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Sample records for refugial balkan region

  1. Folk Calendars in the Balkan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Dimiter

    Folk calendars are a good source for studying the knowledge and rituals of peoples from distant epochs. The turbulent history of the cultures in the Balkan Peninsula leads to a mixture of calendar traditions - different calendar types and naming systems of the calendar units (months and weekdays). Despite the differences, they share a common astronomical basis and the seasonal structure is of fundamental importance (i.e., dividing the year into two economic seasons - warm and cold). The Old Bulgarian 12-year calendar is also mentioned briefly.

  2. Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

  3. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 'real world' adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S; Polovina, Marija M; Petranov, Stanislav L; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary 'real-world' AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the 'truly low-risk' patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  4. New investigations or recent vertical movements in the Carpatho-Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, István; Arabadžijski, Dončo; Füry, Mihály; Meščerskij, Igor'N.; Mihǎila, Mircea; Mladenovski, Mladen M.; Németh, Zsuzsanna; Steinberg, Johannes; Thury, József; Vanko, Jan; Wyrzykowski, Tadeusz

    1987-12-01

    Recent work concerning the investigation of vertical movements in the Carpatho-Balkan Region is reported, based on the "Explanatory Text to the Map of Recent Vertical Movements in the Carpatho-Balkan Region". For this investigation, the following countries supplied information: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Austria, and Italy. The activities were coordinated by the Hungarian Geodetic Service. Hungary undertook the task of collecting the data, their preparation for adjustment, and the adjustment of the investigation network, as well as the compilation and publication of the map of vertical movement. The authors present the algorithm of the rigorous adjustment: the height differences of the second leveling have been adjusted jointly with the velocities derived from the first and second levelings. In this paper the applied geodetic and oceanographic data, as well as the main character of the investigation network are presented. The interpretation of the adjustment is outlined. The map of Recent Vertical Movements in the Carpatho-Balkan Region (CBR) is printed at the scale of 1:1,000,000. In general, it is claimed that due to the new methods of investigation, the new CBR map of vertical movements provides a better tool to help with further investigations.

  5. Dynamics of the Balkans deformation : regional impact of the Western Hellenic subduction-collision transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Copley, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number of GPS measurements in the Balkan Peninsula over the last decades has brought new insights on the kinematic of the Eurasian plate there, revealing a significant ( 5 mm/yr) clockwise rotation motion of the entire region around the Scutari-Pec line in North Albania [Métois et al. 2015]. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes in this seismically active area are consistent with this deformation pattern. In this study, we use simple dynamic models based on the thin viscous sheet approximation to test the influence of realistic kinematic boundary conditions and gradients of gravitational potential energy on the predicted surface deformation in the region. In addition, we compare the surface velocity field with maps of azimuthal anisotropy at depth to assess whether mantle motions may drive part of the observed lithosphere deformation. We show that the observed shearing and rotation around Albania can be explained at the first order by kinematic boundary conditions applied on a viscous lithosphere (η ˜ 2.1021Pa.s), while GPE gradients may control the smaller-scale patterns of deformation. Our models appear to be very sensitive to the abrupt velocity-change imposed across the Kefalonia fault in northern Greece where the subduction to collision transition takes place. We propose that the large-scale shearing of the region observed in the GPS data results mainly from this lithospheric tearing, that is one of the most active structure in the area. This hypothesis implies that the slab tearing initiation would have been an important controlling factor on the tectonic history of the Balkans and that the current velocity gradient across the Kefalonia fault is probably sufficient to trigger a large scale shearing propagating up to central Serbia.

  6. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and ‘real world’ adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Potpara, Tatjana S.; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S.; Polovina, Marija M.; Petranov, Stanislav L.; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.; Polovina, Marija; Milanov, Srdjan; Pavlovic, Marija; Petrovic, Marijana; Simovic, Stefan; Mitic, Gorana; Milanov, Marko; Savic, Jelena; Gnip, Sanja; Radovic, Pavica; Markovic, Snezana; Koncarevic, Ivana; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Acimovic, Tijana; Djikic, Dijana; Malic, Semir; Hodzic, Jusuf; Stojanovic, Milovan; Ilic, Marina Deljanin; Zlatar, Milan; Matic, Dragan; Lazic, Snezana; Peric, Vladan; Markovic, Sanja; Kovacevic, Snezana; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Asanin, Milika; Zdravkovic, Marija; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Breha, Anca; Dan, Anca Rodica; Musetescu, Rodica; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Badila, Elisabeta; Georgescu, Catalina Arsenescu; Pop, Sorina; Popescu, Raluca; Neamtu, Simina; Oancea, Floriana; Trendafilova, Elina; Dimitrova, Elena; Goshev, Evgenii; Velichkova, Anna; Petranov, Stanislav; Kamenova, Delyana; Kamenova, Penka; Elefterova, Svetoslava; Shterev, Valentin; Zekova, Maria; Diukiandzhieva, Stela; Dimitrov, Boiko; Sotirov, Tihomir; Simeonova, Valentina; Drianovska, Dimitrina; Boiadzhieva, Liliya Ivanova Vasileva; Buchukova, Darina; Goda, Artan; Paparisto, Vilma; Gjergo, Hortensia; Mijo, Alma; Shirka, Ervina; Gjini, Viktor; Ekmekciu, Uliks; Refatllari, Ina; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Loncar, Daniela; Mrsic, Denis; Tulumovic, Hazim; Pojskic, Belma; Sijamija, Alma; Bijedic, Amira; Karamujic, Indira; Bijedic, Irma; Halilovic, Sanela; Sokolovic, Sekib; Manola, Sime; Zeljkovic, Ivan; Pavlovic, Nikola; Radeljic, Vjekoslav; Brusich, Sandro; Anic, Ante; Jeric, Melita; Pekic, Petar; Milas, Kresimir; Music, Ljilja; Bulatovic, Nebojsa; Nenezic, Ana; Asanovic, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary ‘real-world’ AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the ‘truly low-risk’ patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  7. Phylogeographic reconstruction of HIV type 1B in Montenegro and the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lai, Alessia; Ebranati, Erika; Gabanelli, Elena; Galli, Massimo; Mugosa, Boban; Vratnica, Zoran; Vujoševic, Danijela; Lauševic, Dragan; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2012-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most genetically variable human viruses as it is characterized by high rates of mutation, viral replication, and recombination. Phylodynamics is a powerful means of describing the behavior of an infection as a combination of evolutionary and ecological processes. Only a few studies of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology have so far been carried out in the Balkans. In this study, we used Bayesian methods to reconstruct the phylogeography and phylodynamics of HIV-1B in Montenegro and some other Balkan countries on the basis of pol gene sequences retrieved from a public database. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 43% of the isolates grouped in accordance with their geographic area, whereas the majority were interspersed in the tree, thus confirming the multiple introductions of HIV-1B in the Balkans. The Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggested that HIV-1B entered the Balkans in the early 1970s probably through Greece and other Mediterranean tourist/travel destinations (such as Slovenia). Other Balkan countries, such as Bulgaria and Serbia, may have played an important role in spreading the infection to the entire Eastern Mediterranean area, and possibly to Northeast Europe. This suggests that the Balkans may have played a role as a "gateway" between Western and Eastern Europe. PMID:22364163

  8. Occurrence and fate of emerging wastewater contaminants in Western Balkan Region.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Senka; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Gros, Meritxell; Petrović, Mira; Barcelo, Damia; Müller, Jutta; Knepper, Thomas; Martí, Isabel; Ventura, Francesc; Jovancić, Petar; Jabucar, Dalila

    2008-07-25

    This paper reports on a comprehensive reconnaissance of over seventy individual wastewater contaminants in the region of Western Balkan (WB; Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia), including some prominent classes of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, surfactants and their degradation products, plasticizers, pesticides, insect repellents, and flame retardants. All determinations were carried out using a multiresidue analytical approach, based on the application of gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometric detection. The results confirmed a widespread occurrence of the emerging contaminants in municipal wastewaters of the region. The most prominent contaminant classes, determined in municipal wastewaters, were those derived from aromatic surfactants, including linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), with the concentrations in raw wastewater reaching into the mg/l range. All other contaminants were present in much lower concentrations, rarely exceeding few microg/l. The most abundant individual compounds belonged to several classes of pharmaceuticals (antimicrobials, analgesics and antiinflammatories, beta-blockers and lipid regulators) and personal care products (fragrances). Due to the rather poor wastewater management practices in WB countries, with less than 5% of all wastewaters being biologically treated, most of the contaminants present in wastewaters reach ambient waters and may represent a significant environmental concern. PMID:18420255

  9. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  10. Investigating atmospheric transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region with DEHM-Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.

    2009-04-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens. The threshold value for clinical symptoms for ragweed pollen grains for the majority of sensitised patients is below 20 grains/m3. Ambrosia pollen appears to induce asthma about twice as often as other pollen. Each ragweed plant produces millions of pollen grains that are small (18-22 μm) and suitable for long-range transport when conditions are favourable. In this study we use DEHM-Pollen to investigate if the Pannonian Plain could be the source area for observed episodes of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans. A possible Ambrosia pollen inventory for various regions in the Pannonian Plain was constructed using detailed land cover data from Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic in combination with measurements of the annual load of Ambrosia pollen in the source areas. A simple unified pollen release model (SUPREME) was calibrated against daily measurements from Novi Sad in Serbia and implemented in DEHM-Pollen with the Ambrosia pollen inventory. Model simulations was then performed with DEHM-Pollen for the months August and September 2007 and compared with measurements from stations outside the Pannonian Plain. The simulations several times indicate regional scale transport from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region including the 26th - 27th of August and the 1st and 2nd September. During these episode air masses passed over parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Southern Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The verifying measurements at Skopje (Macedonia) show episodes of elevated Ambrosia pollen concentration the 26th -27th of August and for the 1st and 2nd of September. The model experiments with DEHM-Pollen strongly indicate that the Pannonian Plain alone can be a source to significant Ambrosia pollen concentrations in the Balkans. The methods and the model results look promising with respect to future numerical forecasting of Ambrosia

  11. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the southern Moesian platform and Balkan-Forebalken regions of northern Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, M. ); Georgiev, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The major tectonic elements of northern Bulgaria are the east-west-trending Balkan-Forebalkan fold belt and the Moesian platform. Moderate hydrocarbon exploration potential exists in trapping geometries generated during the tectonic evolution of the region coupled with reservoir/seal pairs and source rocks within Mesozoic strata. The tectonic evolution of the region includes Early Triassic to Early Jurassic intracratonic rifting followed by multiphase compression that contracted the rift basin and produced a north vergent fold and thrust belt along the southern margin of the stable Moesian platform. Compression began during the Early Cretaceous, continued during the Paleocene, and concluded during the middle Eocene. Trap types generated during the tectonic evolution include normal fault-bounded rotated blocks in the autochthonous section and elongate, asymmetric anticlines in the allochthonous section. Triassic to Upper Jurassic Marine facies were deposited in an east-west-trending rift. Sediments deposited in a shallow foredeep, which evolved during Lower cretaceous compression, overlay the rift sequence. The Early Mesozoic rift sequence provides the depositional settings for Middle Triassic and lower Middle Jurassic source rock shales and sandstone/carbonate reservoirs ranging from Middle Triassic to Lower Cretaceous. Carbonate reservoirs generally are porous dolomites with intercrystalline, moldic, and vugular pore types interbedded with nonporous limestones. Clastic reservoirs are quartz-rich sandstones with pore types that are reduced intergranular, dissolution, and microporosity. These heterogeneous reservoir targets exhibit poor to good reservoir characteristics and are overlain with sealing lithologies of variable thicknesses.

  12. Modeling of geomagnetic field secular variations observed in the Balkan area for purposes of regional topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metodiev, Metodi; Trifonova, Petya; Buchvarov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The most significant of the Earth's magnetic field elements is the geomagnetic declination, which is widely used in geodesy, cartography and their associated navigational systems. The geomagnetic declination is incorporated in the naval navigation maps and is used in the navigation process. It is also a very important factor for aviation where declination data have major importance for every airport (civil or military). As the geomagnetic field changes with time but maps of the geomagnetic declination are not published annually and are reduced to an epoch in the past, it is necessary to define two additional parameters in the maps, needed to determine the value of the geomagnetic declination for a particular moment in the future: 1) estimated value of the annual declination variation and 2) a table with the average diurnal variation of the declination for a given month and hour. The goal of our research is to analyze the annual mean values of geomagnetic declination on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula for obtaining of a best fitting model of that parameter which can be used for prediction of the declination value for the next 10 years. The same study was performed in 1990 for the purposes of Bulgarian declination map's preparation. As a result, a linear model of the declination annual variation was obtained for the neighboring observatories and repeat stations data, and a map of the obtained values for the Bulgarian territory was drawn. We use the latest version of the GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model (GRIMM-3.0) to compare the magnetic field evolution predicted by that model between 2001 and 2010 to the data collected in five independent geomagnetic observatories in the Balkan region (PAG, SUA, PEG, IZN, GCK) over the same time interval. We conclude that the geomagnetic core field secular variation in this area is well described by the global model. The observed small-scale differences might indicate induced lithospheric anomalies but it is still an open

  13. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujić, Predrag; Čeliković, Igor; Žunić, Zora S.

    2008-08-01

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined 235U/238U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  14. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Zunic, Zora S.

    2008-08-07

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  15. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  16. High variability of indoor radon concentrations in uraniferous bedrock areas in the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Z S; Ujić, P; Nađđerđ, L; Yarmoshenko, I V; Radanović, S B; Komatina Petrović, S; Celiković, I; Komatina, M; Bossew, P

    2014-12-01

    In this work the strong influence of geological factors on the variability of indoor radon is found in two of three geologically very different regions of South-Eastern Europe. A method to estimate the annual mean concentration when one seasonal measurement is missing is proposed. Large differences of radon concentrations in different rooms of the same house and significant difference in radon concentrations in one season comparing it to the others are noted in certain cases. Geological factors that can lead to such behavior are discussed. PMID:25305525

  17. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  18. Deep drilling of ancient Lake Ohrid (Balkan region) to capture over 1 million years of evolution and global climate cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Reicherter, Klaus; Leng, Melanie; Grazhdani, Andon; Trajanovski, Sasho; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Wonik, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkan region is thought to be the oldest lake in continuous existence in Europe and, with 212 endemic species described to date, is a hotspot of evolution. An international group of scientists working on a project entitled 'Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO)' realized a deep drilling campaign of Lake Ohrid in spring 2013. Based on several coring seismic campaigns between 2004 and 2011, Lake Ohrid became the target of an ICDP deep drilling campaign, with specific research aims: (i) obtain precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (ii) unravel the lake's seismotectonic history, (iii) obtain a continuous record of Quaternary volcanic activity and climate change, and (iv) investigate the influence of major geological/environmental events on evolution and the generation of extraordinary endemic biodiversity. Drilling began in April 2013 using the Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) of DOSECC (USA). The campaign, completed by late May, was deemed one of the most successful ICDP lake drilling projects, with a total of ~2100 m of sediment recovered from four different sites. At the central "DEEP" site, hydro-acoustic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m was recovered. Coarse gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies hampered deeper penetration. A total of 1526 m of sediment cores was collected from six boreholes, with a composite field recovery ('master core') of 544 m (95%). Three additional sites were drilled in order to analyze lake-level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ("Cerava", deepest drilled depth: 90 m), to investigate active tectonics and spring dynamics ("Gradiste", deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and to try to understand the geological origins of the Ohrid Basin ("Pestani

  19. Refugial persistence and postglacial recolonization of North America by the cold-tolerant herbaceous plant Orthilia secunda.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Gemma E; Provan, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Previous phylogeographical and palaeontological studies on the biota of northern North America have revealed a complex scenario of glacial survival in multiple refugia and differing patterns of postglacial recolonization. Many putative refugial regions have been proposed both north and south of the ice sheets for species during the Last Glacial Maximum, but the locations of many of these refugia remain a topic of great debate. In this study, we used a phylogeographical approach to elucidate the refugial and recolonization history of the herbaceous plant species Orthilia secunda in North America, which is found in disjunct areas in the west and east of the continent, most of which were either glaciated or lay close to the limits of the ice sheets. Analysis of 596 bp of the chloroplast trnS-trnG intergenic spacer and five microsatellite loci in 84 populations spanning the species' range in North America suggests that O. secunda persisted through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in western refugia, even though palaeodistribution modelling indicated a suitable climate envelope across the entire south of the continent. The present distribution of the species has resulted from recolonization from refugia north and south of the ice sheets, most likely in Beringia or coastal regions of Alaska and British Columbia, the Washington/Oregon region in the northwest USA, and possibly from the region associated with the putative 'ice-free corridor' between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Our findings also highlight the importance of the Pacific Northwest as an important centre of intraspecific genetic diversity, owing to a combination of refugial persistence in the area and recolonization from other refugia. PMID:20958819

  20. Conservation phylogeography: does historical diversity contribute to regional vulnerability in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea)?

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Wassef, Jérôme; Ghali, Karim; Brelsford, Alan; Stöck, Matthias; Lymberakis, Petros; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka; Perrin, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Documenting and preserving the genetic diversity of populations, which conditions their long-term survival, have become a major issue in conservation biology. The loss of diversity often documented in declining populations is usually assumed to result from human disturbances; however, historical biogeographic events, otherwise known to strongly impact diversity, are rarely considered in this context. We apply a multilocus phylogeographic study to investigate the late-Quaternary history of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) with declining populations in the northern and western part of its distribution range. Mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphisms reveal high genetic diversity in the Balkan Peninsula, with a spatial structure moulded by the last glaciations. While two of the main refugial lineages remained limited to the Balkans (Adriatic coast, southern Balkans), a third one expanded to recolonize Northern and Western Europe, loosing much of its diversity in the process. Our findings show that mobile and a priori homogeneous taxa may also display substructure within glacial refugia ('refugia within refugia') and emphasize the importance of the Balkans as a major European biodiversity centre. Moreover, the distribution of diversity roughly coincides with regional conservation situations, consistent with the idea that historically impoverished genetic diversity may interact with anthropogenic disturbances, and increase the vulnerability of populations. Phylogeographic models seem important to fully appreciate the risks of local declines and inform conservation strategies. PMID:24102652

  1. Preservation of Scientific and Cultural Heritage in Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonta, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are…

  2. Overview of ophiolites and related units in the Late Palaeozoic-Early Cenozoic magmatic and tectonic development of Tethys in the northern part of the Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Karamata, Stevan; Šarić, Kristina

    2009-03-01

    The northern Balkan Peninsula, including Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Croatia and the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia, represents an excellent region for the study of tectonic processes related to Mesozoic Tethyan ophiolite genesis and emplacement. We first summarise the main tectonic units of the northern Balkan Peninsula and then use this information to discuss tectonic processes, including rifting, sea-floor spreading, ophiolite genesis and emplacement, melange accretion, ocean-basin closure and collision. We then discuss alternative models of ophiolite genesis and emplacement for the region and suggest that multi-ocean-basin interpretations fit the data better than single-ocean-basin interpretations. Rifting of Adria (Gondwana) during the Triassic created a rift in the south (Budva zone) and opened a Triassic oceanic basin further north (Dinaride ocean). Occurrences of inferred sub-continental mantle lithosphere in the Dinaride ophiolite belt (e.g. Zlatibor) may record extensional exhumation within an ocean-continent transition zone bordering the Adria/Dinaride continent. This was followed by emplacement together with ophiolites and melange during Upper Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. Upper Triassic radiolarites and mid-ocean ridge-type basalts formed at a spreading ridge after continental break-up. The oceanic lithosphere of the Dinaride ophiolite belt was partly generated above a subduction zone. The metamorphic soles of the Dinaride ophiolites formed during Mid-Late Jurassic mainly based on K/Ar dating. Widespread melange that is associated with the ophiolites represents a subduction complex, controlled by tectonic accretion and sedimentary reworking in trench and fore-arc basin settings. A possible cause of Jurassic Dinaride ophiolite emplacement was collision of a subduction trench with a continental margin. Further north, Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere subducted northeastwards (present coordinates) opening a Late Jurassic marginal basin in the Main

  3. Environmental change within the Balkan region during the past ca. 50 ka recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-10-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid, in the Balkan region, are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several sediment cores up to 15 m long have been studied over the last few years. Here, we document the first long sediment record from nearby Lake Prespa to clarify the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and dated tephra layers provide robust age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record from Lake Prespa reaches back to 48 ka. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter content and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate content in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter content in Lake Prespa, which indicates a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental change and short-term events, such as related to the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 ka cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but are only evident in certain proxies. The comparison of the sediment cores from both lakes indicates that environmental change affects particularly the trophic state of Lake Prespa due to its lower volume and water depth.

  4. Climate variability over the last 92 ka in SW Balkans from analysis of sediments from Lake Prespa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Böhm, A.; Leng, M. J.; Wagner, B.; Schäbitz, F.

    2014-03-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa (Albania/former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Greece) has been recognized as a conservation priority wetland. The high biodiversity encountered in the catchment at present points to the refugial character of this mountainous region in the southwestern Balkans. A lake sediment core retrieved from a coring location in the northern part of the lake was investigated through sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses. Based on tephrochronology, radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating, and cross correlation with other Northern Hemisphere records, the age model suggests that the basal part of core Co1215 reaches back to 92 ka cal BP. Here we present the responses of this mid-altitude site (849 m a.s.l.) to climate oscillations during this interval and assess its sensitivity to millennial-scale variability. Endogenic calcite precipitation occurred in marine isotope stages (MIS) 5 and 1 and is synchronous with periods of increased primary production (terrestrial and/or lacustrine). Periods of pronounced phytoplankton blooms (inferred from green algae and dinoflagellate concentrations) are recorded in MIS 5 and MIS 1 and suggest that the trophic state and lake levels underwent substantial fluctuations. Three major phases of vegetation development are distinguished: the forested phases of MIS 5 and MIS 1 dominated by deciduous trees with higher temperatures and moisture availability, the open landscapes of MIS 3 with significant presence of temperate trees, and the pine-dominated open landscapes of MIS 4 and MIS 2 with lower temperatures and moisture availability. Our findings suggest significant changes in forest cover and landscape openness, as well as in the properties of the vegetation belts (composition and distribution) over the period examined. The study area most likely formed the upper limit of several drought-sensitive trees (temperate tree refugium) at these latitudes in the Mediterranean mountains.

  5. The current refugial rainforests of Sundaland are unrepresentative of their biogeographic past and highly vulnerable to disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Charles H.; Morley, Robert J.; Bush, Andrew B. G.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the historical dynamics of forest communities is a critical element for accurate prediction of their response to future change. Here, we examine evergreen rainforest distribution in the Sunda Shelf region at the last glacial maximum (LGM), using a spatially explicit model incorporating geographic, paleoclimatic, and geologic evidence. Results indicate that at the LGM, Sundaland rainforests covered a substantially larger area than currently present. Extrapolation of the model over the past million years demonstrates that the current “island archipelago” setting in Sundaland is extremely unusual given the majority of its history and the dramatic biogeographic transitions caused by global deglaciation were rapid and brief. Compared with dominant glacial conditions, lowland forests were probably reduced from approximately 1.3 to 0.8 × 106 km2 while upland forests were probably reduced by half, from approximately 2.0 to 1.0 × 105 km2. Coastal mangrove and swamp forests experienced the most dramatic change during deglaciations, going through a complete and major biogeographic relocation. The Sundaland forest dynamics of fragmentation and contraction and subsequent expansion, driven by glacial cycles, occur in the opposite phase as those in the northern hemisphere and equatorial Africa, indicating that Sundaland evergreen rainforest communities are currently in a refugial stage. Widespread human-mediated reduction and conversion of these forests in their refugial stage, when most species are passing through significant population bottlenecks, strongly emphasizes the urgency of conservation and management efforts. Further research into the natural process of fragmentation and contraction during deglaciation is necessary to understand the long-term effect of human activity on forest species. PMID:19549829

  6. Constraining Holocene hydrological changes in the Carpathian-Balkan region using speleothem δ18O and pollen-based temperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drăguşin, V.; Staubwasser, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Ersek, V.; Onac, B. P.; Veres, D.

    2014-07-01

    Here we present a speleothem isotope record (POM2) from Ascunsă Cave (Romania) that provides new data on past climate changes in the Carpathian-Balkan region from 8.2 ka until the present. This paper describes an approach to constrain the effect of temperature changes on calcite δ18O values in stalagmite POM2 over the course of the middle Holocene (6-4 ka), and across the 8.2 and 3.2 ka rapid climate change events. Independent pollen temperature reconstructions are used to this purpose. The approach combines the temperature-dependent isotope fractionation of rain water during condensation and fractionation resulting from calcite precipitation at the given cave temperature. The only prior assumptions are that pollen-derived average annual temperature reflects average cave temperature, and that pollen-derived coldest and warmest month temperatures reflect the range of condensation temperatures of rain above the cave site. This approach constrains a range of values between which speleothem δ18O changes should be found if controlled only by surface temperature variations at the cave site. Deviations of the change in δ18Ocspel values from the calculated temperature-constrained range of change are interpreted towards large-scale variability of climate-hydrology. Following this approach, we show that an additional ∼0.6‰ enrichment of δ18Oc in the POM2 stalagmite was caused by changing hydrological patterns in SW Romania across the middle Holocene, most likely comprising local evaporation from the soil and an increase in Mediterranean moisture δ18O. Further, by extending the calculations to other speleothem records from around the entire Mediterranean basin, it appears that all eastern Mediterranean speleothems recorded a similar isotopic enrichment due to changing hydrology, whereas all changes recorded in speleothems from the western Mediterranean are fully explained by temperature variation alone. This highlights a different hydrological evolution between

  7. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  8. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  9. Traces of DU in samples of environmental bio-monitors (non-flowering plants, fungi) and soil from target sites of the Western Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Zora S; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Błazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Paweł; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Ujić, Predrag; Celiković, Igor; Cuknić, Olivera; Demajo, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports results of gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements for mosses, lichens, fungi and soil samples from areas in the Balkans targeted by depleted uranium (DU). Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 in the vicinity of several villages, principally Han Pijesak (Bosnia and Herzegovina, hit by DU in 1995) and Bratoselce (South Serbia, hit by DU in 1999) and in lesser numbers from Gornja Stubla, Kosovo (which is identified as a high natural radon/thoron area) and Presevo close to the Kosovo border. In the course of gamma spectrometric measurements some results suggested samples with unusual high uranium contents which might be considered to be a signature for the presence of DU, although many samples had very high detection limits. Alpha spectrometric measurements directly proved the presence of DU for five samples, all from directly targeted places. These were samples of mosses, lichens and soil. For some samples homogeneity tests were applied which showed a rather even distribution of DU in these samples. No trace of DU was found in any sample from a dwelling. PMID:18502546

  10. 75 FR 32843 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 8, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-14118 Filed 6-9-10; 8... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or the...

  11. 76 FR 37239 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 23, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-16103 Filed 6-23-11; 11:15 am] Billing code... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or United...

  12. 77 FR 37993 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 22, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-15671 Filed 6-22-12; 2:15 pm... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or United...

  13. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  14. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance

    PubMed Central

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950–2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  15. Probabilistic Seismic Risk Model for Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stejskal, Vladimir; Lorenzo, Francisco; Pousse, Guillaume; Radovanovic, Slavica; Pekevski, Lazo; Dojcinovski, Dragi; Lokin, Petar; Petronijevic, Mira; Sipka, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    A probabilistic seismic risk model for insurance and reinsurance purposes is presented for an area of Western Balkans, covering former Yugoslavia and Albania. This territory experienced many severe earthquakes during past centuries producing significant damage to many population centres in the region. The highest hazard is related to external Dinarides, namely to the collision zone of the Adriatic plate. The model is based on a unified catalogue for the region and a seismic source model consisting of more than 30 zones covering all the three main structural units - Southern Alps, Dinarides and the south-western margin of the Pannonian Basin. A probabilistic methodology using Monte Carlo simulation was applied to generate the hazard component of the model. Unique set of damage functions based on both loss experience and engineering assessments is used to convert the modelled ground motion severity into the monetary loss.

  16. Pollen, sediment and diatom response to past climate and environmental change in the Balkan region: the Holocene record of Lake Dojran (Greece/FYROM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Alessia; Sadori, Laura; Francke, Alexander; Pepe, Caterina; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Dojran (41° 12'N, 22° 44'E, 144 m a.s.l.) is located at the border between the F.Y.R. of Macedonia and Greece in a karstic basin formed by a combination of Tertiary volcanic and tectonic activities. The lake is fed by small rivers, creeks and springs, with most of the run off originating from the near Belasica and Kroussia Mountains. The area of Lake Dojran is influenced by the mountain climate of the central and northern Balkans. In addition, it is tempered by the influence of the Mediterranean Sea, to which it is exposed via the Thessaloniki Plain. The marine influence provides mild winters with high precipitation and long, hot, dry summers. The diverse natural vegetation has been heavily influenced by human activities, particularly during the historical era. Remnants of natural vegetation which survive are dominated by mesophilous plants, in particular deciduous oaks and ashes together with riparian elements such as alders and planes. A 717 cm core was collected from the deepest part of the lake (ca. 6.6 m depth), in Macedonian waters. Thirteen radiocarbon dates carried out on terrestrial plant remains, charcoal, carbonate shell fragments, and bulk organic matter, established that the core covers the last ca. 12500 years, spanning the Younger Dryas to the present (1). Here, we build on previous sedimentological and diatom-based palaeolimnological research, strengthening the multi-proxy dataset by addition of palynological evidence for vegetation catchment change. The Late Glacial was characterized first by an Artemisia steppe, followed by expansion of chenopods and then grasses, confirming the arid climate inferred from sedimentology and diatom data. The subsequent expansion of grasses matches with an increase in lake level inferred from changes in the diatom assemblages. Forest expansion at the onset of the Holocene is characterized by deciduous, semideciduous and evergreen oaks, with pine and fir, during an initial deepwater phase followed by shallowing

  17. The vegetational history of the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.

    The vegetational history of the Balkans from the last glacial through to present features a dynamic system not subject to immigration of additional taxa. Many temperate taxa appear to have survived in this region during the last glacial in low but persistent populations. Evidence suggests that a greater diversity of taxa existed in the mid to high altitude sites probably where the climate was more humid. At the lateglacial/Holocene transition many tree taxa expanded simultaneously with no evidence of the time-transgressive appearance of taxa which is taken to be indicative of differential immigration in northern Europe. Expansion of temperate woodland was at least 1000 years earlier than in northern Europe suggesting that this was the minimum time for migration of temperate trees into northern Europe. Changes in the composition of the early Holocene woodland included expansion of Pistacia between 9000 and 8000 14C BP, a change in the forest dominants between 8000 and 7000 14C BP, and the appearance and increase of Carpinus orient./Ostrya, Abies. Carpinus betulus and Fagus between 7500 and 5000 14C BP. Since all types were present in the region from the lateglacial, it is suggested that factors other than migration are responsible for their population increase. These factors are considered and include climate, soil development, establishment time and anthropogenic disturbance. Development of the present day landscape started at approximately 4500 14C BP with the onset of anthropogenic disturbance. Clearance resulted in the increase of open ground herbaceous types with grasses, Cerealia-type and Plantago lanceolata. New trees also to become established included Juglans, Olea, Castanea and Platanus. At least two of these types ( Juglans and Castanea) were present in the Balkans during the lateglacial suggesting that although some types were imported by the Greeks/Romans others may have expanded in situ as a result of a favourable niche being created by anthropogenic

  18. A new approach to geographic partitioning of probabilistic seismic hazard using seismic source distance with earthquake extreme and perceptibility statistics: an application to the southern Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    The southeastern European cities of Sofia and Thessaloniki are explored as example site-specific scenarios by geographically zoning their individual localized seismic sources based on the highest probabilities of magnitude exceedance. This is with the aim of determining the major components contributing to each city's seismic hazard. Discrete contributions from the selected input earthquake catalogue are investigated to determine those areas that dominate each city's prevailing seismic hazard with respect to magnitude and source-to-site distance. This work is based on an earthquake catalogue developed and described in a previously published paper by the author and components of a magnitude probability density function. Binned magnitude and distance classes are defined using a joint magnitude-distance distribution. The prevailing seismicity to each city-as defined by a child data set extracted from the parent earthquake catalogue for each city considered-is divided into distinct constrained data bins of small discrete magnitude and source-to-site distance intervals. These are then used to describe seismic hazard in terms of uni-variate modal values; that is, M* and D* which are the modal magnitude and modal source-to-site distance in each city's local historical seismicity. This work highlights that Sofia's dominating seismic hazard-that is, the modal magnitudes possessing the highest probabilities of occurrence-is located in zones confined to two regions at 60-80 km and 170-180 km from this city, for magnitude intervals of 5.75-6.00 Mw and 6.00-6.25 Mw respectively. Similarly, Thessaloniki appears prone to highest levels of hazard over a wider epicentral distance interval, from 80 to 200 km in the moment magnitude range 6.00-6.25 Mw.

  19. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkan region, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  20. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkans region, namely, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  1. Deforming Balkans : Insights on Continental Collisional Processes from GPS Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metois, M.; D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Rabaute, A.; Duni, L.; Kuka, N.; Koci, R.; Georgiev, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Balkans region that sits at the transition between stable Eurasia and highly straining Eastern Mediterranean, is a natural laboratory to study diffuse deformation of areas affected by continental collision. As in the Himalayan collision zone, it results in a widespread seismicity and underestimated seismic hazard (England & Jackson, 2011). Several Mw~6 shallow earthquakes occurred there in the last century producing large destructions and casualties. The completeness interval of the available historical seismicity catalogs is probably below the average recurrence of individual seismogenic structures, making them insufficient for accurate estimates of seismic hazard there. However, cGPS networks in the Balkans have been growing during the last few years mainly for civilian application, opening new opportunities to quantify the present-day rates of crustal deformation. Here, we processed all the currently available data acquired on these new networks using the Gipsy-Oasis software and combined them with previously published velocities. We use this dense velocity field together with tensor moments from RCMT and CMT to derive an homogeneous map of the current-day strain using the methodology of Haines & Holt (1993). We image the deformation resulting from the boundary conditions around the Balkans : (i) the NE motion of Adria-Apulia blocks, (ii) the rigid Eurasian and Black sea backstops, (iii) the hellenic subduction zone and NAF rapid SE motion. We show that the «Adria-Apulia push» is nearly entirely accommodated by compression across the Dinarides with minor propagation in the Pannonian basin. On the other hand, East of 20°E, the entire peninsula is moving southward, probably driven by the hellenic subduction pull. The transition between the SW-NE compressive and the N-S extensive regimes roughly corresponds to the Scutari-Pec transform zone, also known to be a boundary between paleomagnetic domains. Therefore, we show that the clockwise rotation pattern

  2. Unusually limited pollen dispersal and connectivity of Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) refugial populations at the species' southern range margin.

    PubMed

    Moracho, E; Moreno, G; Jordano, P; Hampe, A

    2016-07-01

    Low-latitudinal range margins of temperate and boreal plant species typically consist of scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial habitats affect patterns of gene flow and connectivity, key components for their long-term viability and evolution. We examine landscape-scale patterns of historical and contemporary gene flow in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at the species' southwestern range margin. We sampled all adult trees (n = 135) growing in a 20 km long valley and genotyped 724 acorns from 72 mother trees at 17 microsatellite loci. The ten oak stands that we identified were highly differentiated and formed four distinct genetic clusters, despite sporadic historical dispersal being detectable. By far most contemporary pollination occurred within stands, either between local mates (85.6%) or through selfing (6.8%). Pollen exchange between stands (2.6%) was remarkably rare given their relative proximity and was complemented by long-distance pollen immigration (4.4%) and hybridization with the locally abundant Quercus pyrenaica (0.6%). The frequency of between-stand mating events decreased with increasing size and spatial isolation of stands. Overall, our results reveal outstandingly little long-distance gene flow for a wind-pollinated tree species. We argue that the distinct landscape characteristics of oaks' refugial habitats, with a combination of a rugged topography, dense vegetation and humid microclimate, are likely to increase plant survival but to hamper effective long-distance pollen dispersal. Moreover, local mating might be favoured by high tree compatibility resulting from genetic purging in these long-term relict populations. PMID:27146553

  3. Collaborative investigations on thoron and radon in some rural communities of Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Z S; Celiković, I; Tokonami, S; Ishikawa, T; Ujić, P; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Milić, G; Jakupi, B; Cuknić, O; Veselinović, N; Fujimoto, K; Sahoo, S K; Yarmoshenko, I

    2010-10-01

    This paper deals with the results of the first-field use in the Balkans, i.e. Serbia and Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Hercegovina), of a passive polycarbonate Mark II type and poliallyldiglycol carbonate (Cr-39) alpha track detectors sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. Both types of solid state nuclear track detectors were designed and supplied by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The commercial names for these detectors which all have been field tested in Balkan rural communities are known as: UFO and RADUET passive discriminative radon/thoron detectors. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Serbia or Balkans region exist, and as a result, the level of exposure of the Serbian population to thoron and its progeny is unknown so far. PMID:20966203

  4. Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:25148043

  5. Explaining the Tragedy of Sarajevo to the Children: Bringing the Contemporary Balkans into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the political changes that have swept across Europe since the end of the Cold War have not necessarily led to a more stable world. Contends that Yugoslavia is crucial to the future of the Balkan region. Includes suggestions for incorporating lessons about Yugoslavia into the social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  6. Spatial patterns of AFLP diversity in Bulbophyllum occultum (Orchidaceae) indicate long-term refugial isolation in Madagascar and long-distance colonization effects in La Réunion.

    PubMed

    Jaros, U; Fischer, G A; Pailler, T; Comes, H P

    2016-05-01

    Bulbophyllum occultum, an epiphytic orchid mainly distributed in the rainforests of (north)eastern Madagascar and La Réunion, represents an interesting model case for testing the effects of anthropogenic vs historical (e.g., climate induced) habitat isolation and long-distance colonization on the genetic structure of plant species with disjunct distributions in the Madagascan region. To this aim, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) across 13 populations in Madagascar and nine in La Réunion (206 individuals in total). We found overall high levels of population subdivision (Φ(PT)=0.387) and low within-population diversity (H(E), range: 0.026-0.124), indicating non-equilibrium conditions in a mainly selfing species. There was no impact of recent deforestation (Madagascar) or habitat disturbance (La Réunion) detectable on AFLP diversity. K-means clustering and BARRIER analyses identified multiple gene pools and several genetic breaks, both within and among islands. Inter-island levels of population genetic diversity and subdivision were similar, whereby inter-individual divergence in flower colour explained a significant part of gene pool divergence in La Réunion. Our results suggest that (i) B. occultum persisted across multiple isolated ('refugial') regions along the eastern rainforest corridor of Madagascar over recent climatic cycles and (ii) populations in La Réunion arose from either single or few independent introductions from Madagascar. High selfing rates and sufficient time for genetic drift likely promoted unexpectedly high population genetic and phenotypic (flower colour) differentiation in La Réunion. Overall, this study highlights a strong imprint of history on the genetic structure of a low-gene-dispersing epiphytic orchid from the Madagascan region. PMID:26883184

  7. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-10-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ka) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ka and ca. 31 ka. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the central Mediterranean area, like south Adriatic, Ionian, and south Tyrrhenian seas, lakes of southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  8. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-05-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were studied for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and supply the first detailed tephrochronologic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the end of the Ancient Age (AD 472). A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ky) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ky and ca. 31 ky. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the Central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the Central Mediterranean area, like South Adriatic, Ionian, and South Tyrrhenian Seas, lakes of Southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  9. Higher Education Reform in the Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anthony W.

    2004-01-01

    Struggling economies, outdated academic cultural traditions, and obsolete organizational structures are among the problems facing higher education reformers in the Balkans today. Change comes hard there despite difficult financial circumstances that elsewhere might provide the impetus for reform. Yet governmental and university leaders are finding…

  10. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  11. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  12. Health technology assessment in the Balkans: opportunities for a balanced drug assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Dankó, Dávid; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-01-01

    Countries in the Balkan region use pharmaco-economic data for decisions about the inclusion of new pharmaceuticals into their positive drug lists, but no predefined frameworks are used and resources for health technology assessment (HTA) are limited. The goal of this analysis is to investigate into possible development directions for the HTA system in the region, and provide some practical recommendations for a sustainable model. For this purpose, the main factors currently influencing HTA in Balkan countries are briefly presented, and possible development strategies are compared. A resource-saving balanced assessment approach is proposed. It is aligned with available resources and capabilities, and helps access to new pharmaceuticals while ensuring the transparency of decision-making processes and the stability of the pharmaceutical budget. PMID:26019605

  13. Dearth of Early Education Experience: A Significant Barrier to Educational and Social Inclusion in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovanovic, Suncica Macura; Kokic, Ivana Batarelo; Kristiansen, Selma Džemidžic; Gera, Ibolya; Ikonomi, Estevan; Kafedžic, Lejla; Milic, Tamara; Rexhaj, Xhavit; Spasovski, Ognen; Closs, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The article summarises the socio-political, cultural, economic and educational background to the Western Balkans region and outlines the wider qualitative research study that provided the data on early and pre-school educational opportunities in the seven countries involved; Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo (under United Nations…

  14. Balkan nephropathy: evolution of our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Boletis, John

    2008-09-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), originally described in the late 1950s as a chronic tubulointerstitial kidney disease, is identified by its unique epidemiological features. The most remarkable characteristic of BEN is the focal topographical nature that characterizes its occurrence at the global, national, and even household level. BEN affects only certain endemic rural foci along tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan countries of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia. The spatial distribution has remained astonishingly unchanged with time because the disease affects the same endemic clusters as 50 years ago. The natural course of the disease is characterized by universal development of end-stage renal disease and the frequent development of upper urinary tract tumors, posing a substantial disease burden to the afflicted areas. The greatest challenge in the study of BEN has been the elucidation of its cause. The unique features of the disease, in particular its endemic nature and the long incubation period required for the disease to develop, have led to the proposal that BEN represents a unique environmental disease. The quest for the responsible environmental factor has been long and diverse, and although no definitive answer has been provided to date, converging lines of evidence support the theory that long-term consumption of food contaminated with aristolochic acid underlies the pathogenesis of BEN. The present review describes the evolution of our knowledge of BEN in relation to the development of the main theories for its pathogenesis. PMID:18725017

  15. New insights on the seismic hazard in the Balkans inferred from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Nicola; Métois, Marianne; Avallone, Antonio; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The Balkans region sits at the transition between stable Eurasia and highly straining continental Eastern Mediterranean, resulting in a widespread seismicity and high seismic hazard. Because of intensive human and economic development over the last decades, the vulnerability has increased in the region faster than the progress in seismic hazard assessments. Opposite to the relatively good understanding of the seismicity in plate boundaries contexts, the seismic hazard is poorly known in the regions of distributed continental deformation like the Balkan region and is often underestimated (England and Jackson, 2011). Current seismic hazard assessments are based on the historical and instrumental catalogues. However, the completeness interval of the historical data bases may be below the average recurrence of individual seismogenic structures. In addition, relatively sparse seismological networks in the region and limited cross-border seismic data exchanges cast doubts in seismotectonic interpretation and challenge our understanding of seismic and geodynamic processes. This results in a inhomogeneous knowledge of the seismic hazard of the region to date. Geodetic measurements have the capability to contribute to seismic hazard by mapping the field of current active deformation and translating it into estimates of the seismogenic potential. With simple assumptions, measurements of crustal deformation can be translated in estimates of the average frequency and magnitude of the largest events and assessments of the aseismic deformation. GPS networks in the Balkans have been growing during the last few years mainly for civilian application (e.g. Cadastral plan, telecommunications), but opening new opportunities to quantify the present-day rates of crustal deformation. Here we present the initial results of GEOSAB (Geodetic Estimate of Strain Accumulation over Balkans), an AXA-Research-Fund supported project devoted to the estimation of crustal deformation and the

  16. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  17. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  18. Evaluating Weight of Evidence in the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bui-Klimke, Travis; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, progressive wasting disease of the kidneys, endemic in certain rural regions of the Balkan nations Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania. It is irreversible, and ultimately fatal. Though this disease was first described in the 1920s, its causes have been a mystery and a source of much academic and clinical contention. Possible etiologic agents that have been explored include exposure to metals and metalloids, viruses and bacteria, and the environmental toxins aristolochic acid (AA) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Aristolochic acid is a toxin produced by weeds of the genus Aristolochia, common in Balkan wheat fields. Aristolochia seeds may intermingle with harvested grains and thus inadvertently enter human diets. Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin (fungal toxin) common in many foods, including cereal grains. In this study, we analyzed the weight of evidence for each of the suspected causes of BEN using the Bradford Hill Criteria (BHC): nine conditions that determine weight of evidence for a causal relationship between an agent and a disease. Each agent postulated to cause BEN was evaluated using the nine criteria, and for each criterion was given a rating based on the strength of the association between exposure to the substance and BEN. From the overall available scientific evidence for each of these suspected risk factors, aristolochic acid is the agent with the greatest weight of evidence in causing BEN. We describe other methods for testing causality from epidemiological studies, which support this conclusion of AA causing BEN. PMID:24954501

  19. Uncovering cryptic diversity and refugial persistence among small mammal lineages across the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Demos, Terrence C; Kerbis Peterhans, Julian C; Agwanda, Bernard; Hickerson, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    The Eastern Afromontane region of Africa is characterized by striking levels of endemism and species richness accompanied by significant conservation threat, a pattern typical across biodiversity hotspots. Using multi-locus molecular data under a coalescent species tree framework we identify major cryptic biogeographic patterns within and between two endemic montane small mammal species complexes, Hylomyscus mice and Sylvisorex shrews, co-distributed across the Albertine Rift and Kenya Highlands of the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot (EABH). Hypotheses put forward to account for the high diversity of the region include retention of older palaeo-endemic lineages across major regions in climatically stable refugia, as well as the accumulation of lineages associated with more recent differentiation between allopatric populations separated by unsuitable habitat during periods of Pleistocene aridification. Sympatric pairs of sister lineages were found to have significantly older divergence times than allopatric pairs. Genetic analyses and historical distribution modeling suggest that regional meta-populations have persisted since the Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene across a climatic gradient from the Albertine Rift in the west to the Kenya Highlands in the east for both focal taxa. Differing patterns of regional sub-division and demographic expansion were detected and are consistent with differing life histories as well as shared responses to regional variation in stability of suitable habitat. There is also strong support in both mice and shrew species for Late Miocene divergence with subsequent range expansion into sympatry in previously unidentified cryptic species pairs. These results highlight the broad temporal scale at which climatic and geological changes may have facilitated rare dispersal events between montane habitats as well as the long-term persistence of populations in both the Albertine Rift and the Kenyan Highlands that together contributed to the

  20. Genetic characterization of the M RNA segment of a Balkan Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, E; Boźović, B; Antoniadis, A

    2005-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes one of the most severe diseases in humans, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of hard ticks or by contact with blood or tissues from human patients or infected livestock. Balkan Peninsula is an endemic region of the disease, and sporadic cases or even outbreaks are observed every year. The M RNA segment encodes for the glycoprotein precursor of two surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc. Up to now complete M RNA CCHF virus sequences have been published from strains isolated in Nigeria, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Russia. In the present study, the genetic characterization of the complete nucleotide sequence of the M RNA segment of a Balkan CCHF virus strain, Kosovo/9553/2001, isolated in summer of 2001 from a human fatal case in Kosovo is reported. This is the first published complete M nucleotide sequence of a CCHF virus strain isolated in Balkans. It was found that the Balkan strain is similar to the Russian strain, both strains differing from all other completely sequenced CCHF virus strains by approximately 22% at the nucleotide level forming an independent clade in the phylogenetic tree. PMID:15648072

  1. Evidence for Differential Assortative Female Preference in Association with Refugial Isolation of Rainbow Skinks in Australia's Tropical Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, Gaynor

    2008-01-01

    Background Divergence driven by female preference can give rise to pre-mating isolation more rapidly than post-mating isolation can evolve through the accumulation of allelic incompatibilities. Moreover pre-mating isolation may be more effective at maintaining morphological differentiation between divergent populations. In the context of Australian rainforest endemic skinks that were historically subjected to refugial isolation, this study examined the following predictions: 1) that assortative female preference is associated with more recent divergence of southern C. rubrigularis (S-RED) and C. rhomboidalis (BLUE), but not with deeply divergent S-RED and northern C. rubrigularis (N-RED); and 2) that upon secondary contact, morphological differentiation is maintained between S-RED and BLUE, whereas N-RED and S-RED remain morphogically indistinguishable. Principal Findings Female preference trials found no evidence for assortative female preference between N-RED and S-RED, supporting a previous genetic hybrid zone study which inferred post-mating but no pre-mating isolation. In contrast there is evidence for assortative female preference between S-RED and BLUE, with BLUE females preferring to associate with BLUE males, but S-RED females showing no preference. Multi-locus coalescent analyses, used to estimate post-divergence gene-flow between proximally located S-RED and BLUE populations, rejected zero gene-flow from BLUE to S-RED and thus RED and BLUE have maintained morphological differentiation despite secondary contact. Morphometric analyses confirmed a lack of morphological divergence between N-RED and S-RED and established that BLUE is morphologically divergent from RED in traits other than throat colour. Conclusions/Significance Long-term isolation has been sufficient to generate post-mating isolation but no morphological divergence between N-RED and S-RED. In contrast, greater morphological differentiation is associated with evidence for assortative female

  2. US policy in the Balkans: A Hobson`s choice

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.; Johnson, W.T.; Tilford, E.H.

    1995-08-28

    At this writing, the strategic balance may have shifted in the ongoing war in the former Yugoslavia, and the region could be on the verge of a settlement. But, the window of opportunity may be fleeting, and the failures and frustrations of the past four years temper any optimism that conflict in the former Yugoslavia will end quickly or completely. If this opening passes without an end to the fighting, the United States may have to reassess its fundamental policy objectives-and the ways and means to achieve them-if peace is to be effected in the Balkans. The intent of this report, therefore, is to analyze and assess existing policies, to identify any conflicts or contradictions that may stymie U.S. efforts to bring about a peaceful resolution of the crisis, and to offer potential solutions. The report does not offer an ambitious criticism of policy or an expert`s solution to an intractable problem. Its more modest goal is to examine current policy within a context that fits Bosnia into the larger pattern of U.S. interests and policy. In this manner, the report offers a broader framework for the strategic decisions that may face the United States in the not so distant future.

  3. Refugial isolation and secondary contact in the dyeing poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Brice P; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-12-01

    Recent palaeoclimactic research suggests that fluctuating environmental conditions throughout the Pleistocene of Amazonia occurred with previously unrecognized frequency. This has resulted in a theoretical shift from glacially influenced fluctuations to those driven by precessional rhythms. This theoretical revolution has a profound impact on expectations of biotic diversity within biogeographical regions that have long been based on the idea of large-scale landscape fragmentation associated with increased aridity and glacial cycles. Generally speaking, this shifts phylogeographical expectations from that of (i) large areas of sympatry of closely related (but not sister) species whose origins lie in separate refugia, and current distributions are the results of cyclic connectivity of those two refugia (refuge hypothesis), to that of (ii) fine scale genetic structure, often associated with elevation, and divergence well below expected speciation levels [disturbance-vicariance (DV) hypothesis]. To date there have been few tests of the expectations of the DV hypothesis based on empirical studies of Neotropical floral and faunal communities. Herein we examine phylogeographical structure of Dendrobates tinctorius, an amphibian species endemic to the uplands of the eastern Guiana Shield, based on sampling of 114 individuals from 24 localities. Phylogenetic, nested clade, and dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analyses of cytochrome b sequence data reveal the presence of two mitochondrial lineages that are associated with previously identified western and eastern uplands of this area. The geographical distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes and the results of DIVA and coalescent analyses suggest that there has been extensive secondary contact between these lineages indicating a complex history of connectivity between these western and eastern highlands, supporting the predictions of the DV hypothesis. PMID:17107474

  4. From globalization to Europeanization-and then? Transnational influences in lesbian activism of the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Dioli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at transnational dynamics in lesbian activism in the Western Balkans, with particular focus on Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, over the last two decades. Based on 30 interviews with activists from local and international feminist, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), and queer organizations, the article discusses the role played by transnational contacts in the development of lesbian activism in the region and the related issues arising within the conflicting relationship between the "East" and the "West," with special attention to trends related to international intervention and cooperation, globalization, and Europeanization. PMID:21774599

  5. Demography of the Early Neolithic Population in Central Balkans: Population Dynamics Reconstruction Using Summed Radiocarbon Probability Distributions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Central Balkans region is of great importance for understanding the spread of the Neolithic in Europe but the Early Neolithic population dynamics of the region is unknown. In this study we apply the method of summed calibrated probability distributions to a set of published radiocarbon dates from the Republic of Serbia in order to reconstruct population dynamics in the Early Neolithic in this part of the Central Balkans. The results indicate that there was a significant population growth after ~6200 calBC, when the Neolithic was introduced into the region, followed by a bust at the end of the Early Neolithic phase (~5400 calBC). These results are broadly consistent with the predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition theory and the patterns of population booms and busts detected in other regions of Europe. These results suggest that the cultural process that underlies the patterns observed in Central and Western Europe was also in operation in the Central Balkan Neolithic and that the population increase component of this process can be considered as an important factor for the spread of the Neolithic as envisioned in the demic diffusion hypothesis. PMID:27508413

  6. Demography of the Early Neolithic Population in Central Balkans: Population Dynamics Reconstruction Using Summed Radiocarbon Probability Distributions.

    PubMed

    Porčić, Marko; Blagojević, Tamara; Stefanović, Sofija

    2016-01-01

    The Central Balkans region is of great importance for understanding the spread of the Neolithic in Europe but the Early Neolithic population dynamics of the region is unknown. In this study we apply the method of summed calibrated probability distributions to a set of published radiocarbon dates from the Republic of Serbia in order to reconstruct population dynamics in the Early Neolithic in this part of the Central Balkans. The results indicate that there was a significant population growth after ~6200 calBC, when the Neolithic was introduced into the region, followed by a bust at the end of the Early Neolithic phase (~5400 calBC). These results are broadly consistent with the predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition theory and the patterns of population booms and busts detected in other regions of Europe. These results suggest that the cultural process that underlies the patterns observed in Central and Western Europe was also in operation in the Central Balkan Neolithic and that the population increase component of this process can be considered as an important factor for the spread of the Neolithic as envisioned in the demic diffusion hypothesis. PMID:27508413

  7. A new millipede, Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp., (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Conotylidae) from New Mexico, USA, and the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial habitats.

    PubMed

    Wynne, J Judson; Shear, William A

    2016-01-01

    Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp. is described from the moss gardens of one lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, Cibola Co., New Mexico. Most chordeumatidans require mesic conditions, and these environments are limited to moss gardens in several cave entrances and beneath cave skylights in El Malpais. Presently, this species is known from the moss gardens of a single of cave in the monument. We suggest A. awishoshola may be a climatic relict, having become restricted to the cave environment following the end of the Pleistocene. We discuss the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial and relictual habitats. Recommendations are provided to aid in the conservation and management of A. awishoshola and these habitats. PMID:27394265

  8. The Pannonian plain as a source of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Sikoparija, B; Smith, M; Skjøth, C A; Radisić, P; Milkovska, S; Simić, S; Brandt, J

    2009-05-01

    This study aims to find likely sources of Ambrosia pollen recorded during 2007 at five pollen-monitoring sites in central Europe: Novi Sad, Ruma, Negotin and Nis (Serbia) and Skopje (Macedonia). Ambrosia plants start flowering early in the morning and so Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the day are likely to be from a local source. Conversely, Ambrosia pollen grains recorded at night or very early in the morning may have arrived via long-range transport. Ambrosia pollen counts were analysed in an attempt to find possible sources of the pollen and to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. Diurnal variations and the magnitude of Ambrosia pollen counts during the 2007 Ambrosia pollen season showed that Novi Sad and Ruma (Pannonian Plain) and to a lesser degree Negotin (Balkans) were located near to sources of Ambrosia pollen. Mean bi-hourly Ambrosia pollen concentrations peaked during the middle of the day, and concentrations at these sites were notably higher than at Nis and Skopje. Three episodes were selected for further analysis using back-trajectory analysis. Back-trajectories showed that air masses brought Ambrosia pollen from the north to Nis and, on one occasion, to Skopje (Balkans) during the night and early morning after passing to the east of Novi Sad and Ruma during the previous day. The results of this study identified the southern part of the Pannonian Plain around Novi Sad and Ruma as being a potential source region for Ambrosia pollen recorded at Nis and Skopje in the Balkans. PMID:19224251

  9. An Examination of Long-Term Environmental-Social Dynamics in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the interactions of environmental and social dynamics in Central Balkans over the past millennium, a period that experienced three major climatic phases (Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and the warm 20th century). Meanwhile, the same period witnessed a complex human history with the emergence-rise-decline of the Ottoman Empire and subsequent socio-political events (e.g. wars, famines, migrations). Environmental datasets for the analysis include biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating of two western and central Serbian lakes while social datasets include historic population data, land use, settlement patterns, and critical historic events derived from a review of the literature and local archives. Among the environmental datasets, indigenous tree and herbaceous pollen from these Central Balkans records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics whereas potassium and titanium counts obtained through XRF act as a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes. Microscopic charcoal, cereal pollen and subordinate anthropogenic pollen (e.g. cultivated fruits and vegetables) are used to distinguish strong human impact over the landscape. These key anthropogenic indicators create a more thorough social component of the analysis in association with the social datasets. After reconstructing the individual time series for each environmental and social dataset, the two Central Balkan records are correlated in order to identify the environmental and social homogeneity and heterogeneity patterns occurring at shorter and longer timescales during the period. Results provide insights on how a region responds to social and environmental stressors and our approach demonstrates ways to integrate natural and social science system research.

  10. The Transformation of the European Educational Discourse in the Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmas, Aristotelis

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of the European educational discourse to particular nation-states is a complex process. The outcomes following this transfer are unclear. This article examines the transfer of the European educational discourse in the Balkans and proposes its richer description through the consideration of the processes of educational democratisation…

  11. The state of hepatitis B and C in the Mediterranean and Balkan countries: report from a summit conference.

    PubMed

    Hatzakis, A; Van Damme, P; Alcorn, K; Gore, C; Benazzouz, M; Berkane, S; Buti, M; Carballo, M; Cortes Martins, H; Deuffic-Burban, S; Dominguez, A; Donoghoe, M; Elzouki, A-N; Ben-Alaya Bouafif, N; Esmat, G; Esteban, R; Fabri, M; Fenton, K; Goldberg, D; Goulis, I; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Hadjichristodoulou, T; Hatzigeorgiou, T; Hamouda, O; Hasurdjiev, S; Hughes, S; Kautz, A; Malik, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papatheodoridis, G; Peck, R; Peterle, A; Potamitis, G; Prati, D; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Reic, T; Sharara, A; Shennak, M; Shiha, G; Shouval, D; Sočan, M; Thomas, H; Thursz, M; Tosti, M; Trépo, C; Vince, A; Vounou, E; Wiessing, L; Manns, M

    2013-08-01

    The burden of disease due to chronic viral hepatitis constitutes a global threat. In many Balkan and Mediterranean countries, the disease burden due to viral hepatitis remains largely unrecognized, including in high-risk groups and migrants, because of a lack of reliable epidemiological data, suggesting the need for better and targeted surveillance for public health gains. In many countries, the burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C is increasing due to ageing of unvaccinated populations and migration, and a probable increase in drug injecting. Targeted vaccination strategies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among risk groups and harm reduction interventions at adequate scale and coverage for injecting drug users are needed. Transmission of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthcare settings and a higher prevalence of HBV and HCV among recipients of blood and blood products in the Balkan and North African countries highlight the need to implement and monitor universal precautions in these settings and use voluntary, nonremunerated, repeat donors. Progress in drug discovery has improved outcomes of treatment for both HBV and HCV, although access is limited by the high costs of these drugs and resources available for health care. Egypt, with the highest burden of hepatitis C in the world, provides treatment through its National Control Strategy. Addressing the burden of viral hepatitis in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions will require national commitments in the form of strategic plans, financial and human resources, normative guidance and technical support from regional agencies and research. PMID:23827008

  12. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  13. Description of two new filtering carnivore Drusus species (Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Kučinić, Mladen; Oláh, János; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans are described. Additionally, observations on the biodiversity and threats to the region’s endemic aquatic fauna are discussed. Drusus krpachi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Korab Mountains, Macedonia, and Drusus malickyi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Prokletije Mountains, Albania. Both new species are most similar to Drusus macedonicus but differ from the latter in the shape of segment IX, the shape of the tips of the intermediate appendages in lateral view, the shape of the inferior appendages, and the form and shape of the parameres. In addition, males of the European species of filtering carnivore Drusinae are diagnosed and illustrated, including Cryptothrix nebulicola McLachlan, Drusus chrysotus Rambur, Drusus discolor Rambur, Drusus macedonicus Schmid, Drusus meridionalis Kumanski, Drusus muelleri McLachlan, Drusus romanicus Murgoci and Botosaneanu, and Drusus siveci Malicky. These additions to the Western Balkan fauna demonstrate the significance of this region for European biodiversity and further highlight the importance of faunistic studies in Europe. PMID:26257570

  14. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. Despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are, however, not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is used here to test the biogeographical zonation of the Southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most populations studied belong to two native species: D. presbensis (incl. the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, D. ''stankovici'') and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the Southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. is largely in concordance with the biogeographical zonations previously proposed based on fish data. Disagreement, however, consists regarding the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. For Lake Prespa, however, a closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the Northern Ionian region is suggested. While reconstructing the evolutionary histories of Dreissena spp., signs of major demographic and spatial expansions were found. They started some 320 000-300 000 years ago in D. ''stankovici'', some 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and some 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had pronounced effects on the

  15. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  16. Late-Quaternary Speleothem Records from the Balkan Peninsula - Potential, Objectives and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, I.; McCoy, W. D.; Markovic, S.; Endlicher, W.

    2010-12-01

    Mid-latitude speleothems often contain detailed, high-resolution records of local and regional interglacial climate changes. Many speleothem records of Holocene (MIS 1) and Eemian (MIS 5e) climate evolution have been investigated, but there is very little work being done in the Balkan region, despite the fact that the area is very rich in limestone caves with speleothems. Situated at the interface between temperate-continental and Mediterranean climates, present-day climate on the Balkan Peninsula is determined by two major upper-level jet streams, the polarfront jet (PFJ) and the subtropical jet (STJ). On a seasonal scale, both features exert varying influence and determine frontogenesis processes, cyclonic activity and precipitation. On decadal to millennial time-scales, changes and fluctuations in the position and permanency of these atmospheric circulation features influence the isotope signature in rainfall and ultimately in cave drip waters and related speleothems. We are investigating speleothems from Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina to study Late Quaternary climatic changes and to learn how both synoptic-scale systems were linked during the Holocene and previous interglacial periods. By example of a stalagmite collected in Vernjikica Cave, Serbia (Carpatho-Balkans), the project's potential to address important aspects of paleoclimatic research in the Mediterranean realm is discussed. The first studied, fine-laminated calcite stalagmite is about 50 cm tall and extends conically from the base to the top, presenting at least two visible growth discontinuities. Four preliminary uranium-series ages (234U/230Th) constrain the general period of growth to MIS 5d to MIS 5b. Preliminary results suggest that the stable oxygen isotope profile obtained from the axial zone largely reflects the unaltered isotopic composition of the cave drip water. The observed shifts in the isotope records display long-term changing climate conditions from temperate warm and

  17. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  18. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    PubMed Central

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  19. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, C A; Orem, W H; Finkelman, R B; Feder, G L

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799184

  20. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: Still more questions than answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatu, C.A.; Orem, W.H.; Finkelman, R.B.; Feder, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology.

  1. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  2. 78 FR 37097 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... With Respect to the Western Balkans #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Notice of June 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western... respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 8, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 22, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive...

  5. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013). PMID:27615918

  6. Phylogeography of the rare Balkan endemic Martino's vole, Dinaromys bogdanovi, reveals strong differentiation within the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Krystufek, Boris; Buzan, Elena V; Hutchinson, William F; Hänfling, Bernd

    2007-03-01

    The spatial genetic structure of Martino's vole, a rare palaeoendemic species of the western Balkans, was investigated using DNA isolated from archived museum samples. The study was based on partial sequencing (555 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 63 specimens from 20 different localities throughout the species' range. Three highly divergent allopatric phylogenetic lineages (Northwestern, Central and Southeastern) were recognized among 47 haplotypes, suggesting three independent glacial differentiation centres within the western Balkans. The Northwestern lineage, which showed the highest divergence from all other samples (mean sequence divergence of 6.64% +/- 1.10), comprised samples collected from northwest of the Neretva River in Croatia, western Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Central and Southeastern lineages were separated by an average sequence divergence of 2.95% +/- 0.66 and were geographically divided by the Drim River (the Kosovo Basin in Serbia). Overall, haplotype diversity decreased from the Northwestern lineage to the Central and subsequently the Southeastern lineage, in a geographical pattern consistent with a stepping stone colonization. The observed distribution indicates a gradual southerly expansion with subsequent allopatry across the Neretva River and Drim River approximately 1 and 0.3 million years ago, respectively. Such a scenario is concordant with palaeontological evidence. Several highly divergent sublineages within the Northwestern and Central lineages showed no significant geographical structuring, suggesting secondary contact of allopatrically evolved lineages. We hypothesize that the topographical complexity of the Balkans promoted allopatry and isolation on a small geographical scale during interglacial periods, with secondary contact during glacial maxima. Furthermore, the three main lineages should be regarded as evolutionary significant units with important implications for conservation. Ecological data show that the

  7. Description and implementation of a surveillance network for bluetongue in the Balkans and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, F; Paladini, C; Meiswinkel, R; Savini, L; Calistri, P

    2006-01-01

    During the recent severe outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in the Mediterranean Basin, the BT virus (BTV) spread beyond its historical limits into the Balkan region. One of the primary impacts of BT is the cessation in livestock trade which can have severe economic and social consequences. The authors briefly describe the development of the collaborative East-BTnet programme which aims to assist all affected and at-risk Balkan states and adjoining countries in the management of BT, and in the development of individual national surveillance systems. The beneficiary countries involved, and led by the World organisation for animal health (Office International des Epizooties) Collaborating Centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare of the Istituto Zooprofilattico dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' in collaboration with the Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, the European Commission Joint Research Centre (IPSC-JRC), were Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Malta, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia and Turkey. A regional web-based surveillance network is a valuable tool for controlling and managing transboundary animal diseases such as BT. Its implementation in the Balkan region and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe is described and discussed. PMID:20429055

  8. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Varzari, Alexander; Kharkov, Vladimir; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Raicu, Florina; Simonova, Kseniya; Stephan, Wolfgang; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Stepanov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs) polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups. PMID:23341985

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  10. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palpurina, Salza; Chytrý, Milan; Tzonev, Rossen; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, Irena; Merunková, Kristina; Duchoň, Mário; Karakiev, Todor

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale plant species richness varies across habitats, climatic and biogeographic regions, but the large-scale context of this variation is insufficiently explored. The patterns at the borders between biomes harbouring rich but different floras are of special interest. Dry grasslands of the eastern Balkan Peninsula, situated in the Eurasian forest-steppe zone and developed under Mediterranean influence, are a specific case of such biome transition. However, there are no studies assessing the patterns of fine-scale species richness and their underlying factors across the eastern Balkans. To explore these patterns, we sampled dry and semi-dry grasslands (phytosociological class Festuco-Brometea) across Bulgaria and SE Romania. In total, 172 vegetation plots of 10 × 10 m2 were sampled, in which all vascular plant species were recorded, soil depth was measured, and soil samples were collected and analysed in a laboratory for pH and plant-available nutrients. Geographic coordinates were used to extract selected climatic variables. Regression trees and linear regressions were used to quantify the relationships between species richness and environmental variables. Climatic factors were identified as the main drivers of species richness: (1) Species richness was strongly positively correlated with the mean temperature of the coldest month: sub-Mediterranean areas of S and E Bulgaria, characterized by warmer winters, were more species-rich. (2) Outside the sub-Mediterranean areas, species richness strongly increased with annual precipitation, which was primarily controlled by altitude. (3) Bedrock type and soil pH also significantly affected dry grassland richness outside the sub-Mediterranean areas. These results suggest that fine-scale species richness of dry grasslands over large areas is driven by processes at the regional level, especially by the difference in the species pools of large regions, in our case the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographic regions

  11. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceović, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  12. Molecular detection and prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses of central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association between positivity and age group. T. equi was more prevalent in females and farming horses. This is the first report on the molecular survey of T. equi and B. caballi in central Balkan. Further prevalence studies on definitive host and vectors in this region are necessary. PMID:27078657

  13. Cryptic diversity in the Western Balkan endemic copepod: Four species in one?

    PubMed

    Previšić, Ana; Gelemanović, Andrea; Urbanič, Gorazd; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2016-07-01

    We use mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nH3) sequence data to investigate differentiation of Eudiaptomus hadzici, a freshwater copepod endemic to the Western Balkans. E. hadzici has a disjunct distribution and morphological differences were observed at regional scale. In the current study 6 out of 7 known populations are included. We applied several species delimiting approaches, distance based methods (K2P p-distance and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, ABGD) using the mtCOI, Bayesian phylogeny and the Bayesian method implemented in bPTP and BPP programs using the concatenated sequences of both genes. Phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses all suggest that the nominal species E. hadzici consists of four isolated, cryptic evolutionary lineages in the Western Balkans. Each of the four lineages inhabits a single lake or a group of lakes in close proximity. They exhibit major differences in secondary sexual characters, e.g. right antennule in males. Denticulation of spine on 13th segment is substantially distinct among the four lineages, having different number and shape of tooth-like protrusions. Gene flow and dispersal are restricted to very small spatial scale, but with local differences, implying that diverse historical and contemporary processes are operating at small spatial scales in E. hadzici. In order to further examine spatial and temporal diversification patterns, we constructed a dated species tree analysis using (*)BEAST. Due to lack of reliable calibration points and taxa specific evolutionary rates, two evolutionary rates were applied and the faster one (2.6% myr) seems more plausible considering the geological history of the region. The divergence of E. hadzici lineages is dated from Early Miocene onwards with geographically close lineages diverging more recently, Late Miocene to Pleistocene and Pleistocene, respectively. Overall, our findings shed light on cryptic genetic complexity of endemics in one of European biodiversity hotspots

  14. Description of a new species of Wormaldia from Sardinia and a new Drusus species from the Western Balkans (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Kučinić, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Malicky, Hans; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New species are described in the genera Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) and Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae). Additionally, the larva of the new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is described, and a key provided to larval Drusus species of the bosnicus-group, in which the new species belongs. Observations on the threats to regional freshwater biodiversity and caddisfly endemism are discussed. The new species Wormaldia sarda sp. n. is an endemic of the Tyrrhenian island of Sardinia and differs most conspicuously from its congeners in the shape of segment X, which is trilobate in lateral view. The new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Western Balkans, and increases the endemism rate of Balkan Drusinae to 79% of 39 species. Compared to other Western Balkan Drusus, males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus discophorus Radovanovic and Drusus vernonensis Malicky, but differ in the shape of superior and intermediate appendages. The females of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. are most similar to those of Drusus vernonensis, but differ distinctly in the outline of segment X. Larvae of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. exhibit toothless mandibles, indicating a scraping grazing-feeding ecology. PMID:25931956

  15. Comparison of Satellite NO{sub 2} Observations with High Resolution Model Simulations over the Balkan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Zyrichidou, I.; Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Katragkou, E.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Markakis, K.; Melas, D.; van der A., R.; Boersma, F. K.; Roozendael, M. van

    2010-01-21

    High resolution model estimations of tropospheric NO{sub 2} column amounts from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) were simulated for the Balkan Peninsula and were compared with satellite data for a period of one year, in order to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The Balkan area is considered a crossroad of different pollution sources and therefore has been divided in urban, industrial and rural regions, aiming to investigate the consistency of satellite retrievals and model predictions at high spatial resolution. Satellite measurements of tropospheric NO{sub 2} are available daily at 13:30 LT since 2004 from OMI/Aura with a resolution of 13x24 km. The anthropogenic emissions used in CAMx for the domain under study, was compiled employing bottom-up approaches (road transport sector, off-road machinery) as well as other national registries and international databases. High resolution GIS maps (road network, landuses, population) were also used in order to achieve high spatial resolution. In most of the cases the model reveals similar spatial patterns with the satellite data, while over certain areas discrepancies were found and investigated.

  16. Microscale vicariance and diversification of Western Balkan caddisflies linked to karstification

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Jan; Kučinić, Mladen; Graf, Wolfram; Ibrahimi, Halil; Kerovec, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    The karst areas in the Dinaric region of the Western Balkan Peninsula are a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity. Many investigators have examined diversification of the subterranean freshwater fauna in these karst systems. However, diversification of surface-water fauna remains largely unexplored. We assessed local and regional diversification of surface-water species in karst systems and asked whether patterns of population differentiation could be explained by dispersal–diversification processes or allopatric diversification following karst-related microscale vicariance. We analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequence data of 4 caddisfly species (genus Drusus) in a phylogeographic framework to assess local and regional population genetic structure and Pliocene/Pleistocene history. We used BEAST software to assess the timing of intraspecific diversification of the target species. We compared climate envelopes of the study species and projected climatically suitable areas during the last glacial maximum (LGM) to assess differences in the species climatic niches and infer potential LGM refugia. The haplotype distribution of the 4 species (324 individuals from 32 populations) was characterized by strong genetic differentiation with few haplotypes shared among populations (16%) and deep divergence among populations of the 3 endemic species, even at local scales. Divergence among local populations of endemics often exceeded divergence among regional and continental clades of the widespread D. discolor. Major divergences among regional populations dated to 2.0 to 0.5 Mya. Species distribution model projections and genetic structure suggest that the endemic species persisted in situ and diversified locally throughout multiple Pleistocene climate cycles. The pattern for D. discolor was different and consistent with multiple invasions into the region. Patterns of population genetic structure and diversification were similar for the 3 regional

  17. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with the die-back of ornamental trees in the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zlatković, Milica; Keča, Nenad; Wingfield, Michael J; Jami, Fahimeh; Slippers, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Extensive die-back and mortality of various ornamental trees and shrubs has been observed in parts of the Western Balkans region during the past decade. The disease symptoms have been typical of those caused by pathogens residing in the Botryosphaeriaceae. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased ornamental trees in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Isolates were initially characterized based on the DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer rDNA and six major clades were identified. Representative isolates from each clade were further characterized using DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha, β-tubulin-2 and large subunit rRNA gene regions, as well as the morphology of the asexual morphs. Ten species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified of which eight, i.e., Dothiorella sarmentorum, Neofusicoccum parvum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Phaeobotryon cupressi, Sphaeropsis visci, Diplodia seriata, D. sapinea and D. mutila were known taxa. The remaining two species could be identified only as Dothiorella spp. Dichomera syn-asexual morphs of D. sapinea, Dothiorella sp. 2 and B. dothidea, as well as unique morphological characters for a number of the known species are described. Based on host plants and geographic distribution, the majority of Botryosphaeriaceae species found represent new records. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of the distribution, host associations and impacts of these fungi on trees in urban environments. PMID:26891906

  18. Marine Isotope Stage 5 Climate Variability in the Central Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, I.; Burns, S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, L.; McCoy, W.; Markovic, S.; Endlicher, W.

    2012-04-01

    In this study we present results from two speleothems collected from Vernjikica Cave, situated in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, at the fringes of the Carpathians and Balkan Mountains. The preliminary age models were determined by U-Th dating techniques that at present comprise 9 dates in stratigraphic order. The samples grew from approximately 63-113 ka BP and from 115-121 ka BP, spanning much of MIS stage 5 and the transition into MIS 4. Samples for δ18O values were micromilled from each stalagmite along the growth axis. Oxygen isotopic values of the younger sample, stalagmite V4-2, range from -9.9‰ to -6.3‰, while carbon isotopic values show an opposing general trend ranging from -8.8‰ to -3.0‰. Over the growth period, δ18O and δ13C values show frequent simultaneous and distinct high-amplitude shifts towards more positive values that coincide with pronounced accumulations of denser and darker laminae. The strongest enrichment of δ18O values is seen at approximately 107 ka and coincides with peaks of depleted oxygen values at Soreq cave, Israel, suggesting semiarid conditions at the study site at a time when sapropel layers formed in the Eastern Mediterranean. In regard to present isotopic compositions in rainfall in the study area, the V4-2 proxy record shows over its period of growth a change from more humid and warm to colder and drier environmental conditions. The distinct increases in stable isotopic ratios as seen at 107 ka reflect warm and dry intervals during which calcite precipitation is additionally affected by non-equilibrium conditions. The overall trend in isotopic data mirrors both global climatic signals as seen in δ18O variations from the NGRIP ice-core record, and regional climatic signals as seen in δ18O from speleothems from Soreq Cave or in aeolian dust records from the Vojvodina in North Serbia. However, a prominent characteristic of the Vernjikica samples is the substantial variability in isotopic values over the

  19. Strontium isotopes document greater human mobility at the start of the Balkan Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Dušan; Price, T. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Questions about how farming and the Neolithic way of life spread across Europe have been hotly debated topics in archaeology for decades. For a very long time, two models have dominated the discussion: migrations of farming groups from southwestern Asia versus diffusion of domesticates and new ideas through the existing networks of local forager populations. New strontium isotope data from the Danube Gorges in the north-central Balkans, an area characterized by a rich burial record spanning the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition, show a significant increase in nonlocal individuals from ∼6200 calibrated B.C., with several waves of migrants into this region. These results are further enhanced by dietary evidence based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes and an increasingly high chronological resolution obtained on a large sample of directly dated individuals. This dataset provides robust evidence for a brief period of coexistence between indigenous groups and early farmers before farming communities absorbed the foragers completely in the first half of the sixth millennium B.C. PMID:23401535

  20. Angiogenesis in upper tract urothelial carcinoma associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Velickovic, Ljubinka Jankovic; Petrovic, Ana Ristic; Stojnev, Slavica; Dolicanin, Zana; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Stojanovic, Mariola; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is characterized by a number of aberrations in cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to detect angiogenesis-related marker(s) specific for BEN UTUC, and to examine the influence of HIF 1α upon angiogenesis and apoptosis in UTUC. Present investigation included 110 patients with UTUC, 50 from BEN region and 60 control tumors. Altered expression of VEGFR1 was more often present in control UTUC than in BEN tumors (p<0.005). It was associated with high grade, low and high stage, solid growth, and metaplastic change of control UTUC. Microvessel density assessed by CD31 (MVD CD31) was significantly higher in UTUC with lymphovascular invasion (p<0.05), and in BEN tumors with papillary growth (p<0.05). Discriminant analysis indicated that BEN and control tumors do not differ significantly in expression of angiogenesis related markers. The most important discriminant variable that determined control UTUC was expression of VEGFR1 (p=0.002). HIF 1α in UTUC significantly correlated with the low stage, papillary growth and expression of Bcl-2, Caspase-3 index, and MVD CD34 (p<0.001; 0.0005; 0.01; 0.005; 0.01, respectively). HIF-1α may be helpful marker in evaluation of UTUC, especially when combined with angiogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:22977664

  1. Environmental changes on the Balkans recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-05-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid on the Balkans are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several up to ca. 15 m long sediment records were studied during the past years. In this study, a first long sediment record from Lake Prespa was studied in order to shed more light on the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and the occurrence of 3 dated tephra layers provide a good age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record reaches back to 48 ka. The comparison of the results from this study with those from former studies of the Lake Ohrid cores indicates that Lake Prespa is more susceptible to environmental changes due to its lower volume and water depth. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter contents and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate contents in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter contents in Lake Prespa, which indicate a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental changes and short-term events, such as the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but partly expressed in different proxies.

  2. Ticks (Acari: Argasidae, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in the central Balkans.

    PubMed

    Burazerović, J; Ćakić, S; Mihaljica, D; Sukara, R; Ćirović, D; Tomanović, S

    2015-06-01

    Ticks parasitizing bats have been largely understudied, especially in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, where the last data from the field research date from almost 25 years ago. Bats are hosts to a large number of ectoparasites, including ticks, which can act as vectors of zoonotic agents. For this reason, it is important to identify the distribution of ticks and their relationship to different hosts, including wild animals, bats in particular. The present research was conducted at 16 localities throughout Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). We examined 475 individuals of bats belonging to 13 species. A total of three tick species were identified, I. simplex being the most numerous and widespread, followed by I. vespertilionis and A. vespertilionis. To the best of our knowledge, the presented data include the first records of I. simplex in Serbia and Montenegro, I. vespertilionis for Montenegro and A. vespertilionis in FYROM. Also, we identify a new possible host/parasite association between I. simplex and Rhinolophus euryale. PMID:25717009

  3. Balkan endemic nephropathy—current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pavlović, Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), originally described in 1956, is a unique familial, chronic renal disease encountered with a high-prevalence rate in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most prominent features of the disease are its endemic nature, long-incubation period, familial clustering of the disease and an unusually high incidence of associated upper urothelial cancer (UUC). There are no clear-cut data on BEN incidence and prevalence, since the studies carried out in different endemic areas yielded contradictory information. In spite of intermittent variations, the incidence of new cases has remained stable over time. It has been estimated that almost 100 000 people are at risk of BEN, whereas 25 000 have the disease. The clinical signs and symptoms of BEN are non-specific and often remain unrecognized for years. There are no pathognomonic diagnostic features of BEN, but the set of epidemiological, clinical and biochemical data along with the pattern of pathologic injury in the absence of any other renal diseases are highly suggestive of this entity. Although the aetiology has been extensively studied, fostering the publication of various hypotheses, only one of them has provided conclusive evidence related to the aetiology of BEN. Studies conducted over the past decade have provided particularly strong arguments that BEN and UUC are caused by chronic poisoning with aristolochic acids (AAs). In light of these later studies, one can raise the question whether AAs could be responsible for previously and currently widespread unrecognized global renal disease and UUC. PMID:26064484

  4. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. PMID:21986187

  5. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

  6. Identifying and Interpreting the Imprint of the Little Ice Age over the Balkan Landscape: A Combined Palynological and Geochemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We examine a multi-centennial Balkan record of vegetation and landscape during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic transition that lasted from c. 15th to the 19th century AD. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)), and a robust chronology based on AMS 14C dating are used to reconstruct the vegetation response and human-environmental interactions during the LIA. A sediment core extracted from a sinkhole lake located in western Serbia (44°30'N-19°30'E; elevation 250 m a.s.l.) was sampled at 10-cm intervals for investigating biological proxies. Palynological data include temperate indigenous trees (e.g. Quercus, Betula), herbaceous taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae), and key anthropogenic indicators (e.g. Juglans, cereals) and demonstrate wet and cool conditions as well as seasonal variations during cal. 16th to 19th century AD. The XRF data obtained from the core at 1-cm intervals show changes in the clastic input and surface erosion around the lake probably owing to seasonal variations during the LIA. Moreover, pollen and charcoal data together reveal the changing nature of human interference across the LIA from intense deforestation to reforestation and sustained cultivation with climatic and seasonal variations. Correlating palaeoecological and geochemical data for this region allows us to interpret the long-term dynamics of landscape and humans across one of the important climatic intervals in Europe. The Balkans, as one of Europe's "Biodiversity Hotspots" and a rapidly changing region, provides insights into possible biotic responses to future global climatic change.

  7. The ancient Balkan lakes harbor a new endemic species of Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Korovchinsky, Nikolai M; Petkovski, Trajan K

    2014-01-01

    Diaphanosoma macedonicum sp. nov. is described from material collected from the ancient Lakes Dojran and Prespa, located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It can be regarded as a member of the "D. mongolianum" species group. It is characterized by specific, but not readily visible features, such as the absence of a thorn near the posterior valve margins, as well as setules between setae of the ventral valve inflection, and the presence of more chitinized integument. The discovery of this new species previously identified as "Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Liévin)" highlights the necessity of more detailed investigations of the zooplankton of Balkan lakes potentially populated by greater numbers of endemic cladoceran species. A short overview of the ancient lakes in the Central Balkans is provided. PMID:24872071

  8. On depleted uranium: gulf war and Balkan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duraković, A

    2001-04-01

    The complex clinical symptomatology of chronic illnesses, commonly described as Gulf War Syndrome, remains a poorly understood disease entity with diversified theories of its etiology and pathogenesis. Several causative factors have been postulated, with a particular emphasis on low level chemical warfare agents, oil fires, multiple vaccines, desert sand (Al-Eskan disease), botulism, Aspergillus flavus, Mycoplasma, aflatoxins, and others, contributing to the broad scope of clinical manifestations. Among several hundred thousand veterans deployed in the Operation Desert Storm, 15-20% have reported sick and about 25,000 died. Depleted uranium (DU), a low-level radioactive waste product of the enrichment of natural uranium with U-235 for the reactor fuel or nuclear weapons, has been considered a possible causative agent in the genesis of Gulf War Syndrome. It was used in the Gulf and Balkan wars as an armor-penetrating ammunition. In the operation Desert Storm, over 350 metric tons of DU was used, with an estimate of 3-6 million grams released in the atmosphere. Internal contamination with inhaled DU has been demonstrated by the elevated excretion of uranium isotopes in the urine of the exposed veterans 10 years after the Gulf war and causes concern because of its chemical and radiological toxicity and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Polarized views of different interest groups maintain an area of sustained controversy more in the environment of the public media than in the scientific community, partly for the reason of being less than sufficiently addressed by a meaningful objective interdisciplinary research. PMID:11259733

  9. Genetic Diversity and Conservation of the Prespa Trout in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Berrebi, Patrick; Tougard, Christelle; Dubois, Sophie; Shao, Zhaojun; Koutseri, Irene; Petkovski, Svetozar; Crivelli, Alain J.

    2013-01-01

    The Balkans are known to have a high level of biodiversity and endemism. No less than 15 taxa have been recorded in salmonids of the Salmo genus. Among them, the Prespa trout is found in only four river systems flowing into Lake Macro Prespa, three in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and one in Greece. This is the first comprehensive survey of all streams located within the Macro Prespa Basin, encompassing the whole taxon range. A large genetic sample of 536 Prespa trout was collected mainly between 2005 and 2007. The sampling included 59 individuals from the Golema river system, 93 from the Kranska, 260 from the Brajcinska, 119 from the Agios Germanos, and five individuals from the lake itself. These specimens were analyzed with six microsatellite markers and by sequencing the mitochondrial control region. Nuclear data were examined through multidimensional analysis and assignment tests. Five clusters were detected by assignment: Golema, Kranska, Brajcinska upstream, Rzanska Brajcinska tributary and Brajcinska downstream. Most of these river systems thus hosted differentiated Prespa trout populations (with past gene flows likely dating before the construction of dams), except Agios Germanos, which was found to be composed of 5% to 32% of each cluster. Among the five trout individuals from the lake, four originated from Kranska River and one was admixed. Supported parsimonious hypotheses are proposed to explain these specificities. Conservation of this endemic taxon should take these results into account. No translocation should be performed between different tributaries of the lake and preservation of the Brajcinska populations should address the upstream-downstream differentiation described. PMID:24287917

  10. The "1+1:Life & Love" Simultaneous Exhibition: Cross-Border Collaboration in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a cross-border, "simultaneous exhibition" collaborative project in six post-conflict western Balkan countries. Through a process of collaboration, active learning, and audience development, professional and personal trust developed among eleven museums. Previously identified barriers were overcome and…

  11. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080. PMID:24857887

  12. Geological units and Moho depth determination in the Western Balkans exploiting GOCE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampietro, D.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work we illustrate a new local inversion algorithm to retrieve the Moho depth from GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gravity field. In details the proposed procedure can be divided into two main steps: the first one consists in recognizing and isolating the different geological provinces in the study area by exploiting information coming from the GOCE global gravity field model. Once the main geological provinces are defined, a function relating the crust density of each province with depth is built and used to reduce the data. The gravitational effects of sediments, topography, bathymetry and upper mantle are also removed. In the second step the residual gravitational field is inverted to retrieve the Moho depth and some information on the crustal density. In particular, the clustering of geological province is performed by means of an automatic Bayesian classification algorithm while the inversion of GOCE residual field is performed by adapting the global algorithm developed in the framework of the GEMMA project to the local scale. The procedure, based on an iterative Wiener filter, allows to compute the Moho depth considering lateral as well as radial variations of crustal density. The algorithm has been applied to the fifth release of GOCE time-wise global gravity field model to infer information on the crustal structure in the Western Balkan area, that is, the region laying between Bulgaria and the Adriatic Sea. This region is one of the most complex and active, from the tectonic point of view, in the whole Europe and it is characterized by the presence of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, formed by the collision between the African and Eurasian plates, and by the opening of the Pannonian Basin. Results show a good agreement between the obtained geological provinces with the actual knowledge on the region. The resulting Moho depth ranges between about 20 km beneath the Adriatic Sea and 45 km in the Dinarides

  13. A larval key to the Drusinae species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) of Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the dinaric western Balkan1

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, J.; Graf, W.; Pauls, S.U.; Previšić, A.; Kučinić, M.

    2016-01-01

    A larval key of the Drusinae of Central Europe and the dinaric western Balkan is presented. Phylogeographic relationships are discussed in the light of molecular genetics, feeding ecology and larval morphology. PMID:26985170

  14. Quantitation of Aristolochic Acids in Corn, Wheat Grain, and Soil Samples Collected in Serbia: Identifying a Novel Exposure Pathway in the Etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Pavlović, Nikola M; Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Liu, Jingjing; Deng, Kailin; Wang, Yinan; Milosavljević, Biljana; Kostić, Emina N

    2016-07-27

    While to date investigations provided convincing evidence on the role of aristolochic acids (AAs) in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and upper urothelial cancer (UUC), the exposure pathways by which AAs enter human bodies to cause BEN and UUC remain obscure. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that environmental pollution by AAs and root uptake of AAs in the polluted soil may be one of the pathways by which AAs enter the human food chain. The hypothesis driving this study was that the decay of Aristolochia clematitis L., a AA-containing herbaceous plant that is found growing widespread in the endemic regions, could release free AAs to the soil, which could be taken up by food crops growing nearby, thereby transferring this potent human nephrotoxin and carcinogen into their edible parts. Using the highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time AAs in corn, wheat grain, and soil samples collected from the endemic village Kutles in Serbia. Our results provide the first direct evidence that food crops and soil in the Balkans are contaminated with AAs. It is possible that the presence of AAs in edible parts of crops originating from the AA-contaminated soil could be one of the major pathways by which humans become exposed to AAs. PMID:27362729

  15. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b (ca. 91 kyr), has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR

  16. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  17. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  18. Cryptic diversity of caddisflies in the Balkans: the curious case of Ecclisopteryx species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U.; Waringer, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Adults and larvae of two new cryptic, endemic caddisflies, Ecclisopteryx keroveci sp.n. and Ecclisopteryx ivkae sp.n., are described and illustrated from the Western Balkans. Phylogenetic analysis (Bayesian MCMCMC) and association of different life history stages in both cryptic species were achieved through comparison of morphological characters and mitochondrial (mtCOI and mtLSU) and nuclear (nuWG) gene sequence data. The new species form a sister clade to the widely distributed E. dalecarlica and E. guttulata, with which they were formerly misidentified. Adults differ from each other and other species in the genus by the uniquely shaped inferior appendages in males and segment X in females. The larvae differ from each other and their congeners in the shape of the pronotum, and presence and constitution of additional spines on the parietalia. Larvae of both species are grazers and prefer stony substrate. Ecclisopteryx keroveci sp.n. has a wide distribution in the Western Balkans, while E. ivkae sp.n. is endemic to Dalmatia. Our findings demonstrate the significance of the Western Balkans as a freshwater biodiversity hotspot, and accentuate the importance of research focused on freshwater biodiversity and biogeography in southern Europe. PMID:25810791

  19. Secular trends in body height in Balkan populations from 1945 to 1995

    PubMed Central

    Sarajlić, Nermin; Resić, Emina; Gradaščević, Anisa; Salihbegović, Adis; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, and Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look for any secular trend in the stature of Balkan populations from the time of World War II (1939–1945) to the Balkans War (1991–1995). The research was based on the examination of exhumed skeletons of 202 men killed in World War II in the area of the Republic of Slovenia, and 243 men killed in the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The length measurements of the right and left humerus, femur, tibia and fibula were taken. Since the results revealed no significant differences and the left-sided bones were more complete and recurrent in the sample, the bones of the left side were used in the analysis. Since the increase in height depends mostly on the increase in length of the long bones, with an average absolute change of about 0.28 cm for humerus, 0.55 cm for femur, 0.49 cm for tibia and 0.20 cm for fibula per decade in our case, these results suggest a significant increase of the height of the Balkans population. The difference of the sum of the average femur and tibia length for the study period was 4.13 cm. Recalculated average length increase of the sum length of femur and tibia per decade was 0.88 cm for the left side. Our study revealed that there was a trend towards increased long bone lengths, at least in the male population analyzed. PMID:25428672

  20. The climate in the Balkans during the Eemian: a multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyron, Odile; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Goring, Simon; Klotz, Stefan; Kuhl, Norbert; Bordon, Amandine

    2010-05-01

    The Eemian (~128,000 - 115,000 yrs BP) is a key period for climate reconstruction because it allows us to compare climatic changes within the warm interglacial to current and projected future conditions. Interest in past climate variability has been stimulated by the increasing manifestation of anthropogenic climate change since these past climate reconstructions can help validate future climate scenarios. For this reason the prior Eemian interglacial, characterised by temperatures that were as warm or warmer than the present, offers an excellent opportunity for comparison to current climate conditions. We present climatic reconstructions for Lake Orhid (Albania) based on pollen assemblages obtained from a sediment core that spans the Eemian. Lake Ohrid is an exceptional site for paleoclimate reconstruction across the glacial-interglacial fluctuations and for examining the impact of these fluctuations on terrestrial and lacustrine ecosystems (Lezine et al., accepted). This lake is the deepest freshwater body in southern Europe and the oldest in Europe. The pollen record clearly shows the dominance of temperate cold and dry plant associations (conifer dominated) during interglacials with steppic, herbaceous associations during the glacial periods. To provide the Eemian climatic reconstruction, we use the Modern Analogues Technique (MAT), the recent Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized Additive Model method (NMDS/GAM), Partial Least Squares regression (PLS),Weighted Averaging-Partial Least Squares regression (WA/PLS), and two probabilistic indicator taxa approaches (pdf-method). This multi-method approach allows us to better assess the error of reconstruction inherent in pollen-based climate prediction. We compare our results with Brewer et al (2008) who produced a reconstruction based on 17 sites distributed across Europe. Brewer et al (2008) evaluated trends and regional average for climate parameters during this period, however only two sites were

  1. Do Health Reforms Impact Cost Consciousness of Health Care Professionals? Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Vukovic, Mira; Chen, Chia-Ching; Antunovic, Mirjana; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Velickovic-Radovanovic, Radmila; Djendji, Mladenovic Siladji; Jankovic, Nikola; Rankovic, Ana; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Antunovic, Marko; Milovanovic, Olivera; Markovic, Veroljub; Dasari, Babu N.S.; Yamada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serbia, as the largest market of the Western Balkans, has entered socioeconomic transition with substantial delay compared to most of Eastern Europe. Its health system reform efforts were bold during the past 15 years, but their results were inconsistent in various areas. The two waves of global recession that hit Balkan economies ultimately reflected to the financial situation of healthcare. Serious difficulties in providing accessible medical care to the citizens became a reality. A large part of the unbearable expenses actually belongs to the overt prescription of pharmaceuticals and various laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures requested by physicians. Therefore, a broad national survey was conducted at all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy to distinguish the ability of cost containment strategies to reshape clinician’s mindsets and decision-making in practice. Aims: Assessment of healthcare professionals’ judgment on economic consequences of prescribed medical interventions and evaluation of responsiveness of healthcare professionals to policy measures targeted at increasing cost-consciousness. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted through a hierarchy of medical facilities across diverse geographical regions before and after policy action, from January 2010 to April 2013. In the middle of the observed period, the National Health Insurance Fund (RFZO) adopted severe cost-containment measures. Independently, pharmacoeconomic guidelines targeted at prescribers were disseminated. Administration in large hospitals and community pharmacies was forced to restrict access to high budget-impact medical care. Economic Awareness of Healthcare Professionals Questionnaire–29 (EAHPQ-29), developed in Serbian language, was used in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire documented clinician’s attitudes on: Clinical-Decision-Making-between-Alternative-Interventions (CDMAI), Quality

  2. Resource recovery from waste by Roma in the Balkans: A case study from Zavidovici (BiH).

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Mentore; Perteghella, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Roma communities represent the main involved actors in the informal activities in the Balkan regions, especially because the state does not formally recognize them as formal inhabitants. The Roma community in Zavidovici, despite being resident since the beginning of the 20th century, is still considered a marginalized and vulnerable group. They are actively involved in and dependent on the informal solid waste sector. Waste collection is a 'family business', a kind of self-employment and the main source of income for households. Informal recyclers have a central role in the solid waste management system and they recover a significant amount of materials, especially iron, copper, brass, lead and exhausted batteries. Despite the negative fluctuations of the raw material prices, because of the international economic crisis, informal recyclers remain dependent on the waste recycling sector. They are crucial actors in the value chain of recyclables: though they cannot access the final buyers of recyclables, they provide more than 50% of the market to the middle dealers in the Zenica-Doboj Canton. This research activity consists of a deep socio-economic analysis of the informal recyclers' community living in Zavidovici city. In particular, this paper describes the composition and welfare status of informal recyclers' households, the role of informal recyclers in waste collection, the geographical coverage and the related pattern of waste picking, types, volumes and price fluctuations of recyclable materials, and the middle dealers involved in the informal recycling system. PMID:27305917

  3. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  4. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. I. Serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Scheil, H G; Scheffrahn, W; Schmidt, H D; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in three samples of Aromuns (Albania: the village of Andon Poci, province Gjirocaster, Republic of Macedonia: Stip region, Romania: the village Kogalniceanu, province Dobruja) and four reference samples (Albanians: Tirana, Romanians: Constanta and Ploiesti as well as Greeks (Northeastern Greece)). The Aromun samples from Albania and Romania form one separate cluster and the reference samples together with the Aromuns from Macedonia (Stip region) form a second one. PMID:11591047

  5. The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans--a review within the DPSIR framework.

    PubMed

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2009-04-01

    Fifteen major Balkan rivers with over 80% of the inflows in Eastern Mediterranean were examined for their environmental state within the DPSIR framework. Physicogeographic and hydrochemical conditions differ substantially among river basins, which may be roughly classified into three main zones. Despite strong fragmentation, most of the rivers are liable to flash floods and have low summer flow. Decreasing precipitation and (mis)management caused a dramatic discharge reduction over the last decades. Wars, political instability, economical crises over the past decades, combined with administrative and structural constraints, poor environmental planning and inspection and, frequently, a lack of environmental awareness imposed significant pressures on rivers. Large wetland areas were drained in favour of widespread intensive agriculture. The treatment of municipal wastewaters is barely adequate in Greece and insufficient elsewhere, while management and treatment of mining and industrial wastewaters is overall poor. In general, lowland river sections are hydro-morphologically modified and are at the greatest pollution risk, while upstream areas mostly retain their natural conditions. Nutrient concentrations in a number of central and eastern Balkan rivers often exceed quality standards, whereas pesticides and heavy metals, partly of geochemical origin, occasionally exceed quality standards. Reservoirs retain vast masses of sediments, thus adversely affecting delta evolution, while dam operation disturbs the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical regimes. Almost all Balkan countries face daunting water resource challenges because of urgently needed investments in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and hydroelectricity. International treaties and designations and European Union Directives have mobilized pollution mitigation and conservation efforts. However, the application of environmental legislation has proved in a number of cases inadequate. Constraints arise

  6. Phenotype and allele frequencies of some serum protein polymorphisms in populations of the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Scheil, H G; Schmidt, H D; Efremovska, L; Mikerezi, I; Huckenbeck, W

    2004-12-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in two samples of Aromuns and one reference sample (Musequiar-Aromuns from Dukasi in Albania, Moskopolian-Aromuns from Krusevo, Republic of Macedonia, and Macedonians from Skopje). The neighbor joining tree as well as the principal component analysis show results which do not correspond well to the geographic and historic background. This indicates that in the present case the serum protein polymorphisms give no clearly defined information about the relationships between the Balkan populations and to the origin of Aromuns. PMID:15648851

  7. Genetic, Genomic and Epigenomic Studies of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Ben).

    PubMed

    Staneva, Rada G; Balabanski, L; Dimova, I; Rukova, B; Hadjidekova, S; Dimitrov, P; Simeonov, V; Ivanov, S; Vagarova, R; Malinov, M; Cukuranovic, R; Stefanovic, V; Polenakovic, M; Djonov, V; Galabov, A; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    BEN is a primary, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized with chronic anemia, absence of edema, xantoderma, normal blood pressure and normal findings on the fundus oculi. The disease is distributed in restricted areas in Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Former Yugoslavia. Despite numerous studies on genetic and environmental factors and their possible involvement in BEN, its etiopathogenesis still remains elusive. Our recent study aim to elucidate the possible epigenetic component in BEN development. Whole genome DNA array methylation analysis was applied to compare the methylation profiles of male and female BEN patients from endemic regions in Bulgaria and Serbia and healthy controls. All three most prominent candidate genes with aberrations in the epigenetic profile discovered with this study are involved in the inflammatory/immune processes and oncogenesis. These data are in concordance with the reported pathological alterations in BEN. This research supports the role of epigenetic changes in BEN pathology. Exome sequencing of 22.000 genes with Illumina Nextera Exome Enrichment Kit revealed three mutant genes (CELA1, HSPG2, and KCNK5) in BEN patients which encode proteins involved in basement membrane/extracellular matrix and vascular tone, tightly connected to process of angiogenesis. We suggest that an abnormal process of angiogenesis plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of BEN. PMID:27442376

  8. Daily uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction.

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peacekeeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peacekeeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d(-1) for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. PMID:17567762

  9. Stable isotope ecology of Miocene bovids from Northern Greece and the ape/monkey turnover in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S; Bonis, Louis de; Fourel, François; Koufos, George D; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

    2013-08-01

    Eurasia was home to a great radiation of hominoid primates during the Miocene. All were extinct by the end of the Miocene in Western Eurasia. Here, we investigate the hypothesis of climate and vegetation changes at a local scale when the cercopithecoid Mesopithecus replaced the hominoid Ouranopithecus along the Axios River, Greece. Because they are herbivorous and were much more abundant than primates, bovids are preferred to primates to study climate change in the Balkans as a cause of hominoid extinction. By measuring carbon stable isotope ratios of bovid enamel, we conclude that Ouranopithecus and Mesopithecus both evolved in pure C3 environments. However, the large range of δ(13)C values of apatite carbonate from bovids combined with their molar microwear and mesowear patterns preclude the presence of dense forested landscapes in northern Greece. Instead, these bovids evolved in rather open landscapes with abundant grasses in the herbaceous layer. Coldest monthly estimated temperatures were below 10°C and warmest monthly temperatures rose close to or above 20°C for the two time intervals. Oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate from bulk samples did not show significant differences between sites but did show between-species variation within each site. Different factors influence oxygen isotope composition in this context, including water provenience, feeding ecology, body mass, and rate of amelogenesis. We discuss this latter factor in regard to the high intra-tooth variations in δ(18)Op reflecting important amplitudes of seasonal variations in temperature. These estimations fit with paleobotanical data and differ slightly from estimations based on climate models. This study found no significant change in climate before and after the extinction of Ouranopithecus along the Axios River. However, strong seasonal variations with relatively cold winters were indicated, conditions quite usual for extant monkeys but unusual for great apes distributed today in

  10. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Volume 1. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publications Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Designed as an introductory history, this book covers developments in the Balkan Peninsula from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the process by which separate nationalities broke away from imperial rule, established independent states, and embarked on economic and social modernization. To establish perspective on the role…

  11. Teacher Competence as a Basis for Teacher Education: Comparing Views of Teachers and Teacher Educators in Five Western Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Wubbels, Theo; Mainhard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Orientation of teacher preparation toward the development of competence has recently been suggested as a worthwhile direction of change in teacher education in the Western Balkan countries. In this study, 2,354 teachers, teacher educators, and student teachers from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia responded to a…

  12. The Balkans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Transylvanian Basin in Romania stands out in brilliant green in this image from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 3, 2002. Near the top of the image, the hilly, forested basin is tucked in between the Carpathian Mountains, running northwest-southeast, and the Transylvanian Alps, running west-east. To the right of the image is the Black Sea. The large patch of turquoise water in the Black Sea is a large phytoplankton bloom. At the bottom of the image, the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara is ringed by Greece (left) and Turkey (right). Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor?s fullest (250-m) resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf War and Balkans War veterans.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Heimers, A; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Schott, A; Hoffmann, W

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium (DU) while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group. indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of die and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET). The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. PMID:12678382

  14. Consensus statement on screening, diagnosis, classification and treatment of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jelaković, Bojan; Nikolić, Jovan; Radovanović, Zoran; Nortier, Joelle; Cosyns, Jean-Pierre; Grollman, Arthur P.; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Belicza, Mladen; Bukvić, Danica; Čavaljuga, Semra; Čvorišćec, Dubravka; Cvitković, Ante; Dika, Živka; Dimitrov, Plamen; Đukanović, Ljubica; Edwards, Karen; Ferluga, Dušan; Fuštar-Preradović, Ljubica; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Imamović, Goran; Jakovina, Tratinčica; Kes, Petar; Leko, Ninoslav; Medverec, Zvonimir; Mesić, Enisa; Miletić-Medved, Marica; Miller, Frederick; Pavlović, Nikola; Pasini, Josip; Pleština, Stjepko; Polenaković, Momir; Stefanović, Vladislav; Tomić, Karla; Trnačević, Senaid; Vuković Lela, Ivana; Štern-Padovan, Ranka

    2014-01-01

    Currently used diagnostic criteria in different endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN) centers involve different combinations of parameters, various cut-off values and many of them are not in agreement with proposed international guidelines. Leaders of EN centers began to address these problems at scientific meetings, and this paper is the outgrowth of those discussions. The main aim is to provide recommendations for clinical work on current knowledge and expertise. This document is developed for use by general physicians, nephrologists, urologist, public health experts and epidemiologist, and it is hoped that it will be adopted by responsible institutions in countries harboring EN. National medical providers should cover costs of screening and diagnostic procedures and treatment of EN patients with or without upper urothelial cancers. PMID:24166461

  15. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia. PMID:27568660

  16. Oligocene shoshonitic rocks of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula): Evidence of petrogenetic links to the formation of Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borojević Šoštarić, S.; Cvetković, V.; Neubauer, F.; Palinkaš, L. A.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2012-09-01

    This study focuses on age and evolution of the Oligocene quartz latite of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula), in order to better understand the link between magmatism and formation of Pb-Zn ± Ag mineralization. New 40Ar/39Ar biotite and amphibole plateau ages suggest that the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite originated through a continuous volcanic episode from 27.3 ± 0.1 to 29.5 ± 0.1 Ma which was immediately followed by a hydrothermal phase. The quartz latites are hypocrystalline porphyritic with phenocrysts and microphenocrysts (~ 60 vol.%) of plagioclase (An37-49), biotite Mg# [100 × Mg / (Mg + Fetot)] < 50, calcic amphibole, quartz, sanidine clinopyroxene and phlogopite (Mg# = 79 to 84). The rocks display numerous disequilibrium textures, such as: sieved plagioclase phenocrysts, dissolution effects on quartz, phlogopitized biotite and amphibole crystals, and phlogopite microphenocrysts showing effects of incomplete growth (or dissolution?) and biotitization. The Rogozna Mts. quartz latites are shoshonitic in character with Na2O/K2O < 1, high LILE/HFSE ratios, strong depletions at Nb and Ti and K, Pb and U peaks on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. They are similar to other potassic/ultrapotassic rocks in this region, in particular to those of Veliki Majdan and Rudnik (West Serbia), which are also related to Pb-Zn deposits. The evolution of the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite is modeled using a trace element binary mixing model adopting a lamproite magma and a dacite-like calc-alkaline melt as end-members. The model implies that a fractionating magma chamber (~ 4.5-9.5 km) undergoes cooling in the range of > 850 °C-~720 °C and injection of lamproite-like melts. The injection causes an increase of temperature and a decrease of viscosity of the resulting hybrid magma, facilitating its upwelling and triggering pyroclastic eruptions. The addition of new volatiles by lamproitic melts most probably established the conditions for a hydrothermal phase above the

  17. A novel method to combat the cholera epidemic among the Romanian Army during the Balkan War - 1913.

    PubMed

    Leasu, Florin; Nemet, Codruta; Borzan, Cristina; Rogozea, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    The history of cholera, a specific infection caused by Vibrio Cholerae, starts in ancient times. The sixth pandemic that began in 1899 and lasted until 1923, started in India and came to Eastern Europe through Russia. The expansion of the epidemic in the Balkans was facilitated both by the 2 Balkan Wars and the First World War. Romania, as a participant in these wars was affected by cholera, which was especially common among the army during the Balkan War. If the original source of the cholera issue is still controversial, both Romanians and Bulgarians accusing each other of being the basis of the outbreaks south of the Danube, it is widely recognized that the extent of the disease was facilitated by the sanitary conditions of food preparation and drinking water sources among both Romanian soldiers and in the civilian population. Under these conditions, in addition to numerous measures against cholera taken by the Ministry of War, Prof. I. Cantacuzino successfully experiments outbreak vaccination for the first time in the world with a vaccine prepared by himself and his collaborators. The vaccine containing 25 breeds of vibriones was a success in terms of rapid development of a preparation, the application of which was achieved through a quick campaign and proved extremely efficient, imposing the Romanian method as an effective way to combat a disease in full outbreak. PMID:26203545

  18. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  19. Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: how does it look in the Balkans?

    PubMed

    Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Miletic, V; Anagnostopoulos, D; Raleva, M; Stancheva, V; Burgic-Radmanovic, M; Barac-Otasevic, Z; Ispanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of child and adolescent psychiatry in the following Balkan countries: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYROM, and Montenegro. With the exception of Greece, these countries are new democracies, with their mental health services in a transitional stage of organization. Overall, they have initiated programmes to move psychiatric care towards deinstitutionalization, developing outpatient infrastructures to handle psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry as a specialization is still less developed than adult psychiatry at a significant, albeit different degree among these countries. The number of mental health services offered to children and adolescents is deemed insufficient, and the type of services limited and lacking. This situation is also reflected in the small number of child psychiatrists and other mental health specialists for children and adolescents, as well as in the complete lack (Montenegro) or deficiency of special programmes and actions for children and adolescents. The same also applies to mental health legislation. Greece is the exception in the development of the entire spectrum of services, the number of specialists, and the establishment of an adequate legislation framework reinforced by the incorporation of all international treaties on children's rights; although the recent economic crisis has affected the country negatively, threatening with regression to pre-reformational practices. Children and adolescents in need of mental health care have been increasing in all countries. The effect of violent and sudden changes taking place in most countries is a major factor for the emergence of increased and stress-related psychopathology and psychosocial problems in children and families. In all countries, there is a significant development of nongovernmental organizations undertaking a large part of reformation work. There is also the disconcerting phenomenon of professional exhaustion and the

  20. Phylogeography of Balkan wall lizard (Podarcis taurica) and its relatives inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Poulakakis, N; Lymberakis, P; Valakos, E; Pafilis, P; Zouros, E; Mylonas, M

    2005-07-01

    Wall lizards of the genus Podarcis (Sauria, Lacertidae) comprise 17 currently recognized species in southern Europe, where they are the predominant reptile group. The taxonomy of Podarcis is complex and unstable. Based on DNA sequence data the species of Podarcis falls into four main groups that have substantial geographical conherence (western island group, southwestern group, Italian group and Balkan group). The Balkan species are divided in two subgroups: the subgroup of Podarcis taurica (P. taurica, P. milensis, P. gaigeae and perhaps P. melisellensis), and the subgroup of Podarcis erhardii (P. erhardii and P. peloponnesiaca). We addressed the question of phylogenetic relations among the species of the P. taurica subgroup encountered in Greece, as they can be inferred from partial mtDNA (cyt b and 16S) sequences. Our data support the monophyly of P. taurica subgroup and suggest that P. gaigeae, P. milensis and P. melisellensis form a clade, which thereinafter connects to P. taurica. Within the previous clade, P. gaigeae is more closely related to P. milensis than to P. melisellensis. However, the specimens of P. taurica were subdivided in two different groups. The first one includes the specimens from northeastern Greece, and the other group includes the specimens from the rest of continental Greece and Ionian islands. Because the molecular clock of the cyt b and 16 rRNA genes was not rejected in our model test, it is possible to estimate times of speciation events. Based on the splitting of the island of Crete from Peloponnisos [c. 5 million years ago (Ma)], the evolutionary rate for the cyt b is 1.55% per million years (Myr) and for the 16S rRNA is 0.46% per Myr. These results suggest that the evolutionary history of P. taurica in Greece is more complex than a single evolutionary invasion. The data analysed, stress the need for a reconsideration of the evolutionary history of Greek Podarcis species and help overcome difficulties that classical taxonomy has

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Salmo of the western Balkans, based upon multiple nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Classification of species within the genus Salmo is still a matter of discussion due to their high level of diversity and to the low power of resolution of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based phylogeny analyses that have been traditionally used in evolutionary studies of the genus. We apply a new marker system based on nuclear (n)DNA loci to present a novel view of the phylogeny of Salmo representatives and we compare it with the mtDNA-based phylogeny. Methods Twenty-two nDNA loci were sequenced for 76 individuals of the brown trout complex: Salmo trutta (Danubian, Atlantic, Adriatic, Mediterranean and Duero mtDNA lineages), Salmo marmoratus (marble trout), Salmo obtusirostris (softmouth trout), and Salmo ohridanus (Ohrid belvica or belushka). Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The divergence time of the major clades was estimated using the program BEAST. Results The existence of five genetic units i.e. S. salar, S. ohridanus, S. obtusirostris, S. marmoratus and the S. trutta complex, including its major phylogenetic lineages was confirmed. Contrary to previous observations, S. obtusirostris was found to be sister to the S. trutta complex and the S. marmoratus clade rather than to the S. ohridanus clade. Reticulate evolution of S. obtusirostris was confirmed and a time for its pre-glacial origin suggested. S. marmoratus was found to be a separate species as S. trutta and S. obtusirostris. Relationships among lineages within the S. trutta complex were weakly supported and remain largely unresolved. Conclusions Nuclear DNA-based results showed a fairly good match with the phylogeny of Salmo inferred from mtDNA analyses. The comparison of nDNA and mtDNA data revealed at least four cases of mitochondrial–nuclear DNA discordance observed that were all confined to the Adriatic basin of the Western Balkans. Together with the well-known extensive morphological and genetic variability of Balkan trouts, this

  2. The Alburnus benthopelagic fish species of the Western Balkan Peninsula: An assessment of their sustainable use.

    PubMed

    Simić, Vladica; Simić, Snežana; Paunović, Momir; Radojković, Nataša; Petrović, Ana; Talevski, Trajče; Milošević, Djuradj

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the population status of bleak (Alburnus spp.) over the Western Balkan Peninsula in terms of its sustainable use. A second objective was to determine key factors important for fishery management planning. Two different basins, continental (the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin) and marine (the Adriatic and the Aegean Sea Basins) were examined. A sustainability assessment and factor analysis were conducted using the adjusted ESHIPPOfishing model, extended with additional socio-economic sub-elements, and the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA), respectively. The results of the assessment revealed the bleak populations in the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin to be highly sustainable. The population characteristics with abiotic and biotic factors were responsible for this status, while the influence of socio-economic factors was insignificant. The sustainability status of the bleak populations of the Mediterranean basin varied, with the populations from Ohrid and Skadar Lakes showing a high and those from Prespa and Dojran Lakes a medium status. Socio-economic factors with traditional fishing were the most important for the Mediterranean bleak populations. PMID:26216478

  3. Mass distributions and morphological and chemical characterization of urban aerosols in the continental Balkan area (Belgrade).

    PubMed

    Đorđević, D; Buha, J; Stortini, A M; Mihajlidi-Zelić, A; Relić, D; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2016-01-01

    This work presents characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of urban central Balkans area, using a size-segregated aerosol sampling method, calculation of mass distributions, SEM/EDX characterization, and ICP/MS analysis. Three types of mass distributions were observed: distribution with a pronounced domination of coarse mode, bimodal distribution, and distribution with minimum at 1 μm describing the urban aerosol. SEM/EDX analyses have shown morphological difference and variation in the content of elements in samples. EDX spectra demonstrate that particles generally contain the following elements: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, K, Si, S. Additionally, the presence of As, Br, Sn, and Zn found in air masses from southeast segment points out the anthropogenic activities most probably from mining activities in southeastern part of Serbia. The ratio Al/Si equivalent to the ratio of desert dust was associated with air masses coming from southeastern and southwestern segments, pointing to influences from North Africa and Middle East desert areas whereas the Al/Si ratio in other samples is significantly lower. In several samples, we found high values of aluminum in the nucleation mode. Samples with low share of crustal elements in the coarse mode are collected when Mediterranean air masses prevailed, while high share in the coarse mode was associated with continental air masses that could be one of the approaches for identification of the aerosol origin. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26347417

  4. Correlation Of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy With Fluorescent Organic Compounds In Shallow Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Feder, Gerald L.; Radovanovic, Zoran

    1994-04-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of intersitial nephropathy leading to end-stage renal failure. The disease occurs in persons living in villages on alluvial valleys of streams tributary to the Danube River in Rumania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia. The etiologic agent is not known, but a contaminant in shallow groundwater has become suspect. In this study, samples of drinking water from endemic and non-endemic village water supplies were analyzed by excitation/emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectra characteristic of groundwater from BEN households show elongated teardrop shapes in the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix. A sharp rise occurs in fluorescence emission between 380 and 400 nanometers (nm) and a trailing emission intensity from 400 to 550 nm. Spectra of groundwater samples from some BEN households have an additional excitation maxima at 300 nm, which further contributes to the emission intensity at 400 nm. Spectra of water samples from non-BEN households located in endemic villages show characteristics of BEN household waters, exhibiting the 250-nm excitation peak, even though the fluorophoric intensity is much less than that in samples from BEN household waters. Samples from non-endemic villages do not show the characteristic EEM spectra described as "teardrop shaped". The non-BEN households have lower concentrations of these fluorophores in the drinking water than the endemic households; hence, one of the factors in contracting the disease may be the concentration of these fluorescent materials in drinking water.

  5. Limitations and plausibility of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in explaining the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, S V M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, tubulointerstitial renal disease often accompanied by urothelial cancer that has a lethality of nearly 100%. Introduction: One of the many factors that have been proposed to play an etiological role in BEN is exposure to organic compounds from Pliocene lignite coal deposits via the drinking water in endemic areas. Objectives: The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the role of the tenets of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in the etiology of BEN in order to provide an improved understanding of the hypothesis for colleagues and patients alike. Methods: A comprehensive compilation of the possible limitations of the hypothesis, with each limitation addressed in turn is presented. Results: The Pliocene lignite hypothesis can best account for, is consistent with, or has the potential to explain the evidence associated with the myriad of factors related to BEN. Conclusions: Residents of endemic areas are exposed to complex mixtures containing hundreds of organic compounds at varying doses and their potentially more toxic (including nephrotoxic) and/or carcinogenic metabolites; however, a multifactorial etiology of BEN appears most likely. PMID:24075451

  6. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. PMID:25491336

  7. Comparative study on carbon accumulation in soils under managed and unmanaged forests in Central Balkan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Each soil has a carbon storage capacity, which depends on many factors including type of soil, vegetation, precipitation and temperature. The aim of this work is to compare the carbon accumulation in forest floor layers and mineral soil horizons under managed and unmanaged spruce and beech forest ecosystems developed on Cambisols in Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria. We have investigated two managed and two unmanaged forests - pure stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). In each experimental site one representative soil profile was prepared with additional 4 sampling profiles for more precise determination of spatial variability of soil characteristic at site level. The forest floor was sampled in 3 repetitions per site, by a plastic frame (25:25 cm). The textural composition of soil, bulk density, coarse fraction content, pH, carbon and nitrogen content were analysed for forest floor layers and soil at different soil depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm). Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. When managed, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance. Further work will analyse the soil carbon dynamics using radiocarbon as a tracer.

  8. Part II: Is There a Role for Education in the Way towards Stability and Democratisation in the Balkans? A Critical Review of BA.SO.P.ED's Aims and Publications (1997-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonidis, Kyriakos Th.; Zarifis, George K.

    2006-01-01

    November 1997 witnessed the formation of the Balkan Society for Pedagogy and Education (BA.SO.P.ED) in Thessaloniki, with the support of individual academics and pedagogues from many Balkan Universities and research institutes, but also with the participation of representatives of Educational Societies from Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav…

  9. Dissecting the molecular architecture and origin of Bayash Romani patrilineages: genetic influences from South-Asia and the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Klarić, Irena Martinović; Salihović, Marijana Pericić; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Rootsi, Siiri; Janićijević, Branka

    2009-03-01

    The Bayash are a branch of Romanian speaking Roma living dispersedly in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. To better understand the molecular architecture and origin of the Croatian Bayash paternal gene pool, 151 Bayash Y chromosomes were analyzed for 16 SNPs and 17 STRs and compared with European Romani and non-Romani majority populations from Europe, Turkey, and South Asia. Two main layers of Bayash paternal gene pool were identified: ancestral (Indian) and recent (European). The reduced diversity and expansion signals of H1a patrilineages imply descent from closely related paternal ancestors who could have settled in the Indian subcontinent, possibly as early as between the eighth and tenth centuries AD. The recent layer of the Bayash paternal pool is dominated by a specific subset of E1b1b1a lineages that are not found in the Balkan majority populations. At least two private mutational events occurred in the Bayash during their migrations from the southern Balkans toward Romania. Additional admixture, evident in the low frequencies of typical European haplogroups, J2, R1a, I1, R1b1b2, G, and I2a, took place primarily during the early Bayash settlement in the Balkans and the Romani bondage in Romania. Our results indicate two phenomena in the Bayash and analyzed Roma: a significant preservation of ancestral H1a haplotypes as a result of considerable, but variable level of endogamy and isolation and differential distribution of less frequent, but typical European lineages due to different patterns of the early demographic history in Europe marked by differential admixture and genetic drift. PMID:18785634

  10. Genetic analysis of Dobrava-Belgrade virus from western Serbia--a newly detected focus in the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stamenković, G; Nikolić, V; Blagojević, J; Bugarski-Stanojević, V; Adnađević, T; Stanojević, M; Vujošević, M

    2015-03-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a hantavirus species that causes the most severe form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. DOBV has been detected in three Apodemus rodents: A. flavicollis, A. agrarius and A. ponticus. These emerging viruses appear throughout the Balkan Peninsula including Serbia as its central part. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of DOBV from A. flavicollis captured at six Serbian localities. Furthermore, we applied microsatellite typing of host animal genome to analyse the role of host kinship in DOBV animal transmission. The overall IgG seropositivity rate over 3 years (2008-2010) was 11.9% (22/185). All seropositive samples were subjected to RT-PCR and DNA sequencing for S and L genome segments (pos. 291-1079 nt and 2999-3316 nt, respectively). DOBV was genetically detected in three samples from mountain Tara in western Serbia, a newly detected DOBV focus in the Balkans. No sequence data from human cases from Serbia are available for the studied period. However, collected DOBV isolates in this work phylogenetically clustered together with isolates from Serbian human cases dating from 2002, with 1.9% nucleotide divergence. We determined the level of kinship between seropositive and seronegative animal groups and found no significant difference, suggesting that horizontal virus transmission in the studied population was the same within and among the hatches. Our findings are the first genetic detection of DOBV in rodents in Serbia. We confirm wide and continuous hantavirus presence in the examined parts of the Balkans, underlying the necessity of continual monitoring of hantavirus circulation in A. flavicollis. PMID:24867363

  11. Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhofer, Daniela; Quadt, Albrecht von; Peytcheva, Irena; Schmid, Stefan M.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-09-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen formed on the European margin during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. It was subsequently deformed into a complex orocline by continental collisions. The Cu-Au mineralized arc consists of geologically distinct segments: the Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Panagyurishte, and Eastern Srednogorie segments. New U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical whole rock data for the Banat and Apuseni segments are combined with previously published data to reconstruct the original arc geometry and better constrain its tectonic evolution. Trace element and isotopic signatures of the arc magmas indicate a subduction-enriched source in all segments and variable contamination by continental crust. The magmatic arc was active for 25 Myr (~92-67 Ma). Across-arc age trends of progressively younger ages toward the inferred paleo-trench indicate gradual steepening of the subducting slab away from the upper plate European margin. This leads to asthenospheric corner flow in the overriding plate, which is recorded by decreasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.70577 to 0.70373) and increasing 143Nd/144Nd (0.51234 to 0.51264) ratios over time in some segments. The close spatial relationship between arc magmatism, large-scale shear zones, and related strike-slip sedimentary basins in the Timok and Pangyurishte segments indicates mild transtension in these central segments of the restored arc. In contrast, the Eastern Srednogorie segment underwent strong orthogonal intraarc extension. Segmental distribution of tectonic stress may account for the concentration of rich porphyry Cu deposits in the transtensional segments, where lower crustal magma storage and fractionation favored the evolution of volatile-rich magmas.

  12. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  13. Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services. PMID:23716007

  14. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  15. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Methods: Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. Results: The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. Conclusion: The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success. PMID:24757405

  16. Larval morphology of the Western Balkans endemic caddisflies Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981, D. vernonensis Malicky 1989, and D. vespertinus Marinković 1976 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae)

    PubMed Central

    KUČINIĆ, MLADEN; GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; KERESZTES, LUJZA; BÁLINT, MIKLÓS; PAULS, STEFFEN U.

    2016-01-01

    Drusinae (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) are highland caddisflies inhabiting high-gradient, turbulent running water and spring habitats. They are disjunctly distributed over the Eurasian mountain ranges, and the majority of species is endemic to particular mountain areas. The most diverse of three main groups of the Drusinae, the grazer clade, consists of species in which larvae feed on epiltihic biofilm and algae. In this paper we describe three previously unknown grazer-clade Drusinae larvae: Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans), D. vernonensis Malicky 1989 (endemic to the Hellenic western Balkans), and D. vespertinus Marinković 1976 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans). The larvae of these species have toothless mandibles typical of the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated using molecular genetic data, i.e., the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment (mtCOI3-P). Morphological characteristics of the larvae are described and the diagnostic features enabling species-level identification are illustrated. We further discuss the ecology and distribution of three Western Balkan endemic species. PMID:26985141

  17. Four Authors and a Traveller: Intercultural Narrative in Balkan Prose of the Second Half of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angusheva, Adelina

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses different approaches to foreign culture in the works of four Balkan writers: Ismail Kadare, Milorad Pavi, Yordan Radichkov and Jadranka Vladova in the context of the works of the English traveller, Edith Durham. It studies the specific function of travel and exploration and the use of different languages (dictionaries) as a…

  18. Review of the family Anthogonidae (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida), with descriptions of three new species from the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Antić, Dragan; Dražina, Tvrtko; Raða, Tonći; Tomić, Vladimir T; Makarov, Slobodan E

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the family Anthogonidae are described from caves in Croatia and Montenegro, respectively: Egonpretneria vudutschajldi Antić & Dražina sp. n., Haasia jalzici Antić & Dražina sp. n., and Macrochaetosoma bertiscea Antić & Makarov sp. n. All three subfamilies within Anthogonidae are diagnosed, with brief discussion of relationships between genera and notes on their biogeography. A map of the global distribution of Anthogonidae is presented, as well as maps of the distribution of each species of Balkan anthogonids, including numerous new locality data. The first SEM images are provided for some representatives of this family. A key is given to all seven anthogonid genera. The subfamily Haasiinae Hoffman, 1980 is a new synonym of Anthogonidae, syn. n., while Macrochaetosoma bifurcatum Ćurčić & Makarov, 2001 becomes a new synonym for M. troglomontanum Absolon & Lang, 1933, syn. n.. PMID:25947770

  19. Chemotaxonomic Approach to the Central Balkan Sedum Species Based on Distribution of Triterpenoids in Their Epicuticular Waxes.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-04-01

    Triterpenoid distribution in epicuticular waxes of 20 central Balkan Sedum L. species and four out-groups of genera: Hylotelephium H. Ohba, Crassula L., Echeveria DC., and Kalanchoe Adans. were investigated for chemotaxonomic purposes. Identification and quantification of wax triterpenoids were performed by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. Distribution of identified triterpenoids (oleanane, lupane, and taraxerane series), as a pattern in statistical analysis, indicated very good agreement with phylogeny and systematics, except members of series Rupestria Berger, in which case the distribution of triterpenoids did not support known classification in a satisfactory manner. According to the obtained clustering, Kalanchoe is shown as similar to Sedum samples, while the other out-groups were clearly separated. PMID:26988894

  20. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Stefan; Bogic, Marija; Ashcroft, Richard; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Roughton, Michael; Schützwohl, Matthias; Ajdukovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our objective was to investigate the association of violations of human rights, as indicated in the 4th Geneva Convention, and other stressful war experiences with rates of PTSD and MD and symptom levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. In 2005/6, human rights violations and other war experiences, PTSD, post-traumatic stress symptoms and MD were assessed in war affected community samples in five Balkan countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia) and refugees in three Western European countries (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). The main outcome measures were the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In total 3313 participants in the Balkans and 854 refugees were assessed. Participants reported on average 2.3 rights violations and 2.3 other stressful war experiences. 22.8% of the participants were diagnosed with current PTSD and also 22.8% had MD. Most war experiences significantly increased the risk for both PTSD and MD. When the number of rights violations and other stressful experiences were considered in one model, both were significantly associated with higher risks for PTSD and were significantly associated with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. However, only the number of violations, and not of other stressful experiences, significantly increased the risk for MD. We conclude that different types of war experiences are associated with increased prevalence rates of PTSD and MD more than 5 years later. As compared to other stressful experiences, the experience of human rights violations similarly increases the risk of PTSD, but appears more important for MD. PMID

  1. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further

  2. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2009-08-01

    Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans. PMID:19627490

  3. The Balkanization of Nigeria's Federal System: A Case Study in the Political Geography of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogge, John R.

    1977-01-01

    By means of a case study of Nigeria, this paper examines the issue of national unity and identity in the face of tribally based regionalism, diversity, and suspicion. Maps and tables accompany the article. (Author/AV)

  4. Chemical and principal-component analyses of the essential oils of Apioideae taxa (Apiaceae) from central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Kapetanos, Chrysostomos; Karioti, Anastasia; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar; Veljić, Milan; Skaltsa, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of 23 taxa belonging to the Apioideae subfamily were studied in detail. The investigated taxa were Pimpinella serbica (Vis.) Bentham & Hooker, Libanotis montana Cr., Cnidium silaifolium (Jacq.) Simk. ssp. orientale (Boiss.) Tutin, Bupleurum praealtum L., B. sibthorpianum S. S. var. diversifolium (Roch.) Hay, Aegopodium podagraria L., Torilis anthriscus (L.) Gmel., Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm., Laserpitium siler L., Laser trilobum (L.) Brokh., Chaerophyllum aureum L., C. hirsutum L., C. temulum L., Pastinaca sativa L., P. hirsuta Pancic., Tordylium maximum L., Physospermum cornubiense (L.) DC., Peucedanum alsaticum L., P. oreoselinum (L.) Moench, P. cervaria (L.) Cuss., P. austriacum (Jacq.) Koch, P. longifolium W. et K., and P. officinale L. All of these species grow wild in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The essential oils were found to be complex mixtures of various compounds, more than 100 constituents being in each taxon, with contributions of main products never exceeding 25% of the total content. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the main group of constituents of all taxa, except for Peucedanum species, where monoterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the main components. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil composition is discussed according to results of principal-component analysis (PCA). The essential-oil composition mainly reflects current taxonomic relationships between the investigated taxa. PMID:18205131

  5. Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirović, Djordje; Blesić, Suzana; Miljković, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ≈ 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

  6. Values of Alpha 1 Microglobulin Does Not Differ between Individuals with and without Family History of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Trnacevic, Senaid; Hodzic, Emir; Atic, Mirza; Dugonjic, Maida; Hasanovic, Evlijana

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare urinary alpha 1 microglobulin (A1MG) in healthy individuals with and without family burden for Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) in an endemic village. Methods. Otherwise healthy inhabitants with microalbuminuria or proteinuria were divided into two groups: with (n = 24) and without (n = 32) family BEN burden and screened for urinary A1MG and A1MG/urine creatinine ratio. Results. Average value of urinary A1MG was 10.35 ± 7.01 mg/L in group with and 10.79 ± 8.27 mg/L in group without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.87). A1MG was higher than 10 mg/L in eight (33.33%) inhabitants with family history and in 12 (37.5%) without (NS, P = 0.187). Average values of urinary A1MG/creatinine ratio were 1.30 ± 1.59 and 0.94 ± 0.78 in group with and group without family BEN history (NS, P = 0.39, resp.). Elevated values of this ratio were found in 13 (54.17%) inhabitants with and 14 (43.75%) without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.415). Conclusion. We did not find statistically significant difference in the examined markers between healthy individuals with and without family burden for BEN. We concluded that these markers are not predictive of risk for BEN. PMID:24563783

  7. Lowermost Mantle Velocity Estimations Beneath the Central North Atlantic Area from Pdif Observed at Balkan, East Mediterranean, and American Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-02-01

    Lowermost mantle velocity in the area 15°S-70°N latitude/60°W-5° W longitude is estimated using two groups of observations, complementary to each other. There are 894 Pdif observations at stations in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean areas from 15 major earthquakes in Central and South America. Another 218 Pdif observations are associated with four earthquakes in Greece/Turkey and one event in Africa, recorded by American stations. A Pdif slowness tomographic approach of the structures immediately above the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB) is used, incorporating corrections for ellipticity, station elevation and velocity perturbations along the ray path. A low-velocity zone above CMB with a large geographical extent, approximately in the area (35-65°N) × (40-20°W), appears to have the velocity perturbations exceeding the value actually assumed by some global models. Most likely, it is extended beneath western Africa. A high-velocity area is observed west of the low-velocity zone. The results suggest that both Cape Verde and Azorean islands are located near transition areas from low-to-high velocity values in the lowermost mantle.

  8. A GNSS-derived Velocity Field of the Southern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangl, Günter; Mitterschiffthaler, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    GNSS stations of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM and Greece are combined between 2006 and 2014 to a velocity filed. This area covers a part of the transition zone between the Eurasian and Nubian Plate. Even not yet totally reprocessed within IGb08, the lateral components are at the precision of 1 mm/year. The density of stations allows to separate regions with abrupt changes of velocities coinciding with major faults already known from seismology and geology.

  9. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  10. Ostracod-based isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Balkan Peninsula) over the last 140 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmecheri, Soumaya; von Grafenstein, Ulrich; Andersen, Nils; Eymard-Bordon, Amandine; Régnier, Damien; Grenier, Christophe; Lézine, Anne-Marie

    2010-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of benthic ostracods from a deep-lake sediment core (JO2004-1) recovered from Lake Ohrid (Albania-Macedonia) was studied to investigate regional responses to climate change at the interface between the north-central European and Mediterranean climate systems. Ostracod valves are present only during interglacial intervals, during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 and 1. The ostracod oxygen isotope values (δ 18O) quantitatively reflect changes in the oxygen isotope signal of the lake water (δ 18O L). The interpretation of this record however, is far from straight forward. δ 18O L variations throughout MIS 5/6 transition (TII), MIS 5 and MIS 1 appear to be controlled by site specific hydrological processes as shown by modern isotope hydrology. The δ 18O L trends at TII, MIS 5 and MIS 1 match the timing and the main structural feature of the major regional climate records (Corchia cave δ 18O, Iberian margin Sea Surface Temperature) suggesting that the Ohrid δ 18O L responded to global-scale climate changes, although it seems certain that the lake experienced a significant degree of evaporation and varying moisture availability. The carbon isotope signal (δ 13C) seems to respond more accurately to climate changes in agreement with other JO2004-1 proxies. δ 13C of the ostracod calcite is directly linked to the δ 13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the lake, which in this case is controlled by the isotopic composition of the DIC in the incoming water and by the internal processes of the lake. High δ 13C during cold periods and low values during warm periods reflect changing vegetation cover and soil activity. These results suggest that Lake Ohrid has the potential to capture a long record of regional environment related-temperature trends during interglacial periods, particularly given the exceptional thickness of the lake sediment covering probably the entire Quaternary.

  11. Comparative 1H NMR Metabolomic Urinalysis of People Diagnosed with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, and Healthy Subjects, in Romania and Bulgaria: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, Peter; Modalca, Mirela; Nicholls, Andrew; Tatu, Calin; Tatu, Diana; Toncheva, Draga

    2011-01-01

    1H NMR spectroscopy of urine has been applied to exploring metabolomic differences between people diagnosed with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), and treated by haemodialysis, and those without overt renal disease in Romania and Bulgaria. Convenience sampling was made from patients receiving haemodialysis in hospital and healthy controls in their village. Principal component analysis clustered healthy controls from both countries together. Bulgarian BEN patients clustered separately from controls, though in the same space. However, Romanian BEN patients not only also clustered away from controls but also clustered separately from the BEN patients in Bulgaria. Notably, the urinary metabolomic data of two people sampled as Romanian controls clustered within the Romanian BEN group. One of these had been suspected of incipient symptoms of BEN at the time of selection as a ‘healthy’ control. This implies, at first sight, that metabolomic analysis can be predictive of impending morbidity before conventional criteria can diagnose BEN. Separate clustering of BEN patients from Romania and Bulgaria could indicate difference in aetiology of this particular silent renal atrophy in different geographic foci across the Balkans. PMID:22069742

  12. Integrative taxonomy of a new species of planarian from the Lake Ohrid basin, including an analysis of biogeographical patterns in freshwater triclads from the Ohrid region (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Stocchino, Giacinta Angela; Sluys, Ronald; Deri, Paolo; Manconi, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Dugesia is described from the Lake Ohrid region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, forming the first fully documented species description for this genus in the Ohrid area. The morphological species delimitation is supported by complementary molecular, karyological, and cytogenetic data available from the literature. Therefore, species delineation is based on a truly integrative approach. Further, a short account on the degree of freshwater planarian endemicity in the Ohrid region is provided. PMID:23840163

  13. Integrative taxonomy of a new species of planarian from the Lake Ohrid basin, including an analysis of biogeographical patterns in freshwater triclads from the Ohrid region (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae).

    PubMed

    Stocchino, Giacinta Angela; Sluys, Ronald; Deri, Paolo; Manconi, Renata

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Dugesia is described from the Lake Ohrid region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, forming the first fully documented species description for this genus in the Ohrid area. The morphological species delimitation is supported by complementary molecular, karyological, and cytogenetic data available from the literature. Therefore, species delineation is based on a truly integrative approach. Further, a short account on the degree of freshwater planarian endemicity in the Ohrid region is provided. PMID:23840163

  14. European phylogeography of the epiphytic lichen fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and its green algal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Ivo; Dal Grande, Francesco; Excoffier, Laurent; Holderegger, Rolf; Keller, Christine; Mikryukov, Vladimir S; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    In lichen symbiosis, fungal and algal partners form close associations, often codispersed by vegetative propagules. Due to the particular interdependence, processes such as colonization, dispersal or genetic drift are expected to result in congruent patterns of genetic structure in the symbionts. To study the population structure of an obligate symbiotic system in Europe, we genotyped the fungal and algal symbionts of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria at eight and seven microsatellite loci, respectively, and analysed about 4300 L. pulmonaria thalli from 142 populations from the species' European distribution range. Based on a centroid approach, which localizes centres of genetic differentiation with a high frequency of geographically restricted alleles, we identified the South Italy-Balkan region as the primary glacial refugial area of the lichen symbiosis. Procrustean rotation analysis and a distance congruence test between the fungal and algal population graphs indicated general concordance between the phylogeographies of the symbionts. The incongruent patterns found in areas of postglacial recolonization may show the presence of an additional refugial area for the fungal symbiont, and the impact that horizontal photobiont transmission and different mutation rates of the symbionts have on their genotypic associations at a continental scale. PMID:23094600

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata supports their independent histories.

    PubMed

    Fijarczyk, Anna; Nadachowska, Krystyna; Hofman, Sebastian; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Babik, Wiesław; Stuglik, Michał; Gollmann, Günter; Choleva, Lukáš; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Vukov, Tanja; Džukić, George; Szymura, Jacek M

    2011-08-01

    Exact location and number of glacial refugia still remain unclear for many European cold-blooded terrestrial vertebrates. We performed a fine-scaled multilocus phylogeographic analysis of two Bombina species combining mitochondrial variation of 950 toads from 385 sites and nuclear genes (Rag-1, Ncx-1) from a subset of samples to reconstruct their colonization and contemporary variation patterns. We identified the lowlands northwest of the Black Sea and the Carpathians to be important refugial areas for B. bombina and B. variegata, respectively. This result emphasizes the importance of Central European refugia for ectothermic terrestrial species, far north of the Mediterranean areas regarded as exclusive glacial refugia for the animals. Additional refugia for B. variegata have been located in the southern Apennines and Balkans. In contrast, no evidence for the importance of other east European plains as refugial regions has been found. The distribution of mtDNA and Ncx-1 variation suggests the presence of local refugia near the Black Sea for B. bombina; however, coalescent simulations did not allow to distinguish whether one or two refugia were present in the region. Strong genetic drift apparently accompanied postglacial expansions reducing diversity in the colonization areas. Extended sampling, coupled with the multilocus isolation with migration analysis, revealed a limited and geographically restricted gene flow from the Balkan to Carpathian populations of B. variegata. However, despite proximity of inferred B. bombina and B. variegata refugia, gene exchange between them was not detected. PMID:21749513

  16. Range-edge genetic diversity: locally poor extant southern patches maintain a regionally diverse hotspot in the seagrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A

    2012-04-01

    Refugial populations at the rear edge are predicted to contain higher genetic diversity than those resulting from expansion, such as in post-glacial recolonizations. However, peripheral populations are also predicted to have decreased diversity compared to the centre of a species' distribution. We aim to test these predictions by comparing genetic diversity in populations at the limits of distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina, with populations in the species' previously described central diversity 'hotspot'. Zostera marina populations show decreased allelic richness, heterozygosity and genotypic richness in both the 'rear' edge and the 'leading' edge compared to the diversity 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. However, when populations are pooled, genetic diversity at the southern range is as high as in the North Sea/Baltic region while the 'leading edge' remains low in genetic diversity. The decreased genetic diversity in these southern Iberian populations compared to more central populations is possibly the effect of drift because of small effective population size, as a result of reduced habitat, low sexual reproduction and low gene flow. However, when considering the whole southern edge of distribution rather than per population, diversity is as high as in the central 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. We conclude that diversity patterns assessed per population can mask the real regional richness that is typical of rear edge populations, which have played a key role in the species biogeographical history and as marginal diversity hotspots have very high conservation value. PMID:22369278

  17. A quantitative ~1ky lake level record of Lake Prespa (SW Balkans) derived from beach ridge sediments: implications for hydro-climatic changes from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    We present the first quantitative lake stage record of Prespa that covers the past millennium, based on the singular isthmus beach ridge complex, allowing numerical reconstruction of precipitation-driven inflow changes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mediterranean precipitation change, based on lake-proxy reconstructions, shows a distinct W-E pattern over the past millennium. Generally, the West experienced drier conditions during the MCA and wetter conditions during the LIA; the East experienced opposite conditions. This pattern is linked to the multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Winter Index: positive phases are associated with drier (wetter) and negative phases with wetter (drier) conditions in the W (E) Mediterranean. The SW Balkans is located at the juncture of proposed boundary between these contrasting climate and hydrological domains. It is not clear which, if any, of these patterns reflects past precipitation changes in the region, given the lack of detailed palaeo-hydrological data. The beach ridge complex that underlies the entire isthmus separating Lakes Mikri- and Megali Prespa offers a unique opportunity to address this question. High, oblique, sediment-supply allows the formation and preservation of beach ridges that register the annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa which are driven by wet season precipitation and contain a strong NAO-signal. Modern beach-ridge sediment facies were calibrated against observed lake levels, thus allowing the reliable determination of past lake levels from the geological record. Lake surface area variation was found to be a more reliable indicator of hydro-climate change than water level fluctuations as the latter are strongly influenced by lake bathymetry. Accordingly, surface areas were calculated for different water levels to enable the conversion of lake level stage-indicators to quantitative inflow estimates. The isthmus profile reveals a "high

  18. Séquences de dépôt à l'articulation plate-forme urgonienne bassin (intervalle Barrémien Albien) dans le Prébalkan occidental (Bulgarie du Nord-Ouest)Depositional sequences at the Urgonian platform/basin transition (Barremian Albian interval) in the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Ivanov, Marin; Nikolov, Todor; Ciszak, Richard; Stoykova, Kristalina

    2000-04-01

    In the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria), the characterization of numerous depositional sequences within the Barremian-Albian interval allows us to reconstruct from southeast to northwest the successive palaeogeographies of this part of the north Tethyan margin: two carbonate (Urgonian) platforms flanking a central terrigenous basin during the Barremian; a single centrifugal terrigenous basin (Aptian) marked, along its axis, by an olistostrome and siliciclastic turbidites; a single Albian basin characterized by the stacking of glauconite-rich condensation sections and anoxic black marls.

  19. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (< 800m) of metagabbroic rocks underlined by Cambro-Ordovician metasediments. Petrostructural observations on metagabbroic rocks coupled with mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono

  20. New data on age of the Pleistocene fauna from the Trlica locality (Montenegro, Central Balkans) and its correlation with other faunas of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislobokova, I. A.; Agadjanyan, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    New data specifying the age of the fauna from the Trlica locality near Pljevlja (Montenegro, Central Balkans) derived from material of excavations in 2010-2014 are discussed with the biostratigraphic analysis of two defined faunal levels TRL11-10 and TRL6-5 and its correlation with other faunas of Europe. It is shown that the fauna from the lower faunal level (TRL11-10) is correlative with the second half of the Early Pleistocene (Late Villafranchian, Zone MNQ 18, while the fauna from the upper faunal level existed in the post-Villafranchian time and its age is estimated to be the early Middle Pleistocene (MIS 19), not older.

  1. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A new hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.M.; Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Bunnell, J.E.; Feder, G.L.; Kostic, E.N.; Ordodi, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (p = 0.02) and (p = 0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review of the Balkan Isophya (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae) with particular emphasis on the Isophya modesta group and remarks on the systematics of the genus based on morphological and acoustic data.

    PubMed

    Chobanov, Dragan P; Grzywacz, Beata; Iorgu, Ionuţ Ş; Ciplak, Battal; Ilieva, Maya B; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    A critical review of the taxonomy and systematics of the genus Isophya from the Balkan Peninsula, together with a revision of the I. modesta group, including its representatives outside the Balkans, has been made using morphological, bioacoustic and karyological data. As a result, the following taxonomic considerations have been proposed: (1) the status of two taxa has been reconsidered: Isophya rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach, stat.n., I. rhodopensis petkovi Peshev, stat.n.; (2) five synonymies have been established: I. hospodar (Saussure) = I. hospodar medimontana Nedelkov, syn.n.; I. plevnensis Peshev, sensu novo = I. pravdini pravdini Peshev, syn.n.; I. rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach = I. kisi Peshev, syn.n.; I. obtusa = I. pravdini bazyluki Peshev, syn.n.; I. modesta Frivaldszky = I. modesta intermedia Kis syn.n. The descriptions of the taxa under consideration are supplemented with unpublished morphological and/or bioacoustic data. An updated list of the taxa occurring on the Balkans includes 24 taxa (21 species, including the doubtful data on I. camptoxypha). A dichotomic and tabulated key for recognition and maps of distribution of the established taxa are presented. PMID:25333087

  3. Changing what it means to 'become a man': participants' reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  4. Dominant-Negative Effect of a Missense Variant in the TASK-2 (KCNK5) K+ Channel Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Wahab, Firdaus; Tucker, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    TASK-2, a member of the Two-Pore Domain (K2P) subfamily of K+ channels, is encoded by the KCNK5 gene. The channel is expressed primarily in renal epithelial tissues and a potentially deleterious missense variant in KCNK5 has recently been shown to be prevalent amongst patients predisposed to the development of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), a chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study we show that this variant (T108P) results in a complete loss of channel function and is associated with a major reduction in TASK-2 channel subunits at the cell surface. Furthermore, these mutant subunits have a suppressive or ‘dominant-negative’ effect on channel function when coexpressed with wild-type subunits. This missense variant is located at the extracellular surface of the M2 transmembrane helix and by using a combination of structural modelling and further functional analysis we also show that this highly-conserved threonine residue is critical for the correct function of other K2P channels. These results therefore provide further structural and functional insights into the possible pathophysiological effects of this missense variant in TASK-2. PMID:27228168

  5. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  6. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only), serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases. PMID:19400955

  7. The first record of a soft-shelled turtle (Testudines: Pan-Trionychidae) from southern Balkans (Pliocene, Gefira, N. Greece) and new information from bone histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Cerda, Ignacio; Tsoukala, Evangelia

    2015-08-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pan-Trionychidae) are not included in the present-day chelonian fauna of Greece and have been unknown in the Greek fossil record up to now. Here, we report the first fossil occurrence of a soft-shelled turtle from Greece, originating from the Pliocene Gefira Member (Angelochori Formation), in the lower Axios valley. The corresponding specimens were discovered with several mammalian remains, most of them attributable to the mastodon of Auvergne, Anancus arvernensis. The chelonian material includes five carapacial fragments that belong to the same individual and can be attributed to Pan-Trionychidae based on the typical sculpturing on the dorsal side of the carapace. Most of these bony plates were histologically sampled and thereby provide evidence for the "plywood" structure, another characteristic of pan-trionychids. They represent the first extended sampling of trionychid plates that belong to the same individual, allowing the documentation of the variation of the relevant trionychid morphologies in the carapace. These findings expand the paleobiogeographic range of this taxon to the southern Balkans and Greece and allow a better estimation of the chelonian paleo-fauna of the area. They are also important for the temporal distribution of this clade in the Paleoarctic, as they join specimens from Italy as being the last trionychids in Europe.

  8. Distribution and Taxonomic Significance of Secondary Metabolites Occurring in the Methanol Extracts of the Stonecrops (Sedum L., Crassulaceae) from the Central Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Gordana S; Jovanović, Snežana C; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2015-06-01

    The present study is engaged in the chemical composition of methanol extracts of Sedum taxa from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and representatives from other genera of Crassulaceae (Crassula, Echeveria and Kalanchoe) considered as out-groups. The chemical composition of extracts was determined by HPLC analysis, according to retention time of standards and characteristic absorption spectra of components. Identified components were considered as original variables with possible chemotaxonomic significance. Relationships of examined plant samples were investigated by agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHC). The obtained results showed how the distribution of methanol extract components (mostly phenolics) affected grouping of the examined samples. The obtained clustering showed satisfactory grouping of the examined samples, among which some representatives of the Sedum series, Rupestria and Magellensia, are the most remote. The out-group samples were not clearly singled out with regard to Sedum samples as expected; this especially applies to samples of Crassula ovata and Echeveria lilacina, while Kalanchoe daigremontiana was more separated from most of the Sedum samples. PMID:26197522

  9. The first record of a soft-shelled turtle (Testudines: Pan-Trionychidae) from southern Balkans (Pliocene, Gefira, N. Greece) and new information from bone histology.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Cerda, Ignacio; Tsoukala, Evangelia

    2015-08-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pan-Trionychidae) are not included in the present-day chelonian fauna of Greece and have been unknown in the Greek fossil record up to now. Here, we report the first fossil occurrence of a soft-shelled turtle from Greece, originating from the Pliocene Gefira Member (Angelochori Formation), in the lower Axios valley. The corresponding specimens were discovered with several mammalian remains, most of them attributable to the mastodon of Auvergne, Anancus arvernensis. The chelonian material includes five carapacial fragments that belong to the same individual and can be attributed to Pan-Trionychidae based on the typical sculpturing on the dorsal side of the carapace. Most of these bony plates were histologically sampled and thereby provide evidence for the "plywood" structure, another characteristic of pan-trionychids. They represent the first extended sampling of trionychid plates that belong to the same individual, allowing the documentation of the variation of the relevant trionychid morphologies in the carapace. These findings expand the paleobiogeographic range of this taxon to the southern Balkans and Greece and allow a better estimation of the chelonian paleo-fauna of the area. They are also important for the temporal distribution of this clade in the Paleoarctic, as they join specimens from Italy as being the last trionychids in Europe. PMID:26231846

  10. On the amphibious food uptake and prey manipulation behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi, Arntzen and Wielstra, 2013).

    PubMed

    Lukanov, Simeon; Tzankov, Nikolay; Handschuh, Stephan; Heiss, Egon; Naumov, Borislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Feeding behavior in salamanders undergoing seasonal habitat shifts poses substantial challenges caused by differences in the physical properties of air and water. Adapting to these specific environments, urodelans use suction feeding predominantly under water as opposed to lingual food prehension on land. This study aims to determine the functionality of aquatic and terrestrial feeding behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) in its terrestrial stage. During the terrestrial stage, these newts feed frequently in water where they use hydrodynamic mechanisms for prey capture. On land, prey apprehension is accomplished mainly by lingual prehension, while jaw prehension seems to be the exception (16.67%) in all terrestrial prey capture events. In jaw prehension events there was no detectable depression of the hyo-lingual complex. The success of terrestrial prey capture was significantly higher when T. ivanbureschi used lingual prehension. In addition to prey capture, we studied the mechanisms involved in the subduction of prey. In both media, the newts frequently used a shaking behavior to immobilize the captured earthworms. Apparently, prey shaking constitutes a significant element in the feeding behavior of T. ivanbureschi. Prey immobilization was applied more frequently during underwater feeding, which necessitates a discussion of the influence of the feeding media on food manipulation. We also investigated the osteology of the cranio-cervical complex in T. ivanbureschi to compare it to that of the predominantly terrestrial salamandrid Salamandra salamandra. PMID:27013264

  11. Mitochondrial DNA differentiation between two forms of trout Salmo letnica, endemic to the Balkan Lake Ohrid, reflects their reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Sell, J; Spirkovski, Z

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondrial haplotype diversity in sympatric populations of Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mtDNA control region and ND1, ND3/4, ND5/6 segments. A 310 bp fragment at the 5' end, and a 340-572 bp fragment at the 3' end of the control region were sequenced from representatives of the populations studied. Based on pairwise comparison of the sequences, five new haplotypes were identified plus one identical with the brown trout Andalusian haplotype from the southern Iberian Peninsula. The combination of both RFLP and sequence data sets yielded a total of 10 composite haplotypes. A high degree of genetic subdivision between S. letnica typicus and S. letnica aestivalis populations was observed. The notion of a sympatric origin for the two morphs is discussed. Length variation of the mtDNA control region due to the presence of an 82 bp unit, tandemly repeated one to four times, in the region between the conserved sequence block-3 (CSB-3) and the gene for phenylalanine tRNA is reported. Further, we demonstrate that a single duplication of the approximately 82 bp repeat unit is a common element of the salmonid mitochondrial control region. The unique genetic structure of Ohrid trout represents a highly valuable genetic resource that deserves appropriate management and conservation. PMID:15548279

  12. A training network for introducing telemedicine, telecare and hospital informatics in the Adriatic-Danube-Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Anogeianaki, Antonia; Ilonidis, George; Anogianakis, George; Lianguris, John; Katsaros, Kyriakos; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Klisarova, Anelia; Negrev, Negrin

    2004-01-01

    DIMNET is a training mechanism for a region of central Europe. The aim is to upgrade the information technology skills of local hospital personnel and preserve their employability following the introduction of medical informatics. DIMNET uses Internet-based virtual classrooms to provide a 200-hour training course in medical informatics. Training takes place in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi and Varna. So far, more than 600 people have benefited from the programme. Initial results are encouraging. DIMNET promotes a new vocational training culture in the Balkans and is supported by local governments that perceive health-care as a fulcrum for economic development. PMID:15603593

  13. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marić, Saša; Sušnik, Simona; Simonović, Predrag; Snoj, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one haplotype (ATcs1), found only in two individuals originating from two stocked rivers, corresponded to the Atlantic lineage and was considered introduced. Native haplotypes exhibited a strong geographic pattern of distribution: the Danubian haplotypes were strictly confined to the Danubian drainage, while the Adriatic haplotypes dominated in the Aegean and Adriatic drainages; most of the total molecular variance (69%) was attributed to differences among the drainages. Phylogenetic reconstruction, supplemented with seven haplotypes newly described in this study, suggested a sister position of the Atlantic-Danubian and Adriatic-Mediterranean-marmoratus ("southern") phylogenetic group, and pointed to the existence of a distinct clade, detected within the "southern" group. The data obtained confirmed our expectation of the existence of high genetic diversity in Balkan trout populations, and we recommend more widespread surveys covering trout stocks from the region. PMID:16790230

  14. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data reveal the evolutionary history of Barbus (Cyprinidae) in the ancient lake systems of the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Marková, Silvia; Sanda, Radek; Crivelli, Alain; Shumka, Spase; Wilson, Iain F; Vukić, Jasna; Berrebi, Patrick; Kotlík, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater fauna of ancient lakes frequently contain endemic taxa thought to have originated during the long existence of these lakes, yet uncertainties remain as to whether they represent distinct genetic lineages with respect to more widespread relatives and to the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in their evolution. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at nuclear and mitochondrial genes were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish genus Barbus in two European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula. The nuclear and mitochondrial data yielded concordant phylogeographic patterns though incomplete sorting of nuclear haplotypes between some mitochondrial clades was detected. The distributions of two currently recognized species investigated here do not match the distributions of evolutionary lineages revealed by phylogenetic analyses. The Prespa barbel, Barbus prespensis, is not endemic to the lakes Prespa as previously thought but is instead found to be widespread in the south-eastern Adriatic Sea basin, with a distribution largely corresponding to the basin of the now extinct Lake Maliq historically connected with Lake Prespa. On the other hand, a cryptic phylogenetic subdivision in a widespread species, B. rebeli, was discovered to be more distant from B. rebeli than from other Barbus species and to be endemic to the system of connected lakes Ohrid and Shkodra. The division coincides with the hydrogeographical boundary delimiting distributions of other freshwater fishes, and we suggest that this newly discovered evolutionary lineage represents a distinct species. These findings support the emerging pattern that endemic taxa have evolved not through isolation of individual lakes, but in systems of currently and historically interconnected lakes and their wider basins. PMID:20139017

  15. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. PMID:27273147

  16. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean – Adriatic – marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster). Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes. PMID:19284692

  17. Genetic variation and phylogeography of free-living mouse species (genus Mus) in the Balkans and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Macholán, M; Vyskocilová, M; Bonhomme, F; Krystufek, B; Orth, A; Vohralík, V

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a study of the distribution and pattern of variation throughout the ranges of three free-living mouse species of the genus Mus-M. macedonicus, M. spicilegus, and a M. cypriacus - based on sequencing of two segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The study shows a similar level of variability in the three species and suggests their recent population expansion. The highest proportion of variation is found within populations indicating low genetic structuring. Phylogenetic analysis confirms the significant divergence of a mitochondrial lineage of M. macedonicus from Israel, recently described as a new subspecies, M. macedonicus spretoides. Conversely, no genetic hiatus is revealed between European and Asian populations of M. macedonicus macedonicus. Although phylogenetic relationships among M. spicilegus populations could not be unravelled precisely, the results suggest a recent westward expansion of the species. The mtDNA divergence between M. macedonicus and M. spicilegus is 7.3%, suggesting their split between c. 700,000 and 1 million years ago. These dates correspond with a coalescent estimate about 720,000 years ago. On the other hand, M. cypriacus appeared almost twice as divergent from the former species (4.5%) as from the latter (8.8%) suggesting a divergence of c. 430,000-610,000 years ago (coalescent approximately 490,000 years ago) and 830,000-1.2 million years ago (coalescent approximately 780,000 years ago), respectively. Approximate times of population expansion have also been estimated for all taxa and groups of populations. Existence of several glacial refuges and various colonization scenarios are discussed; since all estimated divergence times fall within interglacial periods it seems that climatic oscillations did not play a crucial role in the evolution of the three species. PMID:17908218

  18. Dating intrusion and cooling of Cenozoic granitoids in the Dinarides of Southern Serbia and discussion of the geodynamic setting of Paleocene-Miocene magmatism in the Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senecio, Schefer; Cvetković, Vladica; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Kounov, Alexandre; Ovtcharova, Maria; Schaltegger, Urs; Schmid, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of high precision single grain U-Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses of thermally annealed and chemically abraded zircons from the Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin, Golija and Polumir intrusions in the inner Dinarides of southern Serbia. In addition, new zircon and apatite fission-track data together with local structural observations, allow for constraining the subsequent exhumation history of these intrusions. Two age groups were determined for the granitoid intrusions: (i) Oligocene intrusive bodies (Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin) ranging in age from 31.7 to 30.6 Ma and (ii) Miocene Golija and Polumir intrusions which emplaced at 20.58-20.17 and 18.06-17.74 Ma, respectively. The apatite fission-track modelling combined with zircon central ages show rapid cooling from above 300 to ca. 80 °C between 16 and 10 Ma for granitoids of both age groups, followed by rather slow cooling to surface temperatures for the last 10 Ma. Fast Middle Miocene cooling between 16 and 10 Ma is caused by extensional exhumation of the plutons that are located in the footwall of core-complexes. This documents that Miocene magmatism and core-complex formation leading to formation of the Pannonian basin also affected a part of the mountainous areas of the internal Dinarides. The discussion of an extensive set of age data from the literature and the geodynamic setting of the Balkan Peninsula reveals that there is no direct connection of the Dinaridic Late Eocene to earliest Miocene magmatic belt with contemporaneous Periadriatic intrusions in the Alps and along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone as proposed in the literature. We insist on the fact that the subduction polarity in the Alps, including that within the Western Carpathians north of the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, is opposite to that of the Dinarides during the given time span. Instead, we propose that Late Eocene to Oligocene magmatism, which affects the Adria-derived lower plate units of the internal Dinarides, may be

  19. Frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene in selected populations of the western balkans.

    PubMed

    Grapci, A Daka; Dimovski, A J; Kapedanovska, A; Vavlukis, M; Eftimov, A; Geshkovska, N Matevska; Labachevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Gorani, D; Kedev, S; Mladenovska, K

    2015-06-01

    As a membrane influx transporter, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) regulates the cellular uptake of a number of endogenous compounds and drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding this transporter in two ethnic groups populating the Western Balkans. The distribution of SCLO1B1 alleles was determined at seven variant sites (c.388A>G, c.521T>C, c.571T>C, c.597C>T, c.1086C>T, c.1463G>C and c.*439T>G) in 266 Macedonians and 94 Albanians using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. No significant difference in the frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was observed between these populations. The frequency of the c.521T>C SNP was the lowest (<13.7 and 12.2%, respectively), while the frequencies of all other SNP alleles were above 40.0%. Variant alleles of c.1463G>C and c.1086 C>T SNPs were not identified in either ethnic group. The haplotype analysis revealed 20 and 21 different haplotypes in the Macedonian and Albanian population, respectively. The most common haplotype in both ethnic groups, *1J/*1K/*1L, had a frequency of 39.0% and 26.6%, respectively. In both populations, the variant alleles of the functionally significant c.521T>C and c.388A>G SNPs existed in one major haplotype (*15/*16/*17), with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.4% in the Macedonian and Albanian subjects, respectively. In conclusion, sequence variations of the SLCO1B1 gene in the studied populations occur at high frequencies, which are similar to that of the Caucasian population. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these SNPs and/ or the major SLCO1B1 haplotypes they form for a large number of substrates and for susceptibility to certain diseases. PMID:26929901

  20. Frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene in selected populations of the western balkans

    PubMed Central

    Grapci, A Daka; Dimovski, AJ; Kapedanovska, A; Vavlukis, M; Eftimov, A; Geshkovska, N Matevska; Labachevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Gorani, D; Kedev, S; Mladenovska, K

    2015-01-01

    As a membrane influx transporter, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) regulates the cellular uptake of a number of endogenous compounds and drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding this transporter in two ethnic groups populating the Western Balkans. The distribution of SCLO1B1 alleles was determined at seven variant sites (c.388A>G, c.521T>C, c.571T>C, c.597C>T, c.1086C>T, c.1463G>C and c.*439T>G) in 266 Macedonians and 94 Albanians using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. No significant difference in the frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was observed between these populations. The frequency of the c.521T>C SNP was the lowest (<13.7 and 12.2%, respectively), while the frequencies of all other SNP alleles were above 40.0%. Variant alleles of c.1463G>C and c.1086 C>T SNPs were not identified in either ethnic group. The haplotype analysis revealed 20 and 21 different haplotypes in the Macedonian and Albanian population, respectively. The most common haplotype in both ethnic groups, *1J/*1K/*1L, had a frequency of 39.0% and 26.6%, respectively. In both populations, the variant alleles of the functionally significant c.521T>C and c.388A>G SNPs existed in one major haplotype (*15/*16/*17), with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.4% in the Macedonian and Albanian subjects, respectively. In conclusion, sequence variations of the SLCO1B1 gene in the studied populations occur at high frequencies, which are similar to that of the Caucasian population. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these SNPs and/ or the major SLCO1B1 haplotypes they form for a large number of substrates and for susceptibility to certain diseases. PMID:26929901

  1. A new species and new records of Molophilus Curtis, 1833 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from the Western Palaearctic Region

    PubMed Central

    Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Molophilus Curtis, 1833 is the most species-rich Limoniidae genus with a total number of 1006 species and subspecies, from which 97 are recorded in the Western-Palaearctic region so far. However new species are still expected from less investigated regions, like the Balkans or the Eastern Europe. New information In the present article, we desrcibe a new limonid crane fly species, Molophilus balcanicus Kolcsár sp. n. from the Central Balkan area (Bulgaria). This new taxa is closely related to M. serpentiger Edwards, 1938 and M. variispinus Starý​, 1971 based on the external male genital structures, but differs from its siblings mostly in the structure of the inner and outer gonostylus. Additionally, a number of species are reported for the first time from various European countries, like M. variispinus Starý, 1971 and M. occultus de Meijere, 1918 from Romania; M. crassipygus de Meijere 1918, M. obsoletus Lackschewitz, 1940 and M. medius de Meijere, 1918 from Greece; M. flavus Goetghebuer, 1920 from Andorra; M. cinereifrons de Meijere, 1920 from Bulgaria and M. corniger Meijere, 1920 from Spain. PMID:26379460

  2. First fossil evidence of an ``interglacial refugium'' in the Pyrenean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, Juan Manuel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Allué, Ethel; Bañuls, Sandra; Bargalló, Amelia; Martín, Patricia; Morales, Juan Ignacio; Pedro, Mireia; Rodríguez, Anna; Solé, Alex; Oms, F. Xavier

    2010-08-01

    A refugium is generally understood as an area where temperate species survive cold periods, such as the Iberian, Italian, or Balkan Peninsulas in Europe. Strictly speaking, this definition refers to what is known as a glacial refugium. However, there are various types of lesser-known refugia such as the interglacial refugium, which denotes a mountainous region at low latitudes, such as the Pyrenees, where species adapted to the cold survive during interstadial periods. The small-vertebrate association from the sequence of Cova Colomera, which is located on the southern face of the Pyrenees and contains the final cold spell of the Late Pleistocene and the beginnings of the temperate period in which we currently find ourselves (the Holocene), could constitute the first fossil evidence of such an interglacial refugium, thus providing new paleoecological data on the phenomenon.

  3. Evaluation of the twenty-first century RCM simulations driven by multiple GCMs over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önol, Barış; Bozkurt, Deniz; Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sen, Omer Lutfi; Dalfes, H. Nuzhet

    2014-04-01

    In this study, human-induced climate change over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region has been analyzed for the twenty-first century by performing regional climate model simulations forced with large-scale fields from three different global circulation models (GCMs). Climate projections have been produced with Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2, A1FI and B1 scenarios, which provide greater diversity in climate information for future period. The gradual increases for temperature are widely apparent during the twenty-first century for each scenario simulation, but ECHAM5-driven simulation generally has a weaker signal for all seasons compared to CCSM3 simulations except for the Fertile Crescent. The contrast in future temperature change between the winter and summer seasons is very strong for CCSM3-A2-driven and HadCM3-A2-driven simulations over Carpathians and Balkans, 4-5 °C. In addition, winter runoff over mountainous region of Turkey, which feeds many river systems including the Euphrates and Tigris, increases in second half of the century since the snowmelt process accelerates where the elevation is higher than 1,500 m. Moreover, analysis of daily temperature outputs reveals that the gradual decrease in daily minimum temperature variability for January during the twenty-first century is apparent over Carpathians and Balkans. Analysis of daily precipitation extremes shows that positive trend is clear during the last two decades of the twenty-first century over Carpathians for both CCSM3-driven and ECHAM5-driven simulations. Multiple-GCM driven regional climate simulations contribute to the quantification of the range of climate change over a region by performing detailed comparisons between the simulations.

  4. A study of the cloud cover and cloud top pressure weekly cycle over the region of Eastern Mediterranean with the use of MODIS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalampiras, Pashalis; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Alexandri, Georgia; Meleti, Charoula

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the spatiotemporal variability of cloud cover (CC) and cloud top pressure (CTP) over the region of Eastern Mediterranean is presented. The analysis is based on level-2 data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors for the period 3/2000-12/2012 and 7/2002-12/2012, respectively. The data used here are from the 0.1-degree aerosol-cloud gridded dataset that was compiled within the framework of QUADIEEMS project for the investigation of the aerosol indirect effects. The Weekly Cycle Index (WCI) and the day of weekly maximum/minimum patterns are calculated on a seasonal basis and their possible connections with local aerosol sources and the regional aerosol patterns are investigated. To generalize our results, the day-of-the-week variability of CC and CTP for 9 sub-regions with different aerosol characteristics is examined. Among the most striking features is a summer CC midweek minimum over the Balkan Peninsula. Contrasting this, a weekend CC minimum appears over the Aegean and the Black Sea. In spring, we observe a statistically significant weekend CC maximum over the Balkan Peninsula and the sea regions around it. The synergistic use of various satellite, model and reanalysis products indicates that these regions are characterized by a strong presence of anthropogenic aerosols. The opposite behaviour is observed for CTP; however, the statistically significant weekly maxima and minima appear mostly over land. The QUADIEEMS project is co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) and national resources under the operational programme Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the framework of the Action "Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers".

  5. Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Žunić, Z S; Kritsananuwat, R; Zagrodzki, P; Bossew, P; Veselinovic, N; Mishra, S; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-07-01

    Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them. PMID:25875006

  6. Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

    2012-01-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain

  7. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  8. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  9. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  10. Evidence for long-term migration on the Balkan Peninsula using dental and cranial nonmetric data: Early interaction between corinth (Greece) and its colony at Apollonia (Albania).

    PubMed

    McIlvaine, Britney Kyle; Schepartz, Lynne A; Larsen, Clark Spencer; Sciulli, Paul W

    2014-02-01

    This article seeks to identify "Greeks" and "non-Greeks" in "mixed" mortuary contexts in a Greek colony. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that Illyrian and Greek individuals lived and were buried together at the Corinthian colony of Apollonia, Albania (established ca. 600 BC). The pattern of human biological interaction at Apollonia is tested by identifying variation in genetic relatedness using biodistance analysis of dental and cranial nonmetric traits for three sites: Apollonia (n = 116), its founder-city Corinth (n = 69), and Lofkënd (n = 108), an inland site near Apollonia pre-dating colonization. Logistic regression analysis estimates that individuals from colonial Apollonia are most closely related to prehistoric Illyrian populations (from Lofkënd and prehistoric Apollonia), rather than Greeks (from Corinth). The phenotypic similarity between colonial Apollonia and prehistoric Illyria suggests that there was a large Illyrian contribution to the gene pool at the colony of Apollonia. However, some trait combinations show low biological distances among all groups, suggesting homogeneity among Illyrian and Greek populations (assessed through pseudo-Mahalanobis' D(2) ). The degree of phenotypic similarity suggests shared ancestry and long-term migration throughout these regions. The impacts of missing data and small sample sizes are also considered. PMID:24227263

  11. Demic and cultural diffusion propagated the Neolithic transition across different regions of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    The Neolithic transition is the shift from hunting–gathering into farming. About 9000 years ago, the Neolithic transition began to spread from the Near East into Europe, until it reached Northern Europe about 5500 years ago. There are two main models of this spread. The demic model assumes that it was mainly due to the reproduction and dispersal of farmers. The cultural model assumes that European hunter–gatherers become farmers by acquiring domestic plants and animals, as well as knowledge, from neighbouring farmers. Here we use the dates of about 900 archaeological sites to compute a speed map of the spread of the Neolithic transition in Europe. We compare the speed map to the speed ranges predicted by purely demic, demic–cultural and purely cultural models. The comparison indicates that the transition was cultural in Northern Europe, the Alpine region and west of the Black Sea. But demic diffusion was at work in other regions such as the Balkans and Central Europe. Our models can be applied to many other cultural traits. We also propose that genetic data could be gathered and used to measure the demic kernels of Early Neolithic populations. This would lead to an enormous advance in Neolithic spread modelling. PMID:25977959

  12. Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium of galaxies is the reservoir out of which stars are born and into which stars inject newly created elements as they age. The physical properties of the interstellar medium are governed in part by the radiation emitted by these stars. Far-ultraviolet (6 eV< hNu < 13.6 eV) photons from massive stars dominate the heating and influence the chemistry of the neutral atomic gas and much of the molecular gas in galaxies. Predominantly neutral regions of the interstellar medium in which the heating and chemistry are regulated by far ultraviolet photons are termed Photodissociation Regions (PDRs). These regions are the origin of most of the non-stellar infrared (IR) and the millimeter and submillimeter CO emission from galaxies. The importance of PDRs has become increasingly apparent with the advances in IR and submillimeter astronomy. The IR emission from PDRs includes fine structure lines of C, C(+) and O; rovibrational lines of H2; rotational lines of CO; broad mid-IR features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and a luminous underlying IR continuum from interstellar dust. The transition of H to H2 and C(+) to CO occurs within PDRs. Comparison of observations with theoretical models of PDRs enables one to determine the density and temperature structure, the elemental abundances, the level of ionization, and the radiation field. PDR models have been applied to interstellar clouds near massive stars, planetary nebulae, red giant outflows, photoevaporating planetary disks around newly formed stars, diffuse clouds, the neutral intercloud medium, and molecular clouds in the interstellar radiation field-in summary, much of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Theoretical PDR models explain the observed correlations of the [CII] 158, micrometers with the CO J=1-0 emission, the CO J=1-0 luminosity with the interstellar molecular mass, and the [CII] 158 micrometers plus [OI] 63 micrometers luminosity with the IR continuum luminosity. On a more global

  13. Balkanization and Unification of Probabilistic Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Many research-related classes in social sciences present probability as a unified approach based upon mathematical axioms, but neglect the diversity of various probability theories and their associated philosophical assumptions. Although currently the dominant statistical and probabilistic approach is the Fisherian tradition, the use of Fisherian…

  14. Conflict in the Balkans affects the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The leaves on the plants on Snezana Komatina's balcony have turned yellow from toxic fumes. All of the windows are broken and the walls are cracked from nearby explosive blasts. From her flat on a hill in the upscale Filmsky Grad section of Belgrade, Serbia, Komatina, a geophysicist with the Geophysical Institute of the Naftagas oil and gas company watches the night fires flare across the city. In their attempt to stop the Serbian killing and driving out of ethnic Albanians from the southern province of Kosovo, NATO airplanes bomb and light up the skies in the Serbian capital and at strategic targets throughout the country.

  15. 76 FR 38002 - Western Balkans Stabilization Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... 13219 (66 FR 34777, June 29, 2001) (``E.O. 13219''), invoking the authority of, inter alia, the... Stabilization Regulations, 31 CFR part 588 (67 FR 37671, May 30, 2002) (the ``WBSR''), to implement E.O. 13219. On May 28, 2003, the President issued Executive Order 13304 (68 FR 32315, May 29, 2003) (``E.O....

  16. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  17. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  18. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  19. A glacial survivor of the alpine Mediterranean region: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Iriondo, José María; García-Fernández, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae) is a species with a highly disjunct distribution which inhabits the alpine mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. We investigated the phylogeny and phylogeography of the species to (a) clarify the long-suggested division of S. ciliata into two subspecies, (b) evaluate its phylogenetic origin and (c) assess whether the species’ diversification patterns were affected by the Mediterranean relief. For this purpose, we collected DNA from 25 populations of the species that inhabit the mountains of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece and studied the plastid regions rbcL, rps16 and trnL. Major intraspecific variation was supported by all analyses, while the possibility of the existence of more varieties or subspecies was not favoured. Plastid DNA (cpDNA) evidence was in accordance with the division of S. ciliata into the two subspecies, one spreading west (Iberian Peninsula and Central Massif) and the other east of the Alps region (Italian and Balkan Peninsula). This study proposes that the species’ geographically disconnected distribution has probably derived from vicariance processes and from the Alps acting as a barrier to the species’ dispersal. The monophyletic origin of the species is highly supported. cpDNA patterns were shown independent of the chromosome evolution in the populations and could have resulted from a combination of geographic factors providing links and barriers, climatic adversities and evolutionary processes that took place during Quaternary glaciations. PMID:26312184

  20. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate warming (ca. 14°C), conversely, the local contraction of these taxa between ca. 23'000-18'500 cal yr BP was possibly triggered by cooler summer air temperatures (ca. 13.4°C) and a significant moisture decline during the LGM.

  1. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  2. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Kühl, Norbert; Tinner, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation and climate during the last ice age and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼23,000-19,000 cal BP) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). Cold climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the last glaciation radically reduced forest extent in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. On the basis of paleobotanical analyses the Euganian Hills (Colli Euganei) in northeastern Italy have previously been proposed as one of the northernmost refugia of temperate trees (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus and Castanea) in Europe. In this study we provide the first quantitative, vegetation independent summer air temperature reconstruction for Northern Italy spanning the time ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP, which covers the coldest periods of the last glacial, including the LGM and Heinrich stadials 1 to 3. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a small lake at the south-eastern edge of the Euganean Hills, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial summer air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Chironomid and pollen evidence from Lago della Costa derives from finely stratified autochthonous organic gyttja sediments, which excludes major sediment mixing or reworking. After reconstructing paleo-temperatures, we address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of temperate tree species during the LGM and whether local expansions and pollen-inferred contractions of temperate tree taxa coincided with chironomid-inferred climatic changes. Our results suggest that chironomids at Lago della Costa have responded to major climatic fluctuations such as temperature decreases during the LGM and Heinrich stadials. The vegetation of the Euganean Hills shows responses to these climatic oscillations although the effects of temperature changes were probably also strongly influenced by changes in humidity. Reconstructed July air temperatures at Lago della Costa never fell below 10-13 °C (error range of reconstruction ∼ ±1.5-1.6 °C), which is considerably above the limit considered necessary for forest growth (8-10 °C). Instead rather mild climatic conditions prevailed ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP with average summer temperatures between ∼12 and 16 °C, which most likely allowed survival of temperate tree taxa in the warmest (and moistest) microhabitats of the Euganean Hills during the LGM. Only assuming local survival is it possible to explain the repeated expansions and collapses of temperate trees at Lago della Costa which faithfully accompanied the climatic oscillations.

  3. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  4. Refugial isolation and divergence in the Narrowheaded Gartersnake species complex (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) as revealed by multilocus DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, A.G.; Espinal, A. Lemos; Fisher, R.N.; Holycross, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Glacial–interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene are hypothesized as one of the foremost contributors to biological diversification. This is especially true for cold-adapted montane species, where range shifts have had a pronounced effect on population-level divergence. Gartersnakes of the Thamnophis rufipunctatus species complex are restricted to cold headwater streams in the highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southwestern USA. We used coalescent and multilocus phylogenetic approaches to test whether genetic diversification of this montane-restricted species complex is consistent with two prevailing models of range fluctuation for species affected by Pleistocene climate changes. Our concatenated nuDNA and multilocus species analyses recovered evidence for the persistence of multiple lineages that are restricted geographically, despite a mtDNA signature consistent with either more recent connectivity (and introgression) or recent expansion (and incomplete lineage sorting). Divergence times estimated using a relaxed molecular clock and fossil calibrations fall within the Late Pleistocene, and zero gene flow scenarios among current geographically isolated lineages could not be rejected. These results suggest that increased climate shifts in the Late Pleistocene have driven diversification and current range retraction patterns and that the differences between markers reflect the stochasticity of gene lineages (i.e. ancestral polymorphism) rather than gene flow and introgression. These results have important implications for the conservation of T. rufipunctatus (sensu novo), which is restricted to two drainage systems in the southwestern US and has undergone a recent and dramatic decline.

  5. Bienvenue aus Etats-Unis. Guide Pour Refugies. (Welcome to the United States. A Guidebook for Refugees).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This guidebook provides French-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies, refugees overseas who have been approved for U.S. admission, and service…

  6. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  7. Hepatitis A immunity and region-of-origin in a Swiss prison.

    PubMed

    Getaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Motamed, Sandrine; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Chappuis, Francois; Wolff, Hans

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The environmental and demographic characteristics of closed institutions, particularly prisons, precipitate morbidity during hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks. Given the high prevalence of chronic liver disease and other risk factors in the prison setting, the purpose of this paper is to examine HAV-immunity and its associated factors in this population. Design/methodology/approach - The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009: a serology screening for HAV IgG was carried out among 116 inmates in Switzerland's largest pre-trial prison. Other participant characteristics were collected through a structured face-to-face questionnaire with a physician. Findings - In terms of significant demographics, Africa (53.5 percent) and the Balkans/Eastern Europe (36.2 percent) were the main regions of origin; a minority of inmates were from Western Europe (6.9 percent), Latin America (2.6 percent) or Asia (0.9 percent). The authors identified hepatitis A antibody-negative serology (lack of immunity) in five out of 116 prisoners (4.3 percent, 95 percent CI 1.4-9.7). Among participants of European origin alone, five out of 50 inmates were hepatitis A antibody-negative (10 percent, 95 percent CI 3.3-21.8), whereas the 66 inmates from other all continents were hepatitis A antibody-positive (immune) (p=0.026). Originality/value - In this prison population composed of mostly African migrants, hepatitis A immunity was high. This reaffirms that region of origin is highly associated with childhood immunity against HAV. HAV vaccination should take into account a patient's area of origin and his/her risk factors for systemic complications, if ever infected. This targeted strategy would offer herd immunity, and seek out the most vulnerable individuals who are potentially at risk of new exposure in this precarious setting. PMID:27219907

  8. Regionally and climatically restricted patterns of distribution of genetic diversity in a migratory bat species, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans) for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species. PMID:18638374

  9. Comments on Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taaffe, Edward J.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons why regional geography should play a vital role in the development of U.S. geography are discussed. In addition, problems facing regional geographers are examined. A revival of regional geography can be significantly strengthened if there is more effective communication between regional and scientific geographers. (RM)

  10. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  11. Kinematic reconstructions and magmatic evolution illuminating crustal and mantle dynamics of the eastern Mediterranean region since the late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between subduction dynamics and crustal deformation in the Mediterranean region has been recently studied using three-dimensional (3D) models. Such models require, however, detailed information concerning the past geological evolution. We use stratigraphic, petrologic, metamorphic, structural, paleomagnetic and magmatic data to build new kinematic reconstructions of the eastern Mediterranean region since the late Cretaceous using the principle of non-rigid domains. The motions of the 56 deforming domains defined in this work are calculated based on published paleomagnetic rotations, the directions and amounts of displacement on crustal-scale shear zones and the burial and exhumation histories of the main metamorphic units. Extracted from these reconstructions, paleotectonic maps and lithospheric-scale cross-sections illustrate that the present-day subduction zone has been continuously retreating southward since the late Cretaceous and has accreted several small continental domains in the process. We find evidence for two back-arc-related extensional events: (1) slow extension along the Balkans and the Pontides in the late Cretaceous while the trench was long and linear and (2) faster extension in the Rhodope-Aegean-west Anatolian region since the Eocene-Oligocene. Rapid rotation of the Hellenides between 15 and 8 Ma probably indicates a slab tearing event below western Anatolia that could have further accelerated this extensional kinematics. Spatial distribution and the geochemical signature of magmatic centers integrated in these reconstructions allow us to trace mantle-related processes revealing the deep dynamics that controls both the magma genesis and the crustal deformation.

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that can affect any area of the ... Bailey A, Audette JF. Complex regional pain syndrome. In: Frontera ... of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  13. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  14. Imaging crustal roots in the Europe-Mediterranean region: a surface wave perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The thickness of crustal roots is a fundamental constrain to understand the geodynamic evolution of mountain ranges. Crustal thickness can be inferred from a variety of geophysical observables (e.g. gravity anomalies, active and passive seismic methods, etc). Deep seismic sounding (DSS) using controlled sources usually provides the most accurate images of the crustal structure and thickness. However it is an expensive method, and often only used for 2D profiles. On the other hand, passive seismology experiments based on earthquakes or ambient noise have generally lower resolution, but are cheaper to conduct and can provide 3D images. As a result of the success of USArray, experiments consisting of dense deployments of broadband seismometers have become the modern standard approach for imaging continental regions. This, in combination with the densification of permanent regional monitoring networks and the use of seismic ambient noise, has allowed to use surface waves to image with increased resolution regions such as Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Surface waves are not very sensitive to the location of discontinuities such as the Moho, but can provide good constraints on the lateral variation of crustal thickness. Here, by combining continuous recordings of array experiments and permanent networks, I present a new tomographic model of surface wave velocities in the Europe-Mediterranean region that can be used as a proxy for crustal thickness. Large low velocity anomalies corresponding to thick crust are observed as expected in mountain ranges such as the Atlas, Pyrenees and Alps where crustal thickening has occurred as a result of continental collision. In addition, similarly large low velocity anomalies are observed in regions where slab roll-back/break-off has occurred (Betic-Rif, NW and SE Carpathians, Apennines, western Balkan peninsula). While these anomalies might not all be originated by thick crust, in some cases such as the Rif-western Betics

  15. 2009 Regional Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Larry; Barbush, Jim; Riese, Gail; Quirk, Robert John; Morris, John P.; Hargrave, Heather

    2010-01-01

    APPA's six regions serve member institutions across the United States and Canada. They function independently from international APPA and offer their own educational programs, annual meetings, publications, and other benefits. Each region also maintains its own set of officers, committees, and activities. Participating in regions and state and…

  16. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up their…

  17. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  18. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  19. Assessment of Snow-Water Equivalent Change in Regional Climate Simulations Coupled with Different Land Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önol, Barış; Acar, Merve

    2014-05-01

    In this study, ICTP-RegCM4 simulations coupled with two land surface models, BATS (Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) and CLM (Community Land Model), have been evaluated for present (1971-2000) and future period (2005-2100) over the Med-CORDEX domain. HaDGEM2 simulations forced by RCP8.5 have been used for lateral forcing to produce 50-km RCM simulation. In addition, we have also tested model results, driven by ERA-Interim, with observations to define deficiency of the model. Precipitation simulation biases are positive for nearly all over Anatolian mountains range (>1000m) in winter. The diverse bias pattern in precipitation is also calculated over lower regions of Alps and Turkey (<500m). Snow-water equivalent changes in future climate simulations are evaluated for two land surface models, BATS and CLM. Snow-water equivalent (SWE) has been analyzed considering snow-melt timing in spring season. In terms of SWE over Balkans, CLM simulation in April is not produced snow after the year of 2040. The dramatic decrease in SWE has been also determined for the highland of Turkey (>1500) in last three decades of the 21st century for both CLM and BATS simulations. After 2050's, SWE in CLM simulaton is less than 5 mm for the areas over Turkey where the elevation is lower than 1000 m. The decrease in BATS simulation is strengthened in the second half of century over the Alpine region (>1000m) and SWE change between the first and the second half of the century is 47% (67 mm). Especially, precipitation minus evaporation changes are diverse for both CLM and BATS driven simulations. The results based on daily and monthly time scales have been evaluated to assess hydrological impact in scenario simulations and snow-melt season shift for both simulations have been investigated over Med_CORDEX domain.

  20. Morphologically Cryptic Amphipod Species Are “Ecological Clones” at Regional but Not at Local Scale: A Case Study of Four Niphargus Species

    PubMed Central

    Fišer, Žiga; Altermatt, Florian; Zakšek, Valerija; Knapič, Tea; Fišer, Cene

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that morphologically cryptic species may be ecologically more different than would be predicted from their morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness. However, in biodiversity research it often remains unclear whether cryptic species should be treated as ecologically equivalent, or whether detected differences have ecological significance. In this study, we assessed the ecological equivalence of four morphologically cryptic species of the amphipod genus Niphargus. All species live in a small, isolated area on the Istrian Peninsula in the NW Balkans. The distributional ranges of the species are partially overlapping and all species are living in springs. We reconstructed their ecological niches using morphological traits related to feeding, bioclimatic niche envelope and species’ preference for epi-hypogean habitats. The ecological meaning of differences in niches was evaluated using distributional data and co-occurrence frequencies. We show that the species comprise two pairs of sister species. All species differ from each other and the degree of differentiation is not related to phylogenetic relatedness. Moreover, low co-occurrence frequencies in sympatric zones imply present or past interspecific competition. This pattern suggests that species are not differentiated enough to reduce interspecific competition, nor ecologically equivalent to co-exist via neutral dynamics. We tentatively conclude that the question of ecological equivalence relates to the scale of the study: at a fine scale, species’ differences may influence dynamics in a local community, whereas at the regional level these species likely play roughly similar ecological roles. PMID:26226375

  1. Norway's Regional College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar

    1981-01-01

    Examines the structure of Norway's short-cycle educational system. Describes how the district colleges function individually as units and collectively within a regional system to provide comprehensive, community-based educational opportunities. Discusses the incorporation of a variety of colleges into the regional system and encourages increased…

  2. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  3. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  4. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  5. Spatiotemporal characterization of very long dry spells in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Florian; Ullmann, Albin; Camberlin, Pierre; Drobinski, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean winter precipitations (September to April) are important for annual water resources, summer ground moisture, vegetation and agriculture. Decrease of precipitation during this season may cause many important economic and social impacts. The study focuses on the identification and variability analyze of very long dry spells (VLDS) in the Mediterranean region, relying on observations. E-obs Data grid from ECA&D are used to 0.25° spatial resolution to the 1957-2013 period. ERA-40 (1957-1979) and ERA-Interim (1979-2013) reanalysis data from ECMWF are then used to associate different and oceanic forcings to the very long dry spells events. 76 events are detected throughout the Mediterranean Basin for a total duration of 4423 days (33% of the 13364 studied days). Clustering analysis was applied to the 76 events and have detected 5 cluster. Cluster 1 (called North-West Mediterranean) regroups 13 VLDS events who's mainly located in the Iberian Peninsula and France. Cluster 2 (Generalized) regroups 23 events who's dispersed throughout the entire Mediterranean Basin. Cluster 3 (West-Mediterranean) regroups 5 events VLDS events who's mainly located in the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb countries (Morocco and Algeria). Cluster 4 (North-East Mediterranean) regroups 11 events who's mainly located in the Balkan region. The last cluster (South-East Mediterranean) regroups 24 events mainly located on the Middle East. All the events are associated with anticyclonic conditions, except events of the cluster 5 (South-East Mediterranean), who's associated with heat low conditions. This study also assesses the ability of regional climate simulations performed within the context of the HyMeX (Drobinski et al. 2014) and MED-CORDEX programs (Ruti et al. 2015) to represent the spatio-temporal characteristics of very long dry spells, to the 1979-2009 period. CCLM4, LMDZ4 and LMDZ4NEMOMED8 strongly overestimate the duration of VLDS in Middle East and Anatolia. Globally, the 5

  6. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  7. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  8. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  9. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  10. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...