Science.gov

Sample records for refuse derived fuel

  1. Refuse-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, H. H.

    1980-09-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  2. Refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H.

    1980-10-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  3. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  4. Refuse-derived fuels still a long-term goal

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.

    1981-11-17

    A report on the Institution of Civil Engineers' two-day international symposium held in London in November, titled ''The practical implications of the reuse of solid wastes''. Topics dealt with included: systems for mechanical separation, reclamation and re- use of secondary materials; refuse-derived fuels; use of raw refuse in land reclamation; methane recovery from landfills and direct landfill as a major disposal option.

  5. Utilization of refuse derived fuels by the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are forcing those in charge of landfills to adhere to more stringent operating standards. This, along with the growing scarcity of landfill availability, makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economically practical must be found. One alternative, that is not really new but which has gained renewed interest, is incineration. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act also requires that government agencies should direct their installations to recover as many resources as possible. Therefore if incineration is to be implemented, heat recovery should be incorporated into the system. There are several processes available to convert raw refuse into a fuel for use in a heat recovery system. Refuse derived fuels (RDF) can be in the form of raw refuse, densified refuse, powdered refuse, gas, or pyrolytic oil. The only form of RDF that is economically feasible for systems designed to process less than 200 TPD (tons per day) is raw refuse. Most Navy bases generate far less than 200 TPD of solid waste and therefore the Navy has focused most of its attention on modular heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems that utilize raw refuse as fuel.

  6. FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PREPARING DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale tests were conducted to determine the effects of various parameters on the densification of refuse derived fuel (RDF). The experiments included a series of bench-scale experiments involving a single die arrangement, as well as larger-scale studies in which...

  7. Refuse derived fuels: New technologies for successful operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1988-01-01

    The rising cost of refuse disposal, coupled with the decreasing availability of land suitable for the siting of new landfills have greatly accelerated the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing systems as a viable technology of the disposal of our municipal solid waste. The energy products produces by an RDF processing facility-electricity and/or steam, as well as the recovery of other valuable materials from the waste stream, coupled with the inherent flexibility of the RDF technology to be used in varying forms, over a wide range of combustion technologies, makes it an extremely desirable waste-to-energy system. Use of an RDF prepared fuel product can also provide a potentially beneficial reduction of air emissions, and trace metals in the ash when compared to the burning of unprocessed solid waste. This paper discusses the problems which have been encountered in the past with RDF systems; the current status of these facilities including institutional considerations and system economics; and the future potential of RDF processing systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    PubMed

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. PMID:23746983

  9. DEMONSTRATION TEST OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AS A SUPPLEMENTAL FUEL IN CEMENT KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from Baltimore County, Maryland, residential solid waste was successfully tested as a supplementary fuel with pulverized coal in a large rotary cement kiln. RDF was produced at the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility, a joint project of Bal...

  10. Microwave plasma assisted pyrolysis of refuse derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongkrapan, Parin; Thanompongchart, Patipat; Tippayawong, Nakorn; Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat

    2014-03-01

    This work combined plasma reactivity and pyrolysis for conversion of solid wastes. Decomposition of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and its combustible components (paper, biomass, and plastic) in an 800 W microwave plasma reactor was investigated at varying argon flow rates of 0.50 to 1.25 lpm for 3 minutes. The characteristic bright light emission of plasma was observed with calculated maximum power density of about 35 W/cm3. The RDF and its components were successfully converted into char and combustible gas. The average char yield was found to be 12-21% of the original mass, with a gross calorific value of around 39 MJ/kg. The yield of the product gas was in the range 1.0-1.7 m3/kg. The combustible gas generated from the pyrolysis of the RDF contained about 14% H2, 66% CO, and 4% CH4 of the detected gas mass, with a heating value of 11 MJ/m3. These products are potentially marketable forms of clean energy.

  11. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuels and materials recovery processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gershman, H.W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of various materials is demonstrated, using data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area as input. The processing facility, designed to handle 650 tpd of refuse, is described. Since materials revenues can be predicted with a higher degree of certainty than refuse fuel revenues, it is necessary to determine what revenues the sale of solid waste fuel will have to generate for projected economics to be the same as an alternative disposal practice. (1 diagram, 8 references, 6 tables)

  12. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic contaminants in emissions from refuse-derived fuel combustion were investigated in a 20-inch-diameter atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Combinations of coal/EcoFuel/MSW/toluene were burned inthe combustor with temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1550 degrees F. A Source ...

  13. COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

  14. New techniques for the characterization of refuse-derived fuels and solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Vera Susanne; Lehmann, Annekatrin; Marzi, Thomas; Möhle, Edda; Schingnitz, Daniel; Hoffmann, Gaston

    2011-02-01

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) today refers to a waste-derived fuel meeting defined quality specifications, in terms of both origin (produced from non-hazardous waste) and levels of certain fuel properties. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) nowadays is more used for unspecified waste after a basic processing to increase the calorific value and therefore this term usually refers to the segregated, high calorific fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial or industrial wastes. In comparison with conventional fuels, both types of secondary fuel show waste of inherently varying quality and an increased level of waste-specific contaminants.The transition from RDF to SRF in the emerging national and European market requires a quality assurance system with defined quality parameters and analytical methods to ensure reliable fuel characterization. However, due to the quality requirements for RDF and SRF, the current standardized analysis methods often do not meet these practical demands. Fast test methods, which minimize personnel, financial and time efforts and which are applicable for producers as well as users can be an important supporting tool for RDF- and SRF-characterization. Currently, a fast test system based on incineration and correlation analyses which enable the determination of relevant fuel parameters is under development. Fast test methods are not aimed at replacing current standardized test methods, but have to be considered as practical supporting tools for the characterization of RDF and SRF. PMID:20392788

  15. CONTROL OF PCDD/PCDF EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents preliminary results of performance tests conducted at the Mid-Connecticut Refuse-Derived Fuel Facility in February 1989. The objectives of these performance tests were to evaluate the effects of combustion and flue gas cleaning process conditions on air pollut...

  16. Initial operating results of coal-fired steam generators converted to 100% refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A. ); Graika, P.K. ); Gonyeau, J.A. ); Bloomer, T.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The conversion of Northern States Power Company's (NSP) Red Wing and Wilmarth steam generators to fire refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is discussed. The use of the existing plant with the necessary modifications to the boilers has allowed NSP to effectively incinerate the fuel as required by Washington and Ramsey Counties. This paper covers the six-month start-up of Red Wing No. 1, commencing in May 1987, and the operating results since the plant went commercial in July 1987.

  17. Performance analysis of cofiring densified refuse derived fuel in a military boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    This report provides an overview of existing densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) receiving, storage, handling and combustion equipment at Wright-Patterson Air Foce Base. DRDF is being burned as part of a long term alternative fuel evaluation program to develop design and procurement criteria for multiple fuel boilers. Recommendations are offered for specific equipment, procedural changes, and studies to improve the efficacy of the present configurations of dRDF as a fuel. A discussion of the fuel use criteria is presented. The options for continuing the present dRDF supply arrangement vs. the feasibility of local production of dRDF are presented. Research needs are summarized. A preemptive, integrated local synthetic solid fuel production facility and boiler performance test is recommended as a continuation of the program.

  18. Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Hydrogen gas generation from refuse-derived fuel (RDF) under wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo; Ohmiya, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    An explosion has recently occurred at a silo containing refuse-derived fuels (RDF) in Japan. There is a possibility that microorganisms are involved in generation of combustible gas from RDF and this study was aimed at showing the presence of bacteria that can ferment RDF pellets. All RDF samples tested contained a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells, 1.4x10(5) to 3.2x10(6) viable cells/g. These bacteria in the RDF samples fermented them to generate heat and hydrogen gas. PMID:14981319

  20. Characteristics of mechanically sorted municipal wastes and their suitability for production of refuse derived fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arina, Dace; Orupe, Ausma

    2012-11-01

    The article presents the results of experimental work in the first waste mechanical Pre-treatment Centre in Latvia Daibe. The goal - to detect the main parameters for sorted waste parts and to compare them with parameters stated for refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a cement plant in Latvia (Cemex). Samples were taken in four fractions - coarse, medium, fine, metal. The parameters - upper, lower heating values, moisture, ash content, S, Cl, metals were determined. Results - coarse fraction has greater potential of the production of the RDF, but reduction of its content of Cl would be necessary.

  1. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S

    2009-02-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products. PMID:18657408

  2. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Galvagno, S. Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-02-15

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  3. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel and materials recovery processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, H. W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of materials is presented. This information is based on data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area as input for the consideration of a regional resource recovery program which would eventually encompass 4000 t/day of municipal solid waste; it is designed to recover refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous and nonferrous metals, flint and color-mixed glass cullet, color-mixed glass fines, and waste newspapers. The planning process requires estimates of recovery product revenues and of process feasibility; since materials revenues can be predicted with a greater degree of certainty than RDF revenues, it becomes necessary to determine what revenues will be required from the sale of RDF so that predicted economics can be the same as the alternative disposal practice. A technique is described which will assist the decisionmaker in evaluating the economic feasibility of the proposed project by determining the RDF 'Indifference Value'.

  4. Sample preparation for thermo-gravimetric determination and thermo-gravimetric characterization of refuse derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T; Bronson, B; Gogolek, P; Mehrani, P

    2016-02-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a useful method for characterizing fuels. In the past it has been applied to the study of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and related materials. However, the heterogeneity of RDF makes the preparation of small representative samples very difficult and this difficulty has limited the effectiveness of TGA for characterization of RDF. A TGA method was applied to a variety of materials prepared from a commercially available RDF using a variety of procedures. Applicability of TGA method to the determination of the renewable content of RDF was considered. Cryogenic ball milling was found to be an effective means of preparing RDF samples for TGA. When combined with an effective sample preparation, TGA could be used as an alternative method for assessing the renewable content of RDF. PMID:26611398

  5. Risks involved in commercialization of multiple hearth furnaces for sludge disposal using refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the risks involved in attempts to implement a new application of the sludge disposal concept that uses multiple hearth furnaces and refuse-derived fuel as a primary fuel source. In order to perform this risk analysis a case study examination has been made of a codisposal and energy recovery project proposed by the City of Memphis. General problems which have been experienced in the past have been briefly described above and are presented in more detail in Appendix A. The framework for the analysis of risks associated with the Memphis project is presented in Chapter II. The risk analysis itself is presented in Chapter III. The effects of these risks are described in Chapter IV.

  6. Development and evaluation of lime enhanced refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1996-12-31

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments throughout the US. There are two technologies currently in use for the combustion of MSW: (1) mass burning in which unprocessed MSW is burned in a heat recovery furnace, and (2) a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) product, which consists of the organic (combustible) fraction of MSW which has been processed to produce a more homogeneous fuel product than raw MSW. The RDF is either marketed to outside users or combusted on-site in a dedicated or existing furnace. In an attempt to alleviate the problems encountered with RDF as a feedstock, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of North Texas (UNT) under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a multi-phase research study to investigate the development of a low-cost binder that would improve the quality of RDF pellets.

  7. Feasibility of burning refuse derived fuel in institutional size oil-fired boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of retrofitting existing oil-fired boilers of institutional size, approximately 3.63 to 36.3 Mg steam/h (8000 to 80,000 lbs steam/h) for co-firing with refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Relevant quantities describing mixtures of oil and RDF and combustion products for various levels of excess air are computed. Savings to be realized from the use of RDF are derived under several assumptions and allowable costs for a retrofit are estimated. An extensive survey of manufacturers of burners, boilers, and combustion systems showed that no hardware or proven design is yet available for such retrofit. Approaches with significant promises are outlined: the slagging burner, and a dry ash double vortex burner for low heat input from RDF. These two systems, and an evaluation of a small separate RDF dedicated combustor in support of the oil-fired boiler, are recommended as topics for future study.

  8. Comparison of microbial consortia in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) preparations between Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuels (RDF) pellets manufactured in Japan have been reported to contain a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells, and these bacteria generated a large amount of hydrogen gas during fermentation under wet conditions. In this study, we compared hydrogen gas generation from RDF pellets manufactured in Japan and in Germany and found that a large amount of hydrogen gas was generated from the Japanese RDF pellets but not from the German ones. This difference can be explained by the absence and presence of a biodegradation process before molding of raw garbage into RDF pellets. That is, the German process includes a biodegradation (or biological drying) process with forced aeration for a week, and this appears to reduce BOD in the garbage. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing indicated that microbiotas of the RDF pellets manufactured in Japan and in Germany were very different. PMID:17151477

  9. Detection of hydrogen gas-producing anaerobes in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ohmiya, Kunio; Sakka, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Recently, we reported that refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets contain a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells and that these bacteria generate heat and hydrogen gas during fermentation under wet conditions. In this study we analyzed bacterial cell numbers of RDF samples manufactured with different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, which is usually added to waste materials for the prevention of rotting of food wastes and the acceleration of drying of solid wastes, and determined the amount of hydrogen gas produced by them under wet conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed microflora of the RDF samples before and during fermentation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA followed by sequencing. We found that the RDF samples contained various kinds of clostridia capable of producing hydrogen gas. PMID:16306688

  10. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluska, Jacek; Klein, Marek; Kazimierski, Paweł; Kardaś, Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  11. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  12. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.; Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.; Rejai, Bahman; Bain, Richard L.; Overend, Ralph P.

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  13. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wagland, S T; Kilgallon, P; Coveney, R; Garg, A; Smith, R; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N

    2011-06-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidized bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal+10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal+10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel. PMID:21288710

  15. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-06-15

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  16. Separation of harmful impurities from refuse derived fuels (RDF) by a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Krüger, B; Mrotzek, A; Wirtz, S

    2014-02-01

    In firing systems of cement production plants and coal-fired power plants, regular fossil fuels are increasingly substituted by alternative fuels. Rising energy prices and ambitious CO2-reduction goals promote the use of alternative fuels as a significant contribution to efficient energy recovery. One possibility to protect energy resources are refuse-derived fuels (RDF), which are produced during the treatment of municipal solid, commercial and industrial waste. The waste fractions suitable for RDF have a high calorific value and are often not suitable for material recycling. With current treatment processes, RDF still contains components which impede the utilization in firing systems or limit the degree of substitution. The content of these undesired components may amount to 4 wt%. These, in most cases incombustible particles which consist of mineral, ceramic and metallic materials can cause damages in the conveying systems (e. g. rotary feeder) or result in contaminations of the products (e. g. cement, chalk). Up-to-date separation processes (sieve machine, magnet separator or air classifier) have individual weaknesses that could hamper a secure separation of these particles. This article describes a new technology for the separation of impurities from refuse derived fuels based on a rotating fluidized bed. In this concept a rotating motion of the particle bed is obtained by the tangential injection of the fluidization gas in a static geometry. The RDF-particles experience a centrifugal force which fluidized the bed radially. The technical principle allows tearing up of particle clusters to single particles. Radially inwards the vertical velocity is much lower thus particles of every description can fall down there. For the subsequent separation of the particles by form and density an additionally cone shaped plate was installed in the centre. Impurities have a higher density and a compact form compared to combustible particles and can be separated with a high

  17. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION, MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY, EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  18. Single particle refuse-derived fuel devolatilization: Experimental measurements of reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Weichuan; Krieger-Brockett, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present experimentally measured devolatilization product yields from single particles of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a more uniform, transportable municipal solid waste. Disposal costs and environmental concerns have stimulated interest in thermochemical conversion of this material to chemicals and fuels. The composition, reaction conditions, and particle properties were systematically varied over the range found in practice to develop quantitative measures that rank the process controllables' influence on altering the product slate. Specialized regression methods and experimental designs enhanced the accuracy in view of the feed heterogeneity and offer a general method to extract real effects from experimental and sample noise''. The results have been verified successfully using actual commercial RDF and fabricated compositions that surpass those normally found in municipal waste to anticipate the influence of trends in recycling. The results show that the reaction conditions have a greater influence on altering fuel utilization and the relative yields of char, condensibles, and gases than does the composition over the range found in MSW and RDF.

  19. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  20. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-02-29

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.

  1. Two stages catalytic pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel: production of biofuel via syncrude.

    PubMed

    Miskolczi, N; Buyong, F; Angyal, A; Williams, P T; Bartha, L

    2010-11-01

    Thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of refuse derived fuels with different catalysts had been conducted in a two stages process due to its important potential value as fuel. The first stage was a pure thermal pyrolysis in a horizontal tubular reactor with feed rate of 0.5kg hourly. The second stage was a semi-batch process in the presence of catalysts. Results showed that the tested catalysts significantly have affected the quantity of products. E.g. gas yield could be increased with 350% related to the catalyst free case using ZSM-5, while that of pyrolytic oil was 115% over Y-zeolite. Gases consisted of mainly CO and CO(2) obtained from the tubular reactor, while dominantly hydrocarbons from the second stage. Ni-Mo-catalyst and Co-Mo-catalyst had shown activity in pyrolytic oil upgrading via in-situ hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine level in pyrolytic oils could be significantly declined by using of catalysts. PMID:20663664

  2. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  3. Activated carbons prepared from refuse derived fuel and their gold adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buah, William K; Williams, Paul T

    2010-02-01

    Activated carbons produced from refuse derived fuel (RDF), which had been prepared from municipal solid waste have been characterized and evaluated for their potential for gold adsorption from gold chloride solution. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced a char, which was then activated via steam gasification to produce activated carbons. Steam gasification of the char at 900 degrees C for 3 h yielded 73 wt% activated carbon. The derived activated carbon had a surface area of 500 m2 g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.19 cm3 g(-1). The gold adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 32.1 mg Au g(-1) of carbon when contacted with an acidified gold chloride solution. The gold adsorption capacity was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon tested under the same conditions and was well in the range of values of activated carbons used in the gold industry. Demineralization of the RDF activated carbon in a 5 M HCl solution resulted in enhancement of its textural properties but a reduction in the gold adsorption rate, indicating that the metal content of the RDF activated carbon influenced its gold adsorption rate. PMID:20391797

  4. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production

    SciTech Connect

    Dalai, Ajay K. Batta, Nishant; Eswaramoorthi, I.; Schoenau, Greg J.

    2009-01-15

    Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H{sub 2} and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H{sub 2} and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H{sub 2} and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 deg. C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H{sub 2} under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution.

  5. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production.

    PubMed

    Dalai, Ajay K; Batta, Nishant; Eswaramoorthi, I; Schoenau, Greg J

    2009-01-01

    Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H2 and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO2 and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H2 and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H2 and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 degrees C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H2 under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution. PMID:18434127

  6. Thermal-behavior study of chlorine released from composite refuse derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Wei; Lv, Yi-Bo; Tong, Long-Yan

    2009-08-01

    In order to reduce secondary pollution during the incineration of composite refuse derived fuel (CRDF), the combustion features and the emission behavior of chlorine in CRDF containing coal were analyzed. The former was analyzed using thermo-gravimetric and the latter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The release rate of inorganic chlorine during combustion reached 90 mass% at temperature between 773.15 and 873.15K. On the other hand, approximately 84 mass% release rates was resulting from pyrolysis at 723.15K. When temperature reached above 1073.15K, it was noticed that higher concentration of organic chlorine in different organic compounds were produced in the processing of pyrolysis compared with those released from the combustion processing. From the thermo-gravimetric analysis using a self-designed system, three distinct phases were detected in the thermal process of CRDF. The first phase occurred at temperature between 473 and 573K and its mass loss was about 38.50%. The second phase between temperature regions of 673-773K with a mass loss of 20.35%. The third phase was observed at the temperature between 873 and 1073K with 22.25% mass loss. PMID:19342213

  7. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  8. Control of PCDD/PCDF emissions from refuse-derived-fuel combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgroe, J.D.; Brna, T.G.; Finkelstein, A.; Klicius, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of performance tests conducted at the Mid-Connecticut Refuse-derived Fuel Facility in February 1989. Objectives of these tests were to evaluate the effects of combustion and flue gas cleaning process conditions on air pollution emissions and residue properties. A cursory analysis of test results support the following tentative conclusions: (1) Combustor emissions of CO and PCDD/PCDF as measured at the SDA inlet were sensitive to the amount and distribution of OFA. Combustion air distributions which result in poor mixing and low excess air margins are believed to be the primary causes of increased CO emissions. (2) PCDD/PCDF stack emissions of < 0.40 nanogram/standard cubic meter were achieved at the Mid-Connecticut Facility when good operating conditions were maintained on both the combustion and FGC processes. (3) FF outlet concentrations of PCDD/PCDF depend on SDA/FF operating conditions. The lowest emissions were associated with medium to low gas temperatures at the SDA outlet, while the SDA lime slurry flow rate was set to provide medium to low SO{sub 2} concentrations at the FF outlet.

  9. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    PubMed

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion. PMID:19039070

  10. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    PubMed

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. PMID:26210232

  11. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  12. Study of organic compounds evolved during the co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel using TG/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Puroshothama, Shobha; Lu, R.; Yang, Xiaodong

    1996-10-01

    The evolution of organic compounds during the combustion of carbonaceous fuel coupled with solid waste disposal and limited landfill space has been a cause for concern. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuel seems an attractive alternative technique to tackle the dual problem of controlling SO{sub x} emissions as well as those of the chlorinated organic toxins. The TG serves to emulate the conditions of the fluidized bed combustor and the MS serves as the detector for evolved gases. This versatile combination is used to study the decomposition pathway as well as predict the conditions at which various compounds are formed and may serve as a means of reducing the formation of these chlorinated organic compounds.

  13. Resource recovery of organic sludge as refuse derived fuel by fry-drying process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Wu, Jun-Yi; Wang, H Paul; Chen, Wei-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The organic sludge and waste oil were collected from the industries of thin film transistor liquid crystal display and the recycled cooking oil. The mixing ratio of waste cooking oil and organic sludge, fry-drying temperatures, fry-drying time, and the characteristics of the organic sludge pellet grain were investigated. After the fry-drying process, the moisture content of the organic sludge pellet grain was lower than 5% within 25 min and waste cooking oil was absorbed on the dry solid. The fry-drying organic sludge pellet grain was easy to handle and odor free. Additionally, it had a higher calorific value than the derived fuel standards and could be processed into organic sludge derived fuels. Thus, the granulation and fry-drying processes of organic sludge with waste cooking oil not only improves the calorific value of organic sludge and becomes more valuable for energy recovery, but also achieves waste material disposal and cost reduction. PMID:23623433

  14. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 8, July 1996--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-08-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TGA interfaced to FTIR. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

  15. Investigation of the self-heating and spontaneous ignition of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) during storage.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Akio; Amano, Yuko; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2010-07-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF)-RDF-5 according to ASTM guidelines-derived from municipal solid waste and other waste materials, has been prepared as a fuel source for power plants in Japan. RDF has been known as a stable and safe solid-fuel. However, some spontaneous ignition incidents occurred during storage of RDF in certain facilities. In the present study, the storage conditions, which might induce the spontaneous ignition in RDF samples, was investigated to understand and prevent this phenomenon. When the initial temperature of RDF sample was consistent, higher water content and shorter induction times was observed (e.g., the induction times of select RDF samples with 5.8% and 16.7% water content, was 446 and 270 min, respectively). Also, the induction time was affected by the size of a RDF sample. No relationship between bacterial fermentation and spontaneous ignition was observed. The linear relationship between the induction time and the inverse of the initial temperature of the RDF sample was obtained in the Arrhenius equation. PMID:19963363

  16. Guidelines for cofiring refuse-derived fuel in electric utility boilers: Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscus, D.E.; Wolfs, K.E.; Ege, H.D.; Kimber, A.; Joensen, A.W.; Savage, G.M.

    1988-06-01

    The quidelines address the procedures for evaluting proposed RDF (refuse-derived fuel) cofiring projects, RDF specifications and preparation, impact of RDF cofiring on power plant performance and operation, design criteria for RDF handling and other equipment, environmental control systems, capital and O and M cost estimates, economic analysis, and the breakeven RDF value to the utility. The economic analysis examples suggest that the value of RDF to the utility is only a fraction of the value of the fuel being replaced. This is because the incremental fuel savings derived from RDF cofiring are at least partially offset by the incremental capital and O and M costs. In order to maximize RDF value, it is important to select units for RDF cofiring that have at least 15 years of remaining life, operate at high capacity factor, are of sufficient size to consume the available RDF stream, and do not exihibit boiler slagging and fouling, electricstatic precipitator, or unit derating problems while burning coal or oil. 1 ref., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  18. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. Control efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system ...

  19. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  20. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMSUTION, MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY, EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  1. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION, MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY, EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME III: APENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  2. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 5, [October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-30

    Studies involving the tubular furnace are in the process of identifying the ideal experimental coal-to-refuse derived fuel(RDF) ratio for use in the AFBC system. A series of experiments with this furnace has been performed to determine the possible chemical pathway for formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of various RDF sources. Phenol and chlorine appear to be likely reactants necessary for the formation of these compounds. The main goal of these experiment is to determine the exact experimental conditions for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds, as well as methods to inhibit their development. Work on the fluidized bed combustor has involved five combustion runs, in which a combustion efficiency of greater than 96% and with a consistent CO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 13% was obtained. Modifications responsible for these improvements include the addition of the underbed fuel feed system and revision of the flue gas sampling system. New methods of determining combustion efficiency and percentage of SO{sub 2} capture using TG techniques to analyze combustion products are being developed. The current outlook using this TGA/FTIR method is very promising, since previously obscured reactions are being studied. the analysis of combustion products is revealing a more complete picture of the combustion process within the AFBC system.

  3. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  4. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh. PMID:19758801

  5. The effects of calcium hydroxide on hydrogen chloride emission characteristics during a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel combustion process.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Jih, Jer-Chyuan; Lin, Kae-Long

    2008-08-30

    This study investigated the effects of different calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) addition methods on the potential for hydrogen chloride (HCl) formation in a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5) with single metal combustion system. These experiments were conducted at 850 degrees C with the Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. The results indicated that the potential for HCl formation was decreased significantly by Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. However, the Ca(OH)(2) injection method in the flue gas for HCl emission reduction was better than other method. According to the relationship between the HCl emission and amount of Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked, it is interesting to find that when the Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ranged from 0% to 5%, the potential for HCl formation in the single metal combustion system decreases significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ratio. A corresponding increase in the amount of CaCl(2) partitioned to the fly ash was observed. However, with the ratio of Ca(OH)(2) higher than 5%, the amount of HCl formation showed that no further significant variation occurred with increasing Ca(OH)(2) spiked ratio. PMID:18272287

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-041-1709, City of Columbus Refuse-derived Fuel Power Plant, Columbus, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenholz, S.H.

    1986-07-01

    Potential for heat stress along with exposure to chemical contaminants and airborne microbial pollutants was investigated at the City refuse-derived-fuel powerplant. Health hazards existed to lead and silica exposures for workers involved in handling ash. Low levels of exposure to chromium, chromium-VI, cadmium, and nickel were noted. Excessive heat stress occurred during the maintenance activities in hot areas of the facility. Airborne microbial contamination levels in the refuse-handling areas indicate that exposure hazards exist by both the inhalation and ingestion routes. Human pathogens may be present in the microbial pollutants. The author recommends that employee exposure to lead be reduced through the use of engineering controls. Eating, drinking, and carrying or use of tobacco products or cosmetics in the power plant and refuse handling areas should be prohibited. Recommended methods for controlling heat stress were given.

  7. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  8. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  9. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical report {number_sign}4

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-08-03

    In order to study combustion performance under conditions similar to that in the AFBC system, the authors conducted a series of experiments at a heating rate of 100 C/min using the TGA/FTIR/MS system. Results indicate that more hydrocarbons are evolved at the faster heating rate, owing to incomplete combustion of the fuel. Chlorinated organic compounds can be formed at high heating rates. Certain oxidation products such as organic acids and alcohols are obtained at the slow heating rate. To simulate the conditions used in the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University, studies were also conducted using a quartz tube in a tube furnace. The temperature conditions were kept identical to those of the combustor. The products evolved from the combustion of coal, PVC, and mixtures of the two were trapped in suitable solvents at different temperatures, and analyzed using the Shimadzu GC/MS system. The detection limits and the GC/MS analytical parameters were also established. The experiments were conducted keeping in mind the broader perspective; that of studying conditions conducive to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from the combustion of coal/MSW blends. 32 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    PubMed

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain. PMID:23027034

  11. Performance of a baghouse utilizing expanded PTFE membrane filter media at a refuse-derived fuel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsky, K.J.; Hurley, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    Great River Energy (GRE), formerly United Power Association, operates a 1,000 TPD refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fired waste-to energy facility in Elk River, Minnesota. The plant produces approximately 32 MW (gross) from three boiler units with traveling stoker grates. Flue gas from the boilers enter a dry lime scrubber prior to an eight module, reverse air baghouse. This paper presents emissions, pressure drop, and cleaning energy data before and after installation of the expanded PTFE (ePTFE) membrane filter bags. After 24 months of operation, the average concentration of total particulate matter (dry + organic wet catch) with the original conventional fiberglass filter bags was 0.007 gr/dscf {at} 7% O{sub 2}. The average concentration of total particulate matter (dry + organic wet catch) with ePTFE membrane filter bags was reduced to 0.004 gr/dscf {at} 7% O{sub 2}. To keep from exceeding 10--12 inches w.g. of pressure drop across the baghouse at full load after 24 months of service, two reverse air fans and sonic horns in each module were used to clean the original fiberglass bags. The frequency of cleaning was continuous with 100 cleaning cycles per 24 hours. With the ePTFE membrane filter bags, a baghouse pressure drop of 7 inches w.g. was maintained after 24 months of operation at full load. In order to clean the new bags, sonic horns were used. However, one of the two reverse air fans was turned off. The cleaning frequency was reduced to 15 cycles per 24 hours. Other benefits are also discussed including energy cost savings due to reduced power consumption and increased power generation capacity.

  12. Refuse derived fuel (RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    It was a historical moment for Fayetteville, North Carolina, USA, when, after successful project development conducted by VEDCO Energy Corp., BCH Energy signed the construction contract for a waste-to-energy plant. BCH Energy (named after three counties Bladen, Cumberland and Hoke, supplying waste to the plant) was formed as the owner and operator of the plant. When the plant commences operation in the beginning of 1995 it will be the most modern waste recovery facility in the world, providing clean and inexpensive energy as well as recyling of valuable materials. Radically reduced air emissions and a solution to state requirements of recycling the amount of waste now going to landfills are among the greatest benefits to the citizens of the three counties. For one of Fayetteville`s major industries, DuPont, the new plant will also result in a reliable, cost effective source of power and process steam supply.

  13. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    PubMed

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach. PMID:26081643

  14. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS, APPENDICES A, B, C, AND D. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  15. NATIONAL INCINERATOR TESTING AND EVALUATION PROGRAM: THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL (RDF) COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY - MID-CONNECTICUT FACILITY,

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental characterization of refuse-derived, semi-suspension burning technology at a facility in Hartford, CT, that represents state-of-the-art technology, including a spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas cleaning (FGC) system for each unit. The ...

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: Removal from flue gas and distribution in ash/residue of a refuse-derived fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford), performance data on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustor and its lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (FGC) system were obtained under good, intermediate, and poor combustor operation and high, normal, and low sulfur dioxide (SO2) control by the FGC system. The independent combustion system variables included steam load, air supply rate, and its distribution. For the FGC system, the outlet gas temperature from the spray dryer absorber served as an easily measurable surrogate for the approach to saturation temperature, while SO2 concentration in the flue gas at the fabric filter outlet continuously represented the lime stoichiometry. Test data included acid gas, trace organic, trace metal, and particulate concentrations, as well as material collection for the determination of ash/residue composition and production rates. In addition, process data and RDF feed and ash/residue generation rates were obtained. Correlations between combustion conditions and furnace emission of organic pollutants are presented.

  17. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of

  19. Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

  20. Destruction and formation of PCDD/Fs in a fluidised bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue with refuse derived fuel and wastewater treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, J; Vermeulen, I; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

    2012-03-15

    During an eight day trial automotive shredder residue (ASR) was added to the usual waste feed of a Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) for waste-to-energy conversion; the input waste mix consisted of 25% ASR, 25% refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and 50% wastewater treatment (WWT) sludge. All inputs and outputs were sampled and the concentration of the 17 PCDD/Fs with TEF-values was determined in order to obtain "PCDD/F fingerprints". The ASR contained approximately 9000 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), six times more than the RDF and 10 times more than the WWT sludge. The fingerprint of ASR and RDF was dominated by HpCDD and OCDD, which accounted for 90% of the total PDDD/F content, whereas the WWT sludge contained relatively more HpCDFs and OCDF (together 70%). The flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR) and fly and boiler ash contained approximately 30,000 and 2500 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), respectively. The fingerprints of these outputs were also dominated by HpCDFs and OCDF. The bottom ash contained only OCDD and OCDF, in total 8 ng PCDD/Fs/kg (DW). From the comparison of the bottom ash fingerprints with the fingerprints of the other output fractions and of the inputs, it could be concluded that the PCDD/Fs in the waste were destroyed and new PCDD/Fs were formed in the post combustion process by de novo synthesis. During the ASR-co-incineration, the PCDD/F congener concentrations in the fly and boiler ash, FGCR and flue gas were 1.25-10 times higher compared to the same output fractions generated during incineration of the usual waste mix (70% RDF and 30% WWT sludge). The concentration of the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased most. As these congeners have the lowest TEF-factors, the total PCDD/F output, expressed in kg TEQ/year, of the FBC did not increase significantly when ASR was co-incinerated. Due to the relatively high copper levels in the ASR, the copper concentrations in the FBCs outputs increased. As copper catalysis the de novo syntheses, this could explain the increase in PCDD

  1. Proposed draft document for GSA office waste removal and procurement of densified refuse derived fuel for use as a supplemental fuel in GAS operated boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. A.

    1981-09-01

    A contract specifying waste collection and disposal from buildings managed by Government Services Administration (GSA) in the Washington, D. C. area and the production and delivery of pelletized fuel for burning with coal in one or two GSA steam generating plants is given.

  2. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  3. Recovery of useful materials from refuse fuel ash

    SciTech Connect

    Galgana, R.J.; Sutin, G.L.; Mc Nerney, M.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1987-06-02

    A method is described for treating the bottom ash residue resulting from burning a processed refuse fuel to recover metallic and other useful constituent materials from the ash residue. The method comprises: feeding a stream of the ash residue from a stock source thereof to a magnetic separation operation to remove at least the major part of any ferrous materials therein, the separated ferrous materials being delivered to a ferrous metals collection point; the remaining ash residue being passed through a particle size separation operation to separate same into oversize, midsize and undersize fractions; and delivering the oversize fraction to a tramp collection operation, the undersize fraction to an aggregate collection and the midsize fraction to a milling operation of a type wherein brittle non-ductile material is fragmented to provide further size reduction thereof and any ductile material is deformed without any consequential size reduction thereto beyond a certain measure.

  4. Refuse recycling and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sanitary landfill of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes is the predominant method of waste disposal in the United Kingdom. Although there was various waste disposal processes at various stages of design and test, landfill and incineration are still the only reliable methods of waste processing. Methods of recovery and use of refuse are examined in this book together with various separation processes, waste derived fuels, refuse composting, and glass and metal recovery. (Refs. 39).

  5. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  6. Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hope, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

  7. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Frank A. Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  8. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  9. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  10. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. PMID:24953314

  11. The characteristics of organic sludge/sawdust derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing

    2011-05-01

    A fundamental study of the characteristics of a sludge refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and the combustion behaviors were done. The test data demonstrate good results for the development of energy recovery technology of organic sludge or waste. The ash deposit formation propensity has been based on pretreatment, temperature and the ratio of organic sludge to sawdust. The usage of organic sludge and waste as an alternative fuel is cost effective and has environmental benefits. PMID:21129953

  12. EMISSION ASSESSMENT OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTION: SUSPENSION FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The suspension burning investigation was conducted in a horizontal laboratory boiler firing at a nominal heat input of 440 kw. The boiler had been modified to simulate large utility boilers and was further modified to investigate co-firing and tri-firing of coal, RDF, and hazardo...

  13. Designing the microturbine engine for waste-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Seljak, Tine; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper deals with adaptation procedure of a microturbine (MGT) for exploitation of refuse derived fuels (RDF). RDF often possess significantly different properties than conventional fuels and usually require at least some adaptations of internal combustion systems to obtain full functionality. With the methodology, developed in the paper it is possible to evaluate the extent of required adaptations by performing a thorough analysis of fuel combustion properties in a dedicated experimental rig suitable for testing of wide-variety of waste and biomass derived fuels. In the first part key turbine components are analyzed followed by cause and effect analysis of interaction between different fuel properties and design parameters of the components. The data are then used to build a dedicated test system where two fuels with diametric physical and chemical properties are tested - liquefied biomass waste (LW) and waste tire pyrolysis oil (TPO). The analysis suggests that exploitation of LW requires higher complexity of target MGT system as stable combustion can be achieved only with regenerative thermodynamic cycle, high fuel preheat temperatures and optimized fuel injection nozzle. Contrary, TPO requires less complex MGT design and sufficient operational stability is achieved already with simple cycle MGT and conventional fuel system. The presented approach of testing can significantly reduce the extent and cost of required adaptations of commercial system as pre-selection procedure of suitable MGT is done in developed test system. The obtained data can at the same time serve as an input for fine-tuning the processes for RDF production. PMID:26116004

  14. Potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived material for landfill capping.

    PubMed

    van Praagh, Martin; Persson, Kenneth M; Karlsson, Patrik

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the potential impacts on leachate emissions of applying a pretreated refuse-derived material as a capping layer on top of a municipal solid waste landfill were researched. Leachate emissions and stability against degradation were investigated with reference to the untreated material. Results from percolation leaching tests were analysed by multivariate data analysis and chemical speciation modelling. During 6 month aerobic pretreatment in composting windrows with forced aeration, the waste was stabilized against aerobic degradation measured as respiration activity down to 15% of the original value. Initial percolation leachate concentrations were reduced by 40% for As, by 50% for Co, by 60% for Ni, Pb, and total sulfur, by 40% for sulfate-sulfur, by 96% for ammonium nitrate, and by 62% for dissolved organic carbon. An increase was observed by a factor of 4 for Cd, by a factor of 150 for Cu, by a factor of 3 for Zn. Principle Component Analysis revealed that the leaching characteristics of the pretreated material developed towards those of a top soil used as reference material. Increasing the flow rate in column percolation experiments led to lower leachate concentrations at liquid to solid ratios of 10. Constructing a capping layer from the pretreated material is likely to have impacts on the leachate treatment system. PMID:19487315

  15. Corrosion of boiler tube alloys in refuse firing: Shredded vs bulk refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H. ); Daniel, P.L.; Blue, J.D. )

    1994-08-01

    Results of corrosion probe exposures at two mass burning incinerators were compared with those conducted in a unit burning refuse-derived fuel. Tests were conducted with carbon steel, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and high nickel-chromium alloys. Corrosion rates at similar metal and gas temperatures were essentially the same for both types of fuel. Boiler tube performance in the waterwalls of other incinerators confirmed these results. Boiler design and operating conditions appear to be more important factors in tube wastage than the extent of refuse processing.

  16. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  17. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity.

    PubMed

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance. PMID:22658869

  18. Production of liquid fuels out of plant biomass and refuse: Methods, cost, potential

    SciTech Connect

    Woick, B.; Friedrich, R.

    1981-09-01

    Different ways of producing biomass and its conversion into high grade fuel for vehicles are reviewed with particular reference to physical and geographical factors, pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Even with the potentially small amount of biomass in the FRG, the fueling of diesel engines with rape oil or modified ethanol, which can be obtained from any cellulosic feedstock, seems to pose the fewest difficulties and promises greatest efficiency. However, the amount of fuel produced from biomass can probably only meet a very small percentage of the total amount required.

  19. Benzophenone derivatives as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, H.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel having an initial boiling point of at least about 75/sup 0/F and an end boiling point of about 750/sup 0/F, and a minor amount sufficient to improve the fuel detergency thereof the reaction product of an ester of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or mixtures of such esters and an amine wherein the benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride ester or mixtures of such esters are reacted with the amine in a mole ratio of from about 3:1 to about 1:3 at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/ - 300/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure from about three to about 10 hours.

  20. Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serumgard, J.

    1997-12-01

    More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

  1. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  2. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY, RE- FUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I: SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  3. School Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  4. E-Alerts: Energy (fuels). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Production, performance, properties, storage, prices, and transportation of all types of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels; chemical composition of fuels; fuel compatibility; hydrogen production; refuse derived fuels; fuel desulfurization; oil shale retorting; petroleum refining; fuel additives; growing plants for fuels; bioconversion and biomass plantations.

  5. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

  6. Pyrolysis capillary chromatography of refuse-derived fuel and aquatic fulvic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Haj-Mahmoud, Q.M.

    1989-01-01

    Pyrolysis-capillary gas chromatography combined with FID, ECD and MS detection were used. Pyrolysis temperatures of 700-800{degree}C produced the strongest signal for organics present in RDF and fulvic acid. Cellulose and fatty acids pyrolyzates were identifiable by GC-MS following preparative pyrolysis fractionation. At organic chloride content of 0.023%, only three halogenated compounds were detected in the GCMS of the fractions. None of the priority pollutants were detected at lower detection limit of 0.72 to 24 mg/kg RDF. Selective solvent extraction improves the reproducibilities of the technique and allows the detection of polymeric structures. Pyrograms of polyvinyl chloride and regular typing paper showed some common peaks that are present in the RDF pyrogram. The organic chloride content of the RDF was evaluated by ion chromatography of the trapped pyrolyzates in 2% NaOH trap and it was found to be 221 mg Cl/kg dry RDF. Pyrolysis conditions and temperature programs for FA were systematically evaluated. Samples included purified FA, methylated Fa and HPLC separated fractions. Profiles of benzene, toluene, phenol, m-cresol and biphenyl from FA were evaluated. The production of phenol was the largest at 800{degree}C, at concentration of 1.61 mg per gram of FA pyrolyzed. The profiles of benzene and toluene followed the same pathways. HPLC fractions of FA showed some regular retention patterns characteristic of polymeric material. DL-proline, seriene and vanillic acid pyrograms showed some peaks with the same retention times as those in FA pyvrogram under the same conditions. A reproducibility of 6% relative standard deviation was achieved in the pyrolysis of RDF and 0.91% in the case of FA.

  7. GASEOUS HC1 AND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE FIRED WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from a water wall mass fired municipal waste incinerator and a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired incinerator were sampled for chlorinated organic compounds and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The sampling was performed to evaluate the extractive sampling methods used to meas...

  8. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic aviation kerosene (Syn. Jet-A), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Liquid hydrogen aircraft configurations, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. These aircraft appear viable, particularly for long haul use, where aircraft fueled with coal derived LH2 would consume 9 percent less coal resources than would aircraft fueled with coal derived Syn. Jet-A. Distribution of hydrogen from the point of manufacture to airports may pose problems. Synthetic JET-A would appear to cause fewer concerns to the air transportation industry. Of the three candidate fuels, LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and an aircraft fueled with coal derived LCH4 may provide both the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  9. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, Robert J.; Link, Dirk D.; Baltrus, John P.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  10. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  11. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of engineering studies of coal-derived aviation fuels and their potential application to the air transportation system are presented. Synthetic aviation kerosene (SYN. JET-A), liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Aircraft configurations fueled with LH2, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. Energy efficiency, transportation hazards, and costs are among the factors considered. It is indicated that LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and provides the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  12. Tire-derived fuel cofiring test in a pulverized coal utility boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Joensen, A.W.

    1994-12-01

    In recent years, several states have enacted legislation that outlaws the landfilling of whole tires and forces the implementation of various integrated waste management alternatives to dispose of passenger car and truck tires. Alternate disposal options include source reduction, recycling, composting, incineration, and, as a last resort, landfilling of only shredded tires in conventional landfills or in lined monofills, as required by several states. The high energy content of scrap tires, 13,000-16,000 Btu/lb, has resulted in the use of processed tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF). Previous TDF applications include cement kilns, fluidized bed combustion, stoker, and cyclone-fired boilers. Up to now, no data have been reported for cofiring TDF with coal in pulverized coal boilers. This report presents the results of a Phase I feasibility test program conducted in a 65-MW Babcock and Wilcox pulverized coal steam generator at the City of Ames, Iowa, Municipal Power Plant. This unit currently cofires western coal with refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and utilizes a bottom dump grate to ensure the complete combustion of RDF in the furnace.

  13. Will biodiesel fuels derived from algae perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The issue of sufficient supply and availability of feedstock is one of the major non-technical issues affecting the widespread commercialization of biodiesel. Another aspect is the food vs. fuel issue that biofuels should not be produced from edible feedstocks. In these connections, lipid-producin...

  14. Fuel compositions containing terpene derivatives of

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.

    1989-01-03

    A diesel fuel composition is described characterized by improved wear properties and comprising a major portion of middle distillates boiling in the range of about 163/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C and a minor wear improving amount of a reaction product of a terpene and 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

  15. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-22

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels development Unit (AFDU). The program will initially involve a continuation of the work performed under the Liquid Phase Methanol Program but will later draw upon information and technologies generated in current and future DOE-funded contracts, as well as test commercially available catalysts. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Burning coal refuse in fluid beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinau, J.H.; Sneyd, R.J.; Lombardi, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of fluid bed combustion technology to the burning of coal-mining waste. The designs of two stage fluid bed combustors/dryers are demonstrated as useful in the drying of coal, slag and coke, using coal and coal refuse (gob) as fuel. Anthracite mining refuse (culm) is more than abundant in Northeastern Pennsylvania. After demonstration at Shamokin, Pennsylvania, a full commercial-sized fluid bed boiler using culm is used for district heating in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Limited research work has shown the utility of using fine coal as filter aid in sludge incineration. With the rising avenues of the suitability of coal as auxiliary fuel in fluid bed sludge incineration, an expansion of these concepts combines the use of coal or coal refuse as filter aid and auxiliary fuel. Limestone addition controls SO/sub 2/ emission.

  17. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  18. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  19. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  20. The determination of water in biomass-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; De Caumia, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Dean and Stark distillation is an appropriate method for the determination of water in coal tar, bitumen and petroleum-like products. This article shows, however, that a direct application of the Dean and Stark method for the determination of water in biomass-derived liquid fuels results in incorrect estimates. Inaccuracies are due to the presence of soluble organics in the aqueous phase, which apparently form azeotropic mixtures with water and xylene and which condense and are trapped as distillate in the graduated cylinder. Instead, a Karl Fischer determination of water is recommended in the case of biomass-derived liquid fuels.

  1. School Refusal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lingenfelter, Nannette; Hartung, Sheila

    2015-09-01

    School refusal behaviors go beyond a child's dislike or disinterest in school. This article investigates the underlying anxiety, depression, and social phobias that often accompany these behaviors and the importance of early recognition and treatment. Successful treatment and resolution of school refusal behaviors need to be a multidisciplinary approach. Teachers, administrators, guidance counselors, school nurses, and parents need to be involved in the diagnostic, treatment, and readmission processes. School nurses are in a unique position to be able to help identify and provide support for students exhibiting school refusal behaviors. PMID:25816422

  2. Conversion of Pentose-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the conversion of biomass-derived hemicellulose into hydrocarbon molecules that can be used in the formulation of 'drop-in' fuels such as gasoline (C5-12), diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16). Our focus lies on the use of furfuryl alcohol as a starting material since that is already produced commercially from hemicellulose-derived pentoses. The steps required to convert the latter into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. However, furfuryl alcohol readily polymerizes to form resins in the presence of an acid catalyst, and the exothermic oligomerization must be carried out under reaction control. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this sugar-to-hydrocarbon pathway.

  3. Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.

    1990-06-01

    Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds were suspected to be present in the refined fuels. Compounds were identified and quantified as part of an effort to determine the effect of these compounds in fuel instability. Results of the analysis showed trace levels of phenols, naphthols, benzofurans, hexanol, and hydrogenated naphthols were present in levels below 100 ppM. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most studied chemical transformations of carbohydrates is their thermocatalytic dehydration to form furans. Cellulose-derived glucose is thereby converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF), while the hemicellulose-derived pentoses (e.g., xylose, arabinose) form furfuraldehyde. Our objective is to identify new pathways to convert furfuryl alcohol into a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons that can be used as drop-in fuels for diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16) blends. Furfuryl alcohol is produced commercially through hydrogenation of furfuraldehyde that is derived from hemicellulose-derived pentoses via acid-catalyzed dehydration. The steps that we are currently pursuing to convert furfuryl alcohol into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this pathway.

  5. Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an attractive route to produce liquid transportation fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recently, genes and enzymes, which comprise metabolic pathways for producing fatty acid-derived compounds (e.g. esters, alkanes, olefins, ketones, alcohols, polyesters) have been elucidated and used in engineered microbial hosts. The resulting strains often generate products at low percentages of maximum theoretical yields, leaving significant room for metabolic engineering. Economically viable processes will require strains to approach theoretical yields, particularly for replacement of petroleum-derived fuels. This review will describe recent progress toward this goal, highlighting the scientific discoveries of each pathway, ongoing biochemical studies to understand each enzyme, and metabolic engineering strategies that are being used to improve strain performance. PMID:23541503

  6. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  7. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Progress report No. 3, [April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-05-31

    The Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCl, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. The combination of TG-FTIR and TG-MS offers complementary techniques for the detection and identification of combustion products from coals PVC, cellulose, shredded newspaper, and various blends of these materials. The pilot atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University has been tested. The main purpose of these preliminary AFBC runs were to determine the compatibility of coal and pelletized wood in blends and to explore the effects of flue/air ratio. Our objective is to conduct AFBC burns with 90 percent sulfur capture and more then 96% combustion efficiency.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIA AND VIRUS EMISSIONS AT A REFUSE DERIVED FUEL PLANT AND OTHER WASTE HANDLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an executive summary of results of a program to compare relative levels of selected airborne bacteria and viruses within and around various waste handling facilities. Facilities included were an incinerator, a waste transfer station, a wastewater treatment plant, a ...

  9. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 10, January 1997--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-02-28

    In previous progress reports, we reported our study on the proposed mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion, in which molecular chlorine is thought to be the key starting material. The objective of this quarter of study was to quantitatively test the inhibiting effect of SO{sub 2} on the formation of Cl{sub 2} during the combustion of MSW. The experiments were conducted under conditions close to those employed in the AFBC system. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from these experiments was GC/MS system. The results indicate that the production of Cl{sub 2} decreases when the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the gaseous mixture increases.

  10. Product evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have placed stringent requirements on the quality of transportation fuels. Most petroleum refiners are scrambling to meet provisions of the Amendments to be implemented between 1995 and 2000. These requirements will also have significant implications for the production of alternative fuels. These have been examined for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) derived fuels. This analysis was conducted in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project, Baseline Design/Economics for Advanced Fischer-Tropsch Technology, conducted by Bechtel and Amoco. The goal of this study was to develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal using gasification, syngas conversion in slurry reactors with iron catalysts, and conventional refinery upgrading of the F-T derived hydrocarbon liquids. One alternative case using ZSM-5 upgrading technology was also considered. This study included complete capital and operating cost estimates for the processes. To perform economic analyses for the different design cases, the products from the liquefaction plant had to be valued relative to conventional transportation fuels. This task was accomplished by developing a Linear Programming (LP) model for a typical midwest refinery, and then feeding the F-T liquids to the refinery. In this way, the breakeven value determined for these materials is indicative of the price they could command if available in the marketplace. Inputs to the LP model include: refinery size, configuration, feedstocks, products, specifications, prices, and operating and capital recovery costs. The model was set up to be representative of conditions anticipated for the turn of the century. This required inclusion of fuel specifications from the CAAA of 1990 which have or will come into force by the year 2000.

  11. Feasibility of implementing a municipal waste-to-energy system to supply Youngstown thermal with a solid fuel or steam system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The municipal solid waste and economics of disposal are discussed. Youngstown Thermal's existing system and its economics are described. The technical feasibilities of refuse-derived fuels and refuse mass-burning are explored. Economic evaluations and institutional considerations are included. (MHR)

  12. A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.D.

    2009-01-15

    35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

  13. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  14. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  15. Pathways for Biomass-Derived Lignin to Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Laskar, Dhrubojyoti; Yang, Bin; Wang, Huamin; Lee, Guo-Shuh J.

    2013-09-01

    Production of hydrocarbon fuel from biomass-derived lignin sources with current version of biorefinery infrastructure would significantly improve the total carbon use in biomass and make biomass conversion more economically viable. Thus, developing specialty and commodity products from biomass derived-lignin has been an important industrial and scientific endeavor for several decades. However, deconstruction of lignin’s complex polymeric framework into low molecular weight reactive moieties amenable for deoxygenation and subsequent processing into hydrocarbons has been proven challenging. This review offers a comprehensive outlook on the existing body of work that has been devoted to catalytic processing of lignin derivatives into hydrocarbon fuels, focusing on: (1) The intrinsic complexity and characteristic structural features of biomass-derived lignin; (2) Existing processing technologies for the isolation and depolymerization of bulk lignin (including detailed mechanistic considerations); (3) Approaches aimed at significantly improving the yields of depolymerized lignin species amenable to catalytic upgrading, and; (4) Catalytic upgrading, using aqueous phase processes for transforming depolymerized lignin to hydrocarbon derivatives. Technical barriers and challenges to the valorization of lignin are highlighted throughout. The central goal of this review is to present an array of strategies that have been reported to obtain lignin, deconstruct it to reactive intermediates, and reduce its substantial oxygen content to yield hydrocarbon liquids. In this regard, reaction networks with reference to studies of lignin model compounds are exclusively surveyed. Special attention is paid to catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, hydrogenolyis and hydrogenation. Finally, this review addresses important features of lignin that are vital to economic success of hydrocarbon production.

  16. School Refusal in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesselroad, Joanna Strosnider

    This study identifies factors that affect school refusal among preschool children in public schools of an Appalachian state. School refusal is defined as behavior through which children refuse school by active protest, inactive protest, or denial. A random sample of 198 preschool teachers representing 6,309 children provided the data for the…

  17. Gas turbine materials evaluation program utilizing coal derived gaseous fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Yates, C. C.; Manning, G. B.; Peterson, R. R.

    1981-03-01

    A gas turbine materials evaluation test facility under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy is described. The objective of the mobile test facility is to obtain dynamic and static test data on the erosion/corrosion characteristics of materials exposed to the hot products of the combustion of coal-derived fuels. The engine being utilized for the tests is the WR 24-7 aircraft turbojet unit reconfigurated to burn coke oven gas. Approximately 100 hours of engine operating time have been logged to date.

  18. Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

    1980-11-01

    The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

  19. Multifunctional fuel additives derived from aminodiols to improve the low-temperature properties of distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel composition comprising a major amount of a combustible liquid hydrocarbon fuel and a minor low-temperature properties improving amount of from about 0.001% to about 10 wt % based on the total weight of the composition of an additive comprising a product of reaction made by reacting comonomers. It comprises: an aminodiol or combination or mixture of aminodiols with a reactive acid/anhydride product alone or in combination with other monomers derived from the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or its acid equivalent.

  20. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. In addition to the maximum jet fuel schemes, conceptual designs have also been formulated for maximizing profits from refining of the Great Plains by-products. Conceptual processing schemes for profitable production of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X have been developed, as has a maximum profit'' case. All four of these additional cases have now been transferred to Lummus for design and integration studies. Development of these schemes required the use of linear programming technology. This technology includes not only conventional refining processes which have been adapted for use with coal-derived liquids (e.g. hydrotreating, hydrocracking), but also processes which may be uniquely suited to the Great Plains by-products such as cresylic acid extraction, hydordealkylation, and needle coking. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2010-07-15

    Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

  2. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  3. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. PMID:24880186

  4. Children with pervasive refusal.

    PubMed Central

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed. PMID:1863102

  5. Pervasive refusal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Beverley, David

    2012-04-01

    We report here on a case of severe pervasive refusal syndrome. This is of interest for three reasons. Firstly, most reported cases are adolescent girls; our case is regarding an adolescent boy. Secondly, he was successfully treated at home and thirdly, the serology showed an apparent infective pre-cursor to the illness with evidence of possible autoimmune serology. A 14-year old boy deteriorated from a picture where diagnosed CFS/ME developed into Pervasive Refusal Syndrome. This included the inability to move or speak, with closed eyes, multiple tics, facial grimacing, heightened sensitivity to noise (hyperacusis) and touch (hyperaesthesia), and inability or unwillingness to eat anything except small amounts of sloppy food. Successful rehabilitation is reported. Finally the issue of nomenclature is discussed, raising the question whether Pervasive Refusal Syndrome would be better renamed in a way that does not imply that the condition is always volitional and oppositional, as this can distract focus away from an alliance between family and clinicians. PMID:21733931

  6. Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, C A; Bernstein, H

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

  7. Dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Biles, R W; McKee, R H; Lewis, S C; Scala, R A; DePass, L R

    1988-12-30

    In general, the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials is related to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Thus it has been assumed that liquids which boil below the PAH distillation range (i.e., below approx. 370 degrees C (700 degrees F) would not be carcinogenic. Several early studies supported this conclusion but were of relatively short duration. Several recent and more rigorous studies have shown that repeated application of certain petroleum-derived materials boiling between approximately 177-370 degrees C (350-700 degrees F) (i.e., middle distillate fuels) can produce tumors in mouse skin. The current studies assessed the tumorigenic potential of a series of middle distillates which varied with respect to boiling range, composition, and source of blending stocks. All of the samples produced evidence of weak tumorigenic activity which was characterized by low tumor yields and long median latencies. However, the majority of the tumor yields were significantly different from the control. There were no apparent differences in response among the samples. Thus the various parameters examined did not substantially influence tumor outcome. In particular, there was no association of tumorigenic activity with aromatic carbon content; this finding, coupled with evidence that PAH levels were low, suggested that the tumorigenic responses were not PAH-dependent. In addition to the tumors, there was evidence of non-neoplastic dermal changes including hyperplasia. These may have contributed to the tumorigenic responses; however, the actual mechanism of tumor induction is unknown. PMID:3212789

  8. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  9. Economics of biomass-derived alcohol application in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, S.P.; Patel, P.S.

    1982-12-01

    Unlike conventional internal combustion engines, the fuel cell can offer high thermal efficiencies even with low-proof ethanol. Manufacture of low-proof ethanol results in a considerable savings in operating cost and hence a cheaper fuel. The ethanol-fueled fuel cell used in transportation as well as cogeneration is an important option for conservation of fossil fuels and for decreasing our dependence on foreign energy. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Evaluation of castor and lesquerella oil derivatives as additives in biodiesel and ultralow sulfur diesel fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of petroleum-derived additives is ubiquitous in fuels production, including biodiesel (BD) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Development and employment of domestically derived, biodegradable, renewable, and non-toxic additives is an attractive goal. As such, estolides (1, 2) and 2-...

  11. Disposal of municipal refuse and RDF in Japan by a two-bed pyrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, N.; Ishi, Y.; Ito, K. Hirayama, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This system efficiently and effectively produces high-quality, high-heating-value fuel gas from municipal refuse and RDF. In 1978, the commercial demonstration plant was constructed in Yokohama and since 1979 it has operated with municipal solid waste, RDF, and industrial refuse. The technology is now ready for commercialization.

  12. An environmentally benign soybean derived fuel as a blending stock or replacement for home heating oil.

    PubMed

    Mushrush, G; Beal, E J; Spencer, G; Wynne, J H; Lloyd, C L; Hughes, J M; Walls, C L; Hardy, D R

    2001-05-01

    The use of bio-derived materials both as fuels and/or as blending stocks becomes more attractive as the price of middle distillate fuels, especially home heating oil, continues to rise. Historically, many biomass and agricultural derived materials have been suggested. One of the most difficult problems encountered with home heating oil is that of storage stability. High maintenance costs associated with home heating oil are, in large part, because of this stability problem. In the present research, Soygold, a soybean derived fuel, was added in concentrations of 10%-20% to both a stable middle distillate fuel and an unstable home heating oil. Fuel instability in this article will be further related to the organo-nitrogen compounds present. The soy-fuel mixtures proved stable, and the addition of the soy liquid enhanced both the combustion properties, and dramatically improved the stability of the unstable home heating oil. PMID:11460320

  13. Recent Perspectives Concerning School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witts, Benjamin; Houlihan, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding school refusal was conducted. It was found that the term School Refusal Behavior has gone through many changes. These changes encompass nomenclature, etiology, and treatment. The names used to describe the behavior of school refusal have ranged from truancy in the 1930s to School Refusal Behavior in the 1990s.…

  14. Commentary: Looking beyond Treatment Refusal.

    PubMed

    Shashidhara, Shilpa

    2016-04-01

    This case illustrates the dilemma that occurs when a patient refuses treatment. When a patient refuses recommended interventions, it can cause much distress among the medical team and family. On the surface, the ethical issue appears to be in regard to treatment refusal. However, when we look deeper, it becomes evident that the question is truly about whether the patient has the ability to make this treatment decision, given her worsening dementia, recent hemorrhage, and depression. In this case, an essential component of an ethics consultation would be to assess this patient's decisionmaking capacity to determine if her refusals are informed. This case has another level of complexity. If the patient does not have decisionmaking capacity, then who would be willing to serve in the role of surrogate decisionmaker? The case raises several ethical questions and thus makes directing a patient's care and decisionmaking challenging. PMID:26957459

  15. [School phobia or school refusal?].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, Marie-France

    2008-04-15

    The scope of the concept of school phobia, associated with anxiety disorders, is now broadened to include other underlying disorders such depression, conduct disorders and behaviors such as school truancy. The term "school refusal" is now preferred in the literature. This article reviews the main clinical and terapeutical dimensions of school refusal. Its aim is to increase practionners' awareness of this disorder and to describe a treatment plan centred on school attendance. PMID:18546645

  16. Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

  17. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Task 1 of the work, in which processes to produce each of the three jet fuels, JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X, were designed, has been completed. The formal Task 1 report should issue next quarter. Task 2 work was initiated this quarter. In Task 2, process conditions for producing jet fuel from the Great Plains tar oil stream will be verified and samples of each of the three jet fuels will be produced. Experimental work shows that the hydrotreating conditions specified in Task 1 will not convert sufficient aromatics in the tar oil to produce jet fuel. Alternative schemes have been proposed and are being tested in the laboratories at Amoco Research Center. The simplest of these schemes, in which the heavy ends from the hydrotreater are recycled to extinction, was tested and proved infeasible. A second stage, fixed bed hydrotreater will be added to the process along with the expanded bed, first-stage hydrotreater and the hydrocracker specified in the Task 1 design. Future work will include additional experiments to specify the best process configuration and production of samples of each of the three grades of jet fuel. 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels, for maximizing profits, and for profitable production of each of the three jet fuels from the by-product liquids have been developed. Economic analyses of the designs show that jet fuel can be produced from the by-products, but not economically. However, jet fuel production could be subsidized profitably by processing the phenolic and naphtha streams to cresols, phenols, BTX, and other valuable chemical by-products. Uncertainties in the studies are marketability of the chemical by-products, replacement fuel costs, and viable schemes to process the phenol stream, among others. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.; Fox, J.; Masin, J.

    1989-06-01

    Amoco Oil Company has conducted bench- and pilot plant-scale experiments to produce jet fuels from the tar oil from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task 1 are not severe enough to saturate the aromatics in the tar oil to meet jet fuel specifications. Alternatives were investigated. Jet fuel specifications can be achieved when the tar oil is: hydrotreated in an expanded-bed hydrotreater to lower aromatics and heteroatom content; the effluent is then hydrotreated in a second, fixed bed hydrotreater; and, finally, the 550{degree}F boiling fraction from the two hydrotreaters is hydrocracked to extinction. The process was verified by pilot-plant production of 2 barrels of JP-8 turbine fuel, which met all but the flash point specification for JP-8. In addition, small samples of JP-4, JP-8, and high-density fuel were produced as a part of Task 2. 13 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  1. Will biodiesel derived from algal oils live up to its promise? A fuel property assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algae have been attracting considerable attention as a source of biodiesel recently. This attention is largely due to the claimed high production potential of algal oils while circumventing the food vs. fuel issue. However, the properties of biodiesel fuels derived from algal oils have been only spa...

  2. EVALUATION OF TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR USE IN NITROGEN OXIDE REDUCTION BY REBURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tire-derived fuel (TDF) was tested in a small-scale (44 kW or 150,000 Btu/hr) combustor to determine its feasibility as a fuel for use in reburning for control of nitrogen oxide (NO). TDF was gravity-fed into upward flowing combustion gases from a primary natural gas flame doped ...

  3. Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, B.A.; Fox, J.D.; Furlong, M.W.; Masin, J.G.; Sault, L.P.; Tatterson, D.F. . Research and Development Dept.); Fornoff, L.L.; Link, M.A.; Stahlnecker, E.; Torster, K. )

    1988-09-01

    Amoco and Lummus Crest have developed seven cases for upgrading by-product liquids from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels, and in several of the cases, saleable chemicals in addition to jet fuels. The analysis shows that the various grades of jet fuel can be produced from the Great Plains tar oil, but not economically. However, the phenolic and naphtha streams do have the potential to significantly increase (on the order of $10--15 million/year) the net revenues at Great Plains by producing chemicals, especially cresylic acid, cresol, and xylenol. The amount of these chemicals, which can be marketed, is a concern, but profits can be generated even when oxygenated chemical sales are limited to 10 percent of the US market. Another concern is that while commercial processes exist to extract phenolic mixtures, these processes have not been demonstrated with the Great Plains phenolic stream. 9 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Airfoil cooling hole plugging by combustion gas impurities of the type found in coal derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The plugging of airfoil cooling holes by typical coal-derived fuel impurities was evaluated using doped combustion gases in an atmospheric pressure burner rig. Very high specific cooling air mass flow rates reduced or eliminated plugging. The amount of flow needed was a function of the composition of the deposit. It appears that plugging of film-cooled holes may be a problem for gas turbines burning coal-derived fuels.

  5. Recapturing NERVA-Derived Fuels for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A L; Hancock, Emily F

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy is working with NASA to examine fuel options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion applications. Extensive development and testing was performed on graphite-based fuels during the Nuclear Engineer Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) and Rover programs through the early 1970s. This paper explores the possibility of recapturing the technology and the issues associated with using it for the next generation of nuclear thermal rockets. The issues discussed include a comparison of today's testing capabilities, analysis techniques and methods, and knowledge to that of previous development programs and presents a plan to recapture the technology for a flight program.

  6. Conversion system overview assessment. Volume III. Solar thermal/coal or biomass derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-02-01

    The three volumes of this report cover three distinct areas of solar energy research: solar thermoelectrics, solar-wind hybrid systems, and synthetic fuels derived with solar thermal energy. Volume III deals with the conversion of synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat. The method is a hybrid combination of solar energy with either coal or biomass. A preliminary assessment of this technology is made by calculating the cost of fuel produced as a function of the cost of coal and biomass. It is shown that within the projected ranges of coal, biomass, and solar thermal costs, there are conditions when solar synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat will become cost-competitive.

  7. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  8. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design in the later phases of the contract. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 are nearly completed. Specification of a design basis for profitable production of JP-8 is under way. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 have also been produced and shipped to the US Air Force for further testing. Lummus-Crest Inc. is now completing a preliminary process design for the profitable production of JP-8 and has made recommendations for a production run to produce larger quantities of JP-8. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. PMID:24572928

  11. Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition for Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Portzer, J.W.; Turk, B.S.; Krishnan, G.N.; Hung, S.L.; Ayala, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop and demonstrate catalytic approaches for decomposing a significant percentage (up to 90 percent) of the NH{sub 3} present in fuel gas to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at elevated temperatures (550 to 900{degrees}C). The NH{sub 3} concentration considered in this study was {similar_to}1,800 to 2,000 ppmv, which is typical of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifiers such as the Texaco coal gasifier being employed at the TECO Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant. Catalysts containing Ni, Co, Mo, and W were candidates for the study. Before undertaking any experiments, a detailed thermodynamic evaluation was conducted to determine the concentration of NH{sub 3} in equilibrium with the Texaco gasifier coal gas. Thermodynamic evaluations were also performed to evaluate the stability of the catalytic phases (for the various catalysts under consideration) under NH3 decomposition conditions to be used in this study. Two catalytic approaches for decomposing NH{sub 3} have been experimentally evaluated. The first approach evaluated during the early phases of this project involved the screening of catalysts that could be combined with the hot-gas desulfurization sorbents (e.g., zinc titanate) for simultaneous NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S removal. In a commercial system, this approach would reduce capital costs by eliminating a process step. The second approach evaluated was high-temperature catalytic decomposition at 800 to 900{degrees} C. In a commercial hot-gas cleanup system this could be carried out after radiative cooling of the gas to 800 to 900{degrees}C but up stream of the convective cooler, the hot particulate filter, and the hot-gas desulfurization reactor. Both approaches were tested in the presence of up to 7,500 ppmv H{sub 2}S in simulated fuel gas or actual fuel gas from a coal gasifier.

  12. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design in the later phases of the contract. Experimental work to date has shown that the tar oil stream requires substantially more severe processing than the preliminary design estimates indicated. A new design basis is now being tested and samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X are in production, based on that new, more severe processing scheme. Six barrels of tar oil have been hydrotreated according to the first step of the processing scheme and will be used to produce barrel quantities of JP-8. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.; Fox, J.; Masin, J. . Research and Development Dept.); Stahlnecker, E.; Schreiber, G.; Klein, R. )

    1989-12-01

    A preliminary design for the production of JP-8 jet fuel and other salable products from the Great Plains by-products is given. The design incorporates experimental results from Tasks 2 and 3 with the scoping design from Task 1. The experimental results demonstrated the need for more severe hydrotreating conditions to convert the tar oil to jet fuel than was estimated in Task 1. As a result, capital costs for the revised design are significantly higher and the plant is less profitable than estimated in the Task 1 work. The increase in capital costs is offset somewhat by a higher phenol value in the current market. Refined estimates for the cost of an aromatics recovery unit preclude its economical construction in the new estimate, consequently the revised product slate includes no BTX. Recommendations are given for a 10,000 barrel production run. No commercial domestic facility exists which can provide suitable expanded-bed hydrotreating facilities for a production run of this size. However, an alternative approach using hot filtration and dilute fixed-bed hydrocracking followed by product fractionation and extinctive hydrotreating of the heavy products is recommended. Commercial domestic facilities which might reasonably accommodate this scheme are listed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system. PMID:17964144

  15. Highly selective condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones as a source of aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Sacia, Eric R; Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Deaner, Matthew H; Goulas, Konstantinos A; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-05-22

    Aviation fuel (i.e., jet fuel) requires a mixture of C9 -C16 hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. While jet fuel is currently produced from petroleum, increasing concern with the release of CO2 into the atmosphere from the combustion of petroleum-based fuels has led to policy changes mandating the inclusion of biomass-based fuels into the fuel pool. Here we report a novel way to produce a mixture of branched cyclohexane derivatives in very high yield (>94 %) that match or exceed many required properties of jet fuel. As starting materials, we use a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and their derivatives obtained from biomass. These synthons are condensed into trimers via base-catalyzed aldol condensation and Michael addition. Hydrodeoxygenation of these products yields mixtures of C12 -C21 branched, cyclic alkanes. Using models for predicting the carbon number distribution obtained from a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and for predicting the boiling point distribution of the final mixture of cyclic alkanes, we show that it is possible to define the mixture of synthons that will closely reproduce the distillation curve of traditional jet fuel. PMID:25891778

  16. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  17. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  18. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  19. Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    DeCorso, M.; Newby, R.; Anson, D.; Wenglarz, R.; Wright, I.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

  20. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. PMID:25443804

  1. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  2. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14... RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other refuse facilities...

  3. USAF toxicology research on petroleum and shale-derived aviation gas turbine fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Martone, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    As one of the nation's largest users of aircraft turbine fuels, the USAF has interest in assuring the safe use of these hydrocarbons by its military and civilian workers. This concern stimulated research to define potential adverse health effects and develop criteria for safe exposure limts for military aviation fuels. The first inhalation exposure to JP-4, the primary fuel used in USAF aircraft, was conducted in 1973. Since this initial subchronic study, the USAF has conducted numerous subchronic and one-year oncogenic inhalation studies to establish health criteria for aviation fuels. This paper summarizes the status of studies to define the toxicity of petroleum and shale-derived aircraft turbine engine fuels and discusses the preliminary findings of toxic nephropathy and primary renal tumors observed in male Fischer 344 rats.

  4. Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno

    2008-09-15

    We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  6. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  7. Feeding therapy for children with food refusal.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Machida, Reiko; Takahashi, Noriaki; Nishiwaki, Keiko; Yaegaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Disabled children suffer not only from their primary disease, but also from other complications, including food refusal. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between these conditions and food refusal in disabled children. The effectiveness of feeding therapy in treating food refusal was also examined. The study subjects were 67 disabled children (35 boys and 32 girls; mean age at initial examination: 6.5 years, SD: 6.0 years) who attended the Nippon Dental University Hospital between April 2004 and August 2008. Of them, the 13 subjects who were diagnosed as those who refused food received feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity. Approximately 20% of the subjects showed food refusal symptoms. Primary disease, respiratory impairment and gastroesophageal reflux were not causes of food refusal in this population. There was a significant relationship between food refusal and hypersensitivity (p = 0.021). After receiving feeding therapy, six of the seven subjects with hypersensitivity but without dysphagia at initial examination recovered from food refusal. Food refusal did not significantly correlate with tube feeding. Hypersensitivity and/or tube feeding may induce food refusal. For subjects with these conditions, feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy is effective in achieving recovery from food refusal. PMID:22774703

  8. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  9. Potential hazards associated with combustion of bio-derived versus petroleum-derived diesel fuel

    PubMed Central

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Schröder, Olaf; Schmidt, Lasse; Westphal, Götz A.

    2012-01-01

    Fuels from renewable resources have gained worldwide interest due to limited fossil oil sources and the possible reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas. One of these fuels is so called biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). To get a first insight into changes of health hazards from diesel engine emissions (DEE) by use of biodiesel scientific studies were reviewed which compared the combustion of FAME with common diesel fuel (DF) for legally regulated and non-regulated emissions as well as for toxic effects. A total number of 62 publications on chemical analyses of DEE and 18 toxicological in vitro studies were identified meeting the criteria. In addition, a very small number of human studies and animal experiments were available. In most studies, combustion of biodiesel reduces legally regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides are regularly increased. Among the non-regulated emissions aldehydes are increased, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lowered. Most biological in vitro assays show a stronger cytotoxicity of biodiesel exhaust and the animal experiments reveal stronger irritant effects. Both findings are possibly caused by the higher content of nitrogen oxides and aldehydes in biodiesel exhaust. The lower content of PAH is reflected by a weaker mutagenicity compared to DF exhaust. However, recent studies show a very low mutagenicity of DF exhaust as well, probably caused by elimination of sulfur in present DF qualities and the use of new technology diesel engines. Combustion of vegetable oil (VO) in common diesel engines causes a strongly enhanced mutagenicity of the exhaust despite nearly unchanged regulated emissions. The newly developed fuel “hydrotreated vegetable oil” (HVO) seems to be promising. HVO has physical and chemical advantages compared to FAME. Preliminary results show lower regulated and non-regulated emissions and a

  10. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M. K.; Worden, R. M.; Grethlein, A.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H2-CO2; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following: butyrate production was enhanced during H2/CO2 (50/50) batch fermentation; isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress; pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability; polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support; cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8; trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing; and pervaporation system was constructed (No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up).

  11. QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

  12. Organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine in future technology of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Koltunov, V.S.; Baranov, S.M.

    1993-12-31

    An important issue in nuclear fuel reprocessing is the reduction of salts. It is seen that this can be accomplished utilizing organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine as reductants of Np(VI) and Pu(IV). The chemistry of this process is described.

  13. Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2011-10-01

    The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  14. Towards Safer Rocket Fuels: Hypergolic Imidazolylidene-Borane Compounds as Replacements for Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Liu, Tianlin; Wang, Kangcai; Zhang, Wenquan; Li, Jianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-07-11

    Currently, toxic and volatile hydrazine derivatives are still the main fuel choices for liquid bipropellants, especially in some traditional rocket propulsion systems. Therefore, the search for safer hypergolic fuels as replacements for hydrazine derivatives has been one of the most challenging tasks. In this study, six imidazolylidene-borane compounds with zwitterionic structure have been synthesized and characterized, and their hypergolic reactivity has been studied. As expected, these compounds exhibited fast spontaneous combustion upon contact with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). Among them, compound 5 showed excellent integrated properties including wide liquid operating range (-70-160 °C), superior loading density (0.99 g cm(-3) ), ultrafast ignition delay times with WFNA (15 ms), and high specific impulse (303.5 s), suggesting promising application potential as safer hypergolic fuels in liquid bipropellant formulations. PMID:27270594

  15. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS AND DISTRIBUTION IN ASH/RESIDUE OF A REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartfo...

  16. The Pediatrician's Dilemma: Refusing the Refusers of Infant Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Block, Stan L

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with the continuously increasing rates of families wanting to either significantly delay or completely postpone their infant's vaccines has created an alarmingly untenable dilemma for the general pediatricians dealing with these families on a daily basis. Pediatricians must decide whether to continue to provide substandard care by foregoing many or most of the infant's highly recommended protective vaccines, or whether to dismiss from the practice the family who refuses vaccines. Much has been written about why they should retain these families, but this paper will discuss some reasonable rationales as to why nearly 40% of pediatricians choose dismissal of these families. PMID:26479573

  17. The Space Station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The University of Central Florida's design of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station is addressed. Four integratable subsystems capable of handling an estimated Orbiter shortfall of nearly 40,000 lbs of refuse produced annually are discussed. The subsystems investigated were: (1) collection and transfer; (2) recycle and reuse; (3) advanced disposal; and (4) propulsion assist in disposal. Emphasis is placed on the recycling or reuse of those materials ultimately providing a source of Space Station refuse. Special consideration is given to various disposal methods capable of completely removing refuse from close proximity of the Space Station. There is evidence that pyrolysis is the optimal solution for disposal of refuse through employment of a Rocket Jettison Vehicle. Additionally, design considerations and specifications of the Refuse Management System are discussed. Optimal and alternate design solutions for each of the four subsystems are summarized. Finally, the system configuration is described and reviewed.

  18. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced. PMID:25947054

  19. Dewatering refuse brings profits to Dorchester Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.; Erickson, L.

    1984-09-01

    A belt filter press is discussed which allowed Dorchester Coal's 150 tph preparation plant to meet certain objectives. The minus 28 mesh refuse had to be dewatered further for trucking and spreading in a landfill because it did not conform to regulatory requirements. The press allowed the plant to operate with a closed water circuit, brought the landfill into compliance, and reduced refuse handling problems. Moreover, the belt press system reduced refuse disposal costs.

  20. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  1. Incompetence, treatment refusal, and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Beck, J C; Parry, J W

    1992-01-01

    Psychiatrists have proposed broadened commitment statues based on need for care and treatment, and under which judges have no role in deciding cases of treatment refusal. The mental health bar has consistently opposed these proposals on constitutional and common law grounds. The authors propose new commitment criteria based on incompetency to decide about hospitalization, and inability to live safely in freedom. The proposed standards would meet the Constitutional requirements, and would permit hospitalization and/or treatment for many persons who are in need but who now go without. The authors recognize that new commitment law without adequate clinical resources will not greatly improve patient care. PMID:1421557

  2. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  3. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  5. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  6. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  7. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  8. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse...

  9. Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

  10. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  11. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  12. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

  13. The Functional Assessment of School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Lemos, Amie; Silverman, Jenna

    2004-01-01

    School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996). As such, the term represents an umbrella construct for many historical ones that have been used to describe youths with problematic absenteeism, including truancy, psychoneurotic truancy,…

  14. [Systematic family therapy in school refusal behavior].

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Jochen; Ochs, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with systemic-family therapeutic implications of differential diagnostics of school refusal behavior. Systemic therapy elements, that are useful in treatment of school phobia/school anxiety, and family interaction types, in which school refusal behavior occurs, are introduced. Finally two case studies of systemic family therapy are presented. PMID:12951914

  15. Lumbar puncture refusal in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Ling, S G; Boey, C C

    2000-10-01

    A descriptive study was carried out on patients admitted for febrile convulsion over a two-year period to determine rate of lumbar puncture (LP) refusal, factors associated with LP refusal and outcome of such patients. From 77 patients indicated and requested for LP, 19 (25%) patients refused the procedure. Refusal of LP was significantly more common among the Malay ethnic group (p = 0.01) but not significantly associated with age,gender or whether the patient was admitted for a first or recurrent febrile convulsion. Half of the patients who refused LP had to be started empirically on antibiotics for meningitis. Patients who refused LP were also 8.5 times more likely to discharge themselves "at own risk" (AOR), compared to other patients with febrile convulsion (p = 0.004). In conclusion, LP refusal is a common problem in the local setting and is a hindrance to the proper management of patients with fever and seizure. Appropriate measures must be carried out to educate the public, particularly those from the Malay ethnic group on the safety and usefulness of the procedure. Reasons for patients discharging AOR following LP refusal also need to be addressed and problems rectified. PMID:11281439

  16. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…

  17. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  18. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  19. Combustion-derived nanoparticle exposure and household solid fuel use in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel; Wei, Hu; Reiss, Boris; Coble, Joseph; Wei, Fusheng; Jun, Xu; Wu, Guoping; Rothman, Nat

    2014-01-01

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) have not been readably measurable until recently. We conducted a pilot study to determine CDNP levels during solid fuel burning. The aggregate surface area of CDNP (μm2/cm3) was monitored continuously in 15 Chinese homes using varying fuel types (i.e. bituminous coal, anthracite coal, wood) and stove types (i.e. portable stoves, stoves with chimneys, firepits). Information on fuel burning activities was collected and PM2.5 levels were measured. Substantial exposure differences were observed during solid fuel burning (mean: 228.1 μm2/cm3) compared to times without combustion (mean: 14.0 μm2/cm3). The observed levels during burning were reduced by about four-fold in homes with a chimney (mean: 92.1 μm2/cm3; n = 9), and effects were present for all fuel types. Each home’s CDNP measurement was only moderately correlated with the respective PM2.5 measurements (r2 = 0.43; p = 0.11). Our results indicate that household coal and wood burning contributes to indoor nanoparticle levels, which are not fully reflected in PM2.5 measurements. PMID:22639822

  20. Caregivers Who Refuse Preventive Care for Their Children: The Relationship Between Immunization and Topical Fluoride Refusal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine caregivers’ refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Methods. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Results. The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 1.96; P < .001; caregiver self-report PRR = 6.20; 95% CI = 3.21, 11.98; P < .001). Caregivers younger than 35 years were significantly more likely than older caregivers to refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P < .05). Conclusions. Caregiver refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children. PMID:24832428

  1. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  2. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  3. Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Zylkowski, J.; Ehrlich, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The Northern States Power (NSP) Company converted their French Island Unit No. 2 stoker-fired boiler to a fluidized-bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. NSP and EPRI are investigating cofiring other waste fuels with wood waste. Topics considered include fluidized-bed boiler conversion, fuel resources, economic justification, environmental considerations, the wood-handling system, an auxiliary fuel system, the air quality control system, ash handling and disposal, and the alternate fuels test program.

  4. Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Steen, Eric J; Kang, Yisheng; Bokinsky, Gregory; Hu, Zhihao; Schirmer, Andreas; McClure, Amy; Del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-01-28

    Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Major efforts to this end are focused on the microbial production of high-energy fuels by cost-effective 'consolidated bioprocesses'. Fatty acids are composed of long alkyl chains and represent nature's 'petroleum', being a primary metabolite used by cells for both chemical and energy storage functions. These energy-rich molecules are today isolated from plant and animal oils for a diverse set of products ranging from fuels to oleochemicals. A more scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals would be through the microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derived carbohydrates. Here we demonstrate the engineering of Escherichia coli to produce structurally tailored fatty esters (biodiesel), fatty alcohols, and waxes directly from simple sugars. Furthermore, we show engineering of the biodiesel-producing cells to express hemicellulases, a step towards producing these compounds directly from hemicellulose, a major component of plant-derived biomass. PMID:20111002

  5. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  6. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A. ); Wilemski, G. )

    1993-01-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980's when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH[sub 3], H[sub 2]S [COS], HCl, AsH[sub 3][As[sub 2](v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H[sub 2] Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  7. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.; Wilemski, G.

    1993-05-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980`s when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S [COS], HCl, AsH{sub 3}[As{sub 2}(v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H{sub 2} Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  8. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  9. Characteristic changes in algal organic matter derived from Microcystis aeruginosa in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Lu, Lu; Liu, Dongmei; Cui, Fuyi; Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate behavior of algal organic matter (AOM) during bioelectrochemical oxidation in microbial fuel cell in terms of compositions and structures. Study revealed that the AOM derived from blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa could be degraded more completely (82% COD removal) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) than by anaerobic fermentation (24% COD removal) in a control reactor without closed-circuit electrode and electricity was produced simultaneously. A variety of techniques were used to characterize the changes in AOM compositions and structures during bioelectrochemical oxidation. The presence of syntrophic interactions between electrochemical active bacteria and fermentative bacteria to degrade large molecular organics into small molecular substances, which could be oxidized by electrode but not by fermentation. The dominant tryptophan protein-like substances, humic acid-like substances and Chlorophyll a in AOM were highly degraded during MFC treatment. PMID:26081162

  10. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  11. Pervasive refusal syndrome - A clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Sowmyashree Mayur; Kommu, John Vijay Sagar; Seshadri, Shekhar; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Srinath, Shoba

    2015-10-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome is described as a condition comprising varying degrees of refusal across several domains; social withdrawal; resistance to treatment and is potentially life threatening with no detectable organic cause. Female predominance, refusal to eat with low weight, body image distortion, depressive features, premorbid personality issues similar to eating disorders have been noted, with 67% cases having complete recovery. In this paper, we describe what is probably the first case reported from India, of a child, who presented with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and treated with electroconvulsive therapy along with medications, but, sadly had a fatal outcome. PMID:26275914

  12. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  13. Method for removing HCL and HF from coal derived fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Gal, E.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a process stream for removing sulfur compounds from a hot coal derived fuel gas stream containing H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF upstream of a power plant. This patent describes improvement in introducing a sorbent material at a location and in an amount effective to break down at least the HCl and HF constituents into solid salts and gaseous CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at least partially concurrently with the removal of the sulfur compounds; and removing the solid salts from the stream.

  14. ST. LOUIS DEMONSTRATION: REFUSE PROCESSING PLANT EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and power plants. Data on plant material flows and oper...

  15. Food Refusal in Children: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Keith E.; Field, Douglas G.; Seiverling, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Food refusal is a severe feeding problem in which children refuse to eat all or most foods presented and exhibit problems with growth. This review discusses the definition, etiology, and interventions pertaining to food refusal. The interventions utilized for food refusal typically consist of several treatment components. These treatment…

  16. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  17. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  18. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  19. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2)...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2)...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2)...

  3. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  5. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

  6. Carbon Nanohorn-Derived Graphene Nanotubes as a Platinum-Free Fuel Cell Cathode.

    PubMed

    Unni, Sreekuttan M; Illathvalappil, Rajith; Bhange, Siddheshwar N; Puthenpediakkal, Hasna; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-11-01

    Current low-temperature fuel cell research mainly focuses on the development of efficient nonprecious electrocatalysts for the reduction of dioxygen molecule due to the reasons like exorbitant cost and scarcity of the current state-of-the-art Pt-based catalysts. As a potential alternative to such costly electrocatalysts, we report here the preparation of an efficient graphene nanotube based oxygen reduction electrocatalyst which has been derived from single walled nanohorns, comprising a thin layer of graphene nanotubes and encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles (FeGNT). FeGNT shows a surface area of 750 m(2)/g, which is the highest ever reported among the metal encapsulated nanotubes. Moreover, the graphene protected iron oxide nanoparticles assist the system to attain efficient distribution of Fe-Nx and quaternary nitrogen based active reaction centers, which provides better activity and stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic as well as alkaline conditions. Single cell performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell by using FeGNT as the cathode catalyst delivered a maximum power density of 200 mW cm(-2) with Nafion as the proton exchange membrane at 60 °C. The facile synthesis strategy with iron oxide encapsulated graphitic carbon morphology opens up a new horizon of hope toward developing Pt-free fuel cells and metal-air batteries along with its applicability in other energy conversion and storage devices. PMID:26458554

  7. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL-1 and 0.91 g mL-1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  8. Evaluating the manufacturability and combustion behaviors of sludge-derived fuel briquettes.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ing-Jia; Wu, I-Tsung

    2014-10-01

    Based on the physical and chemical properties as well as calorific values of pulp sludge and textile sludge, this study investigates the differences between manufacturability, relationship between extrusion pressure and formability, as well as stability and combustion behaviors of extruded sludge-derived fuel briquettes (ESBB) and cemented sludge-derived fuel blocks (CSBB). The optimum proportion and relevant usage ESBB policies are proposed as well. Experimental results indicate that a large amount of water can be saved during the ESBB manufacturing process. Additionally, energy consumption decreases during the drying process. ESBB also has a more compact structure than that of CSBB, and its mean penetration loading is approximately 18.7 times higher as well. Moreover, the flame temperature of ESBB (624-968°C) is significantly higher than that of CSBB (393-517°C). Also, the dry bulk density and moisture regain of ESBB is significantly related to the penetration loading. Furthermore, the optimum mix proportion of ESBB is co-determined by the formability of pulp sludge and the calorific values of textile sludge. While considering the specific conditions (including formability, stability and calorific values), the recommended mix proportion for ESBB is PS50TS50. PMID:24913348

  9. Fuel derived pollutants and boating activity patterns in the Sea of Galilee.

    PubMed

    Dinerman, Efrat; Dubowski, Yael; Friedler, Eran

    2011-11-01

    MTBE (Methyl tert-Butyl Ether) is a fuel additive that replaced lead as an antiknock compound in internal combustion motors. Few years after its introduction, detectable levels of MTBE were found in various water bodies. MTBE has a very low taste and odor threshold and is a potential carcinogen. Another group of fuel derived toxic compounds that has been detected in water bodies is BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene). Boating activity and allochthonous contributions from watersheds are the major sources of fuel derived pollutants in lakes. Their concentrations in lakes thus vary as a function of boating activity intensity, lake surface area and depth, weather and wind regime, land-use in the watershed, etc. The Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret) is the only recreational lake in Israel and an important freshwater source. In the current study, a sampling campaign was conducted in order to quantify MTBE and BTEX concentrations in Lake Kinneret, its marinas and its main contributing streams. In addition, a boating-use survey was performed in order to estimate MTBE and BTEX contribution of recreational boating. The sampling campaign revealed that, as expected, MTBE concentrations were higher than BTEX, and that near shore (i.e., marina) concentrations were higher than in-lake concentrations. Despite the clear contribution from boating, high MTBE concentrations were found following a major inflow event in winter, indicating the importance of the allochthonous contribution. The contribution from boating during summer, as measured indirectly by in-lake concentrations, is likely underestimated due to enhanced MTBE volatilization due to strong winds and high temperatures. May-September was found to be the main recreational boating season, with continued boating year round. On average, a single boat is active 23 d/y, with 84% of the watercrafts being active only during weekends and holidays. The survey further indicated that boats stay in the lake for 4.5 h on

  10. Life cycle assessment of switchgrass- and corn stover-derived ethanol-fueled automobiles.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Zhang, Yimin; MacLean, Heather L

    2005-12-15

    Utilizing domestically produced cellulose-derived ethanol for the light-duty vehicle fleet can potentially improve the environmental performance and sustainability of the transport and energy sectors of the economy. A life cycle assessment model was developed to examine environmental implications of the production and use of ethanol in automobiles in Ontario, Canada. The results were compared to those of low-sulfur reformulated gasoline (RFG) in a functionally equivalent automobile. Two time frames were evaluated, one near-term (2010), which examines converting a dedicated energy crop (switchgrass) and an agricultural residue (corn stover) to ethanol; and one midterm (2020), which assumes technological improvements in the switchgrass-derived ethanol life cycle. Near-term results show that, compared to a RFG automobile, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are 57% lower for an E85-fueled automobile derived from switchgrass and 65% lower for ethanol from corn stover, on a grams of CO2 equivalent per kilometer basis. Corn stover ethanol exhibits slightly lower life cycle GHG emissions, primarily due to sharing emissions with grain production. Through projected improvements in crop and ethanol yields, results for the mid-term scenario show that GHG emissions could be 25-35% lower than those in 2010 and that, even with anticipated improvements in RFG automobiles, E85 automobiles could still achieve up to 70% lower GHG emissions across the life cycle. PMID:16475363

  11. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  12. Liquid-phase catalytic processing of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons to fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chheda, Juben N; Huber, George W; Dumesic, James A

    2007-01-01

    Biomass has the potential to serve as a sustainable source of energy and organic carbon for our industrialized society. The focus of this Review is to present an overview of chemical catalytic transformations of biomass-derived oxygenated feedstocks (primarily sugars and sugar-alcohols) in the liquid phase to value-added chemicals and fuels, with specific examples emphasizing the development of catalytic processes based on an understanding of the fundamental reaction chemistry. The key reactions involved in the processing of biomass are hydrolysis, dehydration, isomerization, aldol condensation, reforming, hydrogenation, and oxidation. Further, it is discussed how ideas based on fundamental chemical and catalytic concepts lead to strategies for the control of reaction pathways and process conditions to produce H(2)/CO(2) or H(2)/CO gas mixtures by aqueous-phase reforming, to produce furan compounds by selective dehydration of carbohydrates, and to produce liquid alkanes by the combination of aldol condensation and dehydration/hydrogenation processes. PMID:17659519

  13. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Haoran; Deng, Lifang; Qi, Yujie; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Tang, Jiahuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems. PMID:25243229

  14. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the overall combined effect of coal-derived gas-phase trace contaminants. The species will be simultaneously present in fuel gas at concentrations near the single contaminant tolerance level found for the MCFC. The species will include, but are not limited to mercury, tin lead, selenium, arsenic, and zinc in the presence of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and halide (HCl). To accomplish this, the contractor will provide: (1) comprehensive reports of the data obtained and briefings presenting our current understanding of the interaction mechanisms and various products formed, (2) an updated list of MCFC tolerances for trace species when tested in combination in coal-gas mixtures of at least seven contaminants such as might exist in fuel from a typical entrained- or fluidized-bed gasifier, and (3) a mathematical model capable of predicting the effects of combinations of trace species on performance and endurance of the MCFC. 39 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  16. Δ14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X. T.; Ding, X. F.; Fu, D. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Liu, K. X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14C/12C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO2 was estimated by comparing the measured Δ14C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric Δ14C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low Δ14C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  17. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  18. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  19. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while

  20. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Cramer, Carolyn N.

    Oxidation-resistant alloys find use as interconnect materials, heat exchangers, and gas supply tubing in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, especially when operated at temperatures below ∼800 °C. If fueled with synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, such metallic components could be exposed to impurities contained in those fuel sources. In this study, coupons of ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and SS 441, austenitic nickel-chromium superalloy Inconel 600, and an alumina-forming high nickel alloy alumel were exposed to synthesis gas containing ≤2 ppm phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, and reaction products were tested. Crofer 22 APU coupons coated with a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 protective layer were also evaluated. Phosphorus was found to be the most reactive. On Crofer 22 APU, the (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 passivation layer reacted to form an Mn-P-O product, predicted to be manganese phosphate from thermochemical calculations, and Cr 2O 3. On SS 441, reaction of phosphorus with (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 led to the formation of manganese phosphate as well as an Fe-P product, predicted from thermochemical calculations to be Fe 3P. Minimal interactions with antimony or arsenic in synthesis gas were limited to Fe-Sb and Fe-As solid solution formation. Though not intended for use on the anode side, a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 spinel coating on Crofer 22 APU reacted with phosphorus in synthesis gas to produce products consistent with Mn 3(PO 4) 2 and Co 2P. A thin Cr 2O 3 passivation layer on Inconel 600 did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides and arsenides and of iron phosphides and arsenides, though no reaction with Cr 2O 3 was apparent. On alumel, an Al 2O 3 passivation layer rich in Ni did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, though no reaction with Al 2O 3 occurred. This work shows that unprotected metallic components of an SOFC stack and system can provide a sink for P, As and Sb impurities that may be present in fuel gases, and thus complicate

  1. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  2. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  3. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-04-01

    During the period January 1, 2001-March 31, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) finalized the engineering of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the fuel characterizations for both the Willow Island and Albright Generating Station projects, and initiated construction of both projects. Allegheny and its contractor, Foster Wheeler, selected appropriate fuel blends and issued purchase orders for all processing and mechanical equipment to be installed at both sites. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The third quarter of the project involved completing the detailed designs for the Willow Island Designer Fuel project. It also included complete characterization of the coal and biomass fuels being burned, focusing upon the following characteristics: proximate and ultimate analysis; higher heating value; carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance testing for aromaticity, number of aromatic carbons per cluster, and the structural characteristics of oxygen in the fuel; drop tube reactor testing for high temperature devolatilization kinetics and generation of fuel chars; thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) for char oxidation kinetics; and related testing. The construction at both sites commenced during this quarter, and was largely completed at the Albright Generating Station site.

  4. Vaccine Refusal a Driving Force Behind Measles Outbreaks, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157778.html Vaccine Refusal a Driving Force Behind Measles Outbreaks, Study ... than half of the cases involved unvaccinated children. Vaccine refusal was also often the culprit in whooping ...

  5. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI has... documented by a memorandum to the unit team listing reasons for the refusal, with a copy to the...

  6. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  7. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  8. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  9. Use of RDF as a kiln fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been experimented with and/or proposed for use in kilns for the production of portland cement, lime, and expanded shale (a form of lightweight aggregate). Technological issues affecting the use of RDF in kilns are reviewed as are the results of trials in which RDF has been used as a kiln fuel. Three future research/demonstration projects for addressing the major unresolved issues are discussed. These projects are: a lime plant trial; a trial in a pre-calcining furnace; and an extended trial in a cement kiln.

  10. IMPACT OF COAL REFUSE DISPOSAL ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent of groundwater quality deterioration when coal mine refuse and power plant ashes were disposed of in open pits. In addition, disposal methods were developed and procedures for planning and designing disposal sites were formu...

  11. TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART III: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MILLED REFUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this laboratory investigation were to gain an understanding of the decomposition of milled refuse under anaerobic conditions, the rates of decomposition, and the gas production and composition. The rates of decomposition of cellulose and cellulosic materials, ga...

  12. The Effect of Functional Groups in Bio-Derived Fuel Candidates.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rhodri W; Moore, Cameron M; Semelsberger, Troy A; Chuck, Christopher J; Gordon, John C; Sutton, Andrew D

    2016-05-10

    Interest in developing renewable fuels is continuing to grow and biomass represents a viable source of renewable carbon with which to replace fossil-based components in transportation fuels. During our own work, we noticed that chemists think in terms of functional groups whereas fuel engineers think in terms of physical fuel properties. In this Concept article, we discuss the effect of carbon and oxygen functional groups on potential fuel properties. This serves as a way of informing our own thinking and provides us with a basis with which to design and synthesize molecules from biomass that could provide useful transportation fuels. PMID:27099975

  13. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... OMB Circular A-76. (Contracting officers may designate a COTR to coordinate the information...

  14. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  15. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  16. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  17. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  18. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  19. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  20. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  1. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  2. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  3. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  4. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...(g) or other applicable law. Every refusal must be in conformance with the provisions of 22 CFR 40.6... related to the refusal shall be electronically scanned and electronically attached to Form DS-260 for... applicant. The original copy of a document that was scanned and attached to the DS-260 for the refusal...

  5. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(g) or other applicable law. Every refusal must be in conformance with the provisions of 22 CFR 40.6... related to the refusal shall be electronically scanned and electronically attached to Form DS-260 for... applicant. The original copy of a document that was scanned and attached to the DS-260 for the refusal...

  6. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall...

  7. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall...

  8. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall...

  9. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall...

  10. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall...

  11. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  12. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  13. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  14. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  15. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  16. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  17. 22 CFR 41.121 - Refusal of individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of individual visas. 41.121 Section 41.121 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Refusals and Revocations § 41.121 Refusal of individual visas....

  18. 22 CFR 41.121 - Refusal of individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of individual visas. 41.121 Section 41.121 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Refusals and Revocations § 41.121 Refusal of individual visas....

  19. 22 CFR 41.121 - Refusal of individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of individual visas. 41.121 Section 41.121 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Refusals and Revocations § 41.121 Refusal of individual visas....

  20. 22 CFR 41.121 - Refusal of individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refusal of individual visas. 41.121 Section 41.121 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Refusals and Revocations § 41.121 Refusal of individual visas....

  1. 22 CFR 41.121 - Refusal of individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of individual visas. 41.121 Section 41.121 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Refusals and Revocations § 41.121 Refusal of individual visas....

  2. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... a result of the anticipated contract from the servicing Human Resources Service office. The...

  3. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... workers who are adversely affected by the contract award and who are qualified for the jobs the...

  4. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... workers who are adversely affected by the contract award and who are qualified for the jobs the...

  5. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  6. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  7. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  8. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  9. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  10. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  11. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  12. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  14. Effect of fuel properties on performance of a single aircraft turbojet combustor. [from coal and oil-shale derived syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Ehlers, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was investigated with a number of fuels exhibiting wide variations in chemical composition and volatility. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons and NOx, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. At the simulated idle condition no significant differences in performance were observed. At cruise, liner temperatures and smoke increased sharply with decreasing hydrogen content of the fuel. No significant differences were observed in the performance of an oil-shale derived JP-5 and a petroleum-based Jet A fuel except for emissions of NOx which were higher with the oil-shale JP-5. The difference is attributed to the higher concentration of fuel-bound nitrogen in the oil-shale JP-5.

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  16. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts. PMID:19245012

  17. Advection of surface-derived organic carbon fuels microbial reduction in Bangladesh groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Cheung, Jennifer; Watson, Marlena; Stute, Martin; Freyer, Greg A.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Thomas, James; Layton, Alice C.; Zheng, Yan; Bostick, Benjamin C.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) by drinking shallow groundwater causes widespread disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries. The release of As naturally present in sediment to groundwater has been linked to the reductive dissolution of iron oxides coupled to the microbial respiration of organic carbon (OC). The source of OC driving this microbial reduction—carbon deposited with the sediments or exogenous carbon transported by groundwater—is still debated despite its importance in regulating aquifer redox status and groundwater As levels. Here, we used the radiocarbon (14C) signature of microbial DNA isolated from groundwater samples to determine the relative importance of surface and sediment-derived OC. Three DNA samples collected from the shallow, high-As aquifer and one sample from the underlying, low-As aquifer were consistently younger than the total sediment carbon, by as much as several thousand years. This difference and the dominance of heterotrophic microorganisms implies that younger, surface-derived OC is advected within the aquifer, albeit more slowly than groundwater, and represents a critical pool of OC for aquifer microbial communities. The vertical profile shows that downward transport of dissolved OC is occurring on anthropogenic timescales, but bomb 14C-labeled dissolved OC has not yet accumulated in DNA and is not fueling reduction. These results indicate that advected OC controls aquifer redox status and confirm that As release is a natural process that predates human perturbations to groundwater flow. Anthropogenic perturbations, however, could affect groundwater redox conditions and As levels in the future. PMID:23487743

  18. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Characterising the composition of waste-derived fuels using a novel image analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Peddireddy, S; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2015-06-01

    An experimental study was completed using a previously developed and innovative image analysis approach, which has been applied here to shredded waste materials representative of waste-derived fuels. Waste components were collected from source-segregated recycling containers and shredded to <150 mm. These materials were then used to produce 3× samples of different composition. The samples were spread to represent materials on a conveyor belt, and multiple images of each sample were captured using 10×10 cm and 20×20 cm quadrats. The images were processed using ERDAS Imagine software to determine the area covered by each waste component. This coverage was converted into a mass using density data determined as part of this study, yielding a determined composition which was then compared with the known composition of the samples. The image analysis results indicated a strong correlation with the actual values (mean r=0.89). The area coverage of the sample (10×10 cm or 20×20 cm) contributes to the accuracy as the dot-grid approach used with the particle size within the samples may result in components not being sufficiently monitored. This manuscript presents initial results of the application of an adapted innovative image-based method, and critically assesses how the technique could be improved and developed in the future. PMID:25827256

  20. Re-evaluating neptunium in uranyl phases derived from corroded spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Kropf, A. J.; Cunnane, J. C.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    Interest in mechanisms that may control radioelement release from corroded commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) has been heightened by the selection of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the repository for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in repository models owing to its relatively long half-life and its high aqueous mobility as neptunyl [Np(V)O+2]. The possibility of neptunium sequestration into uranyl alteration phases produced by corroding CSNF would suggest-a process for lowering neptunium concentration and subsequent migration from a geologic repository. However, there remains little experimental evidence that uranyl compounds will, in fact, serve as long-term host phases for the retention of neptunium under conditions expected in a deep geologic repository. To directly explore this possibility, we examined specimens of uranyl alteration phases derived from humid-air-corroded CSNF by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to better determine neptunium uptake in these phases. Although neptunium fluorescence was readily observed from as-received CSNF, it was not observed from the uranyl alteration rind. We establish upper limits for neptunium incorporation into CSNF alteration phases that are significantly below previously reported concentrations obtained by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We attribute the discrepancy to a plural-scattering event that creates a spurious EELS peak at the neptunium-MV energy.

  1. Re-Evaluating Neptunium in Uranyl Phases Derived from Corroded Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, Jeffrey A.; Finch, Robert J.; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Cunnane, James C.

    2004-11-15

    Interest in mechanisms that may control radioelement release from corroded commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) has been heightened by the selection of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the repository for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in repository models owing to its relatively long half-life and its high aqueous mobility as neptunyl [Np(V)O{sub 2}{sup +}]. The possibility of neptunium sequestration into uranyl alteration phases produced by corroding CSNF would suggest a process for lowering neptunium concentration and subsequent migration from a geologic repository. However, there remains little experimental evidence that uranyl compounds will, in fact, serve as long-term host phases for the retention of neptunium under conditions expected in a deep geologic repository. To directly explore this possibility, we examined specimens of uranyl alteration phases derived from humid-air-corroded CSNF by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to better determine neptunium uptake in these phases. Although neptunium fluorescence was readily observed from as-received CSNF, it was not observed from the uranyl alteration rind. We establish upper limits for neptunium incorporation into CSNF alteration phases that are significantly below previously reported concentrations obtained by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We attribute the discrepancy to a plural-scattering event that creates a spurious EELS peak at the neptunium-M{sub V} energy.

  2. Polyaniline-derived non-precious catalyst for the polymer electrolyte fuel cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhongwei; Garzon, Fernando; Zelenay, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    A novel polyaniline (PANI)-derived non-precious cathode catalyst was developed in this work, exhibiting remarkable activity (onset potential: 0.9 V, half-wave potential: 0.77 V) and selectivity (0.4 % H20 2 at 0.4 V). As a result, the generated current densities at high voltages associated with electrochemically kinetic activity can be achieved to 0.04 Acm-2 for 0.80V and 0.21 Acm-2 for 0.6 V, when air was used in fuel cell tests. MEA life test at a constant voltage of 0.4 V demonstrated a promising stability up to 450 hours, without obvious degradation. The current density during the test was measured around 0.32 A cm-2, a respectable performance for a cell with non-precious cathode, operated on air rather than oxygen. The possible active sites, related to pyridine- and pyrrole-like metal species were discussed according to presented XPS and XRD analysis.

  3. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions. PMID:16889378

  4. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  5. Comparing observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 in California with predictions from bottom-up inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Lueker, T.; Fischer, M. L.; Guilderson, T. P.; Keeling, R. F.; Brophy, K.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2015-12-01

    The US state of California has a progressive climate change mitigation policy, AB-32, enacted in 2006 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 15% by 2020 and then a further 80% by 2050. Bottom-up inventories indicate California's fossil fuel CO2 emissions are currently about 100 Mt C per year, but different inventories show discrepancies of ±15% in the state-wide total, and some larger discrepancies in various sub-regions of the state. We are developing a top-down framework for investigating fossil fuel and biospheric CO2 fluxes in California using atmospheric observations and models. California has a relatively dense collaborative network of greenhouse gas observations run by several universities, government laboratories and Earth Networks. Using this collaborative network, we conducted three field campaigns in 2014-15 to sample flasks at 10 tower sites across the state. Flasks were analysed for atmospheric CO2 and CO concentrations and for stable isotopes and radiocarbon in CO2. The flask observations of radiocarbon in CO2 allow patterns of fossil fuel-derived and biospheric CO2 to be distinguished at relatively high resolution across the state. We will report initial results from the observations showing regional gradients in fossil fuel-derived CO2 and fluctuations from changing weather patterns. We will compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to predictions from several bottom-up inventories and two atmospheric models. Linking the flask data with observations from OCO-2, TCCON, aircraft flights and ground-based in situ analyzers, we will examine the variation in total CO2 and its drivers over California. Further analysis is planned to integrate the data into an inversion framework for fossil fuel and biospheric CO2 fluxes over California.

  6. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) net petroleum gain; (2) net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end user.

  7. Refuse-to-energy is not dead

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, R.N.

    1988-11-01

    As noted in this paper, GAA (Government Advisory Associates) recently completed its fourth national survey of the refuse-to-energy business in the U.S. A total of 368 facilities were examined in all stages of project development. Contrary to the opinion of some doomsayers, refuse-to-energy in the U.S. is still a growing industry. Nevertheless, there has been some retrenchment in the past year due to political and environmental concerns, some legitimate and others unfounded. There are currently significant uncertainties in federal and state regulatory policies regarding air emissions and ash disposal which have led a number of private and public developers to hold off on planned new facilities. In any event, the long-term outlook for the industry is good, given the few disposal options available for solid waste planners faced with rising landfill costs and the prospect of few new landfills being sited.

  8. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  9. Performance, methanol tolerance and stability of Fe-aminobenzimidazole derived catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastián, David; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Aricò, Antonino S.; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    Highly active and durable non-platinum group metals (non-PGM) catalyst based on iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) derived from pyrolyzed Fe-aminobenzimidazole (Fe-ABZIM) was synthesized by sacrificial support method (SSM), and characterized by several physical-chemical techniques: scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In half-cell electrochemical configuration, the Fe-ABZIM catalyst presented a significant improvement of ORR activity with respect to a recently reported non-PGM formulation based on Fe-aminoantipyrine, with an enhancement of half-wave potential of about 85 mV in O2-saturated sulfuric acid solution. To the moment, the gap with respect to a benchmark Pt/C catalyst was about 90 mV. The Fe-ABZIM catalyst showed a remarkably high tolerance to methanol, resulting in superior ORR performance compared to Pt/C at methanol concentrations higher than 0.02 M. In direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) good performances were also obtained. A durability test (100 h) at 90 °C, feeding 5 M methanol, was carried out. A certain decrease of performance was recorded, amounting to -0.20 mW cm-2 h-1 at the very beginning of test and -0.05 mW cm-2 h-1 at the end. However, the Fe-ABZIM is more adequate than previously reported formulations in terms of both ORR activity and stability.

  10. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U. |

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial

  12. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Hill, D.; Simms, N.J.

    2009-08-15

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ({approx}2500 g CO{sub 2} eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and {approx}1500 g CO{sub 2} eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  13. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Garg, A; Smith, R; Hill, D; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues. PMID:19443201

  14. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  15. Test and evaluation of shale derived jet fuel by the United States Air Force

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    In June 1980, the United States Congress passed the Energy Security Act which provided for the formation of the United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation and amended the Defense Production Act of 1950 to provide for synthetic fuels for the Department of Defense (DOD). A subsequent law, P.L., 96-304, appropriated up to $20 billion for financial incentives to foster a national synthetic fuel industry. The initial synthetic fuel project funded under the Energy Security Act is the Unocal Parachute Creek Project in Colorado with an expected shale oil production of 10,000 bbls/day. The Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) contracted with Gary Energy Refining Company, Fruita, Colorado to provide approximately 5,000 bbls/day of shale JP-4 for the United States Air Force (USAF) using crude from the Parachute Creek Project, with initial deliveries to begin in 1985.

  16. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2002--December 31, 2002, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) completed the first year of testing at the Willow Island cofiring project. This included data acquisition and analysis associated with certain operating parameters and environmental results. Over 2000 hours of cofiring operation were logged at Willow Island, and about 4,000 tons of sawdust were burned along with slightly more tire-derived fuel (TDF). The results were generally favorable. During this period, also, a new grinder was ordered for the Albright Generating Station to handle oversized material rejected by the disc screen. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the test results at Willow Island and summarizes the grinder program at Albright.

  17. Transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules: from high added-value chemicals to fuels via aqueous-phase processing.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Luque, Rafael; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Global warming issues and the medium-term depletion of fossil fuel reserves are stimulating researchers around the world to find alternative sources of energy and organic carbon. Biomass is considered by experts the only sustainable source of energy and organic carbon for our industrial society, and it has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. However, the transition from a petroleum-based economy to one based on biomass requires new strategies since the petrochemical technologies, well-developed over the last century, are not valid to process the biomass-derived compounds. Unlike petroleum feedstocks, biomass derived platform molecules possess a high oxygen content that gives them low volatility, high solubility in water, high reactivity and low thermal stability, properties that favour the processing of these resources by catalytic aqueous-phase technologies at moderate temperatures. This tutorial review is aimed at providing a general overview of processes, technologies and challenges that lie ahead for a range of different aqueous-phase transformations of some of the key biomass-derived platform molecules into liquid fuels for the transportation sector and related high added value chemicals. PMID:21713268

  18. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly status report No. 6, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively ``benign`` system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE`s program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  19. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker.

  20. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  1. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  2. Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R.; Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M.

    2008-10-15

    The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size

  3. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSES OF PEDIATRIC FOOD REFUSAL AND ACCEPTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, Carrie S.W; Woods, Julia N; Borrero, John C; Masler, Elizabeth A; Lesser, Aaron D

    2010-01-01

    Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food refusal to determine if the consequences commonly delivered during functional analyses were observed during parent-conducted meals. The conditional probabilities for the delivery of attention, tangible items, and escape following food refusal and acceptance were compared to the unconditional probabilities of each event. Results showed that attention and escape most frequently followed refusal and differed depending on the topography of refusal. Implications for further evaluations of food refusal using similar methods are discussed. PMID:20808496

  4. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  5. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  6. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  8. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  9. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  10. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-11

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane. PMID:21833087

  11. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. PMID:23445457

  12. IOW refuse incinerator to warm prisoners

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D.

    1981-09-22

    Talks are underway for the possible construction of an incinerator on the Isle of Wight that would serve the prisons with heat. Construction would start in January 1985 and after a six-month trial period, the incinerator would be in full operation by 1987. Annual saving in energy terms would be as much as 1 million gallons of oil a year if a local hospital would also be linked to the heating scheme. The estimated cost of processing refuse by the incinerator is 7 pounds/tonne as opposed to the present 6 pounds/tonne by landfill disposal.

  13. Characterization of Korean solid recovered fuels (SRFs): an analysis and comparison of SRFs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon-Seok; Han, Soyoung; Choi, Hang-Seok; Kim, Seock-Joon

    2012-04-01

    To date, Korea has used four species of solid recovered fuels (SRFs) which have been certified by the Environmental Ministry of Korea: refuse-derived fuel (RDF), refused plastic fuel (RPF), tyre-derived fuel (TDF), and wood chip fuel (WCF). These fuels have been used in many industrial boilers. In this study, seven regulatory properties associated with each of the four species: particle size, moisture and ash content, lower heating value (LHV), total chlorine, sulfur, and heavy metals content (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr) were analysed. These properties are the main regulation criteria for the usage and transfer of SRFs in Korea. Different properties of each SRF were identified on the basis of data collected over the last 3 years in Korea, and the manufacturing process problem associated with the production of SRFs were considered. It was found that the high moisture content of SRFs (especially WCF) could directly lead to the low LHV of SRFs and that the poor screening and sorting of raw materials could cause defective SRF products with high ash or chlorine contents. The information obtained from this study could contribute to the manufacturing of SRF with good quality. PMID:22496248

  14. TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART II: SWELLING PRESSURE AND PERMEABILITY IN MILLED REFUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of permeability tests and swelling pressure tests on samples of a milled refuse at various compacted dry densities. Permeability tests were done with special attention being given to assure saturation of the sample; for this purpose, the sample wa...

  15. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  16. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  18. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

    2005-06-01

    Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

  19. Preliminary assessment of systems for deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from waste or grown organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the chemical conversion of waste or grown organic matter to fuel is examined from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. The energy contribution from a system that uses waste and grown organic feedstocks is estimated as 4 to 12 percent of our current energy consumption. Estimates of today's market prices for these fuels are included. Economic and social issues are as important as technology in determining the feasibility of such a proposal. An orderly program of development and demonstration is recommended to provide reliable data for an assessment of the viability of the proposal.

  20. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas'' experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) process, this work focused on the development of slurry reactor based processes. The experimental investigations, which involved bench-scale reactor studies, focused primarily on three areas: (1) One-step, slurry-phase syngas conversion to hydrocarbons or methanol/hydrocarbon mixtures using a mixture of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol conversion catalyst in the same slurry reactor. (2) Slurry-phase conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols using various catalysts. (3) One-step, slurry-phase syngas conversion to mixed ethers using a mixture of mixed alcohols synthesis catalyst and dehydration catalyst in the same slurry reactor. The experimental results indicate that, of the three types of processes investigated, slurry phase conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols shows the most promise for further process development. Evaluations of various mixed alcohols catalysts show that a cesium-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] methanol synthesis catalyst, developed in Air Products' laboratories, has the highest performance in terms of rate and selectivity for C[sub 2+]-alcohols. In fact, once-through conversion at industrially practical reaction conditions yielded a mixed alcohols product potentially suitable for direct gasoline blending. Moreover, an additional attractive aspect of this catalyst is its high selectivity for branched alcohols, potential precursors to iso-olefins for use in etherification.

  1. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres. PMID:25079999

  2. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  3. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  4. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  5. Fuel compositions containing maleic derivatives of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a diesel fuel composition. It is characterized by improved wear properties. It comprises: a major portion of middle distillates boiling in the range of about 163{degrees}to 400{degrees}C. and a minor wear improving amount of a reaction product of a maleic compound and 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

  6. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Richard "Barney" Carlson; Jeff Gonder; Aaron Brooker

    2009-09-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have potential to reduce or eliminate the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Quantifying the amount of petroleum each uses, however, is challenging. To estimate in-use fuel economy for conventional vehicles the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts chassis dynamometer tests on standard historic drive cycles and then adjusts the resulting “raw” fuel economy measurements downward. Various publications, such as the forthcoming update to the SAE J1711 recommended practice for PHEV fuel economy testing, address the challenges of applying standard test procedures to PHEVs. This paper explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to such “raw” PHEV dynamometer test results in order to more closely estimate the in-use fuel and electricity consumption characteristics of these vehicles. The paper discusses two possible adjustment methods, and evaluates one method by applying it to dynamometer data and comparing the result to in-use fleet data (on an aftermarket conversion PHEV). The paper will also present the methodologies used to collect the data needed for this comparison.

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  8. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section 816.83 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse...

  9. 49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unlawful refusals; consequences. 219.213 Section 219.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.213 Unlawful refusals;...

  10. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  11. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  12. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  13. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  14. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  15. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.10 Refusals to...

  16. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.10 Refusals to...

  17. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.10 Refusals to...

  18. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of accreditation. 439.50... ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.50 Refusal of accreditation. Upon a determination by... or State court concerning any of the following violations of law: (1) Any felony. (2) Any...

  19. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  20. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused...

  1. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  2. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  3. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  4. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  5. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  6. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  7. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  8. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  9. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  10. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the... prevent the possible introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases. If such embryo is... introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases....

  11. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...(g) or other applicable law. Every refusal must be in conformance with the provisions of 22 CFR 40.6... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedure in refusing individual visas. 42.81 Section 42.81 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER...

  12. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(g) or other applicable law. Every refusal must be in conformance with the provisions of 22 CFR 40.6... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure in refusing individual visas. 42.81 Section 42.81 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER...

  13. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(g) or other applicable law. Every refusal must be in conformance with the provisions of 22 CFR 40.6... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure in refusing individual visas. 42.81 Section 42.81 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER...

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  16. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  17. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  18. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  19. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  20. Household Refuse Analysis: Theory, Method, and Applications in Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathje, William L., Ed.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl K., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this issue explore the current parameters of household refuse analysis. An overview of garbage research studies is presented; research methodology, theories, and applications are examined. U.S. household refuse is compared to the discards of households in Mexico City. (RM)

  1. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654.414 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.414 Garbage and other refuse. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused...

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused...

  4. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.114 Release or refusal of delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment...

  5. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.114 Release or refusal of delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment...

  6. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.114 Release or refusal of delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment...

  7. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.114 Release or refusal of delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment...

  8. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.114 Release or refusal of delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment...

  9. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of... threatened if treatment is not initiated immediately, the physician shall give consideration to...

  10. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of... threatened if treatment is not initiated immediately, the physician shall give consideration to...

  11. School Refusal: Assessment and Intervention within School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Mary B.

    Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…

  12. Structural and Strategic Approach to School Phobia/School Refusal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsia, Heidi

    1984-01-01

    Describes school phobia and school refusal as two ends of a continuum from involuntary symptoms to willful refusal. A treatment case is reported to demonstrate the strategies of reestablishing the proper parent-child hierarchy, as well as the principles of effective case management. (JAC)

  13. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  14. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  15. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  16. [The parents' experience of school refusal in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Bussard, Dewi; Harf, Aurélie; Sibeoni, Jordan; Radjack, Rahmeth; Benoit, Jean Pierre; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    While today's society places considerable importance on schooling and performances, school absenteeism is currently very high. One of the causes is anxiety-based school refusal. This phenomenon affects the adolescent but also has an impact on their family. Exploring the experience of the parents of teenagers presenting anxiety-based school refusal enables these families to be given better support. PMID:26381070

  17. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the... prevent the possible introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases. If such embryo is... introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases....

  18. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the... prevent the possible introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases. If such embryo is... introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases....

  19. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the... prevent the possible introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases. If such embryo is... introduction into the United States of infectious animal diseases....

  20. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  1. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  2. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  3. 24 CFR 906.13 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right of first refusal. 906.13... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Purchaser Requirements § 906.13 Right of first refusal. (a... housing unit, to offer the unit for sale first to the current resident of the unit....

  4. 24 CFR 906.13 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of first refusal. 906.13... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Purchaser Requirements § 906.13 Right of first refusal. (a... housing unit, to offer the unit for sale first to the current resident of the unit....

  5. 21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal to approve an application. 514.111 Section 514.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on Applications § 514.111 Refusal to approve...

  6. Management of Pregnant Patients Who Refuse Medically Indicated Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Oxford, Corrina M

    2012-01-01

    The doctrine of informed refusal may become difficult to adhere to in obstetric practice, especially in situations in which the fetus’s life is at risk. One rare yet potentially problematic situation of informed refusal is the case of a pregnant woman who refuses to undergo a medically indicated cesarean delivery that would ensure the well-being of her fetus. Although some would argue that patient autonomy takes precedence and the woman’s informed refusal should be respected, others would argue that beneficence, justice, and doing no harm to the viable fetus should ethically overrule the refusal of a surgery. This article explores the profound conflict between maternal autonomy and the rights of the fetus, provides a framework to address when the two diverge, and poses suggestions for how providers can better navigate this dilemma. PMID:23483714

  7. Hydrocarbyl substituted carboxylic acylating agent derivative containing combinations, and fuels containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Dorer, C.J. Jr.; Hayashi, K.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a distillate fuel oil composition comprising a major amount of a normally liquid fuel and a pour-point depressant amount of: a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, the copolymer having about 30 to about 40% by weight vinyl acetate, a number average molecular weight in the range of about 1500 to about 3000, and about 3 to about 6 methyl terminating side branches per 100 methylene groups; and the reaction product of a hydrocarbyl-substituted succinic anhydride with a mixture of aminopropylmorpholine and diethylenetriamine, the hydrocarbyl substituent of the succinic anhydride being polymer of C/sub 15-18/ alpha-olefins, the number average molecular weight of the substituent being in the range of about 2000 to about 8000.

  8. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  9. Coal refuse disposal in mountainous areas

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.

    1983-10-01

    All designs should be complete in every detail, and certified by a professional engineer. Time spent during this stage in making certain that all requirements have been met, and that everything is in order, will save you many headaches as well as dollars in contractor delay time. If at all possible, two small settling ponds would be preferable to one large one, from the standpoint of time required to design and permit a larger pond to conform to CFR 30-77.216. This is not to say that the design will be any less rigorous, but simply in the amount of time that can be saved. A list of procedures which might be required for future refuse disposal piles is given.

  10. Exploring Sustainable Rocket Fuels: [Imidazolyl-Amine-BH2](+)-Cation-Based Ionic Liquids as Replacements for Toxic Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Wenquan; Liu, Tianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-12-01

    The application of hypergolic ionic liquids as propellant fuels is a newly emerging area in the fields of chemistry and propulsion science. Herein, a new class of [imidazolyl-amine-BH2](+)-cation-based ionic liquids, which included fuel-rich anions, such as dicyanamide (N(CN)2(-)) and cyanoborohydride (BH3CN(-)) anions, were synthesized and characterized. As expected, all of the ionic liquids exhibited spontaneous combustion upon contact with the oxidizer 100 % HNO3. The densities of these ionic liquids varied from 0.99-1.12 g cm(-3), and the heats of formation, predicted based on Gaussian 09 calculations, were between -707.7 and 241.8 kJ mol(-1). Among them, the salt of compound 5, that is, (1-allyl-1H-imidazole-3-yl)-(trimethylamine)-dihydroboronium dicyanamide, exhibited the lowest viscosity (168 MPa s), good thermal properties (Tg <-70 °C, Td >130 °C), and the shortest ignition-delay time (18 ms) with 100 % HNO3. These ionic fuels, as "green" replacements for toxic hydrazine-derivatives, may have potential applications as bipropellant formulations. PMID:26247801

  11. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Borrok, David M; Gieré, Reto; Ren, Minghua; Landa, Edward R

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process. PMID:21047059

  12. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  13. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  14. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The kinetic data for a Mo-Ni-K/C catalyst were completed. Kinetic schemes were derived for the formation of methanol and ethanol over this catalyst. TPR results on alkali-substituted Mo/C are beginning to be amenable to a systematic quantitative analysis.

  15. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  16. Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-07

    This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  18. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2011-06-01

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275°C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 μg I-TEQ kg(-1) toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 μg I-TEQ kg(-1) in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases. PMID:21334872

  19. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T.

    2011-06-15

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275 deg. C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases.

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  1. Combustion studies of coal-derived solid fuels. Part IV. Correlation of ignition temperatures from thermogravimetry and free-floating experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of TG as an efficient and practical method to characterize the combustion properties of fuels used in large-scale combustors is of considerable interest. Relative ignition temperatures of a lignite, an anthracite, a bituminous coal and three chars derived from this coal were measured by a free-floating technique. These temperatures were correlated with those estimated from TG burning profiles of the fuels. ?? 1992.

  2. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  3. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture. PMID:22070039

  4. The right to refuse treatment: a model act.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Although the right to refuse medical treatment is universally recognized as a fundamental principle of liberty, this right is not always honored. A refusal can be thwarted either because a patient is unable to competently communicate or because providers insist on continuing treatment. To help enhance the patient's right to refuse treatment, many states have enacted so-called "living will" or "natural death" statutes. We believe the time has come to move beyond these current legislative models, and we therefore propose a Model Act that clearly enunciates an individual's right to refuse treatment, does not limit its exercise to the terminally ill or to heroic measures, and provides a mechanism by which individuals can set forth their wishes in advance and designate another person to enforce them. PMID:6869647

  5. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  6. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  7. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  8. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  9. School refusal: issues of conceptualisation, assessment, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J G

    1999-10-01

    Developments in the assessment and treatment of school refusal have often been hampered by a failure to recognise its essentially heterogeneous nature. This paper provides a review of major conceptual complexities that have helped to undermine developments in clinical practice. In particular, it considers the distinction between school refusal and truancy, and school phobia and separation anxiety. Common approaches to the assessment and treatment of school refusal are outlined. Although behavioural and cognitive behavioural approaches are now widely accepted as central to treatment, it is increasingly recognised that individually tailored programmes, utilising a range of approaches, are most likely to prove successful. An approach focusing upon the functions, rather than the symptoms, of school refusal is advocated as having most promise for assessment and the subsequent formulation of individual prescriptive treatment. PMID:10576531

  10. Glass and glass-derivative seals for use in energy-efficient fuel cells and lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshineya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2005-07-28

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 18 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. From the whole design space, several glasses were ''downselected'' and studied in detail to describe their behaviors in simulated fuel cell environments. One of the glasses was found to outperform all others, including the well-known G18 sealant developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The new glass composition showed lower bulk electrical conductivity, excellent sealing and wetting behavior when sealing under applied load, and qualitatively superior performance when exposed to wet hydrogen for 800 hours. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses that were studied in detail. The sol-gel approach was used to synthesize several compositions, but it was found that the glasses crystallized very rapidly during heating, precluding sealing. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. The body of fundamental data provides a platform for future developments for high temperature sealants, and the newly-developed glass compositions appear promising for large-scale testing. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria-alumina-silica system at various silica levels. Functional testing of one of the candidate sealants demonstrated that it performs well in current HID lighting applications. Further testing is required to evaluate its performance

  11. Update on the right to refuse antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karl G

    1991-01-01

    The legal history and current developments in the right to refuse antipsychotic medication are reviewed. In Washington v. Harper the US Supreme Court analyzed the right to refuse antipsychotic medication under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution. A narrow issue was clarified but substantial uncertainty remains. As a result, law and policy problems at both state and institutional levels have become evident and may need to be addressed by drug policy decision makers. PMID:11659419

  12. Jehovah's Witnesses and autonomy: honouring the refusal of blood transfusions.

    PubMed

    Bock, Gregory L

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the scriptural and theological reasons given by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) to refuse blood transfusions. Julian Savulescu and Richard W Momeyer argue that informed consent should be based on rational beliefs and that the refusal of blood transfusions by JWs is irrational, but after examining the reasons given by JWs, I challenge the claim that JW beliefs are irrational. I also question whether we should give up the traditional notion of informed consent. PMID:22790086

  13. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of this Preserve any oily liquids or wastes, acids...

  14. [Maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery, stillbirth].

    PubMed

    Defline, A; Obadia, M; El Djerbi, A; Plevy, P; Lepercq, J

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-lawyer perspective that we discuss is a maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery for a fetal indication in June 2011. Despite repeated information of the risks during a three-week hospitalization for pre-eclampsia, after being assured of the proper understanding of the seriousness of the situation by the patient and spouse, and after consideration to transfer to another hospital, the reiterated refusal led to a late fetal extraction resulting in term stillbirth. PMID:23972774

  15. Tire derived fuel and thermal waste incineration commercial operation in coal fired cyclone units

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, P.A.; Waldron, R.G.; Diewald, D.J.; Witts, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    In an effort to clean up and dispose of former manufactured gas plant site wastes, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency issued an experimental permit to Illinois Power to conduct a test burn of coal tar and coal tar impacted soil. An experimental permit was required because this was the first time in Illinois that gas manufacturing residues had been burned in a power plant boiler, even though it has been done in other states with great success. The USEPA, the Illinois EPA, and Illinois Power believe the most efficient way to clean up these wastes is to use a method that permanently reduces or removes threats to health and the environment. After completing successful test burns and providing results to the Illinois EPA and USEPA, Illinois Power petitioned for and was granted an environmental permit to construct and operate a commercial incineration facility to supplement the fuel on two coal fired cyclone units. This technical paper examines the processing, testing and effectiveness of the commercial operation to date. A comprehensive health and safety plan along with a results study to establish an improved permanent operation at the Baldwin Plant will be contained.

  16. Cas3-Derived Target DNA Degradation Fragments Fuel Primed CRISPR Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Künne, Tim; Kieper, Sebastian N; Bannenberg, Jasper W; Vogel, Anne I M; Miellet, Willem R; Klein, Misha; Depken, Martin; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Brouns, Stan J J

    2016-09-01

    Prokaryotes use a mechanism called priming to update their CRISPR immunological memory to rapidly counter revisiting, mutated viruses, and plasmids. Here we have determined how new spacers are produced and selected for integration into the CRISPR array during priming. We show that Cas3 couples CRISPR interference to adaptation by producing DNA breakdown products that fuel the spacer integration process in a two-step, PAM-associated manner. The helicase-nuclease Cas3 pre-processes target DNA into fragments of about 30-100 nt enriched for thymine-stretches in their 3' ends. The Cas1-2 complex further processes these fragments and integrates them sequence-specifically into CRISPR repeats by coupling of a 3' cytosine of the fragment. Our results highlight that the selection of PAM-compliant spacers during priming is enhanced by the combined sequence specificities of Cas3 and the Cas1-2 complex, leading to an increased propensity of integrating functional CTT-containing spacers. PMID:27546790

  17. Highly Porous Carbon Derived from MOF-5 as a Support of ORR Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif; Zhao, Dan

    2016-07-13

    The development of highly competent electrocatalysts for the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at cathodes of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is extremely important for their long-term operation and wide applications. Herein, we present highly efficient ORR electrocatalysts based on Pt/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles dispersed on highly porous carbon obtained via pyrolysis of a metal-organic framework MOF-5. In comparison to the commercial Pt/C (20%), the electrocatalyst Pt-Ni/PC 950 (15:15%) in this study exhibits a pronounced positive shift of 90 mV in Eonset. In addition, it also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and durability during the 500-cycle continue-oxygen-supply (COS) accelerating durability tests (ADTs). The significantly improved activity and stability of Pt-Ni/PC 950 (15:15%) can be attributed to the Pt electron interaction with Ni and carbon support as has been proved in X-ray and microscopic analysis. PMID:27327655

  18. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  19. Organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine and future reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Koltunov, V.S.; Baranov, S.M.

    1994-07-01

    Reductants of Pu and Np that are used in extraction suffer from a number of deficiencies such as the formation of Fe(III), Fe(II), and ammonium (hydrazine) nitrates. This increases the amount of salts in the radioactive waste solutions, the instability of U(IV) in the organic phase, and the potential explosiveness owing to the formation of azides (hydrazine) and others. Therefore, the search for and investigation of new highly efficient reductants of Pu and Np that do not form salts should become an important thrust for improving thrust extraction in the near future. Organic derivatives of hydrazine and hydroxylamine are the first step in this direction. These comparatively rapidly convert Np(VI) to Np(V) and Pu(IV) to Pu(III), thereby stabilizing the pair Pu(III)-Np(V). This is most convenient for separating Pu and Np from U by reductive back-extraction in the first extraction cycle.

  20. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type kinetic schemes were derived for the formation of methanol through butanol and total hydrocarbons over a Co-K-MoS{sub 2}/C catalyst. Reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials continue to be considered as promising catalysts for HAS. A kinetic study of this catalyst has been started. TPR results on alkali-substituted Mo/C are beginning to be amenable to a systematic quantitative analysis. The characterization studies of transition-metal-oxide catalysts has ended. Consideration of various models for the performance of a packed-bed membrane reactor in the synthesis of methanol indicates that a model involving large (but finite) permeances of CO and MeOH may be optimal. Comparison of the membrane reactor with a packed-bed tubular reactor indicates that the former may be advantageous at low total flow rates.

  1. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

    2003-12-31

    Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal

  2. Experience with the combustion of alternate fuels in a CFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Probst, S.G.; Wu, S.; Edvardsson, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    A circulating fluidized bed pilot plant has been operated for several years in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, by Tampella Power Corporation to test the combustion characteristics of many different types of fuels. The fuels tested at the facility include: bituminous and anthracite coals; bituminous (gob) and anthracite (culm) waste; fluid and delayed petroleum coke; Colorado and Israel oil shales; tire derived fuel (TDF); refuse derived fuel (RDF); paper mill sludge and bark; and refinery process off-gas. Each of these fuels presented special fuel and ash handling problems that needed to be addressed before successful testing could be accomplished; these problems are more urgent on the pilot scale than in the commercial scale due to the corresponding reduction in equipment size. Each of these fuels also behaved differently in terms of combustion characteristics and gaseous emissions, as would be expected on the basis of their vastly different physical and chemical properties. This paper describes the major experiences obtained during the pilot plant testing of each of these alternative fuels, including summaries of the tested fuels and their measured emissions, limestone performance when applicable, and practical considerations.

  3. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO[sub 2] removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  4. Comparison and Analysis of Regulatory and Derived Requirements for Certain DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments; Lessons Learned for Future Spent Fuel Transportation Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, George L., Ph.D.; Fawcett, Rick L.; Rieke, Philip C.

    2003-02-27

    Radioactive materials transportation is stringently regulated by the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to protect the public and the environment. As a Federal agency, however, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must seek State, Tribal and local input on safety issues for certain transportation activities. This interaction has invariably resulted in the imposition of extra-regulatory requirements, greatly increasing transportation costs and delaying schedules while not significantly enhancing the level of safety. This paper discusses the results an analysis of the regulatory and negotiated requirements established for a July 1998 shipment of spent nuclear fuel from foreign countries through the west coast to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Staff from the INEEL Nuclear Materials Engineering and Disposition Department undertook the analysis in partnership with HMTC, to discover if there were instances where requirements derived from stakeholder interactions duplicate, contradict, or otherwise overlap with regulatory requirements. The study exhaustively lists and classifies applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. These are then compared with a similarly classified list of requirements from the Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and those developed during stakeholder negotiations. Comparison and analysis reveals numerous attempts to reduce transportation risk by imposing more stringent safety measures than those required by DOT and NRC. These usually took the form of additional inspection, notification and planning requirements. There are also many instances of overlap with, and duplication of regulations. Participants will gain a greater appreciation for the need to understand the risk-oriented basis of the radioactive materials regulations and their effectiveness in ensuring safety when negotiating extra-regulatory requirements.

  5. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  6. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in the Presence of Coal-Derived Fuel Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.W., Jr.; Gardner, T.H.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, D.A.; Freed, A.D.

    2005-09-01

    A rotatable central composite design approach was utilized to examine the activity and selectivity of an activated carbon-based catalyst during partial oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Tests were conducted at 400 psig with a 4000 ppmv H2S inlet concentration in the presence of coal-derived fuel gas (i.e., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O). Temperature, space velocity, and O2:H2S ratio were chosen as process variables for the study to generate response surface maps of elemental sulfur yield and longevity. Temperature was varied from 150-300°C; gas hourly space velocity varied from 1000 -15000 h-1 (STP); O2:H2S varied from 0.5-2.0. Evolution of SO2 and/or COS during some of the tests indicated the presence of side reactions. The relationship between the process variables and catalyst performance as well as the results of catalyst characterization is discussed.

  7. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived methyl ketones to liquid transportation fuel precursors by an organocatalytic approach.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanapillai, Shylesh; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gomes, Joseph; Grippo, Adam; Arab, George E; Head-Gordon, Martin; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-04-01

    A highly efficient water-tolerant, solid-base catalyst for the self-condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones to jet-diesel fuel precursors was developed by grafting site-isolated secondary amines on silica-alumina supports. It is shown that apart from the nature and density of amine groups and the spatial separation of the acidic and basic sites, the acidity of the support material plays a critical role in defining the catalytic activity. It is also found that a combination of weakly acidic silanol/aluminol with secondary amine groups can mimic proline catalysts and are more effective in catalyzing the selective dimerization reaction than the combination of amines with organic acids. In situ FTIR measurements demonstrate that acidic groups activate methyl ketones through their carbonyl groups leading to a favorable CC bond formation step involving an enamine intermediate. DFT analysis of the reaction pathway confirms that CC bond formation is the rate-limiting step. PMID:25704593

  9. Analysis of derived optical parameters of atmospheric particles during a biomass burning event. Comparison with fossil fuel burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Mogo, S.; Cachorro, V.; de Frutos, A.; Medeiros, M.; Martins, R.; López, J. F.; Marcos, A.; Marcos, N.; Bizarro, S.; Mano, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the day November 26, 2014, a scheduled cleanup of the woods took place around the GOA-UVa aerosol measurement station located at the campus of the University of Beira Interior (40° 16’30”N, 7°30’35”W, 704m a.s.l.), Covilhã, Portugal. This cleanup included excessive vegetation removal during the morning, using fossil fuel-burning machinery, and burning of the vegetation during the afternoon. In situ measurements of aerosol optical properties were made and this study aims the characterization of the evolution of aerosol properties during the day. The optical parameters were monitored using a 3-wavelength nephelometer and a 3-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer. Selective sampling/exclusion of the coarse particles was done each 5 minutes. The scattering and absorption Ångström exponents as well as the single scattering albedo were derived and fully analyzed. The scattering and absorption coefficients increased dramatically during the event, reaching values as high as 720.3 Mm-1 and 181.9 Mm-1, respectively, for the green wavelength and PM10 size fraction. The spectral behavior of these parameters also changed wildly along the day and an inversion of the slope from positive to negative in the case of the single scattering albedo was observed.

  10. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  11. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  12. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  13. Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, ‘the last mile is longest’. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. ‘walk the last mile first’. PMID:23798696

  14. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  15. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  16. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  17. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section 817.83 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste:...

  18. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  19. Treating Total Liquid Refusal with Backward Chaining and Fading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In this study of a 12-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, and a history of severe gastrointestinal problems, who refused liquids and food, backward chaining was used to shape drinking from a cup and a fading procedure was used to increase the water he was required to drink. (Author/CR)

  20. 49 CFR 219.209 - Reports of tests and refusals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports of tests and refusals. 219.209 Section 219.209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological...

  1. 49 CFR 219.209 - Reports of tests and refusals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of tests and refusals. 219.209 Section 219.209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological...

  2. 49 CFR 219.209 - Reports of tests and refusals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reports of tests and refusals. 219.209 Section 219.209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological...

  3. 21 CFR 80.34 - Authority to refuse certification service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.34 Authority to refuse certification service... kept by § 80.39; or (3) Failed to keep such records, or to make them available, or to accord full opportunity to make inventory of stocks on hand or otherwise to check the correctness of such records,...

  4. 21 CFR 80.34 - Authority to refuse certification service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.34 Authority to refuse certification service... kept by § 80.39; or (3) Failed to keep such records, or to make them available, or to accord full opportunity to make inventory of stocks on hand or otherwise to check the correctness of such records,...

  5. [Anorexia and refusal to eat in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The question of the links between anorexia and the refusal to eat in the elderly is often the cause of major difficulties with regard to therapeutic strategies within caregiving teams. Likewise, few studies have been carried out into the diachronic links between teenage anorexia and that of the elderly. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential. PMID:26805646

  6. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  7. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  8. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  9. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  10. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  11. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  12. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  13. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  14. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  15. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  16. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  17. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  18. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  19. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  20. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...