in transmitter building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of typical work station in transmitter building no. 102, second floor, with continental electronics "keying pulse line amplifier trigger pulse AM-3445/FPT9" cabinet at desk. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project decommissioning plan. Volume XII

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Information is presented concerning allowable residual contamination levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport reactor site; draft statement of work for the decommissioning operations contractor; the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Change Control Board charter; the surplus facilities management program; the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project charter; DOE-RL/DOE-PNR program management agreement; and draft occupational medical plan for the decommissioning project.

  1. 10. VIEW EAST (93 DEGREES) OF RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW EAST (93 DEGREES) OF RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION. WOOD FRAMING SUPPORTED STANDOFF INSULATORS AND ANTENNA WIRES COMING FROM THE FIELD INTO THE BUILDING. BOLT ON FOUNDATION POLES SUPPORTED SATELLITE ANTENNAS, METAL CAP AND POSTS AT LEFT PROTECTED CONDUIT SUPPLYING POWER TO SATELLITE ANTENNA MOTORS. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  2. 49 CFR 192.163 - Compressor stations: Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., each main compressor building of a compressor station must be located on property under the control of... property. There must be enough open space around the main compressor building to allow the free movement of fire-fighting equipment. (b) Building construction. Each building on a compressor station site must...

  3. 49 CFR 192.163 - Compressor stations: Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., each main compressor building of a compressor station must be located on property under the control of... property. There must be enough open space around the main compressor building to allow the free movement of fire-fighting equipment. (b) Building construction. Each building on a compressor station site must...

  4. 49 CFR 192.163 - Compressor stations: Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., each main compressor building of a compressor station must be located on property under the control of... property. There must be enough open space around the main compressor building to allow the free movement of fire-fighting equipment. (b) Building construction. Each building on a compressor station site must...

  5. 49 CFR 192.163 - Compressor stations: Design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., each main compressor building of a compressor station must be located on property under the control of... property. There must be enough open space around the main compressor building to allow the free movement of fire-fighting equipment. (b) Building construction. Each building on a compressor station site must...

  6. Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original blueprint of Special Type Service Station in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1941 architectural drawings by Standard Oil Company Engineering Department of Louisville, KY) SITE PLAN - MacDill Air Force Base, Service Station, 7303 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  7. Space station task force perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, C.

    1984-01-01

    Space station planning quidelines; architecture; functions; preliminary mission data base; scope for international and commercial participation; schedules; servicing capability; technology development; and space station program interfaces are discussed.

  8. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  9. Modeling of a horizontal steam generator for the submerged nuclear power station concept

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    A submerged nuclear power station has been proposed as an alternative power station with a relatively low environmental impact for use by both industrialized and developing countries. The station would be placed 10 m above the seabed at a depth of 30--100 m and a distance of 10--30 km from shore. The submerged nuclear power station would be manufactured and refueled in a central facility, thus gaining the economies of factoryfabrication and the flexibility of short-lead-time deployment. To minimize the size of the submerged hull, horizontal steam generators are proposed for the primary-to-secondary heat transfer, instead of the more traditional vertical steam generators. The horizontal steam generators for SNPS would be similar in design to the horizontal steam generators used in the N-Reactors except the tube orientation is horizontal (the tube`s inlet and outlet connection points on the tubesheet are at the same elevation). Previous RELAP5 input decks for horizontal steam generators have been either very simplistic (Loviisa PWR) or used a vertical tube orientation (N-Reactor). This paper will present the development and testing of a RELAP5 horizontal steam generator model, complete with a simple secondary water level control system, that accounts for the dynamic flow conditions which exist inside horizontal steam generators.

  10. 10. VIEW WITHIN THE EAST OPERATING GALLERY OF WORK STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WITHIN THE EAST OPERATING GALLERY OF WORK STATION WITH MANIPULATOR ARMS. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. Scanner Buildings Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Scanner Buildings - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. Engineering Features Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Engineering Features - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  14. GPS Monitor Station Upgrade Program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Craig, Dwin M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the measurements made by the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor stations is to measure the continuous pseudo-range of all the passing GPS satellites. The pseudo-range contains GPS and monitor station clock errors as well as GPS satellite navigation errors. Currently the time at the GPS monitor station is obtained from the GPS constellation and has an inherent inaccuracy as a result. Improved timing accuracy at the GPS monitoring stations will improve GPS performance. The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing hardware and software for the GPS monitor station upgrade program to improve the monitor station clock accuracy. This upgrade will allow a method independent of the GPS satellite constellation of measuring and correcting monitor station time to US Naval Observatory (USNO) time. THe hardware consists of a high performance atomic cesium frequency standard (CFS) and a computer which is used to ensemble the CFS with the two CFS's currently located at the monitor station by use of a dual-mixer system. The dual-mixer system achieves phase measurements between the high-performance CFS and the existing monitor station CFS's to within 400 femtoseconds. Time transfer between USNO and a given monitor station is achieved via a two way satellite time transfer modem. The computer at the monitor station disciplines the CFS based on a comparison of one pulse per second sent from the master site at USNO. The monitor station computer is also used to perform housekeeping functions, as well as recording the health status of all three CFS's. This information is sent to the USNO through the time transfer modem. Laboratory time synchronization results in the sub nanosecond range have been observed and the ability to maintain the monitor station CFS frequency to within 3.0 x 10 (sup minus 14) of the master site at USNO.

  15. Installation of Ohio's First Electrolysis-Based Hydrogen Fueling Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Brianne T.; Lively, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes progress made towards the installation of a hydrogen fueling station in Northeast Ohio. In collaboration with several entities in the Northeast Ohio area, the NASA Glenn Research Center is installing a hydrogen fueling station that uses electrolysis to generate hydrogen on-site. The installation of this station is scheduled for the spring of 2012 at the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority s Hayden bus garage in East Cleveland. This will be the first electrolysis-based hydrogen fueling station in Ohio.

  16. Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the total weighted tardiness. A simulated annealing (SA) and metaheuristic for randomized priority search (Meta-RaPS) with the newly introduced composite dispatching rule, apparent piecewise tardiness cost with ready times (APTCR), are applied to the problem. Computational experiments compared the algorithms' solutions to optimal solutions for small problems and to each other for larger problems. To obtain optimal solutions, a mixed integer program with a piecewise weighted tardiness objective function was solved for up to 12 jobs. The results show that Meta-RaPS performs better in terms of average relative error but SA is more efficient.

  17. Space power demonstration stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    NASA major planning decisions from 1955 to date are summarized and new concepts connected with the advent of the Space Transportation Systems (STS) are set forth. The future Shuttle utilizations are considered, from 'manned booster' function for space transportation to such operations as deployment of modules and stations and assembly of large structures in space. The permanent occupancy of space will be a major goal of the space systems development in the 1980's with the following main phases: (1) achievement of easy access to earth orbit by means of the Shuttle and Spacelab; (2) achievement of permanent occupancy (Space Stations); (3) self-sufficiency of man in space. New techniques of space operation will become possible, using much larger, complicated satellites and simplified ground stations. Orbital assembly of large stations, using a permanent base in orbit, will enable practical utilization of space systems for everyday needs. Particular attention is given to the space solar power concept, involving the location in space of large satellite systems. Results of the studies on Manned Orbital Systems Concept (MOSC) and some future possibilities of Space Stations are analyzed.

  18. Space station contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

  19. Radiological survey of the Norfolk Naval Station, the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, and Newport News Shipbuilding

    SciTech Connect

    Sensintaffar, E.L.; Blanchard, R.L.

    1988-10-01

    Since 1963, the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in cooperation with the US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) has surveyed facilities serving nuclear-powered warships on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the Gulf of Mexico. These surveys assess whether the operation of nuclear-powered warships, during construction, maintenance, overhaul, or refueling, have created elevated levels of radioactivity. The surveys emphasize sampling those areas and pathways that could expose the public. In 1984, NAVSEA requested that EPA survey all active facilities servicing nuclear-powered warships over the next three years. This report contains the results of surveys conducted at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Norfolk Naval Station and Newport News Shipbuilding during the period July 28 to August 1, 1986. Some of these same areas were previously surveyed by EERF personnel (at that time US Public Health Service) in January 1968. 1 ref., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Comparative Study of Station Blackout Counterpart Tests in APEX and ROSA/AP600

    SciTech Connect

    Lafi, Abd Y.; Reyes, Jose N. Jr.

    2000-05-15

    A comparison is presented between station blackout tests conducted in both the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) facility and in the modified Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA/AP600) Large-Scale Test Facility. The comparison includes the depressurization and liquid-level behavior during secondary-side blowdown, natural circulation, automatic depressurization system operation, and in-containment refueling water storage tank injection. Reasonable agreement between the test results from APEX NRC-2 and ROSA/AP600 AP-BO-01 has been observed with respect to the timing of depressurization and liquid draining rates. This indicates that the reduced height and pressure scaling of APEX preserves the sequence of events relative to the full-height and pressure ROSA/AP600.

  1. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  2. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  3. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  4. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  5. Space Station design integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the top Program level design integration process which involves the integration of a US Space Station manned base that consists of both US and international Elements. It explains the form and function of the Program Requirements Review (PRR), which certifies that the program is ready for preliminary design, the Program Design Review (PDR), which certifies the program is ready to start the detail design, and the Critical Design Review (CDR), which certifies that the program is completing a design that meets the Program objectives. The paper also discusses experience, status to date, and plans for continued system integration through manufacturing, testing and final verification of the Space Station system performance.

  6. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  7. Buoyant station mission comcepts for titan exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, A. L.

    1985-10-01

    An advanced mission to this unique satellite of Saturn appropriate to the turn-of-the-century time period is described. The mission concept evolves about one or more buoyant stations (balloons and/or airship) operating at varying altitudes in Titan's atmosphere. An orbiter of Titan provides communications link support and accomplishes remote sensing science objectives. Use of buoyant stations are favored over a fixed site lander for two reasons: (1) adaptable to several possible surface physical states and topographies; and (2) capable of exploring both the atmosphere and surface with regional and possibly global mobility. Auxiliary payload concepts investigated include tethered packages and sounding rockets deployed from the buoyant station, and haze probes and surface penetrators deployed from the orbiter. The paper describes science objectives and payloads, propulsion system/mass delivery trades, balloon design requirements and deployment/motion characteristics, and communications link geometry and data characteristics.

  8. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management. PMID:15255108

  9. The remote security station (RSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform.

  10. The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L.; Forester, J.; Johnson, J.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  12. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  13. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  14. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  16. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  17. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Mock-up of Manned Space Laboratory. 'Two Langley engineers test an experimental air lock between an arriving spacecraft and a space station portal in January 1964.' : Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 299.

  18. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A Langley engineer takes a walk-in simulated zero gravity around a mock-up of a full-scale, 24-foot-diameter space station.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 282.

  19. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'William N. Gardner, head of the MORL Studies Office, explains the interior design of the space station at the 1964 NASA inspection.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 300.

  20. Space Station Final Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  1. Space Station structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-04-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  2. Space Station structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  3. International Space Station Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  4. Station-keeping guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, D. E.; Kriegsman, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    The station-keeping guidance system is described, which is designed to automatically keep one orbiting vehicle within a prescribed zone fixed with respect to another orbiting vehicle. The active vehicle, i.e. the one performing the station-keeping maneuvers, is referred to as the shuttle. The other passive orbiting vehicle is denoted as the workshop. The passive vehicle is assumed to be in a low-eccentricity near-earth orbit. The primary navigation sensor considered is a gimballed tracking radar located on board the shuttle. It provides data on relative range and range rate between the two vehicles. Also measured are the shaft and trunnion axes gimbal angles. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is provided on board the orbiter. The IMU is used at all times to provide an attitude reference for the vehicle. The IMU accelerometers are used periodically to monitor the velocity-correction burns applied to the shuttle during the station-keeping mode. The guidance system is capable of station-keeping the shuttle in any arbitrary position with respect to the workshop by periodically applying velocity-correction pulses to the shuttle.

  5. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  6. INEL seismograph stations

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    The report describes the array of five seismograph stations operated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to monitor earthquake activity on and adjacent to the eastern Snake River plain. Also included is the earthquake catalog from October 1972-December 1984. 2 refs., 2 figs. (ACR)

  7. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  8. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  9. Characterization of gas station emissions during the CAREBeijing 2008 field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, R.; Wang, M.; Chang, C.-C.; Shao, M.; Hu, M.

    2011-05-01

    A proton transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) onboard a mobile laboratory was used to conduct emission measurements at eight gas stations in Beijing during the CAREBeijing 2008 campaign. Benzene, toluene, C8-, C9-aromatics, methanol, MTBE, butenes and pentenes were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected during the measurements. An inter-comparison between the PTR-MS and an on-line GC/MS/FID system was also conducted and the result showed good agreement between the two instruments (Interception < 0.08 ppbv, 0.72 < Slope < 0.95, and R2 > 0.92). A Gaussian point source plume model was applied to evaluate the VOCs emission rates. The results showed that on average about 4.5 mt of gasoline were emitted from gas stations in Beijing per day. The estimated emission factor (EF) for gas stations due to refueling processes was about 0.5 kg t-1, which was significantly lower than a value of 2.49 kg t-1 obtained in 2002, indicating a successful implementation of vapor recovery system in the gas stations of Beijing. On average, about 18 ppbv of benzene has been detected at one gas station, twice as much as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended safe chronic exposure level and implying a potential public health concern. MTBE and aromatics were found to be the major antiknocking additives used in gasoline supplied in Beijing. Our results reveal that emissions from gas stations represent an important source for VOCs in megacity Beijing and need to be properly included in emission inventories to assess their roles in photochemical ozone production and secondary organic aerosol formation. Furthermore, promoting methanol-blended fuel in Beijing can be an effective way to reduce toxic air pollutants emission.

  10. Space Station power system options

    SciTech Connect

    Baraona, C.R.; Forestieri, A.F.

    1984-08-01

    This paper outlines the strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. Conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on drag and mass requirements are described in this paper with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

  11. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Durfee, Norman; Maxey, L Curt; Overbey, Randall M

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data by the

  12. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  13. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  14. ALARA Overview System at Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Station.

    PubMed

    Kline, K B; Cope, W B

    1995-08-01

    During the Spring of 1994 the Health Physics Department at Florida Power Company used video and audio equipment to support remote health physics coverage for their Crystal River Unit 3 refueling outage (Refuel 9). The system consisted of eight cameras with audio interface linked to a control center located in a low-dose area. The system allowed health physics personnel to monitor steam generator and refueling activities with minimum exposure in high-dose areas, cutting by half the dose from the previous outage. B&W Nuclear Technologies provided complete setup, maintenance and tear-down, as well as assuming responsibilities for contaminated video and audio equipment. PMID:7622378

  15. Space Station Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of the Space Station is improved, the ability to manage and integrate its development and operation enhanced, and the cost and risk of developing the software for it is minimized by three major information systems. The Space Station Information System (SSIS) provides for the transparent collection and dissemination of operational information to all users and operators. The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) provides all the developers with timely and consistent program information and a project management 'window' to assess the project status. The Software Support Environment (SSE) provides automated tools and standards to be used by all software developers. Together, these three systems are vital to the successful execution of the program.

  16. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  17. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  18. Space Station Furnace Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, S.D.; Lehoczky, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6} g) environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks (IRs). The Core System provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate Experiment Modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first Instrument Rack include a High Temperature Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ), and a Low Temperature Gradient Furnace (LGF). A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  19. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  20. Space Station Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor); Mays, C. R. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

  1. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  2. Station Tour: Cupola and Leonardo

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the tour of the International Space Station with a look at the station's observation deck, the cupola, as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Dev...

  3. Space Station evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

  4. Space Station Freedom status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, John

    1991-01-01

    Several graphs are presented which illustrate the restructuring activities of the Space Station Freedom. The restructed SSF program meets the objectives including cost guidelines. The solution adopted best features from alternative concepts. The SSF program allows significantly greater utilization opportunities than other programs. It was decided that pre-integration simplifies on-orbit assembly planning and operations. The SSF permanently manned configuration is shown.

  5. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  6. Space Station MMOD Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes International Space Station (ISS) shielding for micrometeoroid orbital debris (MMOD) protection, requirements for protection, and the technical approach to meeting requirements. Current activities in MMOD protection for ISS will be described, including efforts to augment MMOD protection by adding shields on-orbit. Observed MMOD impacts on ISS elements such as radiators, modules and returned hardware will be described. Comparisons of the observed damage with predicted damage using risk assessment software will be made.

  7. Do cleaning stations affect the distribution of territorial reef fishes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, Elizabeth A.; Côté, Isabelle M.; Reynolds, John D.

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the role of cleaning stations in determining the distribution of territorial reef species. Cleaner fish reduce their clients' ectoparasite loads and, therefore, proximity to cleaning stations should be advantageous for territorial fish. We focused on five damselfish species which hold permanent territories and cleaning stations occupied by cleaning gobies ( Elacatinus spp.) on a Caribbean reef. Contrary to our predictions of higher densities near cleaning stations, we found that bicolor damselfish were less abundant near cleaning stations than at ecologically similar points without cleaning gobies whereas no effects were seen for longfin, dusky, yellowtail, and threespot damselfish. In addition, although damselfish densities were higher in the immediate vicinity of cleaning stations than 1.5-3 m away for most species, this was also the case at points without cleaners. Because cleaning stations are usually located on prominent coral heads or sponges, the overall significant attraction of damselfish to such structures, whether occupied by cleaning gobies or not, could reflect attraction to past or potential cleaning stations. However, it is more likely that interspecific competition and/or the low benefits of being cleaned at our study site prevent aggregation around cleaners. Cleaning stations may play only a minor role in determining the distribution of territorial reef fishes.

  8. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  9. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  10. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  11. Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a view of the Russian Mir Space Station photographed by a crewmember of the second Shuttle/Mir docking mission, STS-74. The image shows: top - Progress supply vehicle, Kvant-1 module, and the Core module; middle left - Spektr module; middle center - Kristall module and Docking module; middle right - Kvant-2 module; and bottom - Soyuz. The Progress was an unmarned, automated version of the Soyuz crew transfer vehicle, designed to resupply the Mir. The Kvant-1 provided research in the physics of galaxies, quasars, and neutron stars by measuring electromagnetic spectra and x-ray emissions. The Core module served as the heart of the space station and contained the primary living and working areas, life support, and power, as well as the main computer, communications, and control equipment. The Spektr module provided Earth observation. It also supported research into biotechnology, life sciences, materials science, and space technologies. American astronauts used the Spektr as their living quarters. A main purpose of the Kristall module was to develop biological and materials production technologies in the space environment. The Docking module made it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with the Mir. Kvant-2 was a scientific and airlock module, providing biological research, Earth observations, and EVA (extravehicular activity) capability. The Soyuz typically ferried three crewmembers to and from the Mir. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as the Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific Ocean.

  12. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  13. 47 CFR 74.1265 - Posting of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... served by the translator or booster, and the name and address of a person and place where station records are maintained, shall be displayed at the translator or booster site on the structure supporting the transmitting antenna, so as to be visible to a person standing on the ground at the transmitter site....

  14. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  15. Build Your Own Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  16. 76 FR 9379 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Lasalle County Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...-38, ``Storage of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes at Power Reactor Sites'' and to meet the radiation...-Level Radioactive Wastes at Power Reactor Sites'' and to meet the radiation protection standards in 10... radioactive waste (LLRW), from the following Exelon owned nuclear power stations: Braidwood Station, Units...

  17. A Mars Micro-Meteorological Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrihew, Steven C.; Haberle, Robert; Lemke, Lawrence G.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Micro-Meteorological Station (Micro-Met) Mission is designed to provide the global surface pressure measurements required to help characterize the martian general circulation and climate system. Measurements of surface pressure distributed both spatially and temporally, coupled with simultaneous measurements from orbit, will enable the determination of the general circulation, structure and driving factors of the martian atmosphere as well as the seasonal CO2 cycle. The influence of these atmospheric factors will in turn provide insight into the overall martian climate system. With the science objective defined as the long term (at least one Mars year) globally distributed measurement of surface atmospheric pressure, a straightforward, near term and low cost network mission has been designed. The Micro-Met mission utilizes a unique silicon micro-machined pressure sensor coupled with a robust and lightweight surface station to deliver to Mars 16 Micro-Met stations via a Med-Lite launch vehicle. The battery powered Micro-Met surface stations are designed to autonomously measure, record and transmit the science data via a UHF relay satellite. Entry, descent and landing is provided by an aeroshell with a new lightweight ceramic thermal protection system, a parachute and an impact absorbing structure. The robust lander is capable of surviving the landing loads imposed by the high altitude landing sites required in a global network. By trading the ability to make many measurements at a single site for the ability to make a single measurement at several sites, the Micro-Met mission design satisfies the requirement for truly global meteorological science.

  18. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  19. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.

  20. The French-Italian Concordia Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekarnia, Djamel; Frenot, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Concordia is a French-Italian permanent station located at Dome C, Antarctica. The station provides accommodation for up to 16 people over winter and more than 70 scientists and technicians during the austral summer. The scientific projects implemented at Concordia are strictly dependent on the characteristics of the site: a) the presence of a 3 300 m thick ice cap that allows access to the planet's climate archives and the reconstruction of glacial-interglacial cycles over more than 800 000 years; b) a particularly stable pure and dry atmosphere ideal for astronomy observations and for research on the chemical composition of the atmosphere; c) a distant location from coastal perturbations favourable to magnetic and seismological observatories to complement a poor world data network in the southern hemisphere; and d) a small totally isolated group of people confined to the station over a long winter, offering an opportunity for a range of medical and psychological studies useful to prepare long duration deep space missions. We will address the main characteristics of this station and its interest for science.

  1. Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a view of the Russian Mir Space Station photographed by a crewmember of the fifth Shuttle/Mir docking mission, STS-81. The image shows: upper center - Progress supply vehicle, Kvant-1 module, and Core module; center left - Priroda module; center right - Spektr module; bottom left - Kvant-2 module; bottom center - Soyuz; and bottom right - Kristall module and Docking module. The Progress was an unmarned, automated version of the Soyuz crew transfer vehicle, designed to resupply the Mir. The Kvant-1 provided research in the physics of galaxies, quasars, and neutron stars, by measuring electromagnetic spectra and x-ray emissions. The Core module served as the heart of the space station and contained the primary living and working areas, life support, and power, as well as the main computer, communications, and control equipment. Priroda's main purpose was Earth remote sensing. The Spektr module provided Earth observation. It also supported research into biotechnology, life sciences, materials science, and space technologies. American astronauts used the Spektr as their living quarters. Kvant-2 was a scientific and airlock module, providing biological research, Earth observations, and EVA (extravehicular activity) capability. The Soyuz typically ferried three crewmembers to and from the Mir. A main purpose of the Kristall module was to develop biological and materials production technologies in the space environment. The Docking module made it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with the Mir. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as the Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific Ocean.

  2. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  3. Multimodality image display station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, H. Joseph

    1990-07-01

    The Multi-modality Image Display Station (MIDS) is designed for the use of physicians outside of the radiology department. Connected to a local area network or a host computer, it provides speedy access to digitized radiology images and written diagnostics needed by attending and consulting physicians near the patient bedside. Emphasis has been placed on low cost, high performance and ease of use. The work is being done as a joint study with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and as part of a joint development effort with the Mayo Clinic. MIDS is a prototype, and should not be assumed to be an IBM product.

  4. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  5. 16. SECOND FLOOR RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION FORMERLY THE POINTTOPOINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SECOND FLOOR RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION FORMERLY THE POINT-TO-POINT RECEIVERS WERE LOCATED HERE. (SOUTHEAST ARCHIVAL PHOTOS AND RCA LOGO ON FLOOR AS A REFERENCE). DURING THE LAST PHASE OF THE RCA ERA AND DURING GENERAL ELECTRIC-AMERITRON OWNERSHIP THIS ROOM HOUSED SATELLITE OPERATING EQUIPMENT. WHEN BOUGHT BY MCI EQUIPMENT (HI TECH) WAS REMOVED. AREA IS NOW USED FOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  6. LBR-2 Earth stations for the ACTS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Michael; Jirberg, Russell; Spisz, Ernie

    1990-01-01

    The Low Burst Rate-2 (LBR-2) earth station being developed for NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is described. The LBR-2 is one of two earth station types that operate through the satellite's baseband processor. The LBR-2 is a small earth terminal (VSAT)-like earth station that is easily sited on a user's premises, and provides up to 1.792 megabits per second (MBPS) of voice, video, and data communications. Addressed here is the design of the antenna, the rf subsystems, the digital processing equipment, and the user interface equipment.

  7. Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations: Current status and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Y.; Bolotin, S.; Bolotina, O.; Khoda, O.; Medvedsky, M.; Sydorenko, G.; Stopkhay, Y.; Volvach, O.

    Current status and perspective of establishing the Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations (UKRGEONETWORK) is reviewed in connection with Integrated Space Geodetic Systems project. The UKRGEONETWORK consists of several stations which form GPS, SLR, and VLBI subnetworks as well as Gravimetry subsystem. Some information concerned with current activity of the UKRGEONETWORK in particular precise orbit determination in software complex Kiev-Geodynamic, ionospheric modelling in Klio program, and EOP determination on SteelBreeze software is given. Plan for upgrading the hardware of stations and for increasing the number of collocation sites is considered.

  8. Stations in the USGS's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Keri

    2000-01-01

    This is a point coverage of stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). NASQAN was established in 1973. Water-quality data currently is collected at NASQAN sites on bimonthly and quarterly intervals. However, some of the bimonthly stations will be sampled only five times a year beginning in 1992. Separate coverages exist for the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii/Guam, and Puerto Rico. The coverages attempt to represent all of the stations that are or have been in the network (some are inactive or discontinued) as of spring 1992.

  9. Effect of parallactic refraction correction on station height determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Huston, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of omitting the parallactic refraction correction for satellite optical observations in the determination of station coordinates is analyzed for a large satellite data distribution. A significant error effect is seen in station heights. A geodetic satellite data distribution of 23 close earth satellites, containing 30,000 optical observations obtained by 13 principal Baker-Nunn camera sites, is employed. This distribution was used in a preliminary Goddard Earth Model (GEM 1) for the determination of the gravity field of the earth and geocentric tracking station locations. The parallactic refraction correction is modeled as an error on the above satellite data and a least squares adjustment for station locations is obtained for each of the 13 Baker-Nunn sites. Results show an average station height shift of +8 meters with a dispersion of plus or minus 0.7 meters for individual sites. Station latitude and longitude shifts amounted to less than a meter. Similar results are obtained from a theoretical method employing a probability distribution for the satellite optical observations.

  10. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  11. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  12. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  13. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  14. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  15. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  16. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  17. Temperature-precipitation relationships for Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, G.A. ); Stuart, R.A. )

    1992-08-01

    The dependence of daily precipitation upon average daily temperature has been examined for all seasons using climatological data from 56 stations across Canada. For east and west coast sites, and the north, more precipitation occurs with warm and cold temperatures during January and July, respectively. In the middle of the country, the temperature dependence tends to increase toward the Arctic, with strong dependencies in the Northwest Territories and weaker dependencies on the Prairies. Southern Ontario and Quebec show almost no dependence of precipitation upon temperature during July, but more precipitation falls during warm weather during the winter. For stations within and immediately downwind of the Rockies, for all seasons, more precipitation occurs when the temperature is colder. These temperature-precipitation relationships can provide information on precipitation formation processes, as well as assistance in weather and climate forecasting.

  18. New CALLISTO Station in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Chr.

    2013-10-01

    A new CALLISTO station is now active in Triest/Italy at the Astronomical Observatory premises located in Basovizza. It has been recently installed and set into operation on the 6th September 2013. The antenna has been installed on an old bunker named "Sissi" and is based on a commercial log-periodic antenna from RKB(http://www.rkb./articoli.asp?id=26), operating frequency 130-1000 MHz, gain of about 6-7 dBi. Beam&-width is of 103 degrees in the V plane and of 61 degrees in the H plane. Considering the site location, sun path variations during the year and beam-width, the antenna is installed fixed-mounted pointing towards South with an angle of 45 degrees in the V plane. This should cover all declination of solar path throughout the year with about 7 hours observation time centered around 12.00, local time. The front-end aerial is connected to a low noise preamplifier Mini-Circuits ZX60-33LN with 20dB of gain and 1.1dB of noise figure.

  19. Underground storage tank subsurface site investigation report: Former UST, building 1608 site. Investigation report, October-November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This Subsurface Site Investigation (S SI) Report presents the results of investigation activities conducted at the 151st Air Refueling Wing (ARW), Utah Air National Guard (ANG) Base, Salt Lake City, Utah, On 3 September 1993, a 30-year old, 2,000-gallon underground storage tank (UST) (state leaking UST identifier - Facility ID Number 4001640, Release Site EIMB) was removed, along with the associated piping. The tank was used for jet fuel (JP-4) storage at the Aerospace Ground Equipment Facility. The results of the investigation indicated petroleum contamination existed in site soils at levels exceeding the Utah Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) site Level II Recommended Cleanup Levels (RCLs) for soil and state MCLs for groundwater contamination.

  20. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of