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Sample records for regenerative hyperplasia nrh

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus and nodular regenerative hyperplasia of liver: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Archita; Castrejón, Mariana; Saab, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnosis, pathogenesis, natural history, and management of nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the medical literature regarding NRH in patients with HIV. Inclusion criteria include reports with biopsy proven NRH. We studied the clinical features of NRH, in particular, related to its presenting manifestation and laboratory values. Combinations of the following keywords were implemented: “nodular regenerative hyperplasia”, “human immunodeficiency virus”, “noncirrhotic portal hypertension”, “idiopathic portal hypertension”, “cryptogenic liver disease”, “highly active antiretroviral therapy” and “didanosine”. The bibliographies of these studies were subsequently searched for any additional relevant publications. RESULTS: The clinical presentation of patients with NRH varies from patients being completely asymptomatic to the development of portal hypertension – namely esophageal variceal bleeding and ascites. Liver associated enzymes are generally normal and synthetic function well preserved. There is a strong association between the occurrence of NRH and the use of antiviral therapies such as didanosine. The management of NRH revolves around treating the manifestations of portal hypertension. The prognosis of NRH is generally good since liver function is preserved. A high index of suspicion is required to make a identify NRH. CONCLUSION: The appropriate management of HIV-infected persons with suspected NRH is yet to be outlined. However, NRH is a clinically subtle condition that is difficult to diagnose, and it is important to be able to manage it according to the best available evidence. PMID:24653794

  2. Concurrent Liver Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia on an Explanted Liver with Clinical Diagnosis of Alcoholic Cirrhosis at University Hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá

    PubMed Central

    López, R.; Barrera, L.; Vera, A.; Andrade, R.

    2014-01-01

    Liver involvement by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is well documented. However, secondary liver failure to this neoplastic process is rare and usually presents late in the course of the disease. We present a case of a HL associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) diagnosed on an explanted liver from a 53-year-old patient with clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E) showed abnormal liver architecture with hepatocytes nodules highlighted by reticulin stain with absent fibrosis on the trichrome stain. The portal spaces had diffuse infiltration by Reed-Sternberg cells positive for CD15, CD30, and latent membrane protein (LMP) on immunohistochemical studies. The patient also had a concurrent hilar lymph node biopsy that also showed HL involvement. Liver failure as the initial presentation of Hodgkin' lymphoma is rare. We believe that more research about the utility of performing liver biopsies in patients candidates for transplantation with noncirrhotic hepatic failure is needed in order to establish the etiology and the optimal treatment. PMID:24511402

  3. A case of Schnitzler's syndrome with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.

    PubMed

    Lauwers, A; Chouvy, V; Mosnier, J F; Misery, L; Alexandre, C

    1999-05-01

    Schnitzler's syndrome is a rare condition of urticaria, macroglobulinemia, and sclerotic bone lesions. We report a case in a 70-year-old man in whom inflammatory polyarthralgia was followed by a nonpruritic urticarial eruption with a moderate decline in general health. Laboratory tests showed inflammation and a modest isolated peak of monoclonal IgM kappa. There was no evidence of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Schnitzler's syndrome was considered. However, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen done because of mild gamma-glutamyl-transferase elevation disclosed multiple hepatic lesions. The liver histology showed incipient nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Only about 30 cases of Schnitzler's syndrome have been reported since the seminal description in 1972. Hepatic involvement was a common but nonspecific finding, and we found no cases with nodular regenerative hyperplasia. However, this abnormality is often found in patients with autoimmune or hematological disorders. The pathogenesis of Schnitzler's syndrome remains unknown, but the possibility of progression to a hematological malignancy requires prolonged follow-up. PMID:10380261

  4. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Suzuki, Shugo; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-07-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild type mice after exposure to inorganic arsenic. Female wild type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into 3 groups each (n = 8) with free access to a diet containing 0, 100 or 150 ppm of arsenic as arsenite (As{sup III}). During the first week of As{sup III} exposure, As3mt KO mice exhibited severe and lethal systemic toxicity. At termination, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy. As expected, arsenic-containing granules were found in the superficial urothelial layer of wild type mice. In As3mt KO mice these granules were present in all layers of the bladder epithelium and were more abundant and larger than in wild type mice. Scanning electron microscopy of the bladder urothelium of As3mt KO mice treated with 100 ppm As{sup III} showed extensive superficial necrosis and hyperplastic changes. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed severe acute inflammatory changes and spleen size and lymphoid areas were decreased compared with wild type mice. Thus, diminished arsenic methylation in As3mt KO mice exacerbates systemic toxicity and the effects of As{sup III} on the bladder epithelium, showing that altered kinetic and dynamic behavior of arsenic can affect its toxicity.

  5. The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Megarity, Clare F.; Gill, James R.E.; Clare Caraher, M.; Stratford, Ian J.; Nolan, Karen A.; Timson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24631540

  6. The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Megarity, Clare F; Gill, James R E; Caraher, M Clare; Stratford, Ian J; Nolan, Karen A; Timson, David J

    2014-05-01

    There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24631540

  7. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  8. Regenerative Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals for Mars and Beyond will require new power systems and in situ resource utilization technologies. Regenerative aerobraking may offer a revolutionary approach for in situ power generation and oxygen harvesting during these exploration missions. In theory, power and oxygen can be collected during aerobraking and stored for later use in orbit or on the planet. This technology would capture energy and oxygen from the plasma field that occurs naturally during hypersonic entry using well understood principles of magnetohydrodynamics and oxygen filtration. This innovative approach generates resources upon arrival at the operational site, and thus greatly differs from the traditional approach of taking everything you need with you from Earth. Fundamental analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and some testing of experimental hardware have established the basic feasibility of generating power during a Mars entry. Oxygen filtration at conditions consistent with spacecraft entry parameters at Mars has been studied to a lesser extent. Other uses of the MHD power are presented. This paper illustrates how some features of regenerative aerobraking may be applied to support human and robotic missions at Mars.

  9. Reversible papillary hyperplasia of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, T.; Cohen, S. M.; Fukushima, S.; Hananouchi, M.; Ito, N.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid reproducible method for the production of ulcers and reversible regenerative hyperplasia of the urinary bladder of rats is described. This method does not involve administration of a toxic chemical or retention of a foreign body. Ulceration was produced by means of applying a steel rod, 5 mm in diameter, frozen at -78 C, to the serosal surface of the bladder for 2 seconds, twice, with a 5-second interval between each application. Sequential histologic observations showed that ulcers were accompanied by necrosis of the entire thickness of the bladder at the site of freezing with extensive acute inflammation. Regenerative hyperplasia was evident at the edge of the ulcer by the second day, with greatest severity at 5 days when papillary and nodular hyperplasia were present. At 15 days the bladders were normal or had only minimal hyperplasia. The labeling index by autoradiography was highest in the mildly hyperplastic area near the ulcer at 2 days and remained relatively high through 5 days. The hyperplastic epithelium surrounding the ulcer observed by scanning electron microscopy had numerous degenerative cells on the surface, and small epithelial cells with numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The microvilli had a symmetric luminal membrane, as observed on trasmission electron microscopy. More peripherally the cells had microridges only or microvilli and microridges on their luminal surface. Neither pleomorphic microvili nor a structured glycocalyx fuzz on microvilli was observed during the process of regenerative hyperplasia, distinguishing it from neoplastic bladder proliferations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:645820

  10. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  11. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, K; Letsis, I; Karakasis, D

    1988-08-01

    A case of true hemifacial hyperplasia is described. This is an unusual condition which produces facial asymmetry by a marked, unilateral, localised overgrowth of all the tissues in the affected area, including, the facial soft tissues, bones and teeth. The patient is an eight-year-old Caucasian girl with congenital hemihyperplasia of the right side of her face. PMID:3166970

  12. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Chitrapu, Prathyusha; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison

    2014-01-01

    A patient with multiple erythematous nodules on her posterior scalp presented to our dermatology clinic. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. The etiology of this disorder is unclear. Several cases have been treated in the past with complete surgical excision, although the recurrence rate remains relatively high. PMID:25484503

  13. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children but much shorter ...

  14. Fully relayed regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Alexander J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors, to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

  15. Hypertrophy versus hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Goss, R J

    1966-09-30

    Although all tissues and organs of the body are normally subject to the growth-regulating influences of functional demands, some are potentially capable of unlimited growth while others are not. This depends on whether hyperplasia of their functional units ceases prior to maturity or can continue throughout life. In the former case, further growth is limited by the extent to which hypertrophy can enhance physiological efficiency. Some of the body's most vitally essential organs (heart, brain, kidney, lung) lack the ability to make additional structural units in the adult and are therefore handicapped in compensating for the depreciations of advancing age. Theoretically, at least, other organs (glands, renewing tissues) possess unlimited powers of regeneration because they never lose the capacity (latent or expressed) for hyperplasia. There is a strategy in the way growth mechanisms have evolved. It may be significant that the so-called "hypertrophic" organs lose the capability for hyperplasia, because not to do so might jeopardize their growth regulation. If size is determined by functional demands, then the latter must not operate continuously lest growth go on without interruption and lead to overproduction of functional units. Only renewing tissues can tolerate perpetual growth because they get rid of excess structures as fast as they are formed. Endocrine and exocrine glands are in most cases known to function discontinuously and are thus not in danger of being overstimulated. The heart, lungs, and kidneys (and brain?), however, must work incessantly. Were their functional units capable of hyperplasia and at the same time subject to control by functional demand, then overgrowth would seem to be inevitable. By giving up the potential for hyperplasia in favor of the necessity for constant function, these organs have adopted a strategy that enables them to become hypertrophic to a limited extent while doing their jobs efficiently. It is a curious fact that the unrestricted proliferation of biological structures cannot occur at all levels of organization. The counterpart of cancer, which is a cellular phenomenon, does not exist among molecules or cytoplasmic organelles, nor is it known to occur at the histological level of organization. Even in organs made up of histological units of function and having the potential for unlimited hyperplasia (for example, liver, exocrine glands, thyroid, ovary), the population of functional units never exceeds the number needed to fulfil the physiological requirements of the body. Above and below the level of the cell, therefore, structures are not permitted to escape the constraints of functional demands which control their production. The fact that cells can occasionally do so when they become neoplastic may reveal as much as it conceals about the problem of growth regulation. PMID:5917072

  16. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  17. Hypertrichosis with hereditary gingival hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, G. B.; Simpkiss, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of infantile hypertrichosis who subsequently developed oral abnormalities are described. In one case generalized gingival hyperplasia was associated with retarded eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth and macrodontia. In the second case the mucosal hyperplasia was limited to the palatal surface. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834021

  18. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R J

    1997-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia reflects a complex interplay between benign prostatic enlargement, which will affect almost all men by the age of 80, and the resulting outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease is now known to adversely affect the quality of life of around one man in three over the age of 50. New medical treatments and new surgical interventions are challenging the previous standard treatment of transurethral resection of prostate, which continues to have a morbidity of 17% and some mortality. Primary care will be increasingly involved in shared care with particular emphasis on monitoring of patients on watchful waiting medical therapy- and following operative intervention. PMID:9196969

  19. Regenerative (Regen) ECLSS Operations Water Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Barry

    2010-01-01

    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) ECLSS systems which includes the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of "water balance." Even more recently, in 2010 the Sabatier system came online which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water and drinking needs are well documented and used as a general plan when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent on a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS. This paper will review the various inputs to rate changes and inputs to planning events, including but not limited to; crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water containment availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints and finally the operational means by which flight controllers manage this new challenge of "water balance."

  20. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  1. Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Michael A; Knittel, Joachim; Lee, Kwan H; McRae, Terry G; Bowen, Warwick P

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative amplification is demonstrated in a cavity optoelectromechanical system using electrical gradient forces and optomechanical transduction. Mechanical linewidth narrowing to $6.6 \\pm 1.4$ mHz was observed at a frequency of 27.3 MHz, corresponding to an effective mechanical quality factor of $4 \\times 10^9$. A theoretical model of the system was formulated, showing that the delay in electrical feedback allows additional linewidth narrowing compared to purely optomechanical regenerative amplification. The linewidth was confirmed experimentally to scale inversely with the mechanical energy as predicted by the model.

  2. Regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Kackley, Nancy D.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1992-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for moderate-temperature, single-unit, regenerative fuel cells using either alkaline or solid polymer proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolytes. Attention is given to the results thus far obtained for Pt, Ir, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts. Alkaline electrolyte tests have been performed on a half-cell basis with a floating-electrode cell; PEM testing has been with complete fuel cells, using Nafion 117.

  3. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOEpatents

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  4. Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification

    E-print Network

    Michael A. Taylor; Alex Szorkovszky; Joachim Knittel; Kwan H. Lee; Terry G. McRae; Warwick P. Bowen

    2012-06-29

    Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification is demonstrated. An optical cavity enhances mechanical transduction, allowing sensitive measurement even for heavy oscillators. A 27.3 MHz mechanical mode of a microtoroid was linewidth narrowed to 6.6\\pm1.4 mHz, 30 times smaller than previously achieved with radiation pressure driving in such a system. These results may have applications in areas such as ultrasensitive optomechanical mass spectroscopy.

  5. Cytomics in regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz

    2008-02-01

    Cytomics is the high-content analysis of cell-systems [6, 78]. The area of Cytomics and Systems Biology received great attention during the last years as it harbours the promise to substantially impact on various fields of biomedicine, drug discovery, predictive medicine [6] and may have major potential for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine Cytomics includes process control of cell preparation and culturing using non-invasive detection techniques, quality control and standardization for GMP and GLP conformity and even prediction of cell fate based on sophisticated data analysis. Cytomics requires quantitative and stoichiometric single cell analysis. In some areas the leading cytometric techniques represent the cutting edge today. Many different applications/variations of multicolour staining were developed for flow- or slide-based cytometry (SBC) analysis of suspensions and sections to whole animal analysis [78]. SBC has become an important analytical technology in drug discovery, diagnosis and research and is an emerging technology for systems analysis [78]. It enables high-content high-throughput measurement of cell suspensions, cell cultures and tissues. In the last years various commercial SBC instruments were launched principally enabling to perform similar tasks. Standardisation as well as comparability of different instruments is a major challenge. Hyperspectral optical imaging may be implemented in SBC analysis for label free cell detection based on cellular autofluorescence [3]. All of these developments push the systemic approach of the analysis of biological specimens to enhance the outcome of regenerative medicine.

  6. Synthetic organs for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Roger A; Mascetti, Victoria; Mendjan, Sasha

    2012-06-14

    Differentiating tissue stem cells can self-assemble into structures that strikingly resemble functional organ subunits. Translating this insight to regenerative medicine presents several challenges. PMID:22704499

  7. Regenerative Rehabilitation – a New Future?

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation medicine is propelled by newfound knowledge aimed at offering solutions for an increasingly aging population afflicted by chronic debilitating conditions. Considered a core component of future healthcare, the roll-out of regenerative medicine underscores a paradigm shift in patient management targeted at restoring physiologic function and restituting normative impact. Nascent regenerative technologies offer unprecedented prospects in achieving repair of degenerated, diseased or damaged tissues. In this context, principles of regenerative science are increasingly integrated in rehabilitation practices as illustrated in the present Supplement. Encompassing a growing multidisciplinary domain, the emergent era of “regenerative rehabilitation” brings radical innovations at the forefront of healthcare blueprints. PMID:25310603

  8. Regenerative Sorption Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Wen, Liang-Chi; Bard, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Two-stage sorption refrigerator achieves increased efficiency via regenerative-heating concept in which waste heat from praseodymium/cerium oxide (PCO) chemisorption compressor runs charcoal/krypton (C/Kr) sorption compressor. Waste heat from each PCO sorption compressor used to power surrounding C/Kr sorption compressor. Flows of heat in two compressor modules controlled by gas-gap thermal switches. Has no wearing moving parts other than extremely long life, room-temperature check valves operating about twice per hour. Virtually no measurable vibration, and has potential operating life of at least ten years.

  9. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  10. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  11. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out

    PubMed Central

    Pfenning, Michael A.; Gores, Gregory J.; Harper, C. Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Significance Regenerative medicine is at the vanguard of health care poised to offer solutions for many of today’s incurable diseases. Accordingly, there is a pressing need to develop, deploy, and demonstrate a viable framework for rollout of a regenerative medicine model of care. Translation of regenerative medicine principles into practice is feasible, yet clinical validity and utility must be established to ensure approval and adoption. Standardized and scaled-up regenerative products and services across medical and surgical specialties must in turn achieve a value-added proposition, advancing intended outcome beyond current management strategies. PMID:26537392

  12. Paradoxical Adipose Hyperplasia After Cryolipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jalian, H. Ray; Avram, Mathew M.; Garibyan, Lilit; Mihm, Martin C.; Anderson, R. Rox

    2014-01-01

    Importance Cryolipolysis is the non-invasive reduction of fat with localized cutaneous cooling. Since initial introduction, over 650,000 cryolipolysis treatment cycles have been performed worldwide. We present a previously unreported, rare side effect following cryolipolysis, paradoxical adipose hyperplasia. Observations A 41-year-old man underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to his abdomen. Three months following his treatment, a gradual enlargement of the treatment area was noted. This enlargement was a large, well-demarcated subcutaneous mass, slightly tender to palpation. Imaging studies revealed accumulation of adipose tissue with normal signal intensity within the treatment area. Conclusions and Relevance Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia is a rare, previously unreported side effect of cryolipolysis with an incidence of 0.0051%. No single unifying risk factor has been identified. The phenomenon seems to be more common in male patients undergoing cryolipolysis. At this time there is no evidence of spontaneous resolution. Further studies are needed to characterize the pathogenesis and histologic findings of this rare adverse event. PMID:24382640

  13. Will regenerative medicine replace transplantation?

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Soker, Shay; Stratta, Robert J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Recent groundbreaking advances in organ bioengineering and regeneration have provided evidence that regenerative medicine holds promise to dramatically improve the approach to organ transplantation. The two fields, however, share a common heritage. Alexis Carrel can be considered the father of both regenerative medicine and organ transplantation, and it is now clear that his legacy is equally applicable for the present and future generations of transplant and regenerative medicine investigators. In this review, we will briefly illustrate the interplay that should be established between these two complementary disciplines of health sciences. Although regenerative medicine has shown to the transplant field its potential, transplantation is destined to align with regenerative medicine and foster further progress probably more than either discipline alone. Organ bioengineering and regeneration technologies hold the promise to meet at the same time the two most urgent needs in organ transplantation, namely, the identification of a new, potentially inexhaustible source of organs and immunosuppression-free transplantation of tissues and organs. PMID:23906883

  14. Will Regenerative Medicine Replace Transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Soker, Shay; Stratta, Robert J.; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking advances in organ bioengineering and regeneration have provided evidence that regenerative medicine holds promise to dramatically improve the approach to organ transplantation. The two fields, however, share a common heritage. Alexis Carrel can be considered the father of both regenerative medicine and organ transplantation, and it is now clear that his legacy is equally applicable for the present and future generations of transplant and regenerative medicine investigators. In this review, we will briefly illustrate the interplay that should be established between these two complementary disciplines of health sciences. Although regenerative medicine has shown to the transplant field its potential, transplantation is destined to align with regenerative medicine and foster further progress probably more than either discipline alone. Organ bioengineering and regeneration technologies hold the promise to meet at the same time the two most urgent needs in organ transplantation, namely, the identification of a new, potentially inexhaustible source of organs and immunosuppression-free transplantation of tissues and organs. PMID:23906883

  15. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shorakae, Soulmaz; Teede, Helena

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency presented with infertility. She was treated with different steroid replacement regimens together with fludrocortisone. The aim of this case report is to discuss fertility barriers in women with classical CAH, and emphasise the risks and benefits of available steroid treatment options. Clinical considerations covered include preconception health and fertility planning, optimising fertility through suppression of excess hormone production, reducing fetal androgen exposure in utero and limiting maternal and fetal side effects of therapy and limiting chances of CAH in the baby. In this case suppression of androgen and progesterone levels was challenging but eventually was achieved and resulted in a spontaneous pregnancy. However, she miscarried in the first trimester, and fetal biopsy revealed a complete hydatiform mole. She is advised not to conceive while she is under investigation to determine the extent of the disease. PMID:23917362

  16. Regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1982-01-12

    Disclosed are several embodiments of a regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle. The device includes a plurality of rubber rollers (24, 26) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (14) connectable to the vehicle drivetrain and an output shaft (16) which is drivingly connected to the input shaft by a variable ratio transmission (20). When the transmission ratio is such that the input shaft rotates faster than the output shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy, thereby slowing the vehicle. When the transmission ratio is such that the output shaft rotates faster than the input shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally relaxed to deliver accumulated energy, thereby accelerating or driving the vehicle.

  17. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  18. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Mccatty, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  19. Hydrogels in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Brandon V.; Khurshid, Shahana S.; Fisher, Omar Z.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels, due to their unique biocompatibility, flexible methods of synthesis, range of constituents, and desirable physical characteristics, have been the material of choice for many applications in regenerative medicine. They can serve as scaffolds that provide structural integrity to tissue constructs, control drug and protein delivery to tissues and cultures, and serve as adhesives or barriers between tissue and material surfaces. In this work, the properties of hydrogels that are important for tissue engineering applications and the inherent material design constraints and challenges are discussed. Recent research involving several different hydrogels polymerized from a variety of synthetic and natural monomers using typical and novel synthetic methods are highlighted. Finally, special attention is given to the microfabrication techniques that are currently resulting in important advances in the field. PMID:20882499

  20. The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Justin M.; Furth, Mark E.; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase “regenerative pharmacology” to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is “the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues.” As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all. PMID:23818131

  1. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  2. THE BLIND SIMULATION PROBLEM and REGENERATIVE PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    Bucklew, James Antonio

    THE BLIND SIMULATION PROBLEM and REGENERATIVE PROCESSES JAMES BUCKLEW November 6, 2000 Abstract and hence to a general consideration of regenerative processes. We derive several new large deviation for many regenerative processes. KEYWORDS: Monte Carlo Simulation, Large Deviation Theory, Regener­ ative

  3. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Paola; Barbalho, Marcella; Lima, Tiago; Quintella, Leonardo; Niemeyer-Corbellini, João Paulo; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare disease considered as being a vascular malformation resulting from a subjacent arteriovenous shunt. It affects mostly the head of women between 20 and 40 years old and may present spontaneous involution. PMID:26120306

  4. Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The main function of the prostate is to ... shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. [ Top ] What causes benign prostatic hyperplasia? The cause ...

  5. Gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Rasika Ravindra; Deshpande, Gaurav Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by unilateral enlargement of facial tissues. The hemifacial hyperplasia is classified as true hemifacial hypertrophy and partial hemifacial hypertrophy. It is unilateral enlargement of viscerocranial condition in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a rare case of gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia highlighting the clinical and radiological findings with the corrective treatment offered for gingival enlargement. PMID:25624636

  6. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  7. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Merke, Deborah P; Poppas, Dix P

    2014-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For these reasons, treatment regimen reassessment is indicated during adolescence. Patients with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia require reassessment regarding the need for glucocorticoid drug treatment. No clinical trials have compared various regimens for classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults, thus therapy is individualised and based on the prevention of adverse outcomes. Extensive patient education is key during transition from paediatric care to adult care and should include education of females with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia regarding their genital anatomy and surgical history. Common issues for these patients include urinary incontinence, vaginal stenosis, clitoral pain, and cosmetic concerns; for males with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, common issues include testicular adrenal rest tumours. Transition from paediatric to adult care is most successful when phased over many years. Education of health-care providers on how to successfully transition patients is greatly needed. PMID:24622419

  8. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  9. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  10. Regenerative Strategies for Craniofacial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Catharine B.; Pomerantz, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial disorders present markedly complicated problems in reconstruction because of the complex interactions of the multiple, simultaneously affected tissues. Regenerative medicine holds promise for new strategies to improve treatment of these disorders. This review addresses current areas of unmet need in craniofacial reconstruction and emphasizes how craniofacial tissues differ from their analogs elsewhere in the body. We present a problem-based approach to illustrate current treatment strategies for various craniofacial disorders, to highlight areas of need, and to suggest regenerative strategies for craniofacial bone, fat, muscle, nerve, and skin. For some tissues, current approaches offer excellent reconstructive solutions using autologous tissue or prosthetic materials. Thus, new “regenerative” approaches would need to offer major advantages in order to be adopted. In other tissues, the unmet need is great, and we suggest the greatest regenerative need is for muscle, skin, and nerve. The advent of composite facial tissue transplantation and the development of regenerative medicine are each likely to add important new paradigms to our treatment of craniofacial disorders. PMID:23248598

  11. Generalized gingival hyperplasia occurring during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Güngörmü?, M; Akgül, H M; Yilmaz, A B; Da?istanli, S; Erciyas, K

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of generalized gingival hyperplasia related to pregnancy causing chewing, speaking, breathing and cosmetic problems. The patient was a 26-year-old woman in the fourth month of her second pregnancy, with generalized gingival hyperplasia affecting both buccal and lingual aspects of the maxilla and mandible. The hyperplastic tissues, together with mobile teeth, were excised completely; no recurrence was observed for the remainder of the pregnancy. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy have long been known to be associated with generalized gingival hyperplasia. Pregnancy does not cause the condition, but altered tissue metabolism in pregnancy accentuates the response to local irritants. This case was of clinical interest because of the extent of tissue proliferation, with the teeth in both the upper and lower jaw completely submerged. PMID:12166356

  12. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  13. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. [Pleasanton, CA

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output.

  14. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, J.L.

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

  15. Investigation of a regenerative damping concept 

    E-print Network

    Fodor, Michael Glenn

    1993-01-01

    in the efficiency of many physical systems is realized by the incorporation of regenerative devices, and all devices which dissipate power are candidates for investigation as regenerative systems. The viscous damper is a dissipative device which may be suitable...

  16. Regenerative Medicine: Learning from Past Examples

    E-print Network

    Couto, Daniela S.

    Regenerative medicine products have characteristically shown great therapeutic potential, but limited market success. Learning from the past attempts at capturing value is critical for new and emerging regenerative medicine ...

  17. Regenerative cascade homotopies for solving polynomial systems

    E-print Network

    Sommese, Andrew J.

    Regenerative cascade homotopies for solving polynomial systems Jonathan D. Hauenstein Andrew J that combining regen- eration with the dimension-by-dimension algorithm was significantly faster than naively witness supersets. This regener- ative cascade is superior in practice to all known methods. Department

  18. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  19. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in Oral Lesions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Vaidhehi Narayan; Uma, K; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay; Shyamala, K; Naik, Ranajit B

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) is a histopathological reaction pattern to various stimuli, which includes trauma, infection, inflammation, neoplasia. It is seen as tongue like epithelial proliferation invading the connective tissue and should not be mistaken for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This review enlists oral lesions which exhibit PEH with a note on how to differentiate SCC from PEH. PMID:26435636

  20. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-03-01

    It is an object of the invention to provide an external combustion expander-type engine having improved efficiency. It is another object of the invention to provide an external combustion engine in which afterburning in the exhaust channel is substantially prevented. Yet another object of the invention is to provide an external combustion engine which is less noisy than an external combustion engine of conventional design. These and other objects of the invention will become more apparent from the following description. The above objects of the invention are realized by providing a heat regenerative external combustion engine. The heat regenerative external combustion engine of the invention comprises a combustion chamber for combusting a monopropellant fuel in order to form an energized gas. The energized gas is then passed through a rotary valve to a cylinder having a reciprocating piston disposed therein. The gas is spent in moving the piston, thereby driving a drive shaft.

  1. Nanotechnology Biomimetic Cartilage Regenerative Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Jose Paulo; Myers, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage has a limited regenerative capacity. Faced with the clinical challenge of reconstruction of cartilage defects, the field of cartilage engineering has evolved. This article reviews current concepts and strategies in cartilage engineering with an emphasis on the application of nanotechnology in the production of biomimetic cartilage regenerative scaffolds. The structural architecture and composition of the cartilage extracellular matrix and the evolution of tissue engineering concepts and scaffold technology over the last two decades are outlined. Current advances in biomimetic techniques to produce nanoscaled fibrous scaffolds, together with innovative methods to improve scaffold biofunctionality with bioactive cues are highlighted. To date, the majority of research into cartilage regeneration has been focused on articular cartilage due to the high prevalence of large joint osteoarthritis in an increasingly aging population. Nevertheless, the principles and advances are applicable to cartilage engineering for plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:24883273

  2. Electrospun Nanofibers for Regenerative Medicine**

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenying; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent progress in applying electrospun nanofibers to the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We begin with a brief introduction to electrospinning and nanofibers, with a focus on issues related to the selection of materials, incorporation of bioactive molecules, degradation characteristics, control of mechanical properties, and facilitation of cell infiltration. We then discuss a number of approaches to fabrication of scaffolds from electrospun nanofibers, including techniques for controlling the alignment of nanofibers and for producing scaffolds with complex architectures. We also highlight applications of the nanofiber-based scaffolds in four areas of regenerative medicine that involve nerves, dural tissues, tendons, and the tendon-to-bone insertion site. We conclude this review with perspectives on challenges and future directions for design, fabrication, and utilization of scaffolds based on electrospun nanofibers. PMID:23184683

  3. Prospects for translational regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhao, Yi-Min; Jin, Yan; Shi, Songtao

    2012-01-01

    Translational medicine is an evolutional concept that encompasses the rapid translation of basic research for use in clinical disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment. It follows the idea "from bench to bedside and back", and hence relies on cooperation between laboratory research and clinical care. In the past decade, translational medicine has received unprecedented attention from scientists and clinicians and its fundamental principles have penetrated throughout biomedicine, offering a sign post that guides modern medical research toward a patient-centered focus. Translational regenerative medicine is still in its infancy, and significant basic research investment has not yet achieved satisfactory clinical outcomes for patients. In particular, there are many challenges associated with the use of cell- and tissue-based products for clinical therapies. This review summarizes the transformation and global progress in translational medicine over the past decade. The current obstacles and opportunities in translational regenerative medicine are outlined in the context of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering for the safe and effective regeneration of functional tissue. This review highlights the requirement for multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary cooperation to ensure the development of the best possible regenerative therapies within the shortest timeframe possible for the greatest patient benefit. PMID:22138411

  4. Scanning electron microscopic examination of reversible hyperplasia of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, S.; Cohen, S. M.; Arai, M.; Jacobs, J. B.; Friedell, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Urinary bladder damage caused by surgical incision, freeze-ulceration, or formalin instillation in male Fischer 344 rats was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The first two methods resulted in focal ulceration of the urinary bladder; the last induced diffuse mucosal damage. With each method, the damage was followed by regenerative hyperplasia and repair, the bladder mucosa returning to normal in 3-4 weeks. Epithelial cells in the hyperplastic areas had ropy microridges and uniform short microvilli on their luminal surfaces as observed by scanning electron microscopy. When the hyperplasia was marked, with nodular and papillary formation, occasional epithelial cells had pleomorphic microvilli on their surfaces. Rats treated either by surgical incision or freeze-ulceration had normal bladders after a 2-year observation period. Combined with results from previous experiments, pleomorphic microvilli are not a marker of neoplasia or irreversibility but appear with marked or prolonged mucosal proliferation even if reversible. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7212020

  5. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  6. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  7. Entropy Generation in Regenerative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Heat exchange to the oscillating flows in regenerative coolers generates entropy. These flows are characterized by oscillating mass flows and oscillating temperatures. Heat is transferred between the flow and heat exchangers and regenerators. In the former case, there is a steady temperature difference between the flow and the heat exchangers. In the latter case, there is no mean temperature difference. In this paper a mathematical model of the entropy generated is developed for both cases. Estimates of the entropy generated by this process are given for oscillating flows in heat exchangers and in regenerators. The practical significance of this entropy is also discussed.

  8. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  9. Tenure Track Assistant Professor Cluster Hire in Regenerative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Stormo, Gary

    Tenure Track Assistant Professor Cluster Hire in Regenerative Medicine The Departments of regenerative medicine, including the genetic and epigenetic control of embryonic, adult, or cancer stem cells organisms to explore fundamental and translational questions in regenerative medicine. We anticipate

  10. Radiation-pressure-induced regenerative mechanical oscillations in

    E-print Network

    Radiation-pressure-induced regenerative mechanical oscillations in optical microcavities Hossein depth Amplitude of the mechanical oscillation Regenerative oscillation linewidth Natural mechanical-optical-oscillator ³ Regenerative optomechanical oscillation -- Supports high-Q optical and mechanical modes. -- Provides strong

  11. Optimal packing for cascaded regenerative transmission based on

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    Optimal packing for cascaded regenerative transmission based on phase sensitive amplifiers Mariia performance of advanced modulation formats in nonlinear regenerative channels based on cascaded phase nonlinear regenerative channels for ultra-high capacity transmission. © 2013 Optical Society of America OCIS

  12. Optimal performance of regenerative cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, P. C. T.

    2011-02-01

    The key component of a regenerative cryocooler is its regenerative heat exchanger. This device is subject to losses due to imperfect heat transfer between the regenerator material and the gas, as well as due to viscous dissipation. The relative magnitudes of these losses can be characterized by the ratio of the Stanton number St to the Fanning friction factor f. Using available data for the ratio St/ f, results are developed for the optimal cooling rate and Carnot efficiency. The variations of pressure and temperature are taken to be sinusoidal in time, and to have small amplitudes. The results are applied to the case of the Stirling cryocooler, with flow being generated by pistons at both sides of the regenerator. The performance is found to be close to optimal at large ratio of the warm space volume to the regenerator void volume. The results are also applied to the Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigerator. In this case, optimal performance additionally requires a large ratio of the regenerator void volume to the cold space volume.

  13. JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE RESEARCH ARTICLE J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2012;6: 135143.

    E-print Network

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE RESEARCH ARTICLE J Tissue Eng Regen Med and Regenerative Medicine 4 METU, BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Ankara

  14. Development of Supported Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

    E-print Network

    Development of Supported Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells Guoying. Unitized regenerative fuel cells URFCs are promising energy storage systems for uninterrupted power

  15. Changes in Regenerative Capacity through Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Yun, Maximina H

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms experience changes in regenerative abilities through their lifespan. During aging, numerous tissues exhibit a progressive decline in homeostasis and regeneration that results in tissue degeneration, malfunction and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for this decay are both cell intrinsic, such as cellular senescence, as well as cell-extrinsic, such as changes in the regenerative environment. Understanding how these mechanisms impact on regenerative processes is essential to devise therapeutic approaches to improve tissue regeneration and extend healthspan. This review offers an overview of how regenerative abilities change through lifespan in various organisms, the factors that underlie such changes and the avenues for therapeutic intervention. It focuses on established models of mammalian regeneration as well as on models in which regenerative abilities do not decline with age, as these can deliver valuable insights for our understanding of the interplay between regeneration and aging. PMID:26512653

  16. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S.; Setubal, João C.

    2012-01-01

    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deletion and replicon fission and fusion. The reconstruction can be performed by either a maximum parsimony or a maximum likelihood method. Gene content reconstruction is based on the concept of neighboring gene pairs. REGEN was designed to be used with any set of genomes that are sufficiently related, which will usually be the case for bacteria within the same taxonomic order. We evaluated REGEN using simulated genomes and genomes in the Rhizobiales order. PMID:24704978

  17. Changes in Regenerative Capacity through Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Maximina H.

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms experience changes in regenerative abilities through their lifespan. During aging, numerous tissues exhibit a progressive decline in homeostasis and regeneration that results in tissue degeneration, malfunction and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for this decay are both cell intrinsic, such as cellular senescence, as well as cell-extrinsic, such as changes in the regenerative environment. Understanding how these mechanisms impact on regenerative processes is essential to devise therapeutic approaches to improve tissue regeneration and extend healthspan. This review offers an overview of how regenerative abilities change through lifespan in various organisms, the factors that underlie such changes and the avenues for therapeutic intervention. It focuses on established models of mammalian regeneration as well as on models in which regenerative abilities do not decline with age, as these can deliver valuable insights for our understanding of the interplay between regeneration and aging. PMID:26512653

  18. Clinical and Imaging Findings of True Hemifacial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhuta, Bansari A.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Bansal, Shivani P.; Chemburkar, Vipul V.; Dev, Prashant V.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia is a rare developmental disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a marked unilateral facial asymmetry. It involves the hard (bones and teeth) and soft tissues of the face. We report an interesting case of true hemifacial hyperplasia in a 25-year-old male highlighting the clinical and computed tomography imaging findings. PMID:24349801

  19. Nitrendipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. First case report.

    PubMed

    Brown, R S; Sein, P; Corio, R; Bottomley, W K

    1990-11-01

    Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia is well documented within the literature. It has been associated with phenytoin, cyclosporine, and calcium channel blocking agents. Nitrendipine is an experimental calcium channel blocking agent that also appears to cause the side effect of drug-induced gingival hyperplasia. The clinical and histologic presentation of this side effect and possible biochemical mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:2234880

  20. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Dwivedi, Anila; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  1. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  2. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  3. Regenerative Medicine: Solution in Sight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Stern, Jeffrey H; Temple, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The retina, like other central nervous system tissues, has poor regenerative properties in humans. Therefore, diseases that cause retinal cell loss, such as Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis, Usher syndrome, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, typically result in permanent visual impairment. Stem cell technologies have revolutionized our ability to produce neural cells in abundant supply. Much stem cell research effort is focused on producing the required cell types for cell replacement, or to generate disease-in-a-dish models to elucidate novel disease mechanisms for therapeutic development. Here we review the recent advances in stem cell studies relevant to producing RPE and retinal cells, and highlight future directions. PMID:26427457

  4. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  5. Modeling regenerative braking and storage for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Donnelly, K.

    1997-12-31

    The fuel savings benefits of regenerative braking and storage for vehicles are often described but not quantified. For example, the federal government and automobile manufacturers are sponsoring a Program for a New Generation of Vehicles (PGNV) with a goal of obtaining a performance of 80 mpg in a family size car. It is typically suggested that such a vehicle will be a hybrid engine and electric drive with regenerative braking. The authors note that while regenerative braking has the potential of saving fuel, it may also do more harm than good as a result of additional weight, less than ideal charge/discharge efficiency on the batteries or storage flywheels and the limited portion of the entire driving cycle when regenerative braking can be utilized. The authors also noted that if regenerative braking can have a net benefit, it would be on a heavy vehicle such as a municipal bus because of the frequent stop and go requirements for both traffic light and passengers. Thus the authors initiated a study of regenerative braking on such a vehicle. The resulting analysis presented in this paper includes data following municipal buses to define the driving cycle, modeling the bus power requirements from weight, aerodynamics and rolling resistance, and then calculating the fuel saving that could result from an ideal regenerative braking system.

  6. Self Regenerative Markov Chain Monte Carlo with Sujit K. Sahu

    E-print Network

    Sahu, Sujit K

    Self Regenerative Markov Chain Monte Carlo with Adaptation Sujit K. Sahu Faculty of Mathematical propose and study a new MCMC algorithm which we call self-regenerative (SR). This algorithm belongs. This regenerative property gives the name to the algorithm and permits a simple analysis of it. The regenerative

  7. Applications of regenerative medicine in organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Aditya; Bansal, Ramta

    2015-01-01

    A worldwide shortage of organs for clinical implantation establishes the need to bring forward and test new technologies that will help in solving the problem. The concepts of regenerative medicine hold the potential for augmenting organ function or repairing damaged organ or allowing regeneration of deteriorated organs and tissue. Researchers are exploring possible regenerative medicine applications in organ transplantation so that coming together of the two fields can benefit each other. The present review discusses the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bio-engineer human organs for clinical purposes. It also highlights the limitations of the regenerative medicine that needs to be addressed to explore full potential of the field. A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using keywords “regenerative medicine,” “tissue-engineering,” “bio-engineered organs,” “decellularized scaffold” and “three-dimensional printing.” This review screened about 170 articles to get the desired knowledge update. PMID:26229352

  8. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical manifestations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Santos Dias, José

    2012-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition, related to aging and causing symptoms, called lower urinary tract symptoms. On account of its huge prevalence, it is important for clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with BPH to be aware of the very strict recommendations for BPH evaluation. In this article, we describe the different steps and procedures doctors should follow to evaluate these patients; symptoms and signs of BPH are reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation steps and examinations available. The basic evaluation of the patients with BPH should include, according to the recommendations of the most relevant international guidelines, lower urinary tract symptoms evaluation with appropriate symptom scores, digital rectal examination, voiding charts, prostate-specific antigen and creatinine measurement, urinalysis, and imaging of the urinary tract. PMID:23244722

  9. Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

    2005-01-01

    Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

  10. Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A minireview.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Ester; Laudato, Massimiliano; Griffo, Michele; Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition affecting older men, with an incidence that is age-dependent. Histological BPH, which typically develops after the age of 40 years, ranges in prevalence from >50% at 60 years to as high as 90% by 85 years of age. Typical symptoms include increased frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy, and weak urine stream. Conventional medicines used for the treatment of BPH include alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. This articles review the mode of action, the efficacy, and the safety, including herb-drug interactions of the most common botanicals (Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica, and Cucurbita pepo) and nutraceuticals (isoflavones, lycopene, selenium, and ?-Sitosterol) in controlling the lower urinary tract symptoms associated to BPH. PMID:25165780

  11. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  12. Double regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhen-ao; Chen, Li-yuan; Bai, Zhen-xu; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

    2012-04-01

    An double Nd:YAG regenerative amplification picosecond pulse laser is demonstrated under the semiconductor saturable absorption mirror(SESAM) mode-locking technology and regenerative amplification technology, using BBO crystal as PC electro-optic crystal. The laser obtained is 20.71ps pulse width at 10 KHz repetition rate, and the energy power is up to 4W which is much larger than the system without pre-amplification. This result will lay a foundation for the following amplification.

  13. Global strategic partnerships in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    French, Anna; Suh, Jane Y; Suh, Carol Y; Rubin, Lee; Barker, Richard; Bure, Kim; Reeve, Brock; Brindley, David A

    2014-09-01

    The approach to research and development in biomedical science is changing. Increasingly, academia and industry seek to collaborate, and share resources and expertise, by establishing partnerships. Here, we explore the co-development partnership landscape in the field of regenerative medicine, focusing on agreements involving one or more private entities. A majority of the largest biopharmaceutical companies have announced strategic partnerships with a specific regenerative medicine focus, signifying the growth and widening appeal of this emerging sector. PMID:25150363

  14. Regenerative fuel cell engineering - FY99

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Inbody; Rodney L. Borup; James C. Hedstrom; Jose Tafoya; Byron Morton; Lois Zook; Nicholas E. Vanderborgh

    2000-01-01

    The authors report the work conducted by the ESA-EPE Fuel Cell Engineering Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY99 on regenerative fuel cell system engineering. The work was focused on the evaluation of regenerative fuel cell system components obtained through the RAFCO program. These components included a 5 kW PEM electrolyzer, a two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack, and samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode. The samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode were analyzed to determine their structure and operating characteristics. Tests were conducted on the two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack to characterize its operation as an electrolyzer and as a fuel cell. The 5 kW PEM electrolyzer was tested in the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Test Facility. These tests served to characterize the operation of the electrolyzer and, also, to verify the operation of the newly completed test facility. Future directions for this work in regenerative fuel cell systems are discussed.

  15. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  16. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  17. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  18. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  19. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  20. Correlation of the carcinogenic potential of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) with induced hyperplasia rather than with genotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Smith-Oliver, T; Butterworth, B E

    1987-05-01

    It has been reported that in a long-term feeding study 12,000 ppm of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in the diet produced hepatocellular carcinomas in male and female F-344 rats while 6000 ppm DEHP produced the same tumor type in male and female B6C3F1 mice. In terms of the actual numbers of animals with tumors DEHP produced a greater response in mice than rats. DEHP and its principal hydrolysis product, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phtalate (MEHP) produce multiple effects in the animal such as liver peroxisomal proliferation and hyperplasia. Accordingly, genotoxicity as DNA repair or unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and cell replication as the percentage of cells undergoing scheduled DNA synthesis (SDS or S phase) were determined in mouse hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo in response to DEHP and MEHP. UDS and SDS were determined by autoradiographic quantitation of [3H]-thymidine incorporation in primary hepatocyte cultures treated directly or isolated from B6C3F1 male mice treated in vivo. No DNA repair was observed in mouse hepatocyte cultures treated with up to 1.0 mM DEHP or 0.5 mM MEHP. No DNA repair was observed in cultures from mice treated with up to 500 mg/kg DEHP 12, 24 or 48 h previously or from animals treated up to 28 days with 6000 ppm DEHP in the diet. At 24 h following treatment with 500 mg/kg DEHP, 3.1% of the hepatocytes were in S phase compared to control values of 0.2%. Administration of DEHP in the diet at 6000 ppm produced 9.2% of the cells in S phase at day 7 with the value returning to control levels by day 14. On day 28 of the feeding study the liver to body weight ratios had almost doubled in the group treated with DEHP compared to controls. No increase in the liver-specific enzyme alanine aminotransferase was seen in the serum following treatment with 500 mg/kg DEHP, indicating that the hyperplasia was due to mitogenic stimulation rather than regenerative hyperplasia in response to cytotoxicity. Increases in the endpoints relating to hyperplasia in response to DEHP were greater in the mouse than those that have been reported in the rat. Thus, the carcinogenic response of DEHP correlates better with induced hyperplasia rather than with genotoxicity. PMID:3574334

  1. Foveolar hyperplasia at the gastric cardia: prevalence and associations

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, M; Juhola, M; Färkkilä, M; Sipponen, P

    2002-01-01

    Aims: In the gastric antrum and body, foveolar hyperplasia is a feature of reactive gastritis resulting from—for example, duodenogastric bile reflux and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and clinical relevance of gastric cardiac foveolar hyperplasia. Methods: The study population was drawn from a consecutive series of 1698 patients sent for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Only cases without chronic gastritis or Barrett's oesophagus were included. The final study population consisted of 307 patients. Results: Foveolar hyperplasia was seen in the gastric cardiac mucosa in 31 (10%) patients with histologically normal stomach mucosa, but none had endoscopically noticeable hyperplastic polyps. Compared with patients without gastric cardiac hyperplasia, those with hyperplasia more often had chronic inflammation and complete intestinal metaplasia in the junctional biopsies (48% v 77% and 9% v 26%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that chronic cardiac inflammation (odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3 to 7.8) and intestinal metaplasia of the complete type (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 7.1) were independent risk factors for cardiac foveolar hyperplasia. In univariate analysis, endoscopic erosive oesophagitis (endoscopy positive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease) and the use of NSAIDs were not related to the presence of foveolar hyperplasia. Conclusions: Foveolar hyperplasia in the gastric cardiac mucosa occurs in patients with histologically normal non-gastritic stomachs and may develop as a consequence of chronic inflammation limited to the gastro-oesophageal junction (“junctitis”). It is not associated directly with endoscopy positive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or the use of NSAIDs. PMID:11986340

  2. Giant benign prostatic hyperplasia in a young adult male.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Fanourios; Demosthenous, Sotiris; Antoniades, George; Kouriefs, Chryssanthos

    2014-08-01

    A 27-year-old Caucasian male presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and hemospermia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a prostate of 180 mL. The patient underwent open transvesical prostatic enucleation with preoperative and postoperative histopathologic examinations consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a very rare condition at this age group, with this patient being the youngest non-Asian confirmed case in the literature. PMID:24958475

  3. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Angelo S; Mooney, David J

    2015-11-24

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  4. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Angelo S.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  5. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ayd?n, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; P?narl?, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  6. Neointimal hyperplasia associated with synthetic hemodialysis grafts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Terry, Christi M.; Shiu, Yan-Ting E.; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2008-01-01

    Stenosis is a major cause of failure of hemodialysis vascular grafts and is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia (NH) at the anastomoses. The objective of this article is to provide a scientific review of the biology underlying this disorder and a critical review of the state-of-the-art investigational preventive strategies in order to stimulate further research in this exciting area. The histology of the NH shows myofibroblasts (that are probably derived from adventitial fibroblasts), extracellular matrices, pro-inflammatory cells including foreign-body giant cells, a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and neovasculature. The contributing factors of the pathogenesis of NH include surgical trauma, bioincompatibility of the synthetic graft, and the various mechanical stresses that result from luminal hypertension and compliance mismatch between the vessel wall and graft. These mechanical stimuli are focal in nature and may have a significant influence on the preferential localization of the NH. Novel mechanical graft designs and local drug delivery strategies show promise in animal models in preventing graft NH development. Successful prevention of graft stenosis would provide a superior alternative to the native fistula as hemodialysis vascular access. PMID:18668026

  7. A case of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2012-07-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles) was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities. PMID:22891154

  8. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. PMID:26683339

  9. Nanog induces hyperplasia without initiating tumors.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Gerrit; Wu, Guangming; Adachi, Kenjiro; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Greber, Boris; Radstaak, Martina; Köhler, Gabriele; Tapia, Natalia; Iacone, Roberto; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Schöler, Hans R; Zaehres, Holm

    2014-09-01

    Though expression of the homeobox transcription factor Nanog is generally restricted to pluripotent cells and early germ cells, many contradictory reports about Nanog's involvement in tumorigenesis exist. To address this, a modified Tet-On system was utilized to generate Nanog-inducible mice. Following prolonged Nanog expression, phenotypic alterations were found to be restricted to the intestinal tract, leaving other major organs unaffected. Intestinal and colonic epithelium hyperplasia was observed-intestinal villi had doubled in length and hyperplastic epithelium outgrowths were seen after 7days. Increased proliferation of crypt cells and downregulation of the tumor suppressors Cdx2 and Klf4 was detected. ChIP analysis showed physical interaction of Nanog with the Cdx2 and Klf4 promoters, indicating a regulatory conservation from embryonic development. Despite downregulation of tumor suppressors and increased proliferation, ectopic Nanog expression did not lead to tumor formation. We conclude that unlike other pluripotency-related transcription factors, Nanog cannot be considered an oncogene. PMID:25173648

  10. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    SciTech Connect

    Mericle, G.E.; Venkataperumal, R.R.

    1981-06-02

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method is disclosed for an electric vehicle. The braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  11. Overcoming immunological barriers in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative therapies that use allogeneic cells are likely to encounter immunological barriers similar to those that occur with transplantation of solid organs and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Decades of experience in clinical transplantation hold valuable lessons for regenerative medicine, offering approaches for developing tolerance-induction treatments relevant to cell therapies. Outside the field of solid-organ and allogeneic HSC transplantation, new strategies are emerging for controlling the immune response, such as methods based on biomaterials or mimicry of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Novel biomaterials can alter the behavior of cells in tissue-engineered constructs and can blunt host immune responses to cells and biomaterial scaffolds. Approaches to suppress autoreactive immune cells may also be useful in regenerative medicine. The most innovative solutions will be developed through closer collaboration among stem cell biologists, transplantation immunologists and materials scientists. PMID:25093888

  12. Therapeutic potential of nanoceria in regenerative medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Soumen; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Dowding, Janet; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Baer, Donald R.; McGinnis, James F.; Mattson, Mark P.; Self, William; Seal, Sudipta

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim to achieve functional restoration of tissue or cells damaged through disease, aging or trauma. Advancement of tissue engineering requires innovation in the field of 3D scaffolding, and functionalization with bioactive molecules. Nanotechnology offers advanced materials with patterned nano-morphologies for cell growth and different molecular substrates which can support cell survival and functions. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) can control intracellular as well as extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Recent findings suggest that nanoceria can enhance long-term cell survival, enable cell migration and proliferation, and promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, the self-regenerative property of nanoceria permits a small dose to remain catalytically active for extended time. This review summarizes the possibilities and applications of nanoceria in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  13. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    DOEpatents

    Venkataperumal, Rama R. (Troy, MI); Mericle, Gerald E. (Mount Clemens, MI)

    1981-06-02

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle, with the braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  14. European Doctoral Academy in Regenerative Engineering Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    European Doctoral Academy in Regenerative Engineering Marie Curie Initial Training Network TECAS) and Regenerative Medicine (RM) though the establishment of a European Doctoral Academy in Regenerative Engineering/cell combinations. Research Field: Cardiovascular tissue engineering and regenerative medicine Keywords

  15. Improved Regenerative Sorbent-Compressor Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual regenerative sorbent-compressor refrigerator attains regeneration efficiency and, therefore, overall power efficiency and performance greater than conventional refrigerators. Includes two fluid loops. In one, CH2FCF3 (R134a) ciculates by physical adsorption and desorption in four activated-charcoal sorption compressors. In other, liquid or gas coolant circulated by pump. Wave of regenerative heating and cooling propagates cyclically like peristatic wave among sorption compressors and associated heat exchangers. Powered by electricity, oil, gas, solar heat, or waste heat. Used as air conditioners, refrigerators, and heat pumps in industrial, home, and automotive applications.

  16. Functionalized Nanostructures with Application in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Perán, Macarena; García, María A.; López-Ruiz, Elena; Bustamante, Milán; Jiménez, Gema; Madeddu, Roberto; Marchal, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, both regenerative medicine and nanotechnology have been broadly developed leading important advances in biomedical research as well as in clinical practice. The manipulation on the molecular level and the use of several functionalized nanoscaled materials has application in various fields of regenerative medicine including tissue engineering, cell therapy, diagnosis and drug and gene delivery. The themes covered in this review include nanoparticle systems for tracking transplanted stem cells, self-assembling peptides, nanoparticles for gene delivery into stem cells and biomimetic scaffolds useful for 2D and 3D tissue cell cultures, transplantation and clinical application. PMID:22489186

  17. Minimally invasive therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blute, M L; Larson, T

    2001-12-01

    Currently, 3 categories of treatment are available for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): (1) medicine, such as alpha-blockers and finasteride; (2) minimally invasive treatment, such as transurethral microwave thermotherapy and interstitial ablation using either radiofrequency or laser; and (3) surgical therapy. The 1990s have seen an explosion of transurethral technology to treat symptoms caused by bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH. Unlike surgical debulking procedures, the minimally invasive therapies attempt to treat patients without general or regional anesthesia, and even ambulatory procedures are performed in the office. Because of the demographics of patients with BPH, it is hoped that these minimally invasive options will relieve symptoms without any surgical complications and the side effects and compliance issues associated with medical therapy. It is important that urologists have a clear understanding of the clinical usefulness of these devices, so that the overall role of such treatment may be determined by science rather than marketing. Clinically, the degree of symptom score, peak flow, and quality-of-life improvement seen with all the minimally invasive techniques are similar. The techniques may differ in their ability to reach the maximum number of responders and achieve an acceptable duration of response, and the need for analgesia/sedation associated with each technique. This study will define the minimally invasive therapies and present the differences in catheter design and technique. The pathologic basis for these therapeutic options and the advantages and disadvantages of each will be discussed. Urologists must decide which therapy can be used in their office practice. The maximum numbers of responders and enhanced durability of the treatment can be achieved based on realistic expectations, proper selection of patients, and complete information on the potential of these devices. PMID:11750248

  18. Steady State Analysis of Markov Regenerative with Age Memory Policy

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    Steady State Analysis of Markov Regenerative SPN with Age Memory Policy Mikl#19;os Telek 1 , Andrea marking process belongs to the class of Markov Regenerative Processes (MRGP). We refer to this class of models as Markov Regenerative SPN (MRSPN). In this paper, we describe a computationally e#11;ective algo

  19. Regenerative Process in Life and Mind PETER CARIANIa

    E-print Network

    Cariani, Peter

    26 Regenerative Process in Life and Mind PETER CARIANIa Eaton Peabody Laboratory of Auditory the standpoint of organizational closure and regenerative process in order to draw parallels between life system, then mental states can be seen as switch- ings between alternative sets of stable, self-regenerative

  20. Regenerative Steady-State Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Shane

    Regenerative Steady-State Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems Shane G. Henderson University of Michigan, and Peter W. Glynn Stanford University The regenerative method possesses certain asymptotic. Therefore, applying the regenerative method to steady-state discrete-event system simulations is of great

  1. Preemptive Repeat Identical Transitions in Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    Preemptive Repeat Identical Transitions in Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets Andrea Bobbio Duke University, Durham, NC 27708­0291 Abstract The recent literature on Markov Regenerative Stochas words: Stochastic Petri Nets, Semi­Markov Reward Models, Markov regenerative processes, pre­ emptive

  2. The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi-

    E-print Network

    SCRMCNotes The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi- cine Center is to advance the science of stem cell biology and foster breakthroughs in regenerative medicine through faculty. They include Stem Cell Bioengineering, Cardiovascular Regeneration, Musculoskeletal Regen- eration, Molecular

  3. The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi-

    E-print Network

    SCRMCNotes The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi- cine Center is to advance the science of stem cell biology and foster breakthroughs in regenerative medicine through faculty Wilmut, Director of the Edinburgh University Regenerative Medicine Centre, helped launch the center

  4. EXPLOITING REGENERATIVE STRUCTURE TO ESTIMATE FINITE TIME AVERAGES

    E-print Network

    Whitt, Ward

    EXPLOITING REGENERATIVE STRUCTURE TO ESTIMATE FINITE TIME AVERAGES VIA SIMULATION Wanmo Kang three key assumptions: (i) the underlying stochastic process has regenerative structure, (ii) the time those properties, we propose a residual-cycle estimator, based on data from the regenerative cycle

  5. Optimization of cascaded regenerative links based on phase sensitive amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    Optimization of cascaded regenerative links based on phase sensitive amplifiers M. A. Sorokina,* S regenerative system. © 2013 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060 remains unknown. A rigorous optimization of their regenerative transfer function is necessary to achieve

  6. The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi-

    E-print Network

    SCRMCNotes The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi- cine Center is to advance the science of stem cell biology and foster breakthroughs in regenerative medicine through faculty to help foster stem cell and regenerative medicine research and education. Change is a constant in life

  7. SHARED MEMORY PARALLEL REGENERATIVE QUEUING NETWORK Panajotis Katsaros

    E-print Network

    Katsaros, Panagiotis

    SHARED MEMORY PARALLEL REGENERATIVE QUEUING NETWORK SIMULATION Panajotis Katsaros Constantine Lazos simulations. The simulation results are statistically processed, by applying the classical regenerative method'' of the time intervals, match each other. In this sense, the regenerative method provides a safe way

  8. Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets with Age Type General Transitions

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets with Age Type General Transitions Mikl#19;os Telek 1 Abstract. Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets (MRSPN) have been recently introduced in the literature with preemp- tive resume (prs) service policy. Key words: Markov regenerative processes, Stochastic Petri Nets

  9. BME 1454H Regenerative Medicine Instructor Contact Info

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    to regenerative medicine research · To improve oral presentation and grant writing skills Class structure Each two: Regenerative medicine oral presentations October 11: Grant outline and reference list due November 21: Grant; Oral and Written Assignment Guidelines Regenerative Medicine `Background' Oral Presentation Each class

  10. Regenerative Studies: College Community and Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woltz, Mary G.

    This case study applies principles derived from the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) to a community college in North Carolina. CRS, on the campus of California State Polytechnic Institute (California), is dedicated to the education, demonstration, and research of degenerative systems in the areas of shelter, food production, energy, water and…

  11. Regenerative nanomedicine: current perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Koel; Kumar, Vishu; Kandasamy, Jayaprakash; RoyChoudhury, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has considerably accelerated the growth of regenerative medicine in recent years. Application of nanotechnology in regenerative medicine has revolutionized the designing of grafts and scaffolds which has resulted in new grafts/scaffold systems having significantly enhanced cellular and tissue regenerative properties. Since the cell–cell and cell-matrix interaction in biological systems takes place at the nanoscale level, the application of nanotechnology gives an edge in modifying the cellular function and/or matrix function in a more desired way to mimic the native tissue/organ. In this review, we focus on the nanotechnology-based recent advances and trends in regenerative medicine and discussed under individual organ systems including bone, cartilage, nerve, skin, teeth, myocardium, liver and eye. Recent studies that are related to the design of various types of nanostructured scaffolds and incorporation of nanomaterials into the matrices are reported. We have also documented reports where these materials and matrices have been compared for their better biocompatibility and efficacy in supporting the damaged tissue. In addition to the recent developments, future directions and possible challenges in translating the findings from bench to bedside are outlined. PMID:25214780

  12. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells, aging and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Chiara; Berardi, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tissue maintenance and regeneration is dependent on stem cells and increasing evidence has shown to decline with age. Stem cell based-aging is thought to influence therapeutic efficacy. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue regeneration. Here, we discuss the effects of age-related changes on MSC properties considering their possible use in research or regenerative medicine. PMID:23738303

  14. *http://nist.gov/mml/polymers/biomaterials/functional_imaging_regenerative_medicine_workshop. ANNOUNCING Functional Imaging for Regenerative Medicine

    E-print Network

    *http://nist.gov/mml/polymers/biomaterials/functional_imaging_regenerative_medicine_workshop. cfm ANNOUNCING ­ Functional Imaging for Regenerative Medicine A workshop to be held in Gaithersburg, MD on 31 May ­ 1 June 2012 Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM) increasingly rely on imaging

  15. “Venopathy” at Work: Recasting Neointimal Hyperplasia in a New Light

    PubMed Central

    Yevzlin, Alexander S.; Chan, Micah R.; Becker, Yolanda T.; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Lee, Timmy; Becker, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access is a unique form of vascular anastomosis. Though created in a unique disease state, it has much to offer in terms of insights into venous endothelial and anastomotic biology. The development of neointimal hyperplasia has been identified as a pathologic entity, decreasing the lifespan and effectiveness of hemodialysis vascular access. Subtle hints and new data suggest a contrary idea—that neointimal hyperplasia, to some extent an expected response, if controlled properly, may play a beneficial role in the promotion of maturation to a functional access. This review attempts to recast our understanding of neointimal hyperplasia and redefine research goals for an evolving discipline that focuses on a life-sustaining connection between an artery and vein. PMID:20875897

  16. Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25097665

  17. Regenerative nanomedicines: an emerging investment prospective?

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Cells respond to their structural surrounding and within nanostructures exhibit unique proliferative and differentiation properties. The application of nanotechnologies to the field of regenerative medicine offers the potential to direct cell fate, target the delivery of cells and reduce immune rejection (via encapsulation), thereby supporting the development of regenerative medicines. The overall objective of any therapy is the delivery of the product not just into the clinic but also to patients on a routine basis. Such a goal typically requires a commercial vehicle and substantial levels of investment in scientific, clinical, regulatory and business expertise, resources, time and funding. Therefore, this paper focuses on some of the challenges facing this emerging industry, including investment by the venture capital community. PMID:20826478

  18. Electrospun Silk Biomaterial Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Reagan, Michaela R; Kaplan, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique that enables the development of nanofiber-based biomaterial scaffolds. Scaffolds can be generated that are useful for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine since they mimic the nanoscale properties of certain fibrous components of the native extracellular matrix in tissues. Silk is a natural protein with excellent biocompatibility, remarkable mechanical properties as well as tailorable degradability. Integrating these protein polymer advantages with electrospinning results in scaffolds with combined biochemical, topographical and mechanical cues with versatility for a range of biomaterial, cell and tissue studies and applications. This review covers research related to electrospinning of silk, including process parameters, post treatment of the spun fibers, functionalization of nanofibers, and the potential applications for these material systems in regenerative medicine. Research challenges and future trends are also discussed. PMID:19643154

  19. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hirschi, Karen K.; Li, Song; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it is now possible to convert differentiated somatic cells into multipotent stem cells that have the capacity to generate all cell types of adult tissues. Thus, there is a wide variety of applications for this technology, including regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modeling, and drug screening/discovery. Although biological and biochemical techniques have been well established for cell reprogramming, bioengineering technologies offer novel tools for the reprogramming, expansion, isolation, and differentiation of iPS cells. In this article, we review these bioengineering approaches for the derivation and manipulation of iPS cells and focus on their relevance to regenerative medicine. PMID:24905879

  20. Regenerative Endodontics: A Road Less Travelled

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Kaur, Dilpreet

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional approaches like root canal therapy and apexification procedures have been successful in treating diseased or infected root canals, but these modalities fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in treated teeth. Regeneration-based approaches aims to offer high levels of success by replacing diseased or necrotic pulp tissues with healthy pulp tissue to revitalize teeth. The applications of regenerative approaches in dental clinics have potential to dramatically improve patients’ quality of life. This review article offers a detailed overview of present regenerative endodontic approaches aiming to revitalize teeth and also outlines the problems to be dealt before this emerging field contributes to clinical treatment protocols. It conjointly covers the basic trilogy elements of tissue engineering. PMID:25478476

  1. Graphene-Based Materials in Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xili; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2015-07-15

    Graphene possesses many unique properties such as two-dimensional planar structure, super conductivity, chemical and mechanical stability, large surface area, and good biocompatibility. In the past few years, graphene-based materials have risen as a shining star on the path of researchers seeking new materials for future regenerative medicine. Herein, the recent research advances made in graphene-based materials mostly utilizing the mechanical and electrical properties of graphene are described. The most exciting findings addressing the impact of graphene-based materials on regenerative medicine are highlighted, with particular emphasis on their applications including nerve, bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, cardiac, skin, adipose tissue regeneration, and their effects on the induced pluripotent stem cells. Future perspectives and emerging challenges are also addressed in this Review article. PMID:26037920

  2. Micro-Scale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    A micro-scale regenerative heat exchanger has been designed, optimized and fabricated for use in a micro-Stirling device. Novel design and fabrication techniques enabled the minimization of axial heat conduction losses and pressure drop, while maximizing thermal regenerative performance. The fabricated prototype is comprised of ten separate assembled layers of alternating metal-dielectric composite. Each layer is offset to minimize conduction losses and maximize heat transfer by boundary layer disruption. A grating pattern of 100 micron square non-contiguous flow passages were formed with a nominal 20 micron wall thickness, and an overall assembled ten-layer thickness of 900 microns. Application of the micro heat exchanger is envisioned in the areas of micro-refrigerators/coolers, micropower devices, and micro-fluidic devices.

  3. Monoclonal origin of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and some vulvar hyperplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Tate, J. E.; Mutter, G. L.; Boynton, K. A.; Crum, C. P.

    1997-01-01

    Squamous neoplasms of the female genital tract, including vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, presumably are derived from a single cell. This study addressed this hypothesis and determined the clonal status of other squamous epithelial alterations associated with vulvar carcinoma, including hyperplasia and lichen sclerosis. X chromosome inactivation patterns of 22 epithelial lesions and matched normal epithelium were determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay targeting the X-linked human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA). Clonality was inferred by comparing matched lesional and control tissues as follows: 1) monoclonal, if intensity of either PCR product was skewed relative to normal reference epithelium (control), 2) polyclonal, if both lesional and control were unskewed, and 3) unknown, if both lesion and control tissues were skewed toward the same allele. Two cases were excluded because of noninformative homozygous HUMARA alleles. Of 8 vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias analyzed, 7 were scored monoclonal and 1 polyclonal. Of 12 hyperplasias, 6 were monoclonal, including one with lichen sclerosis, 2 were polyclonal, and in 4, the clonal status could not be determined. The PCR-based clonal assay supports a monoclonal derivation for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and, in some cases, vulvar hyperplasia, and lichen sclerosis. The finding of monoclonal hyperplasia and lichen sclerosis suggests that clonal expansion may evolve before the development of morphological atypia in these epithelia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9006346

  4. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  5. Aspirin and dipyridamole decrease intimal hyperplasia in experimental vein grafts.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, R L; Hagen, P O; Fuchs, J C

    1980-01-01

    Release from platelets of a factor mitogenic for smooth muscle cells is a postulated mechanism for the pathogenesis of vascular intimal hyperplasia. In this study the effect of antiplatelet therapy was evaluated. Aspirin (165 mg twice daily) and dipyridamole (25 mg twice daily) were administered to six rhesus monkeys and six were given placebo only. Bilateral vein bypass grafts were placed in the iliac arteries. In addition, to evaluate the relative contribution of adventitial dissection and intimal injury, on one side the carotid artery and femoral vein were stripped of adventitia and on the other side the intima of these vessels were injured by the single passage of an inflated balloon tipped catheter. Animals were killed after 16 weeks. In grafts relative luminal area was determined by a photographic gravimetric method at three standard locations. Femoral veins and carotid arteries were classified as histologically normal or as exhibiting hyperplasia. All vessels with adventitial stripping were normal. All vessels with intimal injury in the placebo group except one exhibited intimal hyperplasia compared to the drug treated group in which over half were normal. Relative intimal area was significantly less in grafts from drug treated animals at all three locations and luminal area greater in two. These data suggest that vascular intimal hyperplasia can be reduced by treatment with antiplatelet agents. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b. Fig. 3. PMID:6767450

  6. Short wavelength regenerative amplifier free electron lasers

    E-print Network

    Dunning, D J; Thompson, N R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss extending the operating wavelength range of tunable Regenerative Amplifier FELs to shorter wavelengths than current design proposals, notably into the XUV regions of the spectrum and beyond where the reflectivity of broadband optics is very low. Simulation studies are presented which demonstrate the development of good temporal coherence in generic systems with a broadband radiation feedback of less than one part in ten thousand.

  7. Shannon capacity of nonlinear regenerative channels

    E-print Network

    Sorokina, M A

    2013-01-01

    We compute Shannon capacity of nonlinear channels with regenerative elements. Conditions are found under which capacity of such nonlinear channels is higher than the Shannon capacity of the classical linear additive white Gaussian noise channel. We develop a general scheme for designing the proposed channels and apply it to the particular nonlinear sine-mapping. The upper bound for regeneration efficiency is found and the asymptotic behavior of the capacity in the saturation regime is derived.

  8. A solar regenerative thermoelectrochemical converter (RTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, C.W.; McHardy, J. )

    1992-02-01

    This is an executive summary of a final subcontract report that describes the successful completion of a closed-loop demonstration of a regenerative thermoelectromechanical device using solar heat input for the production of electricity. The full report, which contains a detailed description of the two-year effort, is currently subject to a government secrecy order which precludes public release of the information. Copies of the full report will be made available for general release whenever the secrecy order is lifted.

  9. Optimization of an irreversible Stirling regenerative cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-González, G.; Cano-Bianco, M.; León-Galicia, A.; Rivera-Camacho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work a Stirling regenerative cycle with some irreversibilities is analyzed. The analyzed irreversibilities are located at the heat exchangers. They receive a finite amount of heat and heat leakage occurs between both reservoirs. Using this model, power and the efficiency at maximum power are obtained. Some optimal design parameters for the exchanger heat areas and thermal conductances are presented. The relation between the power, efficiency and the results obtained are shown graphically.

  10. Low temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Tucson, AZ); Brown, Alan P. (Bolingbrook, IL); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the complexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  11. Low-temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, R.O.; Brown, A.P.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-21

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system is described including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the ocmplexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  12. Regenerative magnetorheological dampers for vehicle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Zou, Li; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are promising for vehicle suspensions, by virtue of their adaptive properties. During the everyday use of vehicles, a lot of energy is wasted due to the energy dissipation by dampers under the road irregularities. On the other hand, extra batteries are required for the current MR damper systems. To reduce the energy waste and get rid of the dependence on extra batteries, in this paper, regenerative MR dampers are proposed for vehicle suspensions, which integrate energy harvesting and controllable damping functions. The wasted vibration energy can be converted into electrical energy and power the MR damper coil. A regenerative MR damper for vehicle suspensions is developed. Damping force and power generation characteristics of the regenerative MR damper were modeled and analyzed. Then the damper is applied to a 2 DOF suspension system for system simulation under various road conditions. Simulation results show that riding comfort can be significantly improved, while harvesting energy for other use in addition to supply power for the controlled MR damper.

  13. Regulation of Regenerative Periodontal Healing by NAMPT

    PubMed Central

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Jäger, Andreas; Jepsen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. Obese individuals have an increased risk of periodontitis, and elevated circulating levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) may be a pathomechanistic link between both diseases. Recently, increased levels of NAMPT have also been found in patients with periodontitis, irrespective of the presence of obesity. This in vitro study sought to examine the effects of NAMPT on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and, thereby, periodontal healing. PDL cells treated with enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which was used to mimic regenerative healing conditions in vitro, were grown in the presence and absence of NAMPT for up to 14 d. EMD stimulated significantly (P < 0.05) the expression of growth factors and their receptors, matrix molecules, osteogenesis-associated factors, and wound closure and calcium accumulation. In the presence of NAMPT, all these stimulatory effects were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of EMD on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration are counteracted by NAMPT. Enhanced levels of NAMPT, as found in obesity and periodontal inflammation, may compromise the regenerative capacity of PDL cells and, thereby, periodontal healing in the presence of EMD. PMID:24288440

  14. PAX2 loss by immunohistochemistry occurs early and often in endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Kimberly H; Upson, Kristen; Reed, Susan D; Jordan, Carolyn D; Newton, Katherine M; Doherty, Jennifer; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Garcia, Rochelle L

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical markers to assist in the diagnosis and classification of hyperplastic endometrial epithelial proliferations would be of diagnostic use. Methods To examine the possible utility of PAX2 as a marker of hyperplastic endometrium, cases of normal endometrium, simple and complex hyperplasia without atypia, atypical hyperplasia and FIGO grade 1 endometrioid carcinomas were stained for PAX2. Results 206 endometrial samples were available for interpretation of PAX2 staining. The percent of cases with complete PAX2 loss (0% of cells staining) increased with increasing severity of hyperplasia: 0% of normal proliferative and secretory endometrium (n=28), 17.4% of simple hyperplasia (n=23), 59.0% of complex hyperplasia (n=83), 74.1% of atypical hyperplasia (n=54) and 73.3% of FIGO grade 1 endometrioid cancers (n=15). Partial loss of PAX2 expression did occur in normal endometrium (17.9%) but occurred in smaller proportions of tissue and was less frequent than in simple hyperplasia (47.8% with partial loss), complex hyperplasia (32.5%), atypical hyperplasia (22.2%) and FIGO grade 1 carcinomas (20.0%). Uniform PAX2 expression was rare in complex (8.4%) and atypical hyperplasia (3.7%) and carcinoma (6.7%). When evaluating loss of PAX2 in histologically normal endometrium adjacent to lesional endometrium in a given case, statistically significant differences in staining were observed for simple hyperplasia (p=0.011), complex hyperplasia (p< 0.001), atypical hyperplasia (p<0.001) and FIGO grade 1 endometrioid cancer (p=0.003). Conclusion In summary, PAX2 loss appears to occur early in the development of endometrial pre-cancers and may prove useful in some settings as a diagnostic marker in determining normal endometrium from complex and atypical hyperplasia and low grade carcinomas. However, it is not useful in distinguishing between these diagnostic categories. PMID:22317873

  15. The Impact of Biomechanics in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Butler, David L.

    Biomechanical factors profoundly influence the processes of tissue growth, development, maintenance, degeneration, and repair. Regenerative strategies to restore damaged or diseased tissues in vivo and create living tissue ...

  16. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  17. Transpiration And Regenerative Cooling Of Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    Transpiration cooling extends limits of performance. Addition of transpiration cooling to regeneratively-cooled rocket-engine combustion chamber proposed. Modification improves performance of engine by allowing use of higher chamber pressure. Throat section of combustion-chamber wall cooled by transpiration, while chamber and nozzle sections cooled by fluid flowing in closed channels. Concept applicable to advanced, high-performance terrestrial engines or some kinds of industrial combustion chambers. With proper design, cooling scheme makes possible to achieve higher chamber pressure and higher overall performance in smaller engine.

  18. Bioprinting is changing regenerative medicine forever.

    PubMed

    Collins, Scott Forrest

    2014-12-01

    3D printing, or solid freeform fabrication, applied to regenerative medicine brings technologies from several industries together to help solve unique challenges in both basic science and tissue engineering. By more finely organizing cells and supporting structures precisely in 3D space, we will gain critical knowledge of cell-cell communications and cell-environment interactions. As we increase the scale, we will move toward complex tissue and organ structures where several cell phenotypes will functionally and structurally interact, thus recapitulating the form and function of native tissues and organs. PMID:25457969

  19. Regenerative electronic biosensors using supramolecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xuexin; Rajan, Nitin K; Routenberg, David A; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reed, Mark A

    2013-05-28

    A supramolecular interface for Si nanowire FETs has been developed with the aim of creating regenerative electronic biosensors. The key to the approach is Si-NWs functionalized with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), to which receptor moieties can be attached with an orthogonal supramolecular linker. Here we demonstrate full recycling using the strongest biomolecular system known, streptavidin (SAv)-biotin. The bound SAv and the linkers can be selectively removed from the surface through competitive desorption with concentrated ?-CD, regenerating the sensor for repeated use. An added advantage of ?-CD is the possibility of stereoselective sensors, and we demonstrate here the ability to quantify the enantiomeric composition of chiral targets. PMID:23566420

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of a regenerative cutting process

    E-print Network

    Grzegorz Litak; Sven Schubert; Guenter Radons

    2012-01-24

    We examine the regenerative cutting process by using a single degree of freedom non-smooth model with a friction component and a time delay term. Instead of the standard Lyapunov exponent calculations, we propose a statistical 0-1 test analysis for chaos detection. This approach reveals the nature of the cutting process signaling regular or chaotic dynamics. For the investigated deterministic model we are able to show a transition from chaotic to regular motion with increasing cutting speed. For two values of time delay showing the different response the results have been confirmed by the means of the spectral density and the multiscaled entropy.

  1. Small Molecule based Musculoskeletal Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kevin W.-H.; Jiang, Tao; Gagnon, Keith A.; Nelson, Clarke; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and scientists working in the field of regenerative engineering are actively investigating a wide range of methods to promote musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. Small molecule-mediated tissue regeneration is emerging as a promising strategy for regenerating various musculoskeletal tissues and a large number of small molecule compounds have been recently discovered as potential bioactive molecules for musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration. In this review, we summarize the recent literature encompassing the past four years in the area of small bioactive molecule for promoting repair and regeneration of various musculoskeletal tissues including bone, muscle, cartilage, tendon, and nerve. PMID:24405851

  2. Avoiding immunological rejection in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Eleanor M; Bradley, John Andrew

    2015-01-01

    One of the major goals of regenerative medicine is repair or replacement of diseased and damaged tissues by transfer of differentiated stem cells or stem cell-derived tissues. The possibility that these tissues will be destroyed by immunological rejection remains a challenge that can only be overcome through a better understanding of the nature and expression of potentially immunogenic molecules associated with cell replacement therapy and the mechanisms and pathways resulting in their immunologic rejection. This review draws on clinical experience of organ and tissue transplantation, and on transplantation immunology research to consider practical approaches for avoiding and overcoming the possibility of rejection of stem cell-derived tissues. PMID:25933238

  3. Phosphorous-Containing Polymers for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendan M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2014-01-01

    Disease and injury have resulted in a large, unmet need for functional tissue replacements. Polymeric scaffolds can be used to deliver cells and bioactive signals to address this need for regenerating damaged tissue. Phosphorous-containing polymers have been implemented to improve and accelerate the formation of native tissue both by mimicking the native role of phosphorous groups in the body and by attachment of other bioactive molecules. This manuscript reviews the synthesis, properties, and performance of phosphorous-containing polymers that can be useful in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:24565855

  4. Regulating the therapeutic translation of regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cuchiara, Maude L; Olive, Jackie K; Matthews, Kirstin

    2015-10-01

    Regenerative medicine and stem cell research are exciting new fields. But as the fields progress toward clinical therapies, controversies emerge. Hype surrounding stem cell research has caused an increase in their use in interventions that are not clinically proven. Furthermore, the regulatory agencies have a lot of difficulty dealing with cell therapies, which are distinctly different from drugs and medical devices they more commonly approve. To move the field forward, advocates, regulators and scientists need to come together to find new options for stem cell research oversight that protects both the patients and the research field. PMID:26144546

  5. The essential materials paradigms for regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David

    2011-04-01

    Medical technology is changing rapidly. Several disease states can now be treated very effectively by implantable devices that restore mechanical and physical functionality, such as replacement of hip joints or restoration of heart rhythms by pacemakers. These techniques, however, are rather limited, and no biological functionality can be restored through the use of inert materials and devices. This paper explores the role of new types of biomaterials within the emerging area of regenerative medicine, where they are able to play a powerful role in persuading the human body to regenerate itself.

  6. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sempoux, Christine; Balabaud, Charles; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pathologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocellular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for paraffin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glutamine synthase and according to the above results additional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated. PMID:25232451

  7. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  8. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  9. Regenerative Estimation Variants of Response Times in Closed Networks of Queues

    E-print Network

    Katsaros, Panagiotis

    Regenerative Estimation Variants of Response Times in Closed Networks of Queues PANAJOTIS KATSAROS regenerative estimation variants of response times, in multivariate simulations of closed queuing networks. Key-Words: - Queuing networks, Regenerative method, Simulation output analysis, Sequential control

  10. 78 FR 43889 - Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine Products; Public Workshop...Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine Products.'' The purpose...activities involving cellular therapies and regenerative medicine products. Date and...

  11. Allopregnanolone as regenerative therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease: Translational development and clinical promise

    E-print Network

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    Allopregnanolone as regenerative therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease: Translational development Keywords: Neurogenesis Neurosteroid Regenerative medicine Treatment regimen Pharmacokinetics to the clinic as a regenerative therapeutic for neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer

  12. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  13. Imaging features of poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults.

    PubMed

    Kok, H K; Sherlock, M; Healy, N A; Doody, O; Govender, P; Torreggiani, W C

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic autosomal recessive condition most frequently as a result of a mutation in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme gene. Patients with poorly controlled CAH can manifest characteristic imaging findings as a result of adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation or the effects of cortisol precursor excess on various target organs. We present a spectrum of imaging findings encountered in adult patients with poorly treated CAH, with an emphasis on radiological features and their clinical relevance. PMID:26133223

  14. Vaginal hyperplasia in the bitch: Literature review and commentary

    PubMed Central

    Post, Klaas; Van Haaften, Bas; Okkens, Auke C.

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed the incidence, etiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of canine vaginal hyperplasia, and describe a simple surgical technique for its correction as practiced at the Small Animal Clinic, State University of Utrecht, The Netherlands. Many different treatments have been used, and some are novel approaches. In many cases, prevention is accomplished if the bitch is ovariectomized; there is a high incidence of recurrence with medical treatment. PMID:17423719

  15. A mathematical model of venous neointimal hyperplasia formation

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Grajdeanu, Paula; Schugart, Richard C; Friedman, Avner; Valentine, Christopher; Agarwal, Anil K; Rovin, Brad H

    2008-01-01

    Background In hemodialysis patients, the most common cause of vascular access failure is neointimal hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells at the venous anastomosis of arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. The release of growth factors due to surgical injury, oxidative stress and turbulent flow has been suggested as a possible mechanism for neointimal hyperplasia. Results In this work, we construct a mathematical model which analyzes the role that growth factors might play in the stenosis at the venous anastomosis. The model consists of a system of partial differential equations describing the influence of oxidative stress and turbulent flow on growth factors, the interaction among growth factors, smooth muscle cells, and extracellular matrix, and the subsequent effect on the stenosis at the venous anastomosis, which, in turn, affects the level of oxidative stress and degree of turbulent flow. Computer simulations suggest that our model can be used to predict access stenosis as a function of the initial concentration of the growth factors inside the intimal-luminal space. Conclusion The proposed model describes the formation of venous neointimal hyperplasia, based on pathogenic mechanisms. The results suggest that interventions aimed at specific growth factors may be successful in prolonging the life of the vascular access, while reducing the costs of vascular access maintenance. The model may also provide indication of when invasive access surveillance to repair stenosis should be undertaken. PMID:18215280

  16. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia after diode laser oral surgery. An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Juan; González-Mosquera, Antonio; García-Martín, José-Manuel; García-Caballero, Lucía; Varela-Centelles, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine the process of epithelial reparation in a surgical wound caused by diode laser. Material and Methods An experimental study with 27 Sprage-Dawley rats was undertaken. The animals were randomly allocated to two experimental groups, whose individuals underwent glossectomy by means of a diode laser at different wattages, and a control group treated using a number 15 scalpel blade. The animals were slaughtered at the 2nd, 7th, and 14th day after glossectomy. The specimens were independently studied by two pathologists (blinded for the specimens’ group). Results At the 7th day, re-epithelisation was slightly faster for the control group (conventional scalpel) (p=0.011). At the 14th day, complete re-epithelization was observed for all groups. The experimental groups displayed a pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Conclusions It is concluded that, considering the limitations of this kind of experimental studies, early re-epithelisation occurs slightly faster when a conventional scalpel is used for incision, although re-epithelisation is completed in two weeks no matter the instrument used. In addition, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a potential event after oral mucosa surgery with diode laser. Knowledge about this phenomenon (not previously described) may prevent diagnostic mistakes and inadequate treatment approaches, particularly when dealing with potentially malignant oral lesions. Key words:Diode laser, animal model, oral biopsy, oral cancer, oral precancer, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. PMID:26116841

  17. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation. 11 figs.

  18. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, Victor E. [Livermore, CA; Haas, Roger A. [Pleasanton, CA; Krupke, William F. [Pleasanton, CA; Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation.

  19. Integrated regenerative fuel cell experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of an integrated regenerative fuel cell (IRFC) concept. The IRFC consists of a separate fuel cell unit and electrolysis cell unit in the same structure, with internal storage of fuel cell product water and external storage of electrolysis cell produced hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell unit incorporates an enhanced Orbiter-type cell capable of improved performance at reduced weight. The electrolysis cell features a NiCo2O4 catalyst oxygen evolution eletrode with a porous Teflon cover to retard electrolyte loss. Six complete IRFC assemblies were assembled and performance tested at an operating temperature of 200 F (93.3 C) and reactant pressures up to 170 psia (117.2 n/cu cm) on IRFC No. 4. Anomalous pressure charge/discharge characteristics were encountered during performance evaluation. A reversible fuel cell incorporating a proprietary bi-functional oxygen electrode operated satisfactory at 200 F (93.3 C) at reactant pressures up to 50 psia (41.4 n/cu cm) as a regenerative fuel cell for one cycle, before developing an electrical short in the fuel cell mode. Electrolysis cell 300-hour endurance tests demonstrated the electrolyte retention capability of the electrode Teflon cover and the performance stability of the bi-functional oxygen electrode at high potential.

  20. Arterial regenerative activity after prosthetic implantation.

    PubMed

    Greisler, H P; Kim, D U; Price, J B; Voorhees, A B

    1985-03-01

    Factors modifying arterial regenerative activity were evaluated by replacing adult rabbit aortas with either absorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) or nonabsorbable Dacron prostheses, 3.5 mm in internal diameter by 24 mm in length, woven to identical specifications including pore size, wall thickness, and elastic modulus, and were followed up for 12 months. At death, 48 PGA and 20 Dacron specimens were studied grossly and by arteriography, light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and by bursting strength determinations. There were no aortic-related deaths or transaortic hemorrhages. Both materials elicited a surrounding inflammatory reaction containing macrophages which transgressed the interstices of only the PGA prostheses. Between two and four weeks, circumferentially oriented smooth-musclelike myofibroblasts proliferated in the PGA inner capsule yielding a neointima 3.2 times thicker than Dacron's. Early ultrastructurally primitive cells progressively differentiated into these smooth-musclelike myofibroblasts. The few myofibroblasts later appearing with Dacron were radially oriented. After one month proliferation stopped in both groups and neointimal thickness became constant. The luminal surface in the PGA group was endothelial-like but was fibrinous in the Dacron group. All specimens withstood saline infusion at three to five times systolic pressure. These studies demonstrate great arterial regenerative potential and suggest hemodynamic and intercellular mitogens controlling it. PMID:2982343

  1. Extracellular Vesicles: Potential Roles in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Olivier G.; Van Balkom, Bas W. M.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) consist of exosomes, which are released upon fusion of the multivesicular body with the cell membrane, and microvesicles, which are released directly from the cell membrane. EV can mediate cell–cell communication and are involved in many processes, including immune signaling, angiogenesis, stress response, senescence, proliferation, and cell differentiation. The vast amount of processes that EV are involved in and the versatility of manner in which they can influence the behavior of recipient cells make EV an interesting source for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Successes in the fields of tumor biology and immunology sparked the exploration of the potential of EV in the field of regenerative medicine. Indeed, EV are involved in restoring tissue and organ damage, and may partially explain the paracrine effects observed in stem cell-based therapeutic approaches. The function and content of EV may also harbor information that can be used in tissue engineering, in which paracrine signaling is employed to modulate cell recruitment, differentiation, and proliferation. In this review, we discuss the function and role of EV in regenerative medicine and elaborate on potential applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25520717

  2. Bromodeoxyuridine Specifically Labels the Regenerative Stem Cells of Planarians

    E-print Network

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    Bromodeoxyuridine Specifically Labels the Regenerative Stem Cells of Planarians Phillip A. Newmark1 University Parkway, Baltimore, Maryland 21210 The singular regenerative abilities of planarians require of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reported

  3. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. PMID:24957845

  4. 1950 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 56, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 Smart Regenerative Relays for

    E-print Network

    Giannakis, Georgios

    1950 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 56, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 Smart Regenerative Relays--Cooperative communications, adaptive trans- missions, diversity order, relay strategies, regenerative relay, maximum

  5. Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy for supercapacitor vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhongyue; Cao, Junyi; Cao, Binggang; Chen, Wen

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%. PMID:25311161

  6. [Terminology and classification of condylar hyperplasia: Two case reports and review].

    PubMed

    Y?lanc?, Hümeyra Özge; Akkaya, Nursel; Özbek, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is characterized by the growth of mandibular condyle. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain controversial. It often occurs unilaterally and leads to facial asymmetry and malocclusion. In the literature, it was also classified according to anomalies accompanied by the growth of other components of the mandible. Differential diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia usually includes tumors of temporomandibular joint. In this article, we discuss the term "condylar hyperplasia" and its classification considering two patients with condylar growth. PMID:26572183

  7. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of the closed loop system began in 2002 at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. System checkout was completed, and testing began, in July of 2003. The initial test sequences were done with only a fuel cell or electrolyzer in the test rig. Those tests were used to verify the test apparatus, procedures, and software. The first complete cycles of the fully closed loop, regenerative fuel cell system were successfully completed in the following September. Following some hardware upgrades to increase reactant recirculation flow, the test rig was operated at full power in December 2003 and again in January 2004. In March 2004 a newer generation of fuel cell and electrolyzer stacks was substituted for the original hardware and these stacks were successfully tested at full power under cyclic operation in June of 2004.

  8. Regenerative system for a gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, W.

    1987-04-28

    A regenerative system is described for a gas turbine, wherein the turbine has a single shaft on which are mounted a compressor section and a work section, comprising: an air heater mounted adjacent the exit of the work section, the hot exit gas and pressurized air passing through passages formed in the air heater; combustor housings surrounding the compressor section, each containing a combustor mounted within it and extending coaxially thereof, each combustor having a transition section extending to the entrance to the work section; an annular connector housing extending between the combustor housing and the exit of the compressor section to carry the compressed air radially; an outer duct leading from the connector housing to one end of the air heater; and an inner duct attached to the other end of the air heater.

  9. Regenerative block empirical likelihood for Markov chains

    E-print Network

    Harari-Kermadec, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Empirical likelihood is a powerful semi-parametric method increasingly investigated in the literature. However, most authors essentially focus on an i.i.d. setting. In the case of dependent data, the classical empirical likelihood method cannot be directly applied on the data but rather on blocks of consecutive data catching the dependence structure. Generalization of empirical likelihood based on the construction of blocks of increasing nonrandom length have been proposed for time series satisfying mixing conditions. Following some recent developments in the bootstrap literature, we propose a generalization for a large class of Markov chains, based on small blocks of various lengths. Our approach makes use of the regenerative structure of Markov chains, which allows us to construct blocks which are almost independent (independent in the atomic case). We obtain the asymptotic validity of the method for positive recurrent Markov chains and present some simulation results.

  10. Regenerative medicine: the emergence of an industry

    PubMed Central

    Nerem, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last quarter of a century there has been an emergence of a tissue engineering industry, one that has now evolved into the broader area of regenerative medicine. There have been ‘ups and downs’ in this industry; however, it now appears to be on a track that may be described as ‘back to the future’. The latest data indicate that for 2007 the private sector activity in the world for this industry is approaching $2.5 billion, with 167 companies/business units and more than 6000 employee full time equivalents. Although small compared with the medical device and also the pharmaceutical industries, these numbers are not insignificant. Thus, there is the indication that this industry, and the related technology, may still achieve its potential and address the needs of millions of patients worldwide, in particular those with needs that currently are unmet. PMID:20843840

  11. The international translational regenerative medicine center.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Mardi de Veuve; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik; Jove, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The International Translational Regenerative Medicine Center, an organizing sponsor of the World Stem Cell Summit 2012, is a global initiative established in 2011 by founding partners Karolinska Institutet (Stockholm, Sweden) and Beckman Research Institute at City of Hope (CA, USA) with a mission to facilitate the acceleration of translational research and medicine on a global scale. Karolinska Institutet, home of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, is one of the most prestigious medical research institutions in the world. The Beckman Research Institute/City of Hope is ranked among the leading NIH-designated comprehensive cancer research and treatment institutions in the USA, has the largest academic GMP facility and advanced drug discovery capability, and is a pioneer in diabetes research and treatment. PMID:23210815

  12. Liposomes in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nelson; Martins, Albino; Reis, Rui L.; Neves, Nuno M.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are vesicular structures made of lipids that are formed in aqueous solutions. Structurally, they resemble the lipid membrane of living cells. Therefore, they have been widely investigated, since the 1960s, as models to study the cell membrane, and as carriers for protection and/or delivery of bioactive agents. They have been used in different areas of research including vaccines, imaging, applications in cosmetics and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is defined as a strategy for promoting the regeneration of tissues for the human body. This strategy may involve the coordinated application of defined cell types with structured biomaterial scaffolds to produce living structures. To create a new tissue, based on this strategy, a controlled stimulation of cultured cells is needed, through a systematic combination of bioactive agents and mechanical signals. In this review, we highlight the potential role of liposomes as a platform for the sustained and local delivery of bioactive agents for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:25401172

  13. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

  14. The TMI Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Ruhl, Robert C.; Petrik, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. Systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate (during sunlight cycles) to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis and (during dark cycles) fuel cells convert hydrogen into electricity. Common configurations use two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Reliability, power to weight and power to volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cells) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based design integrates fuel cell and electrolyzer functions and potentially simplifies system requirements. The integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer design also utilizes innovative gas storage concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H20 electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for regenerative fuel cells. Tests have shown improved cell performance in both fuel and electrolysis modes in reversible fuel cell tests. Regenerative fuel cell efficiencies, ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer mode), improved from 50 percent using conventional electrode materials to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow a single SOFC system to operate as both the electolyzer and fuel cell. Preliminary system designs have also been developed to show the technical feasibility of using the design for space applications requiring high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Small space systems also have potential for dual-use, terrestrial applications.

  15. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  16. Materials science tools for regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Wade Nicholas

    Regenerative therapies originating from recent technological advances in biology could revolutionize medicine in the coming years. In particular, the advent of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), with their ability to become any cell in the adult body, has opened the door to an entirely new way of treating disease. However, currently these medical breakthroughs remain only a promise. To make them a reality, new tools must be developed to surmount the new technical hurdles that have arisen from dramatic departure from convention that this field represents. The collected work presented in this dissertation covers several projects that seek to apply the skills and knowledge of materials science to this tool synthesizing effort. The work is divided into three chapters. The first deals with our work to apply Raman spectroscopy, a tool widely used for materials characterization, to degeneration in cartilage. We have shown that Raman can effectively distinguish the matrix material of healthy and diseased tissue. The second area of work covered is the development of a new confocal image analysis for studying hPSC colonies that are chemical confined to uniform growth regions. This tool has important application in understanding the heterogeneity that may slow the development of hPSC -based treatment, as well as the use of such confinement in the eventually large-scale manufacture of hPSCs for therapeutic use. Third, the use of structural templating in tissue engineering scaffolds is detailed. We have utilized templating to tailor scaffold structures for engineering of constructs mimicking two tissues: cartilage and lung. The work described here represents several important early steps towards large goals in regenerative medicine. These tools show a great deal of potential for accelerating progress in this field that seems on the cusp of helping a great many people with otherwise incurable disease.

  17. A review of the regenerative endodontic treatment procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bin-Na; Moon, Jong-Wook; Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, apexification has been used to treat immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This technique promotes the formation of an apical barrier to close the open apex so that the filling materials can be confined to the root canal. Because tissue regeneration cannot be achieved with apexification, a new technique called regenerative endodontic treatment was presented recently to treat immature permanent teeth. Regenerative endodontic treatment is a treatment procedure designed to replace damaged pulp tissue with viable tissue which restores the normal function of the pulp-dentin structure. After regenerative endodontic treatment, continued root development and hard tissue deposition on the dentinal wall can occur under ideal circumstances. However, it is difficult to predict the result of regenerative endodontic treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to summarize multiple factors effects on the result of regenerative endodontic treatment in order to achieve more predictable results. In this study, we investigated the features of regenerative endodontic treatment in comparison with those of other pulp treatment procedures and analyzed the factors that have an effect on regenerative endodontic treatment. PMID:26295020

  18. Regenerative PN ranging experience with New Horizons during 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. R.; Haskins, C. B.; DeBoy, C. C.

    The New Horizons mission to Pluto is the first deep space mission to include the capability of supporting regenerative PN ranging. During the current phase of the mission, sequential tone ranging supports the mission navigation requirements but regenerative ranging will expand the conditions (antenna selection, integration time, etc.) over which ranging will be successful during any extended mission following the Pluto fly-by, to objects in the Kuiper belt. Experience with regenerative ranging is being obtained now in preparation for its use in an extended mission. During most of 2012, New Horizons was in a hibernation state. Tracking was conducted between late April and early July. Six regenerative ranging passes were performed to bookend this interval; 2 at the beginning and 4 at the end. During that time, the distance between the spacecraft and Earth was in excess of 22 Astronautical Units (AU) and the Pr/No levels were below 15 dB-Hz. A seventh regenerative ranging pass was performed in May at a higher signal level in order to test the acquisition of the ranging code by the spacecraft during a variety of conditions. The consistency of the regenerative range measurements with the adjacent sequential tone ranging measurements has been demonstrated and serves as a check on the calibration of the regenerative ranging system conditions. The range measurement precision has been shown to follow the predictions that are based on the uplink and downlink signal power. The regenerative ranging system has been shown to acquire the uplink ranging code with and without a commanded reset and regardless of the noise bandwidth setting of the system. This paper will present the data that was obtained during 2012 and will describe the analysis results for the regenerative ranging experience during 2012.

  19. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Schmid Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Efat; Vakili, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of hereditary diseases, which are autosomal recessive. CAH occurs due to defect in one of the cortisol coding genes and often clinically presents itself with signs of androgen overproduction. In this article, we report a case of CAH and Schmid metaphyseal dysplasia. Our literature review indicated that this report is the first attempt on CYP11B1 and Schmid dysplasia in a child. The specific diagnosis of 11-?-hydroxylase deficiency can be determined using high basal levels of deoxycorticosterone and/or 11-deoxycortisol serums. PMID:26722148

  20. Natal tooth associated with fibrous hyperplasia - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Harsimran Singh; Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child's life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent's anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: dietary and metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nandeesha, H

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common nonmalignant condition of the prostate occurring in ageing men. Even though BPH is a major public health problem, causing high morbidity and substantial worsening in men's quality of life, little is known about its risk factors. Several studies revealed that it is a multifactorial disease. Previous studies have documented family history, hormonal imbalance, and growth factors as etiological factors in the development of BPH. This review focuses on the dietary and metabolic risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, as well as dyslipidemia and their mechanisms in the pathogenesis of BPH. PMID:18246440

  2. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  3. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOEpatents

    Davis, R.I.

    1990-10-16

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more road wheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the road wheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the road wheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded. 8 figs.

  4. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roy I. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1990-01-01

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

  5. JOINT SOURCE AND RELAY OPTIMIZATION FOR A NON-REGENERATIVE MIMO Zheng Fang, Yingbo Hua

    E-print Network

    Hua, Yingbo

    JOINT SOURCE AND RELAY OPTIMIZATION FOR A NON-REGENERATIVE MIMO RELAY Zheng Fang, Yingbo Hua Newman Springs Road, Red Bank, NJ koshy@research.telcordia.com ABSTRACT We consider a non-regenerative and the destination. Relays can be regenerative or non- regenerative. The former performs decoding and then re

  6. Performance Analysis of Markov Regenerative Reward Mikl'os Telek, Andr'as Pfening

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    Performance Analysis of Markov Regenerative Reward Models ? Mikl'os Telek, Andr'as Pfening for the analysis of Markov Regenerative Processes (MRGP). The widely used description of MRGPs, i.e. by the local regenerative property for the analysis of Markov Regenerative Reward Mod­ els (MRRM). The distribution

  7. Hemifacial lipomatosis, a possible subtype of partial hemifacial hyperplasia: CT and MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Bou-Haidar, P; Taub, P; Som, P

    2010-05-01

    We present a case of hemifacial hyperplasia in an infant manifesting predominantly as lipomatosis and hemihypertrophy of the maxilla. To our knowledge, there is only 1 other case report in the literature demonstrating the MR imaging features of this condition. Our case was manifest almost exclusively as lipomatosis, largely lacking muscular hypertrophy/hyperplasia. PMID:19926700

  8. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the infra-axillary region: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Nisha V; Sandu, Jasleen; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Saikia, Uma Nahar

    2014-03-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is an uncommon, benign hyperproliferative disorder. Papules and nodules occur predominantly in the head and neck region. Involvement of other sites such as the trunk and mucosae has been rarely reported. We herein report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia involving the right infra-axillary region. PMID:24656269

  9. A Rare Case of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ofikwu, Godwin; Mani, Vishnu R.; Rajabalan, Ajai; Adu, Albert; Ahmed, Leaque; Vega, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare clinical condition with only about 100 cases reported in the literature. It is characterized by primary hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) which are specialized epithelial cells located throughout the entire respiratory tract, from the trachea to the terminal airways. DIPNECH appears in various forms that include diffuse proliferation of scattered neuroendocrine cells, small nodules, or a linear proliferation. It is usually seen in middle-aged, nonsmoking women with symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. We present a 45-year-old, nonsmoking woman who presented with symptoms of DIPNECH associated with bilateral pulmonary nodules and left hilar adenopathy. Of interest, DIPNECH in our patient was associated with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids, papillary carcinoma of the left breast, oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, and cortical nodules suggestive of tuberous sclerosis. She had video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, and radical nephrectomy. She is currently symptom-free most of the time with over two years of follow-up. PMID:26609460

  10. 3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. The economic value of investing in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aftab; Rivers, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the science of regenerative medicine and presents evidence that investments towards the development of this technology will reduce total health care output. Use of regenerative medicine will also be an important factor in eliminating chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and Parkinson's disease. Investment in regenerative medicine is a sound strategy for several reasons: human suffering will be reduced, if not eliminated; and the economy will be stimulated by creating employment opportunities, generating additional income and tax revenues, increasing worker productivity, creating new conglomerates, and reducing insurance costs. This article discusses some of the latest advances in regenerative medicine as well as the progress that has been made in the development of new stem cell therapies. PMID:20499720

  12. ARTICLE IN PRESS Bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) system

    E-print Network

    Lee, Thomas H.

    ARTICLE IN PRESS Bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) system: Theoretical considerations Abstract A novel application of bioluminescence for nucleic acid quantification, the bioluminescence is not constrained by detector performance but rather by background bioluminescence caused by contamination by either

  13. Science and Ethics: Bridge to the Future for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Patricio, Ventura-Juncá

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to reflect on the relationship between regenerative medicine and ethics, using as references the Aristotelian concept of what is ethical and that of Raessler Van Potter about bioethics. To do this, I will briefly describe the advances in regenerative medicine with stem cells, the strategies for producing pluripotential cells without destroying human embryos, and the great potential of stem cells to improve life for Humanity, noting that for this to be possible, it is necessary to locate the role of regenerative medicine in the context of human values and well being. In this way, this article has a real perspective of the role that regenerative medicine can play in benefitting human beings and engendering respect for human and natural environments. PMID:24298338

  14. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

  15. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-07-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering.

  16. Regenerative Markov Chain Monte Carlo for any distribution.

    SciTech Connect

    Minh, D.

    2012-01-01

    While Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are frequently used for difficult calculations in a wide range of scientific disciplines, they suffer from a serious limitation: their samples are not independent and identically distributed. Consequently, estimates of expectations are biased if the initial value of the chain is not drawn from the target distribution. Regenerative simulation provides an elegant solution to this problem. In this article, we propose a simple regenerative MCMC algorithm to generate variates for any distribution

  17. Small molecule delivery through nanofibrous scaffolds for musculoskeletal regenerative engineering

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Erica J.; Jiang, Tao; Nelson, Clarke; Henry, Nicole; Lo, Kevin W.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal regenerative engineering approach using small bioactive molecules in conjunction with advanced materials has emerged as a highly promising strategy for musculoskeletal repair and regeneration. Advanced biomaterials technologies have revealed nanofiber-based scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering as vehicles for the controlled delivery of small molecule drugs. This review article highlights recent advances in nanofiber-based delivery of small molecules for musculoskeletal regenerative engineering. The article concludes with perspectives on the challenges and future directions. PMID:24907464

  18. Physiological regeneration of skin appendages and implications for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Randall, Valerie A; Widelitz, Randall B.; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Ting-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The concept of regenerative medicine is relatively new, but animals are well known to remake their hair and feathers regularly by normal regenerative physiological processes. Here we focus on 1) how extra-follicular environments can regulate hair and feather stem cell activities and 2) how different configurations of stem cells can shape organ forms in different body regions to fulfil changing physiological needs. PMID:22505663

  19. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Nasu, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs). They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin–pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined. PMID:25506228

  20. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  1. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  2. Cold end fouling regenerative air preheaters

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; D`Agostini, M.; Sarunac, N.; Yilmaz, A.

    1996-05-01

    Condensation of sulfuric acid occurs in the cold end flow passages of a regenerative air preheater (APH) when local metal temperatures fall beneath the acid dew point of the flue gas. In coal-fired units, the acid condensate acts as an adhesive for fly ash particulate, the deposition of which gradually reduces the cross-sectional area of the passage, leading to higher gas pressure drops and increased fan power requirements. In units which are fan-limited, costly unit derates and forced outages for APH cleaning often occur. Although optimization of APH operation is a highly unit specific issue, the method of approaching the problem is fairly general and can involve combinations of theoretical analysis, field measurements and proper data regression. This paper describes case studies of the APH acid condensation and fouling characteristics at three different coal-fired utility boilers, which illustrate specific applications of the general optimization technique. The approach is also valid for units which employ ammonia injection.

  3. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells (URFC) have recently been developed by several fuel cell manufacturers. These manufacturers have concentrated their efforts on the development of the cell stack technology itself, and have not up to this point devoted much effort to the design and development of the balance of plant. A fuel cell technology program at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) that has as its goal the definition and feasibility testing of the URFC system balance of plant. Besides testing the feasibility, the program also intends to minimize the system weight, volume, and parasitic power as its goal. The design concept currently being developed uses no pumps to circulate coolant or reactants, and minimizes the ancillary components to only the oxygen and hydrogen gas storage tanks, a water storage tank, a loop heat pipe to control the temperature and two pressure control devices to control the cell stack pressures during operation. The information contained in this paper describes the design and operational concepts employed in this concept. The paper also describes the NASA Glenn research program to develop this concept and test its feasibility.

  4. Translating Regenerative Biomaterials Into Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Stace, Edward T; Dakin, Stephanie G; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Globally health care spending is increasing unsustainably. This is especially true of the treatment of musculoskeletal (MSK) disease where in the United States the MSK disease burden has doubled over the last 15 years. With an aging and increasingly obese population, the surge in MSK related spending is only set to worsen. Despite increased funding, research and attention to this pressing health need, little progress has been made toward novel therapies. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies could provide the solutions required to mitigate this mounting burden. Biomaterial-based treatments in particular present a promising field of potentially cost-effective therapies. However, the translation of a scientific development to a successful treatment is fraught with difficulties. These barriers have so far limited translation of TERM science into clinical treatments. It is crucial for primary researchers to be aware of the barriers currently restricting the progression of science to treatments. Researchers need to act prospectively to ensure the clinical, financial, and regulatory hurdles which seem so far removed from laboratory science do not stall or prevent the subsequent translation of their idea into a treatment. The aim of this review is to explore the development and translation of new treatments. Increasing the understanding of these complexities and barriers among primary researchers could enhance the efficiency of biomaterial translation. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 36-49, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26058815

  5. REGENERATIVE MEDICINE AS APPLIED TO GENERAL SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Wood, Kathryn J; De Coppi, Paolo; Baptista, Pedro M; Binder, Kyle W; Bitar, Khalil N; Breuer, Christopher; Burnett, Luke; Christ, George; Farney, Alan; Figliuzzi, Marina; Holmes, James H; Koch, Kenneth; Macchiarini, Paolo; Sani, Sayed-Hadi Mirmalek; Opara, Emmanuel; Remuzzi, Andrea; Rogers, Jeffrey; Saul, Justin M; Seliktar, Dror; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Smith, Tom; Solomon, Daniel; Van Dyke, Mark; Yoo, James J; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Atala, Anthony; Stratta, Robert J; Soker, Shay

    2012-01-01

    The present review illustrates the state of the art of regenerative medicine (RM) as applied to surgical diseases and demonstrates that this field has the potential to address some of the unmet needs in surgery. RM is a multidisciplinary field whose purpose is to regenerate in vivo or ex vivo human cells, tissues or organs in order to restore or establish normal function through exploitation of the potential to regenerate, which is intrinsic to human cells, tissues and organs. RM uses cells and/or specially designed biomaterials to reach its goals and RM-based therapies are already in use in several clinical trials in most fields of surgery. The main challenges for investigators are threefold: Creation of an appropriate microenvironment ex vivo that is able to sustain cell physiology and function in order to generate the desired cells or body parts; identification and appropriate manipulation of cells that have the potential to generate parenchymal, stromal and vascular components on demand, both in vivo and ex vivo; and production of smart materials that are able to drive cell fate. PMID:22330032

  6. New biomimetic directions in regenerative ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most complete and permanent ways of treating many causes of visual impairment and blindness is to replace the entire affected tissue with pre-cultured ocular tissues supported and maintained on biomaterial frameworks. One direction towards enhancing ocular tissue regeneration on biomaterials, in the laboratory is by applying biomimicry. Specifically to engineer biomaterials with important functional elements of the native extracellular matrices, such as topography, that support and organise cells into coherent tissues. Further problems in regenerative ophthalmology can be potentially solved through application of biomimicry. They include, more efficient ways of moving and transplanting cultivated tissues into correct therapeutic locations inside the eye and scar-less, non-destructive healing of surgical incisions and wounds, to repair structural integrity of tissues at the ocular surface. Two examples are given to show this potential for redeveloping an ocular epithelium onto a nanostructured insect wing surface and producing an origami membrane modelled on deployable structures in nature. Efforts to harness natural innovation will eventually provide unique designs and structures that cannot for now be made synthetically, for regeneration of clinically acceptable ocular tissues. PMID:23184716

  7. Bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds for regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Bottino, M C; Kamocki, K; Yassen, G H; Platt, J A; Vail, M M; Ehrlich, Y; Spolnik, K J; Gregory, R L

    2013-11-01

    Here we report the synthesis, materials characterization, antimicrobial capacity, and cytocompatibility of novel antibiotic-containing scaffolds. Metronidazole (MET) or Ciprofloxacin/(CIP) was mixed with a polydioxanone (PDS)polymer solution at 5 and 25 wt% and processed into fibers. PDS fibers served as a control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tensile testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to assess fiber morphology, chemical structure, mechanical properties, and drug release, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated against those of Porphyromonas gingivalis/Pg and Enterococcus faecalis/Ef. Cytotoxicity was assessed in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Statistics were performed, and significance was set at the 5% level. SEM imaging revealed a submicron fiber diameter. FTIR confirmed antibiotic incorporation. The tensile values of hydrated 25 wt% CIP scaffold were significantly lower than those of all other groups. Analysis of HPLC data confirmed gradual, sustained drug release from the scaffolds over 48 hrs. CIP-containing scaffolds significantly (p < .00001) inhibited biofilm growth of both bacteria. Conversely, MET-containing scaffolds inhibited only Pg growth. Agar diffusion confirmed the antimicrobial properties against specific bacteria for the antibiotic-containing scaffolds. Only the 25 wt% CIP-containing scaffolds were cytotoxic. Collectively, this study suggests that polymer-based antibiotic-containing electrospun scaffolds could function as a biologically safe antimicrobial drug delivery system for regenerative endodontics. PMID:24056225

  8. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  9. Pseudolymphoma (reactive lymphoid hyperplasia) of the liver: A clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Kyong; Jha, Reena C; Etesami, Kambiz; Fishbein, Thomas M; Ozdemirli, Metin; Desai, Chirag S

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH), also known as pseudolymphoma or nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver is an extremely rare condition, and only 51 hepatic RLH cases have been described in the literature since the first case was described in 1981. The majority of these cases were asymptomatic and incidentally found through radiological imaging. The precise etiology of hepatic RLH is still unknown, but relative high prevalence of autoimmune disorder in these cases suggests an immune-based liver disorder. Imaging features of hepatic RLH often suggest malignant lesions such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. In this report, we discuss two cases of hepatic RLH in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. We also present pathologic and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including one case utilizing a hepatocellular contrast agent, Eovist. Definitive diagnosis of hepatic RLH often requires surgical excision. PMID:26609347

  10. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  11. Management of the Adult with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), most commonly due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD), has been studied by pediatric endocrinologists for decades. Advances in the care of these patients have enabled many of these children to reach adulthood. In contrast to the course and management of the disease in childhood, little is known about CAH in adults. In many patients, the proclivity to salt-wasting crises decreases. Linear growth ceases, and reproductive function becomes an issue. Most importantly, management must minimize the potential for long-term consequences of conventional therapies. Here we review the existing literature regarding comorbidities of adults with 21OHD, goals of treatment, and approaches to therapy, with an emphasis on need for improved management strategies. PMID:20613954

  12. T-cell-predominant lymphoid hyperplasia in a tattoo*

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Erica Sales; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Batista, Everton da Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Farre, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) can be idiopathic or secondary to external stimuli, and is considered rare in tattoos. The infiltrate can be predominantly of B or T-cells, the latter being seldom reported in tattoos. We present a case of a predominantly T CLH, secondary to the black pigment of tattooing in a 35-year-old patient, with a dense infiltrate of small, medium and scarce large T-cells. Analysis of the rearrangement of T-cells receptor revealed a polyclonal proliferation. Since the infiltrate of CLH can simulate a T lymphoma, it is important to show that lesions from tattoos can have a predominance of T-cells. PMID:25387518

  13. Hypertrophy and/or Hyperplasia: Dynamics of Adipose Tissue Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Junghyo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Pack, Stephanie; Jou, William; Mullen, Shawn; Sumner, Anne E.; Cushman, Samuel W.; Periwal, Vipul

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue grows by two mechanisms: hyperplasia (cell number increase) and hypertrophy (cell size increase). Genetics and diet affect the relative contributions of these two mechanisms to the growth of adipose tissue in obesity. In this study, the size distributions of epididymal adipose cells from two mouse strains, obesity-resistant FVB/N and obesity-prone C57BL/6, were measured after 2, 4, and 12 weeks under regular and high-fat feeding conditions. The total cell number in the epididymal fat pad was estimated from the fat pad mass and the normalized cell-size distribution. The cell number and volume-weighted mean cell size increase as a function of fat pad mass. To address adipose tissue growth precisely, we developed a mathematical model describing the evolution of the adipose cell-size distributions as a function of the increasing fat pad mass, instead of the increasing chronological time. Our model describes the recruitment of new adipose cells and their subsequent development in different strains, and with different diet regimens, with common mechanisms, but with diet- and genetics-dependent model parameters. Compared to the FVB/N strain, the C57BL/6 strain has greater recruitment of small adipose cells. Hyperplasia is enhanced by high-fat diet in a strain-dependent way, suggesting a synergistic interaction between genetics and diet. Moreover, high-fat feeding increases the rate of adipose cell size growth, independent of strain, reflecting the increase in calories requiring storage. Additionally, high-fat diet leads to a dramatic spreading of the size distribution of adipose cells in both strains; this implies an increase in size fluctuations of adipose cells through lipid turnover. PMID:19325873

  14. Effect of Boerhaavia diffusa in experimental prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Bhavin A.; Desai, Niket Y.; Patel, Paras K.; Joshi, Shrikant V.; Shah, Dinesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Present investigation was undertaken to study the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats using various animal models. Materials and Methods: BPH in rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg) daily for 28 days. Rats were divided in to five groups (six rats each). A negative control group received arachis oil (1 ml/kg s.c.) and four groups were injected testosterone. These four groups were further divided into reference group (finasteride 1 mg/kg), model group (testosterone), study group A (B. diffusa 100 mg/kg), and study group B (B. diffusa 250 mg/kg). On the 29th day, rats were sacrificed and body weight, prostate weight, bladder weight, and serum testosterone level were measured and histological studies were carried out. Further in vitro analysis of B. diffusa extract on contractility of isolated rat vas deferens and prostate gland, produced by exogenously administered agonists were carried out. All results were expressed as mean ± SEM. 0 Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Results: B. diffusa (100 mg/kg) treatment for 28 days resulted in significant inhibition of prostate growth (P < 0.05). Drug extract did not have significant change on serum testosterone level. Histopathological analysis of prostate gland supported above results. Results of in vitro experiment suggest that extracts had attenuated the contractile responses of isolated vas deferens and prostate gland to exogenously applied agonists. Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment with B. diffusa may improve symptoms of disease and inhibit the increased prostate size. In vitro study implies that herbal extracts has the machinery to produce beneficial effect on prostatic smooth muscle, which would relieve the urinary symptoms of disease. B. diffusa could be a potential source of new treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23833370

  15. Gastric foveolar hyperplasia in patients with cancer of the intact stomach.

    PubMed

    Rakic, S; Bandovic, J; Dunjic, M; Randjelovic, T

    1994-06-01

    The incidence of gastric foveolar hyperplasia, a reliable histological marker of bile reflux into the stomach, was evaluated in patients with cancer of the intact stomach. Lesions classified as foveolar hyperplasia were found in 17 of 32 gastric cancer patients and in seven of 30 controls. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.02). Differences in the incidence of foveolar hyperplasia according to sex, tumor site, attendant chronic atrophic gastritis, and alcohol consumption were not significant, which lends support to the association of gastric cancer with duodenogastric reflux. PMID:8044362

  16. A Novel Unitized Regenerative Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, O. J.; Cisar, A. J.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Salinas, C. E.; Simpson, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    A difficulty encountered in designing a unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell lies in the incompatibility of electrode structures and electrocatalyst materials optimized for either of the two functions (fuel cell or electrolyzer) with the needs of the other function. This difficulty is compounded in previous regenerative fuel cell designs by the fact that water, which is needed for proton conduction in the PEM during both modes of operation, is the reactant supplied to the anode in the electrolyzer mode of operation and the product formed at the cathode in the fuel cell mode. Drawbacks associated with existing regenerative fuel cells have been addressed. In a first innovation, electrodes function either as oxidation electrodes (hydrogen ionization or oxygen evolution) or as reduction electrodes (oxygen reduction or hydrogen evolution) in the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes, respectively. Control of liquid water within the regenerative fuel cell has been brought about by a second innovation. A novel PEM has been developed with internal channels that permit the direct access of water along the length of the membrane. Lateral diffusion of water along the polymer chains of the PEM provides the water needed at electrode/PEM interfaces. Fabrication of the novel single cell unitized regenerative fuel cell and results obtained on testing it are presented.

  17. Regenerative Endodontics: Barriers and Strategies for Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sahng G.; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Ling; Cho, Shoko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fu, Susan Y.; Yang, Rujing; Zhou, Xuedong; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Despite a great deal of enthusiasm and effort, regenerative endodontics has encountered substantial challenges towards clinical translation. Recent adoption by the American Dental Association (ADA) of evoked pulp bleeding in immature permanent teeth is an important step for regenerative endodontics. However, there is no regenerative therapy for the majority of endodontic diseases. Simple recapitulation of cell therapy and tissue engineering strategies that are under development for other organ systems has not led to clinical translation in regeneration endodontics. Dental pulp stem cells may appear to be a priori choice for dental pulp regeneration. However, dental pulp stem cells may not be available in a patient who is in need of pulp regeneration. Even if dental pulp stem cells are available autologously or perhaps allogeneically, one must address a multitude of scientific, regulatory and commercialization barriers, and unless these issues are resolved, transplantation of dental pulp stem cells will remain a scientific exercise, rather than a clinical reality. Recent work using novel biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors that orchestrate the homing of host endogenous cells represents a departure from traditional cell transplantation approaches and may accelerate clinical translation. Given the functions and scale of dental pulp and dentin, regenerative endodontics is poised to become one of the early biological solutions in regenerative dental medicine. PMID:22835543

  18. Advanced biomatrix designs for regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Park, C H; Perez, R A; Lee, H Y; Jang, J H; Lee, H H; Wall, I B; Shi, S; Kim, H W

    2014-12-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes loss of the tooth-supporting apparatus, including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. A broad range of treatment options is currently available to restore the structure and function of the periodontal tissues. A regenerative approach, among others, is now considered the most promising paradigm for this purpose, harnessing the unique properties of stem cells. How to make full use of the body's innate regenerative capacity is thus a key issue. While stem cells and bioactive factors are essential components in the regenerative processes, matrices play pivotal roles in recapitulating stem cell functions and potentiating therapeutic actions of bioactive molecules. Moreover, the positions of appropriate bioactive matrices relative to the injury site may stimulate the innate regenerative stem cell populations, removing the need to deliver cells that have been manipulated outside of the body. In this topical review, we update views on advanced designs of biomatrices-including mimicking of the native extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stimulation, activating cell-driven matrices, and delivering bioactive factors in a controllable manner-which are ultimately useful for the regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues. PMID:25139364

  19. Advanced Biomatrix Designs for Regenerative Therapy of Periodontal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.H.; Park, C.H.; Perez, R.A.; Lee, H.Y.; Jang, J.H.; Lee, H.H.; Wall, I.B.; Shi, S.; Kim, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes loss of the tooth-supporting apparatus, including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. A broad range of treatment options is currently available to restore the structure and function of the periodontal tissues. A regenerative approach, among others, is now considered the most promising paradigm for this purpose, harnessing the unique properties of stem cells. How to make full use of the body’s innate regenerative capacity is thus a key issue. While stem cells and bioactive factors are essential components in the regenerative processes, matrices play pivotal roles in recapitulating stem cell functions and potentiating therapeutic actions of bioactive molecules. Moreover, the positions of appropriate bioactive matrices relative to the injury site may stimulate the innate regenerative stem cell populations, removing the need to deliver cells that have been manipulated outside of the body. In this topical review, we update views on advanced designs of biomatrices—including mimicking of the native extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stimulation, activating cell-driven matrices, and delivering bioactive factors in a controllable manner—which are ultimately useful for the regenerative therapy of periodontal tissues. PMID:25139364

  20. Repairing quite swimmingly: advances in regenerative medicine using zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Goessling, Wolfram; North, Trista E.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine has the promise to alleviate morbidity and mortality caused by organ dysfunction, longstanding injury and trauma. Although regenerative approaches for a few diseases have been highly successful, some organs either do not regenerate well or have no current treatment approach to harness their intrinsic regenerative potential. In this Review, we describe the modeling of human disease and tissue repair in zebrafish, through the discovery of disease-causing genes using classical forward-genetic screens and by modulating clinically relevant phenotypes through chemical genetic screening approaches. Furthermore, we present an overview of those organ systems that regenerate well in zebrafish in contrast to mammalian tissue, as well as those organs in which the regenerative potential is conserved from fish to mammals, enabling drug discovery in preclinical disease-relevant models. We provide two examples from our own work in which the clinical translation of zebrafish findings is either imminent or has already proven successful. The promising results in multiple organs suggest that further insight into regenerative mechanisms and novel clinically relevant therapeutic approaches will emerge from zebrafish research in the future. PMID:24973747

  1. Regenerative potential of allopregnanolone Jun Ming Wang, Lifei Liu, Ronald W. Irwin, Shuhua Chen, Roberta Diaz Brinton

    E-print Network

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    Review Regenerative potential of allopregnanolone Jun Ming Wang, Lifei Liu, Ronald W. Irwin, Shuhua to mild to severe. Initial analyses suggest that AP may maintain the regenerative ability of the brain. Challenges of regenerative therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease

  2. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  3. Lightweight pressure vessels and unitized regenerative fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H.

    1996-09-06

    Energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). The vessels provide a means of storing reactant gases required for URFCs; they use lightweight bladder liners that act as inflatable mandrels for composite overwrap and provide a permeation barrier. URFC systems have been designed for zero emission vehicles (ZEVs); they are cost competitive with primary FC powered vehicles that operate on H/air with capacitors or batteries for power peaking and regenerative braking. URFCs are capable of regenerative braking via electrolysis and power peaking using low volume/low pressure accumulated oxygen for supercharging the power stack. URFC ZEVs can be safely and rapidly (<5 min.) refueled using home electrolysis units. Reversible operation of cell membrane catalyst is feasible without significant degradation. Such systems would have a rechargeable specific energy > 400 Wh/kg.

  4. 25th Anniversary Article: Supramolecular Materials for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoven, Job

    2014-01-01

    In supramolecular materials, molecular building blocks are designed to interact with one another via non-covalent interactions in order to create function. This offers the opportunity to create structures similar to those found in living systems that combine order and dynamics through the reversibility of intermolecular bonds. For regenerative medicine there is a great need to develop materials that signal cells effectively, deliver or bind bioactive agents in vivo at controlled rates, have highly tunable mechanical properties, but at the same time, can biodegrade safely and rapidly after fulfilling their function. These requirements make supramolecular materials a great platform to develop regenerative therapies. This review illustrates the emerging science of these materials and their use in a number of applications for regenerative medicine. PMID:24496667

  5. Regenerative Phase Shift and its Effect on Coherent Laser Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, William R; Durville, Frederic; Corcoran, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A coherent array of regenerative amplifiers in an external cavity with a rank 1 scattering matrix is described and analyzed. Using a resonant cavity analysis, it is shown how the addition of regenerative feedback to each element in the array creates a phase shift relative to the well-known 'cold-cavity phase shift'. This phase shift is quantified and found to significantly affect the phasing properties of coherent arrays, even in the absence of the nonlinear Kerr effect and the gain-dependent phase shift. In particular, this regenerative phase shift is shown to concentrate the distribution of phases at the output of the laser array into a narrower phase range compared to the random distribution expected using a nonregenerative amplifier in the presence of effectively random cold-cavity phase shifts.

  6. Regenerative nanomedicine and the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative medicine deals with the repair or the replacement of tissues and organs using advanced materials and methodologies. Regenerative nanomedicine uses nanoparticles containing gene transcription factors and other modulating molecules that allow reprogramming of cells in vivo as well as nanomaterials to induce selective differentiation of neural progenitor cells and to create neural-mechanical interfaces. In this article, we consider some applications of nanotechnology that may be useful for the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases, for example, use of nanoparticles for drug and gene therapy, use of nanomaterials for neural interfaces and extracellular matrix construction for cell-based therapy and neural prosthetics, and the use of bionanotechnology to re-engineer proteins and cell behavior for regenerative medicine. PMID:22170869

  7. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, Susan R. (Wixom, MI)

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  8. Gene delivery in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y L; Chen, X G; W T, Godbey

    2015-11-01

    As a promising strategy to aid or replace tissue/organ transplantation, gene delivery has been used for regenerative medicine applications to create or restore normal function at the cell and tissue levels. Gene delivery has been successfully performed ex vivo and in vivo in these applications. Excellent proliferation capabilities and differentiation potentials render certain cells as excellent candidates for ex vivo gene delivery for regenerative medicine applications, which is why multipotent and pluripotent cells have been intensely studied in this vein. In this review, gene delivery is discussed in detail, along with its applications to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A definition of a stem cell is compared to a definition of a stem property, and both provide the foundation for an in-depth look at gene delivery investigations from a germ lineage angle. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 1679-1699, 2015. PMID:25557560

  9. Biomolecule Delivery to Engineer the Cellular Microenvironment for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Corey J.; Kim, Jayoung; Green, Jordan J.

    2013-01-01

    To realize the potential of regenerative medicine, controlling the delivery of biomolecules in the cellular microenvironment is important as these factors control cell fate. Controlled delivery for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often requires bioengineered materials and cells capable of spatiotemporal modulation of biomolecule release and presentation. This review discusses biomolecule delivery from the outside of the cell inwards through the delivery of soluble and insoluble biomolecules as well as from the inside of the cell outwards through gene transfer. Ex vivo and in vivo therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as combination delivery of biomolecules, scaffolds, and cells. Various applications in regenerative medicine are highlighted including bone tissue engineering and wound healing. PMID:24170072

  10. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  11. High condylectomy procedure: a valuable resource for surgical management of the mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; De Melo, Willian Morais; Souza, Francisley Avila; de Moura, Walter Leal; Cravinhos, Julio César de Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is an overdevelopment of the condyle, which may manifest unilaterally or bilaterally. This pathological condition can lead to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology and pathogenesis of condylar hyperplasia remain uncertain, but it has been suggested that its etiology may be associated with hormonal factors, trauma, and hereditary hypervascularity, affecting both genders. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination, and radiological imaging, and additionally, bone scintigraphy, is a fundamental resource for determining whether the affected condyle shows active growth. Patients with active condylar hyperplasia management have better results when they are subjected to the high condylectomy procedure. The authors report a case in a 20-year-old female subject with unilateral active condylar hyperplasia who was treated by high condylectomy. The patient has been followed up for 4 years without signs of recurrence and with good functional stability of the occlusion. PMID:23851829

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... older, they may develop excessive body hair growth (hirsutism) and irregular menstruation. Males with the non-classic ... autosomal recessive ; cell ; congenital ; deficiency ; enzyme ; gene ; genitalia ; hirsutism ; hormone ; hyperplasia ; hypertension ; inflammation ; inherited ; menstruation ; newborn screening ; ...

  13. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia with Obliterative Bronchiolitis and Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: An Unusual "Headcheese Pattern" with Nodules.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, V; Piciucchi, S; Tomassetti, S; Ravaglia, C; Gurioli, C; Gurioli, Ch; Cavazza, A; Dubini, A; Poletti, V

    2015-12-01

    A 74-year-old non-smoker female presented to our attention with a history of dyspnea and cough. CT scan revealed multiple areas of patchy ground glass attenuation associated to a diffuse mosaic oligoemia. Scattered bilateral subcentimetric pulmonary nodules were also present. Patient underwent a surgical lung biopsy. Specimens showed features of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia, microhoneycombing, fibroblast foci. A final diagnosis of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia with obliterative bronchiolitis and UIP was rendered. PMID:26446675

  14. Ignition feedback regenerative free electron laser (FEL) amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Kwang-Je (Burr Ridge, IL); Zholents, Alexander (Walnut Creek, CA); Zolotorev, Max (Oakland, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An ignition feedback regenerative amplifier consists of an injector, a linear accelerator with energy recovery, and a high-gain free electron laser amplifier. A fraction of the free electron laser output is coupled to the input to operate the free electron laser in the regenerative mode. A mode filter in this loop prevents run away instability. Another fraction of the output, after suitable frequency up conversion, is used to drive the photocathode. An external laser is provided to start up both the amplifier and the injector, thus igniting the system.

  15. A high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Sheffield, R.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    The Regenerative Amplifier FEL (RAFEL) is a new FEL approach aimed at achieving the highest optical power from a compact rf-linac FEL. The key idea is to feed back a small fraction (< 10%) of the optical power into a high-gain ({approximately}10{sup 5} in single pass) wiggler to enable the FEL to reach saturation in a few passes. This paper summarizes the design of a high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL and describes the first experimental demonstration of the RAFEL concept.

  16. 78 FR 43889 - Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...: Standardization efforts concerning the clinical development of cellular therapies and regenerative medicine... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular... Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine Products.'' The purpose of the public workshop...

  17. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Neointimal Hyperplasia based on Sex and Hormone Status

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Melissa E.; Varu, Vinit N.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Popowich, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Monisha N.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies decrease neointimal hyperplasia; however, studies have only been performed in male animal models. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of NO on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo based on sex and hormone status. In hormone-replete media, male VSMC proliferated at greater rates than female VSMC. In hormone-deplete media, female VSMC proliferated at greater rates than male VSMC. However, in both hormone environments, NO inhibited proliferation and migration to a greater extent in male versus female VSMC. These findings correlated with greater G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and changes in cell cycle protein expression in male versus female VSMC following exposure to NO. Next, the rat carotid artery injury model was performed to assess the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro data, NO was significantly more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in hormonally intact males versus females using weight-based dosing. An increased weight-based dose of NO in females was able to achieve efficacy equal to that in males. Surprisingly, NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both sexes in castrated animals. In conclusion, these data suggest that NO inhibits neointimal hyperplasia more effectively in males than females and in hormonally-intact compared to castrated rats, indicating that the effect of NO in the vasculature may be sex- and hormone-dependent. PMID:21256959

  18. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  19. Diode-pumped Nd:glass kilohertz regenerative amplifier for subpicosecond microjoule level pulses

    E-print Network

    Keller, Ursula

    Diode-pumped Nd:glass kilohertz regenerative amplifier for subpicosecond microjoule level pulses:fluorophosphate regenerative amplifier was developed. Chirped seed pulses were amplified to 24 J at repetition rates to 1 k, regenerative amplifier, Nd:glass, chirped-pulse amplification. 1. Introduction With the maturation of high

  20. Non-regenerative MIMO Relaying Strategies --from Single to Multiple Cooperative Relays

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Benoît

    Non-regenerative MIMO Relaying Strategies -- from Single to Multiple Cooperative Relays Chao Zhao in the multiple-relay channel, at the price of a slight increase in implementation complexity. Index Terms--Non-regenerative increasing demands for high data rates [3]. Relaying strategies can be regenerative such as decode

  1. Mode-Coupled Regenerative Machine Tool Vibrations Tams Kalmr-Nagy1

    E-print Network

    Mode-Coupled Regenerative Machine Tool Vibrations Tamás Kalmár-Nagy1 , Francis C. Moon2 1 United the regenerative e¤ect (time delay) can produce an instability criteria that admits low-level or zero chip. Numerous researchers investigated single degree-of- freedom regenerative tool models (Tobias [39], Hanna

  2. Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro tools. Complex hair cycle domains and regenerative hair waves are present in normal adult (> 2 month understanding has important implications in the field of regenerative medicine. The unexpected links with Bmp2

  3. Design and Analysis of a Distributed Regenerative Frequency Divider Using a Distributed Mixer

    E-print Network

    Heydari, Payam

    Design and Analysis of a Distributed Regenerative Frequency Divider Using a Distributed Mixer Amin-2625 ABSTRACT In this paper we present the design and analysis of a distributed regenerative frequency divider in 1939, a regenerative frequency divider is essentially a non-linear feedback circuit consisting

  4. Neurobiology of Disease Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Participate in the Regenerative

    E-print Network

    Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    Neurobiology of Disease Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Participate in the Regenerative Response in the regenerative response to perinatal H/I as their numbers increase 100% by 3 d and that they alter occur in utero, prevention may prove difficult, demanding that regenerative strategies be pursued

  5. Optimal Control of Markov Regenerative Processes Andr'as Pfening, Mikl'os Telek

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    Optimal Control of Markov Regenerative Processes Andr'as Pfening, Mikl'os Telek Department In the paper the integration of available results on Semi­ Markov Decision Processes and on Markov Regenerative the un­ derlying structure state process is a Markov Regenerative Process, referred to as Markov

  6. Pitting corrosion control using regenerative biolms on aluminium 2024 in articial seawater

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Pitting corrosion control using regenerative bio®lms on aluminium 2024 in arti®cial seawater D using regenerative bio®lms (CCURB) on Al 2024 in AS cannot be solely due to a reduction of the oxygen of corrosion protection using corrosion control using regenerative bio®lms (CCURB). The CCURB concept is being

  7. Adaptive Relay Selection for Regenerative OFDMA Relay Networks with Fairness Constraints

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jae Hong

    Adaptive Relay Selection for Regenerative OFDMA Relay Networks with Fairness Constraints Harin­We propose an adaptive relay selection scheme for a regenerative orthogonal frequency division multiplexing scheme for a regenerative OFDMA relay network to provide diversity gain. In the proposed scheme, fairness

  8. Markov Regenerative SPN with Non-Overlapping Activity Cycles Andrea Bobbio Mikl os Telek

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    Markov Regenerative SPN with Non-Overlapping Activity Cycles Andrea Bobbio Mikl#19;os Telek Nets, semi-Markov Reward Models, Markov regenerative processes. 1 Introduction In the usual de#12 in [10]. Choi et al. [7] have recognized that the mark- ing process underlying a DSPN is a Markov Regen

  9. AN EFFICIENT TWO-STAGE ITERATIVE METHOD FOR THE STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS OF MARKOV REGENERATIVE

    E-print Network

    Sanders, William H.

    AN EFFICIENT TWO-STAGE ITERATIVE METHOD FOR THE STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS OF MARKOV REGENERATIVE is a Markov regenerative process MRP when at most one non-exponential transition is enabled in each marking: Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets, Deterministic Stochastic Petri Nets, Stochastic Activity

  10. An Knowledge Model for Self-regenerative Service Activations Adaptation across Standards

    E-print Network

    Taleb-Bendiab, A.

    An Knowledge Model for Self-regenerative Service Activations Adaptation across Standards Mengjie Yu such as the self-regenerative system[2] adopt the biological- inspired [2, 3]notions such as natural diversity on an ongoing research into self-regenerative programming model, this paper presents a knowledge

  11. New Primitives for Interlaced Memory Policies in Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets

    E-print Network

    Telek, Miklós

    New Primitives for Interlaced Memory Policies in Markov Regenerative Stochastic Petri Nets Andrea. Key words: Non­Markovian Stochastic Petri Nets, firing mechanisms, Markov regenerative processes al. [6] have derived the transient solution of the same model in terms of a Markov regenerative

  12. Spatial structure of broad-area vertical-cavity regenerative T. Ackemann

    E-print Network

    Lange, Wulfhard

    Spatial structure of broad-area vertical-cavity regenerative amplifiers T. Ackemann , S. Barland, M-cavity regenerative amplifiers with injection of a homogeneous beam. The emerging patterns have a dominantly six-emitting lasers (VCSEL) which are operated as regenerative amplifiers, i.e. biased electrically below threshold

  13. Generation of ultrashort radiation pulses by injection locking a regenerative free-electron-laser amplifier

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    -electron-laser amplifier G. Shvets Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 J. S. Wurtele-electron laser FEL configuration, the injection-locked regenerative klystron amplifier IRKA . This configuration threshold, in the regime of regenerative amplification. The regenerative amplifier is driven

  14. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using

    E-print Network

    Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using batteries with SGE technologies in what was called a thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB).[10, but not the catholyte, because this cre- A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new ap- proach

  15. Giant Bilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bahri, S.; Tariq, A.; Lowentritt, B.; Nasrallah, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-? hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20?cm on the left and weighing 4.1?kg and 25 × 20 × 13?cm on the right and weighing 2.7?kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses. PMID:25140269

  16. Therapy monitoring in congenital adrenal hyperplasia by dried blood samples.

    PubMed

    Wieacker, Isabelle; Peter, Michael; Borucki, Katrin; Empting, Susann; Roehl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Mohnike, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Careful monitoring of the therapy is crucial for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in order to prevent the effects of increased androgen production as well as life-threatening salt-wasting crisis. The key metabolite, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) can be detected in serum, saliva or dried blood. In clinical practice there are challenges due to discomfort of venous blood sampling and complicated retrieval of saliva during infancy. Furthermore, the immunoassay method is limited in its specificity due to cross-reactions. In this observational study we prospectively examined over a period of 5 years, 20 patients with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency using standard immunoassays for serum samples (radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in dried blood spots. Bland-Altman plots show goodness of agreement between both the methods for the desirable therapeutic concentration range of 17-OHP. LC-MS/MS is characterized by a high accuracy in the therapeutic concentration range of 17-OHP <100 nmol/L (r=0.91). Dried blood samples are convenient and reliable specimen for 17-OHP measured by LC-MS/MS. This method could be used for home monitoring of hydrocortisone replacement therapy both in salt-waster and simple virilizer CAH. PMID:25781526

  17. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  18. Assessing endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma treated with progestin therapy.

    PubMed

    Mentrikoski, Mark J; Shah, Akeesha A; Hanley, Krisztina Z; Atkins, Kristen A

    2012-10-01

    The effects of increased amounts of progesterone on the endometrium, including such features as eosinophilic cytoplasmic metaplasia, glandular atrophy, and decidualized stroma, are well-known among surgical pathologists. These changes are typically seen as secondary effects of pregnancy or exogenous hormone therapy for birth control purposes or abnormal bleeding. Treatment with progesterone has become a viable alternative to hysterectomy in some patients with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) and well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma (WDC), especially those who are poor surgical candidates or those wishing to preserve fertility. To date, only 1 study has specifically examined the effects of progestin therapy on patients with a previous diagnosis of CAH or WDC. That study proposed a classification scheme for the assessment of treated CAH and WDC. The authors concluded that after 6 months of treatment, endometrial biopsy findings of persistent cytologic atypia and architectural abnormalities were associated with treatment failure. This current study aims to assess the previously proposed criteria in a cohort of 30 patients (18 with a diagnosis of CAH and 12 with a diagnosis of WDC), and determine the usefulness of these criteria in clinical practice. Our study confirms that cytologic atypia after 6 months of therapy is strongly associated with treatment failure, and should be an indication to pursue definitive surgical treatment in these patients. PMID:23010707

  19. Clinical and molecular review of atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the mutations in the genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes that involved cortisol synthesis. More than 90% of cases are caused by a defect in the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. Four other enzyme deficiencies (cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 17?-hydroxylase [P450c17], 11?-hydroxylase [P450c11?], 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in the steroid biosynthesis pathway, along with one cholesterol transport protein defect (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), and one electrontransfer protein (P450 oxidoreductase) account for the remaining cases. The clinical symptoms of the different forms of CAH result from the particular hormones that are deficient and those that are produced in excess. A characteristic feature of CAH is genital ambiguity or disordered sex development, and most variants are associated with glucocorticoid deficiency. However, in the rare forms of CAH other than 21-hydroxylase deficiency so-called "atypical CAH", the clinical and hormonal phenotypes can be more complicated, and are not well recognized. This review will focus on the atypical forms of CAH, including the genetic analyses, and phenotypic correlates. PMID:25883920

  20. Intestinal lymphonodular hyperplasia of childhood: patterns of presentation.

    PubMed

    Colón, A R; DiPalma, J S; Leftridge, C A

    1991-04-01

    In this retrospective analysis we searched for a constellation of signs or symptoms attributable to childhood lymphonodular hyperplasia (LNH). Of 147 children with documented LNH reviewed, 43% had lesions in the small bowel, and 57% in the large bowel. Children in this study presented with complaints of abdominal pain (58%) and bright red blood per rectum (32%). Physical examination revealed little except right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal tenderness and "fullness" in 35%. The pain was periumbilical, dull-cramping, rarely acute, and nonradiating. The hematochezia was most commonly streaky red in mucoid strands adhering to the stools, with no associated tenesmus. Three clinical patterns emerged: (a) Under 1 year of age most patients were male, with painless bleeding and pancolonic LNH. (b) Between 2 and 6 years, although the LNH was predominantly colonic, pain and bleeding occurred equally. (c) From 7 years old on, the main symptom was abdominal pain, but LNH distribution was nearly equal between the small bowel and the colon. To date, our long-term follow-up of the children with isolated LNH has revealed no sequelae. PMID:2033223

  1. The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Promotes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Tsang, Susan; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and considerable morbidity in a majority of older men. Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues, including the prostate, with increasing age. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in these senescent cells, a manifestation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Multiplex analysis revealed that multiple cytokines are increased in BPH, including GM-CSF, IL-1?, and IL-4, and that these are also increased in senescent prostatic epithelial cells in vitro. Tissue levels of these cytokines were correlated with a marker of senescence (cathepsin D), which was also strongly correlated with prostate weight. IHC analysis revealed the multifocal epithelial expression of cathepsin D and coexpression with IL-1? in BPH tissues. In tissue recombination studies in nude mice with immortalized prostatic epithelial cells expressing IL-1? and prostatic stromal cells, both epithelial and stromal cells exhibited increased growth. Expression of IL-1? in prostatic epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse model resulted in increased prostate size and bladder obstruction. In summary, both correlative and functional evidence support the hypothesis that the senescence-associated secretory phenotype can promote the development of BPH, which is the single most common age-related pathology in older men. PMID:24434012

  2. Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2001-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  3. Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahri, S; Tariq, A; Lowentritt, B; Nasrallah, D V

    2014-01-01

    Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-? hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20?cm on the left and weighing 4.1?kg and 25 × 20 × 13?cm on the right and weighing 2.7?kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses. PMID:25140269

  4. What do we know about phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Allkanjari, Olta; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urological diseases in aging men. Because of its long latency, BPH is a good target for prevention. The aim of the study has been to review the various options of treatment, currently available, in the field of phytotherapy. Watchful waiting, pharmacological therapy, and surgery are also helpful, depending on the severity of the disease. Although drug therapy (alpha1-blockers, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors) and surgery (prostatectomy, transurethral resection, etc.) seem to be most effective for patients with moderate-severe BPH, herbal medicines (i.e., Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica) are also commonly used in patients with mild-moderate symptoms. On the basis of preclinical studies several mechanisms of action have been postulated, including 5alpha-reductase inhibition, alpha-adrenergic antagonism, dihydrotestosterone and estrogen receptor inhibition. Randomized clinical trials indicate significant efficacy in improving urinary symptoms and mild adverse effects for some phytotherapeutic agents, while further clinical evidence is needed for others (e.g., Epilobium spp., Secale cereale, Roystonea regia). Healthcare professionals should be constantly informed about BPH phytotherapy, taking into account the risk/benefit profile of the use of medicinal plants in the management of BPH. PMID:25703069

  5. Crewmember repairing the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System wiring.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Ken Bowersox, busy at work on the wiring harness for the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System located under the mid deck floor. Photo shows Bowersox splicing wires together to 'fool' a faulty sensor that caused the 'air conditioner' to shut down.

  6. A Regeneratively Cooled Thrust Chamber For The Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kendall K.; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the development of a low-cost, regeneratively-cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The chamber was fabricated using hydraformed copper tubing to form the coolant jacket and wrapped with a fiber reinforced polymer composite Material to form a structural jacket. The thrust chamber design and fabrication approach was based upon Space America. Inc.'s 12,000 lb regeneratively-cooled LOX/kerosene rocket engine. Fabrication of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers by tubewall construction dates back to the early US ballistic missile programs. The most significant innovations in this design was the development of a low-cost process for fabrication from copper tubing (nickel alloy was the usual practice) and use of graphite composite overwrap as the pressure containment, which yields an easily fabricated, lightweight pressure jacket around the copper tubes A regeneratively-cooled reusable thrust chamber can benefit the Fastrac engine program by allowing more efficient (cost and scheduler testing). A proof-of-concept test article has been fabricated and will he tested at Marshall Space Flight Center in the late Summer or Fall of 2000.

  7. [Enhancement of plantlet regenerative efficiency of watermelon in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan Mei; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance shoot regenerative efficiency of watermelon by optimizing culture parameters. Cotyledons at 4-day seedlings were explanted and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different combinations of hormones. In "Yixuan" cultivar, the plantlet regenerative frequency and shoots produced by per explant was as low as 10% and 0.4 respectively at all combinations tested when distal parts of cotyledons were inoculated. Whereas, maximum regenerative frequency of 100 percentage and 10.3 shoots regenerated from per explant were observed on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L IAA using basal parts of cotyledons as explants. Likewise, in "Jingxinmuben" cultivar, the highest regenerative frequency of 100 percentage and 6.9 shoots regenerated from per explant were obtained when proximal parts of cotyledons were cultured on MS medium containing 2 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L IAA. In the present study, adventitious buds were initiated after only 4 d in culture and intact plantlets were obtained in 40 d culture. This will facilitate quicker gene transformation and polyploidy induction of watermelon in vitro. PMID:15789761

  8. REGENERATIVE MEDICINE Tracking Stem Cell Differentiation in the Setting

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    [1­6], stroke [7­9], and spinal cord injury [10­12]. Indeed, ESCs can give rise to functional neuronsREGENERATIVE MEDICINE Tracking Stem Cell Differentiation in the Setting of Automated Optogenetic Key Words. Embryonic stem cells · Optogenetics · Channelrhodopsin-2 · Neuronal differentiation

  9. Regenerative memory in time-delayed neuromorphic photonic systems

    E-print Network

    Romeira, B; Figueiredo, José M L; Barland, S; Javaloyes, J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a regenerative memory based upon a time-delayed neuromorphic photonic oscillator and discuss the link with temporal localized structures. Our experimental implementation is based upon a optoelectronic system composed of a nanoscale nonlinear resonant tunneling diode coupled to a laser that we link to the paradigm of neuronal activity, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with delayed feedback.

  10. Frequency-Domain Analysis of Super-Regenerative Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Joel L.

    Since its invention in 1922, the super-regenerative amplifier (SRA) has been used in a variety of short-range, low-power, and/or low-cost wireless systems due to its simple implementation and excellent performance for a ...

  11. Deeper Analysis and Continued Refinement of the Regenerative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neswald-Potter, Rhonda

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research methodologies and findings from a qualitative practitioner study that examined initial constructs of a new model of counseling supervision, tentatively named the Regenerative model (R. Neswald-McCalip, J. Sather, J. Strati, & J. Dineen, 2003). Findings include the emergence of cultural and spiritual awareness and…

  12. Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects. PMID:26179129

  13. Regenerative Medicines for Remyelination: From Aspiration to Reality.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Robin J M

    2015-06-01

    Stimulating an endogenous regenerative response is a powerful approach for potential treatment of chronic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Recently in Nature, Najm et al. (2015) identified two clinically relevant, FDA-approved compounds that promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and induce remyelination in demyelinating disease models. PMID:26046755

  14. The mission of the UW Stem Cell and Regenerative Medi-

    E-print Network

    Biology Scholars 5 News Highlights 6 PACT Grant Update 7 ICTR/SCRMC Pilot Grants 8 WISC Bank Cell Lines 8 registry and the status of previous National Stem Cell Bank ES cell lines. Certainly important `barriers Musculoskeletal Biology and Regenerative Medicine Lab, under Li's leadership, is ready to test new uses

  15. REVIEW Open Access Regenerative medicine for the kidney: stem cell

    E-print Network

    Tank, Jennifer L.

    REVIEW Open Access Regenerative medicine for the kidney: stem cell prospects & challenges Yue Li renal dysfunction. The creation of innovative medical approaches that utilize stem cells has received that occur during acute and chronic kidney disease, the emerging evidence about renal stem cells, and some

  16. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  17. Status of the Regenerative ECLS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald Layne

    2010-01-01

    The regenerative Water Recovery System (WRS) has completed its first full year of operation on the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2010, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  18. Planarians: an In Vivo Model for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Ali; Tebyanian, Hamid; Goodarzi, Vahabodin; Shiri, Sajad

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of regenerative medicine has raised the hope of treating an extraordinary range of disease and serious injuries. Understanding the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and pattern formation in regenerative organisms could help find ways to enhance the poor regenerative abilities shown by many other animals, including humans. Recently, planarians have emerged as an attractive model in which to study regeneration. These animals are considering as in vivo plate, during which we can study the behavior and characristics of stem cells in their own niche. A variety of characteristic such as: simplicity, easy to manipulate experimentally, the existence of more than 100 years of literature, makes these animals an extraordinary model for regenerative medicine researches. Among planarians free-living freshwater hermaphrodite Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a suitable model system because it displays robust regenerative properties and, unlike most other planarians, it is a stable diploid with a genome size of about 4.8×108 base pairs, nearly half that of other common planarians. Planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of anybody region. neoblasts represent roughly 25~30 percent of all planarian cells and are scattered broadly through the parenchyma, being absent only from the animal head tips and the pharynx. Two models for neo-blast specification have been proposed; the naive model posits that all neoblasts are stem cells with the same potential and are a largely homogeneous population. PMID:26634061

  19. Planarians: an In Vivo Model for Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Tebyanian, Hamid; Goodarzi, Vahabodin; Shiri, Sajad

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of regenerative medicine has raised the hope of treating an extraordinary range of disease and serious injuries. Understanding the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and pattern formation in regenerative organisms could help find ways to enhance the poor regenerative abilities shown by many other animals, including humans. Recently, planarians have emerged as an attractive model in which to study regeneration. These animals are considering as in vivo plate, during which we can study the behavior and characristics of stem cells in their own niche. A variety of characteristic such as: simplicity, easy to manipulate experimentally, the existence of more than 100 years of literature, makes these animals an extraordinary model for regenerative medicine researches. Among planarians free-living freshwater hermaphrodite Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a suitable model system because it displays robust regenerative properties and, unlike most other planarians, it is a stable diploid with a genome size of about 4.8×10(8) base pairs, nearly half that of other common planarians. Planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of anybody region. neoblasts represent roughly 25~30 percent of all planarian cells and are scattered broadly through the parenchyma, being absent only from the animal head tips and the pharynx. Two models for neo-blast specification have been proposed; the naive model posits that all neoblasts are stem cells with the same potential and are a largely homogeneous population. PMID:26634061

  20. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild t...

  1. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - progress in pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, ?ukasz; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2015-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population, in affected individuals often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. BPH is manifested by a complex range of symptoms originating from the lower urinary tract (LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms), including disturbances resulting from impaired bladder compliance and bladder overactivity (e.g. frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, dysuria) and symptoms associated with the bladder outlet obstruction (e.g. the difficulty in voiding initiating, intermittency, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void). Despite numerous studies, the pathogenesis of BPH remains not completely understood, and the condition awaits a comprehensive description. The current pathophysiological view emphasizes the role of hormonal dysregulation, locally released in the prostate growth factors action and a complex inflammatory, BPH-associated process with the release of a number of pro-proliferative mediators. The current BPH pharmacotherapy involves administration of ?-1-blockers, 5-?-reductase inhibitors, antimuscarinic drugs (cholinolytics) and phosphodiesterase- 5-inhibitors. Progress in the BPH pathophysiology allows the disclosure of additional, potential targets of pharmacological intervention, such as ?-3 adrenoreceptor or CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists, P2X1 purinergic or ETA endothelin receptors antagonists, RhoA/Rho kinase system inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, drugs indirectly (luteinizing hormone - releasing hormone antagonists) or directly (antiandrogens) abolishing the effect of testosterone and its derivatives or agents blocking the action of proinflammatory cytokines. The article briefly discusses the pathophysiology of the aforementioned issues and the current BPH management along with the future, potential opportunities for pharmacotherapy of the. PMID:26637089

  3. Update in minimal invasive therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Van Hest, P; D'Ancona, F

    2009-09-01

    Last decade several new treatment modalities for minimal invasive therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia have been developed, both ablative and non-ablative. In this review the authors describe the different techniques and clinical studies of bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral resection in saline (TURis), the different laser therapies for the prostate, transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), hot water induced thermotherapy (WIT), prostatic stents, intraprostatic ethanol injections and botulinum toxin A injections. The different bipolar systems and photoselective vaporisation might replace the ''gold standard'', monopolar TURP, in the near future. The holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is also a real challenger of the ''gold standard'', but the technique is difficult to learn. The TUMT definitively found its place as alternative to TURP, especially because it can be performed in an outpatient setting without the need of anaesthesia. Therefore it is also suitable in patients at high risk. The long-term data on TUNA and HIFU is disappointing and therefore these treatment modalities did not stand the test of time. WIT seemed to be a promising therapy, but durability is questionable. Intraprostatic ethanol injections are safe and effective in small series, but larger series are needed to confirm its efficacy. Intraprostatic botulinum toxin A injections are the first treatment of BPH to target both the increase in smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) and the excessive growth (static component) of BPH. This approach of BPH is very promising but more studies with long-term follow up are needed. PMID:19773727

  4. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  5. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R? expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4R?-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  6. Endometrial cancer arising from atypical complex hyperplasia: The significance in an endometrial biopsy and a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Nam; Cho, En Bee; Cha, Ju Eun; Sung, Moon Su; Lee, Kyung Bok

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the features of endometrial hyperplasia with concurrent endometrial cancer that had been diagnosed by endometrial sampling. Further, we attempted to identify an accurate differential diagnostic method. Methods We retrospectively studied 125 patients who underwent a diagnostic endometrial biopsy or were diagnosed after the surgical treatment of other gynecological lesions, such as leiomyoma or polyps. Patients were diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2013 at Busan Paik Hospital. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were compared in patients who had atypical endometrial hyperplasia with and without concurrent endometrial cancer. Results The patients were grouped based on the final pathology reports. One hundred seventeen patients were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and eight patients were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from atypical hyperplasia. Of the 26 patients who had been diagnosed with atypical endometrial hyperplasia by office-based endometrial biopsy, eight (30.8%) were subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer after they had undergone hysterectomy. The patients with endometrial cancer arising from endometrial hyperplasia were younger (39.1 vs. 47.2 years, P=0.0104) and more obese (body mass index 26.1±9.6 vs. 23.8±2.8 kg/m2, P=0.3560) than the patients with endometrial hyperplasia. The correlation rate between the pathology of the endometrial samples and the final diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia was 67.3%. Conclusion In patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, the detection of endometrial cancer before hysterectomy can decrease the risk of suboptimal treatment. The accuracy of endometrial sampling for the diagnosis of concurrent endometrial carcinoma was much lower than that for atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Therefore, concurrent endometrial carcinoma should be suspected and surgical intervention should be considered in young or obese patients who present with atypical endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:26623410

  7. Linking Pre-Diabetes with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. IGFBP-3: A Conductor of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Development Orchestra?

    PubMed Central

    Protopsaltis, Ioannis; Ploumidis, Achilles; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Constantoulakis, Padelis; Tzirogiannis, Kostantinos; Kyprianidou, Chrysoula; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia K.; Melidonis, Andreas; Delakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a pattern of non-malignant growth of prostatic fibromuscular stroma. Metabolic disturbances such us pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome may have a role in BPH pathophysiology. A potential explanation for the above relationship involves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis as well as IGF binding proteins, (IGFBPs) of which the most abundant form is IGFBP-3. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between intra-prostatic levels of IGF-1, IGF-2 as well as to evaluate the role of locally expressed IGFBP-3 in BPH development in pre-diabetes. A total of 49 patients admitted to the Urology department of a tertiary urban Greek hospital, for transurethral prostate resection, or prostatectomy and with pre-diabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both] were finally included. The majority of the sample consisted of subjects with IGT (51.0%), followed by IFG and IGT (32.7%) and isolated IFG (16.3%). For all participants a clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected. In addition, total prostate (TP) volume or transitional zone (TZ) volume were estimated by transrectal ultrasonography. The results of the multivariate analysis regarding TP volume showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p=0.007) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p<0.001) independently predicted higher TP volume. The results regarding the volume of the TZ showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p<0.001) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p=0.024) were independently associated with higher TZ volume. Our findings show that intra-prostatic levels of IGFBP-3, PSA and waist circumference, but not overall obesity, are positively associated with prostate volume. IGFBP-3 seems to be a multifunctional protein, which can potentiate or inhibit IGF activity. PMID:24367483

  8. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in three captive African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Langan, Jennifer N; Haskins, Samantha; Landolfi, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia are common in domestic canids and are suspected to develop as a consequence of elevated progesterone levels. Reports of uterine pathology in exotic canids are limited, with some speculating of association with contraception. This report describes pyometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, and ovariohysterectomy in three African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus). Ovarian corpora lutea were detected in two of the dogs, suggesting endogenous progesterone production. One dog had a uterine adenocarcinoma and two had ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, vulvar discharge, polyuria, polydipsia, and abdominal distention. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, physical examination, bloodwork, radiography, and ultrasonography, with confirmation through histopathologic evaluation of tissues. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, and uterine neoplasia have rarely been diagnosed in exotic canids; however, they should be considered as differential diagnoses in intact bitches that present with suspected reproductive disease. PMID:22448515

  9. The Conduction of Heat through Cryogenic Regenerative Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Superczynski, W. F.; Green, G. F.

    2006-04-01

    The need for improved regenerative cryocooler efficiency may require the replacement of conventional matrices with ducts. The ducts can not be continuous in the direction of temperature gradient when using conventional materials to prevent unacceptable conduction losses. However, this discontinuity creates a complex geometry to model and determine conduction losses. Chesapeake Cryogenics, Inc. has designed, fabricated and tested an apparatus for measuring the heat conduction through regenerative heat exchangers implementing different matrices. Data is presented for stainless steel photo etched disk, phophorus-bronze embossed ribbon coils and screens made of both stainless steel and phosphorus-bronze. The heat conduction was measured with the regenerators evacuated and pressurized with helium gas. In this test apparatus, helium gas presence increased the heat leak significantly. A description of the test apparatus, instrumentation, experimental methods and data analysis are presented.

  10. Seikan tunnel electric train propulsion -- Regenerative energy management

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Seita; Wyczalek, F.A.

    1997-12-31

    The mission was to model the electric propulsion and regenerative energy requirements for the Kaikyo passenger train and the Kamotsusen freight train system currently operating between Tappikaitei and Yoshiokakaitei through the Seikan tunnel under the Pacific Ocean. The Seikan tunnel is over 54 km in length and connects Aomori on the main Japanese island of Honshu to the North island of Hokkaido. Further, over 24 km of the Seikan tunnel is 100 meters below the sea bed of the Tsugaru Strait which joins the Pacific with the Sea of Japan. While, the sea bed is 140 meters below the mean Pacific sea level, at the deepest point. Safety and energy conservation issues led to reliable regenerative energy recovery and braking systems.

  11. The theory of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The adiabatic temperature change with field which is limited to about 2 K/Tesla for ferromagnets near their Curie temperatures by the change of magnetization with temperature and the lattice heat capacity is discussed. Practical magnetic refrigerators operate on a regenerative cycle such as the Brayton cycle. This cycle can be executed through the use of an active magnetic regenerator, i.e., a regenerator composed of magnetic material that is cycled in an out of a magnetic field with appropriate fluid flows. The theory of these devices is predicted by solving the partial differential equations that describe fluid and the magnetic solid. The active magnetic regenerator is described along with the method of calculation. Temperature profiles for a normal regenerator and a magnetic regenerative refrigerator are shown.

  12. Telomere Shortening Reduces Regenerative Capacity after Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Jens H.; Schildhorn, Carolin; Jacobi, Christoph; Hömme, Meike; Hartner, Andrea; Braun, Heidi; Kryzer, Christine; Wang, Chunfang; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres of most somatic cells progressively shorten, compromising the regenerative capacity of human tissues during aging and chronic diseases and after acute injury. Whether telomere shortening reduces renal regeneration after acute injury is unknown. Here, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury led to greater impairment of renal function and increased acute and chronic histopathologic damage in fourth-generation telomerase-deficient mice compared with both wild-type and first-generation telomerase-deficient mice. Critically short telomeres, increased expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21, and more apoptotic renal cells accompanied the pronounced damage in fourth-generation telomerase-deficient mice. These mice also demonstrated significantly reduced proliferative capacity in tubular, glomerular, and interstitial cells. These data suggest that critical telomere shortening in the kidney leads to increased senescence and apoptosis, thereby limiting regenerative capacity in response to injury. PMID:19959722

  13. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

  14. Regenerative Fuel Cell Test Rig at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Bents, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell development effort at Glenn Research Center (GRC) involves the integration of a dedicated fuel cell and electrolyzer into an energy storage system test rig. The test rig consists of a fuel cell stack, an electrolysis stack, cooling pumps, a water transfer pump, gas recirculation pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), heat exchangers, isolation valves, pressure regulators, interconnecting tubing, nitrogen purge provisions, and instrumentation for control and monitoring purposes. The regenerative fuel cell (RFC) thus formed is a completely closed system which is capable of autonomous cyclic operation. The test rig provides direct current (DC) load and DC power supply to simulate power consumption and solar power input. In addition, chillers are used as the heat sink to dissipate the waste heat from the electrochemical stack operation. Various vents and nitrogen (N2) sources are included in case inert purging is necessary to safe the RFC test rig.

  15. Investigation of electroforming techniques. [fabrication of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Copper and nickel electroforming was examined for the purpose of establishing the necessary processes and procedures for repeatable, successful fabrication of the outer structures of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. The selection of electrolytes for copper and nickel deposition is described. The development studies performed to refine and complete the processes necessary for successful chamber shell fabrication and the testing employed to verify the applicability of the processes and procedures to small scale hardware are described. Specifications were developed to afford a guideline for the electroforming of high quality outer shells on regeneratively cooled thrust chamber liners. Test results indicated repeatable mechanical properties could be produced in copper deposits from the copper sulfate electrolyte with periodic current reversal and in nickel deposits from the sulfamate solution. Use of inert, removable channel fillers and the conductivizing of such is described. Techniques (verified by test) which produce high integrity bonds to copper and copper alloy liners are discussed.

  16. High-precision buffer circuit for suppression of regenerative oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Hare, David A.; Tcheng, Ping

    1995-01-01

    Precision analog signal conditioning electronics have been developed for wind tunnel model attitude inertial sensors. This application requires low-noise, stable, microvolt-level DC performance and a high-precision buffered output. Capacitive loading of the operational amplifier output stages due to the wind tunnel analog signal distribution facilities caused regenerative oscillation and consequent rectification bias errors. Oscillation suppression techniques commonly used in audio applications were inadequate to maintain the performance requirements for the measurement of attitude for wind tunnel models. Feedback control theory is applied to develop a suppression technique based on a known compensation (snubber) circuit, which provides superior oscillation suppression with high output isolation and preserves the low-noise low-offset performance of the signal conditioning electronics. A practical design technique is developed to select the parameters for the compensation circuit to suppress regenerative oscillation occurring when typical shielded cable loads are driven.

  17. Heat exchanger for subcooling liquid nitrogen with a regenerative cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Seung Hoon

    2011-03-01

    A heat exchanger for continuously subcooling liquid nitrogen in contact with a regenerative cryocooler is analytically investigated as a next step of our recent experimental works. Since the coldhead of regenerative cryocooler has a limited surface area, a cylindrical copper cup is attached as extended surface, and a tube for liquid flow is spirally wound and brazed on the exterior surface of cylinder. Different sizes of heat exchangers are fabricated and tested with a single-stage GM cooler to cool liquid nitrogen from 78 K to 66 K. Analytical model is developed for the heat exchanger effectiveness and thermal resistance, and the results are compared with the experimental data. It is concluded that there exists an optimum for the height and diameter of cylindrical heat exchanger to maximize the cooling rate with a given unit of cryocooler.

  18. Nanotechnologies and regenerative medical approaches for space and terrestrial medicine.

    PubMed

    Grattoni, Alessandro; Tasciotti, Ennio; Fine, Daniel; Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Sakamoto, Jason; Hu, Ye; Weiner, Bradley; Ferrari, Mauro; Parazynski, Scott

    2012-11-01

    One purpose of the International Space Station (ISS) is to explore powerful new areas of biomedical science in microgravity. Recent advances in nanotechnology applied to medicine--what we now refer to as nano-medicine--and regenerative medicine have enormous untapped potential for future space and terrestrial medical applications. Novel means for drug delivery and nanoscale screening tools will one day benefit astronauts venturing to Mars and places beyond, while the space laboratory will foster advances in nanotechnologies for diagnostic and therapeutic tools to help our patients here on Earth. Herein we review a series of nanotechnologies and selected regenerative medical approaches and highlight key areas of ongoing and future investigation that will benefit both space and terrestrial medicine. These studies target significant areas of human disease such as osteoporosis, diabetes, radiation injury, and many others. PMID:23156089

  19. [Intersections of reconstructive surgery in the area of regenerative medicine].

    PubMed

    Bader, A

    2002-05-01

    Based on significant progress in biotechnology, "Regenerative Medicine" is evolving as a new discipline that could significantly change current therapeutic approaches. Medicine, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, nanotechnology, genomic research, material sciences, as well as system- and process-engineering come together to answer fundamental problems of human disease, including trauma and aging. The long-term goal is to create a profound knowledge of individualized therapy originating from nonbiological organ replacement, through hybridized systems, to fully biological implants and finally to human regenerative systems in vivo. Two model tissues, including heart valves and liver tissue are discussed in the context of in vivo and in vitro regeneration technologies. Extracellular matrix regulates tissue differentiation in at least three ways, including the biochemical composition of the matrix constituents, the 3-D organization or architecture, and via mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes a biopolymer which potentially plays a permissive role for tissue differentiation. PMID:12089825

  20. Rotary regenerative catalytic oxidizer for VOC emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, J.C.; Chen, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Thermal or catalytic oxidation has been widely accepted in industries as one of the most effective technologies for the control of VOC emissions. To reduce energy cost, this technology normally incorporates heat exchanger to recover waste heat from hot combustion exhaust. Among various heat recovery methods, it is known that the regenerative system has the highest thermal efficiency (> 90%). The normal regenerative heat exchanger design is to use ceramic heat sink material packed in a fixed-bed configuration to capture excess heat from outgoing hot combustion exhaust and use it later to preheat incoming cold VOC laden gas stream by periodically switching gas streams using valves. This paper presents a novel design of the regenerative catalytic oxidizer. This design uses a honeycomb rotor with discrete parallel channels as the heat transfer media on which catalyst is coated to promote oxidation reaction. Heat recovery of this unit is accomplished by rotating the rotor between cold and hot flow streams. The thermal efficiency of the unit can be controlled by the rotation speed. Because it can rotate between hot and cold streams at higher rate than that can be achieved by valve switching, the rotary regenerative catalytic oxidizer uses much less heat transfer media than that is normally required for the fixed-bed design for the same thermal efficiency. This leads to a more compact and less costly unit design. The continuous rotation mechanism also eliminates the pressure fluctuation that is experienced by the fixed-bed design using valves for flow switching. The advantages of this new design are demonstrated by the data collected from a laboratory scale test unit.

  1. Status of the Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald Layne

    2009-01-01

    NASA has completed the delivery of the regenerative Water Recovery System (WRS) for the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the final effort to deliver the hardware to the Kennedy Space Center for launch on STS-126, the on-orbit status as of April 2009, and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  2. On the Genealogy of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we identify and discuss a timeline of historical events and scientific breakthroughs that shaped the principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). We explore the origins of TERM concepts in myths, their application in the ancient era, their resurgence during Enlightenment, and, finally, their systematic codification into an emerging scientific and technological framework in recent past. The development of computational/mathematical approaches in TERM is also briefly discussed. PMID:25343302

  3. A functional central limit theorem for regenerative chains

    E-print Network

    Maillard, G

    2008-01-01

    Using the regenerative scheme of Comets, Fern\\'andez and Ferrari (2002), we establish a functional central limit theorem (FCLT) for discrete time stochastic processes (chains) with summable memory decay. Furthermore, under stronger assumptions on the memory decay, we identify the limiting variance in terms of the process only. As applications, we define classes of binary autoregressive processes and power-law Ising chains for which the FCLT is fulfilled.

  4. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  5. On the genealogy of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Himanshu; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we identify and discuss a timeline of historical events and scientific breakthroughs that shaped the principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). We explore the origins of TERM concepts in myths, their application in the ancient era, their resurgence during Enlightenment, and, finally, their systematic codification into an emerging scientific and technological framework in recent past. The development of computational/mathematical approaches in TERM is also briefly discussed. PMID:25343302

  6. Two-tier regenerative response in liver failure in humans.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archana; Maiwall, Rakhi; Bihari, Chhagan; Trehanpati, Nirupma; Pamecha, Viniyendra; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Acute and chronic liver failure is associated with high mortality. The enormous regenerative potential of the liver has generated a lot of attention. We undertook this work to assess the two-tier regenerative response in liver failure by immunohistochemistry and to correlate such response with liver histology in acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), and decompensated cirrhosis (CHD). Histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating hepatocytes and activated hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) were performed on the liver tissue of patients with ALF (25), ACLF (70), and CHD (70). Comparative analysis of regenerative markers and correlation with histological parameters were done in ALF, ACLF, and CHD. Hepatocytes proliferated significantly more in ALF in comparison to ACLF (p?regenerative potential in ACLF. PMID:24590583

  7. A graphite-lined regeneratively cooled thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    Design concepts, based on use of graphite as a thermal barrier for regeneratively cooled FLOX-methane thrust chambers, have been screened and concepts selected for detailed thermodynamic, stress, and fabrication analyses. A single design employing AGCarb-101, a fibrous graphite composite material, for a thermal barrier liner and an electroformed nickel structure with integral coolant passages was selected for fabrication and testing. The fabrication processes and the test results are described and illustrated.

  8. Carbon nanotube torsional springs for regenerative braking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sanwei; Martin, Corbin; Lashmore, David; Schauer, Mark; Livermore, Carol

    2015-10-01

    The modeling and demonstration of large stroke, high energy density and high power density torsional springs based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns is reported, as well as their application as energy-storing actuators for regenerative braking systems. An originally untwisted CNT yarn is cyclically loaded and unloaded in torsion, with the maximum rotation angle increasing incrementally until failure. The measured average extractable energy density values are 2.9?kJ?kg-1??±??1.2?kJ?kg-1 and 3.4?kJ?kg-1??±??0.4?kJ?kg-1 for 1-ply CNT yarns and 2-ply CNT yarns, respectively. Additionally, a regenerative braking system is demonstrated to capture the kinetic energy of a wheel and store it as elastic energy in twisted CNT yarns. When the yarn’s twist is released, the stored energy reaccelerates the wheel. The measured energy and mean power densities of the CNT yarns in the simple regenerative braking setup are on average 3.3?kJ?kg-1 and 0.67?kW?kg-1, respectively, with maximum measured values of up to 4.7?kJ?kg-1 and 1.2?kW?kg-1, respectively. A slightly lower energy density of up to 1.2?kJ?kg-1 and a 0.29?kW?kg-1 mean power density are measured for CNT yarns in a more complex setup that mimics a unidirectional rotating regenerative braking mechanism.

  9. Nitric Oxide is Less Effective at Inhibiting Neointimal Hyperplasia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsihlis, Nick D.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous administration of nitric oxide (NO) markedly decreases neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury in several animal models. However, the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in hypertension remains unknown. Here, we employ the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, inbred from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and the carotid artery balloon injury model to assess the effects of NO on neointimal hyperplasia development. Two weeks after arterial injury, we showed that both rat strains developed similar levels of neointimal hyperplasia, but local administration of NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR compared to WKY rats (58% vs. 79%, P<0.001). Interestingly, local administration of NO did not affect systemic blood pressure in either rat strain. Compared to WKY, the SHR displayed more proliferation in the media and adventitia following balloon injury, as measured by BrdU incorporation. The SHR also showed more inflammation in the adventitia after injury, as well as more vasa vasorum, than WKY rats. NO treatment reduced the vasa vasorum in the SHR but not WKY rats. Finally, while NO decreased both injury-induced proliferation and inflammation in the SHR, it did not return these parameters to levels seen in WKY rats. We conclude that NO is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR than WKY rats. This may be due to increased scavenging of NO in the SHR, leading to diminished bioavailability of NO. These data will help to develop novel NO-based therapies that will be equally effective in both normotensive and hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24149190

  10. Nitric oxide is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tsihlis, Nick D; Vavra, Ashley K; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R; Kibbe, Melina R

    2013-11-30

    Exogenous administration of nitric oxide (NO) markedly decreases neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury in several animal models. However, the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in hypertension remains unknown. Here, we employ the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, inbred from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and the carotid artery balloon injury model to assess the effects of NO on neointimal hyperplasia development. 2weeks after arterial injury, we showed that both rat strains developed similar levels of neointimal hyperplasia, but local administration of NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR compared to WKY rats (58% vs. 79%, P<0.001). Interestingly, local administration of NO did not affect systemic blood pressure in either rat strain. Compared to WKY, the SHR displayed more proliferation in the media and adventitia following balloon injury, as measured by BrdU incorporation. The SHR also showed more inflammation in the adventitia after injury, as well as more vasa vasorum, than WKY rats. NO treatment reduced the vasa vasorum in the SHR but not WKY rats. Finally, while NO decreased both injury-induced proliferation and inflammation in the SHR, it did not return these parameters to levels seen in WKY rats. We conclude that NO is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR than WKY rats. This may be due to increased scavenging of NO in the SHR, leading to diminished bioavailability of NO. These data will help to develop novel NO-based therapies that will be equally effective in both normotensive and hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24149190

  11. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Dryer-Humidifier Analytical Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian

    2003-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system is unique in that it uses regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers that are mounted on the surface of the gas storage tanks that act as the radiators for thermal control of the URFC system. As the gas storage tanks cool down during URFC charging the regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers dry the hydrogen and oxygen gases produced by electrolysis. As the gas storage tanks heat up during URFC discharging, the regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers humidify the hydrogen and oxygen gases used by fuel cell. An analytical model was developed to simulate the URFC system's regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers. The model is in the form of an EXCEL@ worksheet that allows the investigation of the regenerative gas dryers/humidifier performance as a function of time and position within the regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers, as well as other key system variables. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modeling of the regenerative gas dryers/humidifier and gas storage tank wall was also done to analyze spatial temperature distribution within the regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers and the localized tank wall. Test results obtained from the testing of the regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers in a thermal vacuum environment were used to corroborate the analyses.

  12. Regulators of pluripotency and their implications in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of regenerative medicine is to replace damaged tissues with new functioning ones. This can potentially be accomplished by stem cell transplantation. While stem cell transplantation for blood diseases has been increasingly successful, widespread application of stem cell therapy in the clinic has shown limited results. Despite successful efforts to refine existing methodologies and to develop better ones for reprogramming, clinical application of stem cell therapy suffers from issues related to the safety of the transplanted cells, as well as the low efficiency of reprogramming technology. Better understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) involved in pluripotency should accelerate the clinical application of stem cell transplantation for regenerative purposes. This review outlines the main decision-making factors involved in pluripotency, focusing on the role of microRNAs, epigenetic modification, signaling pathways, and toll-like receptors. Of special interest is the role of toll-like receptors in pluripotency, where emerging data indicate that the innate immune system plays a vital role in reprogramming. Based on these data, we propose that nongenetic mechanisms for reprogramming provide a novel and perhaps an essential strategy to accelerate application of regenerative medicine in the clinic. PMID:25960670

  13. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and ? cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  14. Regenerative medicine in Europe: global competition and innovation governance.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Stuart; Salter, Brian

    2010-11-01

    Leading European nations with strong biotech sectors, such as the UK and Germany, are investing heavily in regenerative medicine, seeking competitive advantage in this emerging sector. However, in the broader biopharmaceutical sector, the EU is outperformed by the USA on all metrics, reflecting longstanding problems: limited venture capital finance, a fragmented patent system, and relatively weak relations between academia and industry. The current global downturn has exacerbated these difficulties. The crisis comes at a time when the EU is reframing its approach to the governance of innovation and renewing its commitment to the goal of making Europe the leading player in the global knowledge economy. If the EU is to gain a competitive advantage in the regenerative medicine sector then it must coordinate a complex multilevel governance framework that encompasses the EU, member states and regional authorities. This article takes stock of Europe's current competitive position within the global bioeconomy, drawing on a variety of metrics in the three intersecting spheres of innovation governance: science, market and society. These data then provide a platform for reviewing the problems of innovation governance faced by the EU and the strategic choices that have to be confronted in the regenerative medicine sector. PMID:21082895

  15. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-06-26

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and ? cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  16. Local hyperthermia in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Assessment of 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Serrate Aguilera, R; Ruis Espina, G; Regié Aldosa, R; Prats López, J; Franco de Castro, A

    1991-01-01

    This study includes our first 100 patients who received local prostatic hyperthermia treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Subjective symptoms such as nycturia, stream, urgency, and objective facts like urine flow and postmicturition residue were monitored before treatment and 3 months after. The clinical (subjective) symptoms improved in 76 patients. Urinary flow increased in 63 patients, and the postmicturition urinary residue decreased in 32 patients. We were able to show that local prostatic hyperthermia is a valid option for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia although it is still too early to assess the long-term results. PMID:1720737

  17. Focal nodular hyperplasia in a child with hemihypertrophy and multiple cutaneous vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, M; Verma, R; Shannon, R S; McKeever, P A; Rickett, A

    2004-03-01

    A case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver occurring in a 9-year-old girl with musculoskeletal hemihypertrophy and multiple cutaneous capillary haemangiomata is described. The child presented because of limb length discrepancy and was found to have a large mass in the liver. Imaging showed a mass of similar characteristics to normal liver tissue. Prominent vascular supply to the liver was also seen. We present this case to emphasize the important diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia, which may occur in syndromic form in children with typical cutaneous and skeletal manifestations. PMID:15027928

  18. Energy Delivery Systems for Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) to conduct a health technology assessment on energy delivery systems for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition BPH is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland and the most common benign tumour in aging men. (1) It is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and is an important cause of diminished quality of life among aging men. (2) The primary goal in the management of BPH for most patients is a subjective improvement in urinary symptoms and quality of life. Until the 1930s, open prostatectomy, though invasive, was the most effective form of surgical treatment for BPH. Today, the benchmark surgical treatment for BPH is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), which produces significant changes of all subjective and objective outcome parameters. Complications after TURP include hemorrhage during or after the procedure, which often necessitates blood transfusion; transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome; urinary incontinence; bladder neck stricture; and sexual dysfunction. A retrospective review of 4,031 TURP procedures performed by one surgeon between 1979 and 2003 showed that the incidence of complications was 2.4% for blood transfusion, 0.3% for TUR syndrome, 1.5% for hemostatic procedures, 2.8% for bladder neck contracture, and 1% for urinary stricture. However, the incidence of blood transfusion and TUR syndrome decreased as the surgeon’s skills improved. During the 1990s, a variety of endoscopic techniques using a range of energy sources have been developed as alternative treatments for BPH. These techniques include the use of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser), radiofrequency, microwave, and ultrasound, to heat prostate tissue and cause coagulation or vaporization. In addition, new electrosurgical techniques that use higher amounts of energy to cut, coagulate, and vaporize prostatic tissue have entered the market as competitors to TURP. The driving force behind these new treatment modalities is the potential of producing good hemostasis, thereby reducing catheterization time and length of hospital stay. Some have the potential to be used in an office environment and performed under local anesthesia. Therefore, these new procedures have the potential to rival TURP if their effectiveness is proven over the long term. The Technology Being Reviewed The following energy-based techniques were considered for assessment: transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate (TUVP) transurethral electrovapor resection of the prostate (TUVRP) transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate using bipolar energy (plasmakinetic vaporization of the prostate [PKVP]) visual laser ablation of the prostate (VLAP) transurethral ultrasound guided laser incision prostatectomy (TULIP) contact laser vaporization of the prostate (CLV) interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) holmium laser resection of the prostate (HoLRP) holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) holmium laser ablation of the prostate (HoLAP) potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) Review Strategy A search of electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment [INAHTA] database) was undertaken to identify evidence published from January 1, 2000 to June 21, 2006. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search identified 284 citations, of which 38 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Since the application of high-power (80 W) KTP laser (photoselective vaporization of the prostate [PVP]) has been supported in the United States and has resulted in a rapid diffusion of this technology in the absence of any RCTs, th

  19. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making. PMID:26191310

  20. Adjunctive arterial injury and photodynamic therapy with aluminium disulphonated phthalocyanine inhibits intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Isaac; McEwan, Jean R.; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bishop, Christopher C. R.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1994-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) reduces intimal hyperplasia (FCIH). We assess the effects of adjunctive balloon injury and immediate PDT on contractile SMC, using aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) sensitization, on intimal hyperplasia. Groups of 5 Wistar rats underwent tail vein injection with 2.5 mg/kg of aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc). Standard carotid artery balloon injury was performed with a 2FG Fogarty embolectomy catheter and the artery irradiated with 50 J/cm2. Control groups were also studied. Rats were killed at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment and perfusion fixed H&E stained cross-sections assessed by computerized morphometric measurements. Three sections per rat were analyzed. PDT treated arteries were free of FCIH formation in all cases. Laser alone (and to a lesser extent sensitizer alone) produced some reduction in the levels of FCIH compared to untreated but balloon injured vessels. The ratio of the area of intimal hyperplasia in treated vessels to the area of intimal hyperplasia in untreated (balloon only) rats were sensitizer only 98%, laser only 68% and PDT 0% at 4 weeks. PDT given at the time of angioplasty may be affective in the management of restenosis.

  1. A unilocular thymic cyst associated with true thymic hyperplasia: a challenging diagnosis especially in a child

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Gattoufi, Walid; Zribi, Hazem; Braham, Emna; Marghli, Adel; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of a mediastinal mass in a 19-year-old patient corresponding microscopically to an association of unilocular thymic cyst and true thymic hyperplasia. Our aim is to highlight the absence of specificity of clinical and radiological findings and the necessity of a thorough sampling of the tumor in order to establish the diagnosis. PMID:26445562

  2. PTEN Sequence Analysis in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma in Slovak Women

    PubMed Central

    Gbelcová, H.; Bakeš, P.; Priš?áková, P.; Šišovský, V.; Hojsíková, I.; Straka, ?.; Kone?ný, M.; Markus, J.; D'Acunto, C. W.; Ruml, T.; Böhmer, D.; Danihel, ?.; Repiská, V.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa). ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3), complex hyperplasia (5), atypical complex hyperplasia (7), endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20) and G3 (5), and serous carcinoma (5) were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar. PMID:26114084

  3. Unilateral hypoplastic kidney and ureter associated with diverse mesonephric remnant hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Jerome, Jean-Gilles; Wu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described. PMID:26309900

  4. Effects of salivary gland hyperplasia virus on reproductive behavior of the house fly, Musca domestica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathological studies demonstrated that the salivary gland hyperplasia virus of house flies (MdSGHV) shuts down reproduction in infected females. The mechanism that underlies the disruption of reproduction functioned onat several levels. Females infected at the pre-vitellogenic stage did not produc...

  5. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor in 11-Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency Driven Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Ünlü, Ya?ar; Karata?, Tuna; Tekinarslan, Erdem; Sümer, Alpay

    2014-01-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) occur often as asymptomatic nodules in corticotropin-dependent lesions aberrant adrenal tissue in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. The present manuscript is about an unusual case of a 16-year-old CAH patient due to 11?-hydroxylase deficiency. He underwent testicle biopsy because of testicle tumor suspicion and diagnosed with TART. PMID:24741421

  6. IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia1,2

    PubMed Central

    Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R.; Bridge, Jennifer A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Blumenthal, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer, and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV- associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3+ T cells, predominantly CD4+ T cells in human, and CD4+ and ?? T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1?, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. PMID:25063870

  7. Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated. PMID:23691390

  8. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Mafalda Costa; Stamp, Gordon; Mudan, Satvinder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are thought to derive from or differentiate towards the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) as most demonstrate a similar immunoprofile: CD117+, CD34+ and DOG1+. ICC hyperplasia refers to KIT-expressing microscopic spindle cell proliferations involving the myenteric plexus. Case report 74 year-old male presented with a 5-year history of heartburn and dysphagia. Imaging revealed a 4 cm GIST in the gastric fundus. Pathology of the resected specimen revealed diffuse segmental ICC hyperplasia harbouring two macroscopic GISTs and a ‘tumorlet’. A mutation in c-KIT exon 11 was detected in both the solid and the diffuse components. Discussion ICC hyperplasia can occur either as a sporadic focal lesion or in a syndromic setting, known to predispose to multiple GIST tumours at different sites. The majority of cases of sporadic ICC hyperplasia previously reported were of localised type. The hereditary form is mostly caused by germline mutations in c-KIT and PDGFRA or in patients with NF-1 andpresents as a diffuse hyperplasia, usually with a confluent, nodular or multifocal growth pattern. Conclusion We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder. PMID:26521201

  9. Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

  10. Theoretical and experimental study on regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Raggi, L.; Katsuta, Masafumi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Isshiki, Seita

    1997-12-31

    Recently a quite new type of hot air engine called rotary displacer engine, in which the displacer is a rotating disk enclosed in a cylinder, has been conceived and developed. The working gas, contained in a notch excavated in the disk, is heated and cooled alternately, on account of the heat transferred through the enclosing cylinder that is heated at one side and cooled at the opposite one. The gas temperature oscillations cause the pressure fluctuations that get out mechanical power acting on a power piston. In order to attempt to increase the performances for this kind of engine, the authors propose three different regeneration methods. The first one comprises two coaxial disks that, revolving in opposite ways, cause a temperature gradient on the cylinder wall and a regenerative axial heat conduction through fins shaped on the cylinder inner wall. The other two methods are based on the heat transferred by a proper closed circuit that in one case has a circulating liquid inside and in the other one is formed by several heat pipes working each one for different temperatures. An engine based on the first principle, the Regenerative Tandem Contra-Rotary Displacer Stirling Engine, has been realized and experimented. In this paper experimental results with and without regeneration are reported comparatively with a detailed description of the unity. A basic explanation of the working principle of this engine and a theoretical analysis investigating the main influential parameters for the regenerative effect are done. This new rotating displacer Stirling engines, for their simplicity, are expected to attain high rotational speed especially for applications as demonstration and hobby unities.

  11. High Pressure Regenerative Turbine Engine: 21st Century Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. E.; Laganelli, A. L.; Senick, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A novel semi-closed cycle gas turbine engine was demonstrated and was found to meet the program goals. The proof-of-principle test of the High Pressure Regenerative Turbine Engine produced data that agreed well with models, enabling more confidence in designing future prototypes based on this concept. Emission levels were significantly reduced as predicted as a natural attribute of this power cycle. Engine testing over a portion of the operating range allowed verification of predicted power increases compared to the baseline.

  12. Status of the Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carter, D. Layne; Bedard, John

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a regenerative water recovery system (WRS) for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS), The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WPA has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc., while the UPA has been developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Test and verification activities have been completed for the system and planning for launch and on-orbit activation is underway. This paper summarizes the status as of April 2007 and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  13. Direct Cardiomyocyte Reprogramming: A New Direction for Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yi, B. Alexander; Mummery, Christine L.; Chien, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The past few years have seen unexpected new developments in direct cardiomyocyte reprogramming. Direct cardiomyocyte reprogramming potentially offers an entirely novel approach to cardiovascular regenerative medicine by converting cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes in situ. There is much to be learned, however, about the mechanisms of direct reprogramming in order that the process can be made more efficient. Early efforts have suggested that this new technology can be technically challenging. Moreover, new methods of inducing heart reprogramming will need to be developed before this approach can be translated to the bedside. Despite this, direct cardiomyocyte reprogramming may lead to new therapeutic options for sufferers of heart disease. PMID:24003244

  14. A Possible Regenerative, Molten-Salt, Thermoelectric Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Jacob; Thaller, Lawrence H.; Weber, Donald E.

    1964-01-01

    Molten or fused salts have been evaluated as possible thermoelectric materials because of the relatively good values of their figures of merit, their chemical stability, their long liquid range, and their ability to operate in conjunction with a nuclear reactor to produce heat. In general, molten salts are electrolytic conductors; therefore, there will be a transport of materials and subsequent decomposition with the passage of an electric current. It is possible nonetheless to overcome this disadvantage by using the decomposition products of the molten-salt electrolyte in a fuel cell. The combination of a thermoelectric converter and a fuel cell would lead to a regenerative system that may be useful.

  15. Performance of a transpiration-regenerative cooled rocket thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valler, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing of a liquid rocket engine thrust chamber which is gas transpiration cooled in the high heat flux convergent portion of the chamber and water jacket cooled (simulated regenerative) in the barrel and divergent sections of the chamber are described. The engine burns LOX-hydrogen propellants at a chamber pressure of 600 psia. Various transpiration coolant flow rates were tested with resultant local hot gas wall temperatures in the 800 F to 1400 F range. The feasibility of transpiration cooling with hydrogen and helium, and the use of photo-etched copper platelets for heat transfer and coolant metering was successfully demonstrated.

  16. Regenerative cooling for liquid propellant rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Rafael Levy

    1994-04-01

    This work describes a calculation model for regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chambers. A computational program, based on a one-dimensional coolant pressure drop in the cooling channels. Radiation is included in the model. The channels have rectangular cross sections, the dimensions being determined during the calculations in order to maintain the wall temperature distributions at tolerable levels, with a minimum channel pressure drop. Several wall materials were investigated, as well as the employment of the hydrocarbon fuels JP-4 and JP-5 and Aerozine 50 as coolants. The influence of many design parameters on the cooling system performance is verified for the analysis of the system capabilities and limitations.

  17. Controlling life: from Jacques Loeb to regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Maienschein, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In his 1987 book Controlling Life: Jacques Loeb and the Engineering Ideal in Biology, Philip Pauly presented his readers with the biologist Jacques Loeb and his role in developing an emphasis on control of life processes. Loeb's work on artificial parthenogenesis, for example, provided an example of bioengineering at work. This paper revisits Pauly's study of Loeb and explores the way current research in regenerative medicine reflects the same tradition. A history of regeneration research reveals patterns of thinking and research methods that both echo Loeb's ideology and point the way to modern studies. Pauly's work revealed far more than we readers realized at the time of its publication. PMID:19852396

  18. The complexity of cellular dedifferentiation: implications for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Grafi, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    Cellular dedifferentiation underlies topical issues in biology, such as regeneration and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and signifies the withdrawal of cells from a given differentiated state into a 'stem cell'-like state that confers pluripotency. Recently, there has been growing interest in exploiting the dedifferentiation process to obtain autologous stem cell lineages for use in regenerative medicine. This approach holds great promise, particularly in view of the ethical concerns invoked over the use of human embryonic stem cells in research and the problem of transplant rejection. However, new insights provided by the study of this process in plants and animals have highlighted the complexity and hazards of cellular dedifferentiation. PMID:19395104

  19. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and elevated alpha fetoprotein level in an infant with isolated hemihyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hac Ahmet; Varan, Ali; Akçören, Zuhal; Haliloglu, Mithat; Büyükpamukcu, Münevver

    2008-10-01

    A case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in a 43-day-old baby girl with isolated hemihyperplasia and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein is presented. The child referred to our hospital with bilateral renal masses detected by prenatal and postnatal ultrasonography. A mass lesion was detected in segment 6 of liver and was diagnosed as focal nodular hyperplasia. We present this case to emphasize the presence of focal nodular hyperplasia in a patient with isolated hemihypertrophy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. PMID:19011479

  20. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo: A Separate Entity or Hypertrophic Lichen Planus-like Reaction?

    PubMed

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as "lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia" or "hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction." Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  1. Sebaceous hyperplasia of the vulva: a series of cases reporting no association with the Muir-Torre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Barry, Jessica; Pai, Rish K; Billings, Steven D

    2014-07-01

    Sebaceous gland hyperplasia is a common skin condition, very rarely reported in the female genital region. We present 13 cases from 12 patients, the first case series of sebaceous gland hyperplasia of the vulva. Differences in age at presentation and clinical presentation compared with classic sebaceous gland hyperplasia from the head and neck region were noted. Also, it was rarely included in the clinical differential diagnosis. Immunohistochemical studies to determine any possible association with the Muir-Torre syndrome were performed and mismatch repair protein loss was not identified. PMID:24901406

  2. Regeneratively cooled rocket engine for space storable propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.; Waldman, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and experimental studies were performed with the OF2 (F2/O2)/B2H6 propellant combination over a range in operating conditions to determine suitability for a space storable pressure fed engine configuration for an extended flight space vehicle configuration. The regenerative cooling mode selected for the thrust chamber was explored in detail with the use of both the fuel and oxidizer as coolants in an advanced milled channel construction thrust chamber design operating at 100 psia chamber pressure and a nominal mixture ratio of 3.0 with a 60:1 area ratio nozzle. Benefits of the simultaneous cooling as related to gaseous injection of both fuel and oxidizer propellants were defined. Heat transfer rates, performance and combustor stability were developed for impinging element triplet injectors in uncooled copper calorimeter hardware with flow, pressure and temperature instrumentation. Evaluation of the capabilities of the B2H6 and OF2 during analytical studies and numerous tests with flow through electrically heated blocks provided design criteria for subsequent regenerative chamber design and fabrication.

  3. Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Oxygen/Methane Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Greene, Christopher B.; Stout, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in concert with industry partner Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) utilized a Space Act Agreement to test an oxygen/methane engine system in the Summer of 2010. PWR provided a 5,500 lbf (24,465 N) LOX/LCH4 regenerative cycle engine to demonstrate advanced thrust chamber assembly hardware and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system. The chamber designs offered alternatives to traditional regenerative engine designs with improvements in cost and/or performance. MSFC provided the test stand, consumables and test personnel. The hot fire testing explored the effective cooling of one of the thrust chamber designs along with determining the combustion efficiency with variations of pressure and mixture ratio. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  4. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine research.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sunyoung; Ko, In Kap; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J; Lee, Sang Jin

    2012-02-01

    The stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid present an exciting possible contribution to the field of regenerative medicine and amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have significant potential for research and therapeutic applications. AFS cells are multipotent, showing the ability to differentiate into cell types from all three embryonic germ layers. They express both embryonic and adult stem cell markers, expand extensively without feeder cells, double in 36 h, and are not tumorigenic. The AFS cells can be maintained for over 250 population doublings and preserve their telomere length and a normal karyotype. They differentiate easily into specific cell lineages and do not require human embryo tissue for their isolation, thus avoiding the current controversies associated with the use of human embryonic stem (ES) cells. The discovery of the AFS cells has been recent, and a great deal of work remains to be performed on the characterization and use of these cells. This review describes the various differentiated lineages that AFS cells can form and the future of these promising new stem cells in regenerative medicine research. PMID:22370781

  5. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  6. Could Gaussian regenerative stations act as quantum repeaters?

    E-print Network

    Ryo Namiki; Oleg Gittsovich; Saikat Guha; Norbert Lütkenhaus

    2014-10-02

    Higher transmission loss diminishes the performance of optical communication|be it the rate at which classical or quantum data can be sent reliably, or the secure key generation rate of quantum key distribution (QKD). Loss compounds with distance|exponentially in an optical fiber, and inverse-square with distance for a free-space channel. In order to boost classical communication rates over long distances, it is customary to introduce regenerative relays at intermediate points along the channel. It is therefore natural to speculate whether untended regenerative stations, such as phase-insensitive or phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, could serve as repeaters for long-distance QKD. The primary result of this paper rules out all bosonic Gaussian channels to be useful as QKD repeaters, which include phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive amplifiers as special cases, for any QKD protocol. We also delineate the conditions under which a Gaussian relay renders a lossy channel entanglement breaking, which in turn makes the channel useless for QKD.

  7. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m^2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  8. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Storage-Radiator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupta, Ian

    2005-01-01

    High-energy-density regenerative fuel cell systems that are used for energy storage require novel approaches to integrating components in order to preserve mass and volume. A lightweight unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) energy storage system concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system minimizes mass by using the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The waste heat generated by the URFC stack during charging and discharging is transferred from the cell stack to the surface of each tank by loop heat pipes, which are coiled around each tank and covered with a thin layer of thermally conductive carbon composite. The thin layer of carbon composite acts as a fin structure that spreads the heat away from the heat pipe and across the entire tank surface. Two different-sized commercial-grade composite tanks were constructed with integral heat pipes and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to examine the feasibility of using the storage tanks as system radiators. The storage tank-radiators were subjected to different steady-state heat loads and varying heat load profiles. The surface emissivity and specific heat capacity of each tank were calculated. In the future, the results will be incorporated into a model that simulates the performance of similar radiators using lightweight, spacerated carbon composite tanks.

  9. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  10. Renal stem cell reprogramming: Prospects in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Morales, Elvin E; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-09-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising future enterprise for renal replacement in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease, conditions which affect millions worldwide and currently require patients to undergo lifelong medical treatments through dialysis and/or organ transplant. Reprogramming differentiated renal cells harvested from the patient back into a pluripotent state would decrease the risk of tissue rejection and provide a virtually unlimited supply of cells for regenerative medicine treatments, making it an exciting area of current research in nephrology. Among the major hurdles that need to be overcome before stem cell therapy for the kidney can be applied in a clinical setting are ensuring the fidelity and relative safety of the reprogrammed cells, as well as achieving feasible efficiency in the reprogramming processes that are utilized. Further, improved knowledge about the genetic control of renal lineage development is vital to identifying predictable and efficient reprogramming approaches, such as the expression of key modulators or the regulation of gene activity through small molecule mimetics. Here, we discuss several recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technologies. We also explore strategies that have been successful in renal progenitor generation, and explore what these methods might mean for the development of cell-based regenerative therapies for kidney disease. PMID:25258667

  11. AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative) refrigeration for low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative) refrigeration technology for low temperature applications that is a novel cooling method to expand the temperature span of magnetic refrigerator. The key component of the AMR system is a porous magnetic regenerator which allows a heat transfer medium (typically helium gas) to flow through it and therefore obviate intermittently operating an external heat switch. The AMR system alternatingly heats and cools the heat transfer medium by convection when the magneto-caloric effect is created under varying magnetic field. AMR may extend the temperature span for wider range than ADR (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) at higher temperatures above 10 K because magneto-caloric effects are typically concentrated in a small temperature range in usual magnetic refrigerants. The regenerative concept theoretically enables each magnetic refrigerant to experience a pseudo-Carnot magnetic refrigeration cycle in a wide temperature span if it is properly designed, although adequate thermodynamic matching of strongly temperature-dependent MCE (magneto-caloric effect) of the regenerator material and the heat capacity of fluid flow is often tricky due to inherent characteristics of magnetic materials. This paper covers historical developments, fundamental concepts, key components, applications, and recent research trends of AMR refrigerators for liquid helium or liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  12. Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Tri, Terry O.; Barta, Daniel J.; Stahl, Randal S.

    1991-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for the evaluation of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m(exp 2) growing area. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), will be capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in Lunar or Martian habitats; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) will operate at ambient atmospheric pressure. The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: (1) in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; (2) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; (3) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and (4) monitoring and control strategies.

  13. Metformin Hydrochloride in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or In Situ Breast Cancer to Placebo in Decreasing Atypical Cells in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or in Situ Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies metformin hydrochloride to see how well it works compared to placebo in decreasing atypical cells in patients with atypical hyperplasia or in situ breast cancer.

  14. Developmental BiologyRegenerativeMedicine Biocompatible MaterialsBioengineering Biomedical EngineeringBiotechnology

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Developmental BiologyRegenerativeMedicine StemCells Biocompatible MaterialsHematopoietic Stem Cell TransplantationRegenerative MedicineStem CellsTissue Engineering [] 1. Medical Subject Headings 2. QH491 Development. Morphogenesis QH499 Regeneration QH588.S83 Stem cells QS604 General

  15. NUCLEIC ACID DETECTION USING BIOLUMINESCENCE REGENERATIVE CYCLE AND STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

    E-print Network

    Lee, Thomas H.

    NUCLEIC ACID DETECTION USING BIOLUMINESCENCE REGENERATIVE CYCLE AND STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING H focus on the newly developed bioluminescence regenerative cy- cle (BRC) technique, and apply statistical polymerization (inorganic pyrophosphate, PPi) by linking it to a bioluminescence as- say which consist of ATP

  16. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal

    E-print Network

    A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+ /Cu and Cu(II)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia

  17. Nitric oxide may inhibit neointimal hyperplasia by decreasing isopeptidase T levels and activity in the vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Tsihlis, Nick D.; Kapadia, Muneera R.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Flannery, Walker D.; Oustwani, Christopher S.; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Isopeptidase T is a cysteine protease deubiquitinating enzyme that hydrolyzes unanchored polyubiquitin chains to free monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO) decreases 26S proteasome activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in animal models. As NO can cause S-nitrosylation of active-site cysteines, we hypothesize that NO inhibits isopeptidase T activity through S-nitrosylation. Because accumulation of polyubiquitin chains inhibits the 26S proteasome, this may be one mechanism through which NO prevents neointimal hyperplasia. Methods To investigate our hypothesis, we examined the effect of NO on isopeptidase T activity, levels, and localization in VSMCs in vitro and in a rat carotid balloon injury model in vivo. Results NO inhibited recombinant isopeptidase T activity by 82.8% (t = 60 minutes, P < .001 vs control). Dithiothreitol and glutathione (5 mmol/L) both significantly reversed NO-mediated inhibition of isopeptidase T activity (P < .001). NO caused a time-dependent increase in S-nitrosylated isopeptidase T levels in VSMCs, which was reversible with dithiothreitol, indicating that isopeptidase T undergoes reversible S-nitrosylation on exposure to NO in vitro. Although NO did not affect isopeptidase T levels or subcellular localization in VSMCs in vitro, it decreased isopeptidase T levels and increased ubiquitinated proteins after balloon injury in vivo. Conclusions Local administration of NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting isopeptidase T levels and activity in the vasculature, thereby inhibiting the 26S proteasome in VSMCs. These data provide additional mechanistic insights into the ability of NO to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after vascular interventions. (J Vasc Surg 2013;?:1-8.) Clinical Relevance The 26S proteasome is responsible for degrading polyubiquitinated proteins. Isopeptidase T is a deubiquitinating enzyme that recycles polyubiquitin chains to monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO) decreases formation of neointimal hyperplasia in animal models and decreases 26S proteasome activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated the effects of NO on isopeptidase T and showed that NO inhibits recombinant isopeptidase T activity, increases S-nitrosylated isopeptidase T levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, and, after balloon injury in vivo, decreases isopeptidase T levels and increases ubiquitinated proteins. Local administration of NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia by targeting isopeptidase T and inhibiting the 26S proteasome. PMID:23375434

  18. Modelling ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia of hyperplasia in vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts frequently develop occlusive neointimal hyperplasia as a result of myofibroblast over-growth, leading to graft failure. ePTFE exhibits higher ultrasound attenuation than native soft tissues. We modelled the selective absorption of ultrasound by ePTFE, and explored the feasibility of preventing hyperplasia in ePTFE grafts by ultrasound heating. Specifically, we simulated the temperature profiles of implanted grafts and nearby soft tissues and blood under ultrasound exposure. The goal was to determine whether ultrasound exposure of an ePTFE graft can generate temperatures sufficient to prevent cell growth on the graft without damaging nearby soft tissues and blood. Methods Ultrasound beams from two transducers (1.5 and 3.2 MHz) were simulated in two graft/tissue models, with and without an intra-graft cellular layer mimicking hyperplasia, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The resulting power deposition patterns were used as a heat source for the Pennes bioheat equation in a COMSOL® Multiphysics heat transfer model. 50°C is known to cause cell death and therefore the transducer powers were adjusted to produce a 13°C temperature rise from 37°C in the ePTFE. Results Simulations showed that both the frequency of the transducers and the presence of hyperplasia significantly affect the power deposition patterns and subsequent temperature profiles on the grafts and nearby tissues. While neither transducer significantly raised the temperature of the blood, the 1.5-MHz transducer was less focused and heated larger volumes of the graft and nearby soft tissues than the 3.2-MHz transducer. The presence of hyperplasia had little effect on the blood's temperature, but further increased the temperature of the graft and nearby soft tissues in response to either transducer. Skin cooling and blood flow play a significant role in preventing overheating of the native tissues. Conclusions Modelling shows that ultrasound can selectively heat ePTFE grafts and produce temperatures that cause cell death on the graft. The temperature increase in blood is negligible and that in the adjacent soft tissues may be minimized by skin cooling and using appropriate transducers. Therefore, ultrasound heating may have the potential to reduce neointimal hyperplasia and failure of ePTFE vascular grafts. PMID:22054016

  19. Improving the efficiency and availability analysis of a modified reheat regenerative Rankine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bassily, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    Reheating in a reheat regenerative steam power cycle increases efficiency by increasing the average temperature of heat reception, but also increases the irreversibility of feed water heaters by raising the temperature of the superheated steam used for the regenerative process. This paper introduces some modifications to the regular reheat regenerative steam power cycle that reduce the irreversibility of the regenerative process. An availability analysis of the modified cycle and the regular reheat regenerative cycle as well as a comparison study between both cycles is done. The results indicate that a gain in energy efficiency of up to 2.5% as the steam generator pressure varies is obtained when applying such modifications at the same conditions of pressure, temperature's number of reheating stages, and feed water heaters. The availability analysis showed that such increase in efficiency is due to the reduction of the irreversibility of the regeneration process of the modified cycle.

  20. Heat transfer and combustion characteristics of a burner with a rotary regenerative heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yasuo; Kaji, Hitoshi; Arai, Norio

    1998-07-01

    The authors have developed a Rotary Regenerative Combustion (RRX) System, which is coupled with a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger and a combustion burner. This system contributes to saving energy of fuel firing industrial furnaces and decreases NO{sub x} emission. This technology can be considered as a solution of greenhouse problem. This paper, discusses a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger in comparison with the existing types of regenerative burners and reverse firing with high momentum fuel jet (with motive fluid) in the furnace. This burner is compact in size, with high fuel efficiency, low NOx emission, easy to operate, and reliable, based on the results of field tests and commercial operations. The authors can say that the RRX system is a regenerative burner of the second generation.

  1. Engineering model system study for a regenerative fuel cell: Study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, B. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Kovach, A. J.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Key design issues of the regenerative fuel cell system concept were studied and a design definition of an alkaline electrolyte based engineering model system or low Earth orbit missions was completed. Definition of key design issues for a regenerative fuel cell system include gaseous reactant storage, shared heat exchangers and high pressure pumps. A power flow diagram for the 75 kW initial space station and the impact of different regenerative fuel cell modular sizes on the total 5 year to orbit weight and volume are determined. System characteristics, an isometric drawing, component sizes and mass and energy balances are determined for the 10 kW engineering model system. An open loop regenerative fuel cell concept is considered for integration of the energy storage system with the life support system of the space station. Technical problems and their solutions, pacing technologies and required developments and demonstrations for the regenerative fuel cell system are defined.

  2. Megestrol Acetate or Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System in Treating Patients With Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-09

    Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVB Endometrial Carcinoma

  3. Mind out of Programmable Matter: Exploring Unified Models of Emergent System Autonomy for Collective Self-Regenerative Systems -

    E-print Network

    Taleb-Bendiab, A.

    for Collective Self-Regenerative Systems - Extended Abstract M. Randles, A. Taleb-Bendiab, P. Miseldine {cmsmrand structure of autonomic self-regenerative systems, agents or particles (swarm intelligence). In addition the requisite system varieties. A collective of self- regenerative and self-adaptive agents can use concepts

  4. 668 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 9 / May 1, 1996 Generation of 18-fs, multiterawatt pulses by regenerative pulse

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ting

    by regenerative pulse shaping and chirped-pulse amplification C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Le Blanc, F. Raksi, C system at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. Regenerative pulse shaping is used to control gain narrowing during we describe a 50-Hz repetition rate CPA system that utilizes both regenerative pulse shaping11

  5. 1398 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 6, NO. 4, APRIL 2007 Optimal Design of Non-Regenerative

    E-print Network

    Hua, Yingbo

    1398 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 6, NO. 4, APRIL 2007 Optimal Design of Non-Regenerative and the destination is desirable under useful circumstances. A non-regenerative multiple-antenna relay, also called non- regenerative MIMO (multi-input multi-output) relay, is designed to optimize the capacity between

  6. 1698 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2012 Relay Precoding for Non-Regenerative

    E-print Network

    Kim, Il-Min

    1698 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2012 Relay Precoding for Non-Regenerative--We consider a relay precoding problem in a non- regenerative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay sys--Amplify-and-forward (AF) relay, covariance feedback, DC programming, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), non-regenerative

  7. ISIT2001, Washington,DC, June24-29,2001 Entropy and Channel Capacity in the Regenerative

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vinod

    ISIT2001, Washington,DC, June24-29,2001 Entropy and Channel Capacity in the Regenerative Setup formulae for regenerative stochastic pro- cesses. We use them on Markov channels to generalize the results. INTRODUCTION We obtain new formulae for the entropy and mutual informa- tion for regenerative processes

  8. Prostatic urethral lift: A minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects. PMID:26157759

  9. Intrauterine growth retardation associated with precocious puberty and Sertoli cell hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Gartner, Lou Ann; Albini, Paul; Brodie, Angela; Meck, Jeanne M.; Meloni-Ehrig, Aurelia M; Hill, Suvimol; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Carney, J. Aidan; Valera, Vladimir A.; Walter, Beatriz A.; Merino, Maria J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2012-01-01

    The original description of patients with Russell-Silver syndrome included precocious puberty, the mechanism of which was unclear. We describe a child with a Russell-Silver syndrome-like phenotype who presented with precocious puberty that was associated with hyperplasia of the Sertoli cells. The patient was found to have an immature cryptorchid testicle; hyperplastic Sertoli cells were also aneuploid carrying trisomy 8. This chromosomal abnormality was present in Sertoli cells only and could not be detected in peripheral lymphocytes, tunica vaginalis, or other, normal, testicular tissue. Sertoli cells in culture showed excess aromatization providing an explanation for the rapid advancement of the patient’s bone age. We conclude that in a patient with a Russell-Silver syndrome-like phenotype, Sertoli cell hyperplasia was associated with somatic trisomy 8, increased aromatization and gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty. PMID:20411478

  10. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  11. Rapatar, a nanoformulation of rapamycin, decreases chemically-induced benign prostate hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Antoshina, Elena E.; Trukhanova, Lubov S.; Gorkova, Tatiana G.; Shipaeva, Elena V.; Salimov, Ramiz M.; Belitsky, Gennady A.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G.; Chernova, Olga B.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common age-related disease in men. Here we tested the efficacy of Rapatar, a micellar nanoformulation of rapamycin, in two rat models of BPH: testosterone-induced and sulpiride-induced hyperplasia in ventral lobes and lateral/dorsal lobes, respectively. We found that Rapatar prevented hypertrophic and hyperplastic abnormalities and degenerative alterations in both BPH models. Rapatar normalized weight of the lateral lobes in sulpiride-induced BPH, the most relevant animal model of human BPH. Unlike Finasteride, a standard therapy of BPH, Rapatar reduced inflammation caused by sulpiride. No obvious side effects of Rapatar were detected. Our data provide a rationale for clinical trials of Rapatar in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:25991667

  12. Testicular leydig cell hyperplasia as a cause of familial sexual precocity.

    PubMed

    Schedewie, H K; Reiter, E O; Beitins, I Z; Seyed, S; Wooten, V D; Jimenez, J F; Aiman, E J; DeVane, G W; Redman, J F; Elders, M J

    1981-02-01

    Testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia was observed in two brothers presenting with progressive sexual precocity at 2 yr of age. Virilization was shown to result from increased secretion rather than decreased clearance of gonadal testosterone. Testosterone hypersecretion appeared to be gonadotropin independent, as basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced serum LH concentrations were low by both RIA and bioassay. Adrenal steroidogenesis was demonstrated to be normal by ACTH stimulation, dexamethasone suppression, and split adrenal venous function tests. Testicular histology revealed immature reproductive structures in the 2 yr old, but advanced spermatogenesis in the 3 yr-old brother. The etiology of both Leydig cell hyperplasia and reproductive testicular maturation in the absence of significant gonadotropin secretion remains to be established. PMID:6780588

  13. Rapatar, a nanoformulation of rapamycin, decreases chemically-induced benign prostate hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lesovaya, Ekaterina A; Kirsanov, Kirill I; Antoshina, Elena E; Trukhanova, Lubov S; Gorkova, Tatiana G; Shipaeva, Elena V; Salimov, Ramiz M; Belitsky, Gennady A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G; Chernova, Olga B

    2015-04-30

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common age-related disease in men. Here we tested the efficacy of Rapatar, a micellar nanoformulation of rapamycin, in two rat models of BPH: testosterone-induced and sulpiride-induced hyperplasia in ventral lobes and lateral/dorsal lobes, respectively. We found that Rapatar prevented hypertrophic and hyperplastic abnormalities and degenerative alterations in both BPH models. Rapatar normalized weight of the lateral lobes in sulpiride-induced BPH, the most relevant animal model of human BPH. Unlike Finasteride, a standard therapy of BPH, Rapatar reduced inflammation caused by sulpiride. No obvious side effects of Rapatar were detected. Our data provide a rationale for clinical trials of Rapatar in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:25991667

  14. Mediastinal hemorrhage due to ectopic parathyroid hyperplasia with long-term hemodialysis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi; Dejima, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism can sometimes occur among long-term hemodialysis patients. We herein present the case of a 48-year-old female who underwent surgical resection to treat a mediastinal hemorrhage from an ectopic parathyroid. She had been receiving dialysis for the past 16 years due to renal failure. She visited the hospital due to chest pain, and a CT scan revealed a tumorous lesion in the anterior mediastinum. An increase in size of the tumorous lesion, accompanied by bilateral pleural fluid, was observed. Emergency surgery was performed due to a diagnosis of a mediastinal hemorrhage from the tumorous lesion, accompanied by a decrease in the Hb value. The pathological findings of the hematoma revealed parathyroid hyperplasia. This is a rare case report of an ectopic parathyroid developing hyperplasia which caused a mediastinal hemorrhage due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:25663073

  15. Nanotechnology-based approaches for regenerative medicine and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Aniruddh P.

    The recent emergence of nanotechnology has set high expectations in many fields of science, especially in biology and medicine. Nanotechnology-based approaches are expected to solve key questions in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine essentially deals with regeneration of cells, ultimately leading to the formation of tissues and organs. For this purpose, stem cells, embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells, are thought to be ideal resources. However, many challenges need to be addressed before the full therapeutic potential of stem cells can be harnessed. Controlling the differentiation of stem cells into cells of a specific lineage is extremely vital and challenging. Addressing this challenge, in this work, novel nanotechnology-based approaches for controlling the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons has been presented. Regeneration of damaged neurons, due to traumatic injuries or degenerative diseases, is extremely challenging. For this purpose, NSCs can be used as resources that can differentiate into neurons, thus having great potential in solving needs of many patients suffering from such conditions. For controlling the differentiation of stem cells, soluble cues (comprising of small molecules and biomolecules) and insoluble cues (cell-cell interactions and cell-microenvironment interactions) play a very important role. The delivery of soluble cues, such as genetic material, into stem cells is extremely challenging. The initial part of this work presents the use of nanomaterials for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small molecules and small interfering RNA (siRNA) into NSCs for controlling their differentiation into neurons. However, for regenerative purposes, it is preferred that least amounts of the delivery vehicle be used. Thus, the following part of the thesis presents the development and applications of nanotechnology-based approaches for enhancing the differentiation of NSCs into neurons using insoluble cues. The cellular microenvironment, consisting for the extracellular matrix (ECM) was modified by the use of nanostructures, to deliver siRNA into NSCs to enhance neuronal differentiation. Nanotopography-mediated reverse uptake of only the siRNA molecules from the ECM was achieved by the NSCs. NSC differentiation was also controlled by the use of protein micropatterns, wherein the pattern geometry and size defined the fate of the NSCs. Lastly, graphene, in combination with nanoparticles was used as component of the ECM to not only enhance the differentiation of NSCs into neurons, but also align the axons of the differentiated NSCs, having significant implications for its use in regenerating injured spinal cords. The final portion of the thesis presents the applications of nanotechnology for developing highly sensitive and selective biosensors, for detecting biomarkers implicated in various diseases such as cancer and acute pancreatitis.

  16. Facial Asymmetry in Young Adults with Condylar Hyperplasia-Unusual Changes in the Facial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; JK, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  17. Simultaneous open preperitoneal repair of inguinal hernia with open prostatectomy for benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, O Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Where surgical resources are slim, patients may suffer the obstructive symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia until they present with frank urinary retention and they may have unattended inguinal hernia. The best strategy to take care of patients who have both problems at once has remained elusive. We report a small case series of 10 patients in whom open preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair was done together with suprapubic prostatectomy over a 10-year period in the district hospital. PMID:25406258

  18. In vitro gene amplification for prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Rumsby, G; Honour, J W

    1990-01-01

    A simple, rapid, non-radioactive method for detecting homozygous deletions/conversions of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene is described. In our experience this method will be useful for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17% of families of a child with the salt losing form. This test includes an internal control to monitor the success of amplification. Images PMID:2277381

  19. Neuropilins 1 and 2 mediate neointimal hyperplasia and re-endothelialization following arterial injury

    PubMed Central

    Pellet-Many, Caroline; Mehta, Vedanta; Fields, Laura; Mahmoud, Marwa; Lowe, Vanessa; Evans, Ian; Ruivo, Jorge; Zachary, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Neuropilins 1 and 2 (NRP1 and NRP2) play crucial roles in endothelial cell migration contributing to angiogenesis and vascular development. Both NRPs are also expressed by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and are implicated in VSMC migration stimulated by PDGF-BB, but it is unknown whether NRPs are relevant for VSMC function in vivo. We investigated the role of NRPs in the rat carotid balloon injury model, in which endothelial denudation and arterial stretch induce neointimal hyperplasia involving VSMC migration and proliferation. Methods and results NRP1 and NRP2 mRNAs and proteins increased significantly following arterial injury, and immunofluorescent staining revealed neointimal NRP expression. Down-regulation of NRP1 and NRP2 using shRNA significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia following injury. Furthermore, inhibition of NRP1 by adenovirally overexpressing a loss-of-function NRP1 mutant lacking the cytoplasmic domain (?C) reduced neointimal hyperplasia, whereas wild-type (WT) NRP1 had no effect. NRP-targeted shRNAs impaired, while overexpression of NRP1 WT and NRP1 ?C enhanced, arterial re-endothelialization 14 days after injury. Knockdown of either NRP1 or NRP2 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced rat VSMC migration, whereas knockdown of NRP2, but not NRP1, reduced proliferation of cultured rat VSMC and neointimal VSMC in vivo. NRP knockdown also reduced the phosphorylation of PDGF? and PDGF? receptors in rat VSMC, which mediate VSMC migration and proliferation. Conclusion NRP1 and NRP2 play important roles in the regulation of neointimal hyperplasia in vivo by modulating VSMC migration (via NRP1 and NRP2) and proliferation (via NRP2), independently of the role of NRPs in re-endothelialization. PMID:26410366

  20. Suitable reference genes for the analysis of direct hyperplasia in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Soichi; Ohashi, Kazuo Utoh, Rie; Tatsumi, Kohei; Shima, Midori; Okano, Teruo

    2008-12-26

    The liver is capable of undergoing a proliferative growth, known as direct hyperplasia, in which the naive liver increases in size due to stimulation with primary mitogens. To produce accurate gene expression data, housekeeping genes (HKGs) that are stably expressed need to be determined. In the present study, liver regeneration was promoted via the direct hyperplasia mode by inducing mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene. Gene expression levels of nine commonly used HKGs were analyzed in the liver of different timing during the regeneration. The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, we identified that PPIA and RPL4 showed the most stable expression regardless of the status of the liver regeneration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of PPIA and RPL4 were the most optimal in providing reliable normalization of gene expression when assessing liver regeneration attributed to direct hyperplasia.

  1. Upregulation of aquaporin-3 is involved in keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kabashima, Kenji; Ikoma, Akihiko; Verkman, Alan S; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Hara-Chikuma, Mariko

    2011-04-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water/glycerol-transporting protein expressed in keratinocytes of the epidermis. We previously showed that AQP3-mediated transport of water and glycerol is involved in keratinocyte migration and proliferation, respectively. However, the involvement of AQP3 in epidermal hyperplasia in skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), is unknown. In this study, we found significantly increased AQP3 transcript and protein expression in the epidermis of human AD lesions. The upregulation of AQP3 expression in human keratinocytes by transfection with human AQP3 DNA plasmid was associated with increased cellular glycerol and ATP, as well as increased cell proliferation. Among several cytokines and chemokines produced in the skin, CCL17, which is highly expressed in AD, was found to be a strong inducer of AQP3 expression and enhanced keratinocyte proliferation. In mouse AD models, AQP3 was strongly overexpressed in the epidermis in wild-type mice. Epidermal hyperplasia was reduced in AQP3-deficient mice, with a decreased number of proliferating keratinocytes. These results suggest the involvement of AQP3 in epidermal hyperplasia by a mechanism involving upregulated AQP3 expression and consequent enhancement of keratinocyte proliferation. PMID:21191421

  2. Prolonged exposure of cholestatic rats to complete dark inhibits biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Meng, Fanyin; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Franchitto, Antonio; Ray, Debolina; Kennedy, Lindsey; Greene, John; Renzi, Anastasia; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are common features in cholestatic liver disease. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland as well as the liver. Melatonin inhibits biliary hyperplasia of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Since melatonin synthesis (by the enzyme serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) from the pineal gland increases after dark exposure, we hypothesized that biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are diminished by continuous darkness via increased melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland. Normal or BDL rats (immediately after surgery) were housed with light-dark cycles or complete dark for 1 wk before evaluation of 1) the expression of AANAT in the pineal gland and melatonin levels in pineal gland tissue supernatants and serum; 2) biliary proliferation and intrahepatic bile duct mass, liver histology, and serum chemistry; 3) secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (functional index of biliary growth); 4) collagen deposition, liver fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver, and cholangiocytes; and 5) expression of clock genes in cholangiocytes. In BDL rats exposed to dark there was 1) enhanced AANAT expression/melatonin secretion in pineal gland and melatonin serum levels; 2) improved liver morphology, serum chemistry and decreased biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated choleresis; and 4) decreased fibrosis and expression of fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver and cholangiocytes and reduced biliary expression of the clock genes PER1, BMAL1, CLOCK, and Cry1. Thus prolonged dark exposure may be a beneficial noninvasive therapeutic approach for the management of biliary disorders. PMID:25214401

  3. Pulmonary Peripheral Carcinoids after Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia and Tumorlets: Report of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Carlos; Oliveira, Rui Caetano; Saraiva, Joana; Bernardo, João; Carvalho, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) and tumorlets are neuroendocrine cells proliferations smaller than 5?mm. The former confines to bronchial/bronchiolar wall, while the latter broke through epithelial basement membrane. The authors present 3 cases of DIPNECH and tumorlets associated with a typical peripheral carcinoid tumor without underlying lung disease. The patients presented with nonspecific pulmonary symptoms: 3 females, 60, 72, and 84 years old, whose CT-scans showed well-defined pulmonary nodules, 2.2, 1.6, and 1.4?cm, respectively; first patient was submitted to lobectomy and the others underwent surgical biopsy. Whitish/brownish lobulated tumors corresponded to typical carcinoids (less than 2?mitoses/2?mm2 and without necrosis); polygonal/elongated cells under lobular pattern expressed CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CK7; Ki-67 positivity was between 1 and 3%. Bronchial/bronchiolar wall neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and several neuroendocrine nodules under 5?mm, with identical morphologic and immunoexpression, were observed, without lung disease. Typical carcinoid associated with DIPNECH and tumorlets without other pulmonary diseases is rare. Sporadic cases may recall embryonal neuroendocrine differentiation potentiality to develop peripheral hyperplasia, most commonly in underoxygenated parenchyma. The described cases are elucidative of peripheral spectrum of neuroendocrine cell tumour evolution, reinforcing higher female incidence as in central carcinoids, still without a clear preneoplastic lesion. PMID:26613062

  4. Folate receptor ? expression and significance in endometrioid endometrium carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Serkan; Ceyran, Ayse Bahar; Aydin, Abdullah; Zemheri, Ebru; Ozkanli, Seyma; Kösemetin, Duygu; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EEC) developing on the ground of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is amongst the most commonly observed type of cancer in the world. Folate receptor ? (FR?) is a vitamin molecule that has a role in cell proliferation. The fact that FR?, which is known to be needed extremely by the cells of malignancies that proliferate rapidly, is present in limited amounts in normal tissues while it is overexpressed in malignant cells of the same tissues makes folate a candidate for target molecular therapy. In our study, FR? expression in 214 cases, with 95 diagnosed within EEC and 119 with EH, was studied immunohistochemically. FR? expression in EEC was found significantly high compared to EH and normal endometrium (P<0.01). Similarly, FR? expression in EH cases with complex atypia were significantly high compared to other hyperplasia subgroups (P<0.01). The findings of our results make us think that FR? overexpression may play a role in the EEC carcinogenesis and carcinoma progression from EH. Furthermore, we suggest that it can be helpful in the treatment of EEC and/or transition from hyperplasia stage to EEC as a molecular therapy targeting receptors labeled with antibody-based props containing FR?. Finally, we suggest that FR? may be used, based on the expression intensity, as a supplemental option to determine the patients that shall be directed to radical therapy amongst patients with complex atypical EH. PMID:26191275

  5. Regenerative braking device with rotationally mounted energy storage means

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1982-03-16

    A regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (30) and an output shaft (32), clutches (50, 56) and brakes (52, 58) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. In a second embodiment the clutches and brakes are dispensed with and the variable ratio transmission is connected directly across the input and output shafts. In both embodiments the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft rotates faster or relative to the output shaft and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft rotates faster or relative to the input shaft.

  6. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Repair in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Michael S.; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Rennert, Robert C.; Hong, Wan Xing; Lai, Tiffany S.; Cheung, Alexander T. M.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Chung, Michael T.; McArdle, Adrian; Longaker, Michael T.; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a highly evolved defense mechanism against infection and further injury. It is a complex process involving multiple cell types and biological pathways. Mammalian adult cutaneous wound healing is mediated by a fibroproliferative response leading to scar formation. In contrast, early to mid-gestational fetal cutaneous wound healing is more akin to regeneration and occurs without scar formation. This early observation has led to extensive research seeking to unlock the mechanism underlying fetal scarless regenerative repair. Building upon recent advances in biomaterials and stem cell applications, tissue engineering approaches are working towards a recapitulation of this phenomenon. In this review, we describe the elements that distinguish fetal scarless and adult scarring wound healing, and discuss current trends in tissue engineering aimed at achieving scarless tissue regeneration. PMID:24788648

  7. Quantification of regenerative potential in primary human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Jelena R.; Miura, Haruko; Meixner, Lisa K.; Irmler, Martin; Kloos, Uwe J.; Hirschi, Benjamin; Bartsch, Harald S.; Sass, Steffen; Beckers, Johannes; Theis, Fabian J.; Gabka, Christian; Sotlar, Karl; Scheel, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an organoid regeneration assay in which freshly isolated human mammary epithelial cells are cultured in adherent or floating collagen gels, corresponding to a rigid or compliant matrix environment. In both conditions, luminal progenitors form spheres, whereas basal cells generate branched ductal structures. In compliant but not rigid collagen gels, branching ducts form alveoli at their tips, express basal and luminal markers at correct positions, and display contractility, which is required for alveologenesis. Thereby, branched structures generated in compliant collagen gels resemble terminal ductal-lobular units (TDLUs), the functional units of the mammary gland. Using the membrane metallo-endopeptidase CD10 as a surface marker enriches for TDLU formation and reveals the presence of stromal cells within the CD49fhi/EpCAM? population. In summary, we describe a defined in vitro assay system to quantify cells with regenerative potential and systematically investigate their interaction with the physical environment at distinct steps of morphogenesis. PMID:26071498

  8. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(exp 11) Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g, 10(exp 5) CFU/ml, 10(exp 5)CFU/ml, and 600 CFU/m sq, repectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(exp 5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU/ml in the spent nutient medium, 110 CFU/ml in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU/cu m in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  9. Preserving human cells for regenerative, reproductive, and transfusion medicine

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Waseem; Assal, Rami El; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M.; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Cell cryopreservation enables maintaining cellular life at sub-zero temperatures by slowing down biochemical processes. Various cell types are routinely cryopreserved in modern reproductive, regenerative, and transfusion medicine. Current cell cryopreservation methods involve freezing (slow/rapid) or vitrifying cells in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA). Although these methods are clinically utilized, cryo-injury due to ice crystals, osmotic shock, and CPA toxicity cause loss of cell viability and function. Recent approaches using minimum volume vitrification provide alternatives to the conventional cryopreservation methods. Minimum volume vitrification provides ultra-high cooling and rewarming rates that enable preserving cells without ice crystal formation. Herein, we review recent advances in cell cryopreservation technology and provide examples of techniques that are utilized in oocyte, stem cell, and red blood cell cryopreservation. PMID:24995723

  10. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  11. Bioconjugated Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Salehi, Sahar; Ostrovidov, Serge; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-10-21

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks with high water content, which have played an important role as scaffolds for cells, as carriers for various biomolecules (e.g., drugs, genes, and soluble factors), and as injectable biomaterials in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. Bioconjugation is an approach for improving the performance of hydrogels using cell-responsive components, such as proteins and peptides, which have high affinity to regulate cellular behaviors and tissue morphogenesis. However, the current knowledge on the role of those bioconjugated moieties in controlling cellular functions and tissue morphogenesis and bioconjugation methods are limited in the context of TE and organogenesis. Moreover, micro- and nanofabrication techniques have been used to manipulate bioconjugated hydrogels for regulating cell behaviors and function. This Review therefore describes synthesis, characteristics, and manipulation of various bioconjugated hydrogels and their potential in TE applications with special emphasis on preclinical/clinical translation. PMID:26280942

  12. Simple Signaling Molecules for Inductive Bone Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Stephen J.; Deng, Meng; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Doty, Stephen B.; Lo, Kevin W. H.; Khan, Yusuf M.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2014-01-01

    With greater than 500,000 orthopaedic procedures performed in the United States each year requiring a bone graft, the development of novel graft materials is necessary. We report that some porous polymer/ceramic composite scaffolds possess intrinsic osteoinductivity as shown through their capacity to induce in vivo host osteoid mineralization and in vitro stem cell osteogenesis making them attractive synthetic bone graft substitutes. It was discovered that certain low crystallinity ceramics partially dissociate into simple signaling molecules (i.e., calcium and phosphate ions) that induce stem cells to endogenously produce their own osteoinductive proteins. Review of the literature has uncovered a variety of simple signaling molecules (i.e., gases, ions, and redox reagents) capable of inducing other desirable stem cell differentiation through endogenous growth factor production. Inductive simple signaling molecules, which we have termed inducerons, represent a paradigm shift in the field of regenerative engineering where they can be utilized in place of recombinant protein growth factors. PMID:25019622

  13. Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyi; Yang, Xiaodong; McMillian, James F; van der Zander, Arend; Yu, Min-bing; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Hone, James; Wong, Chee-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The unique linear and massless band structure of graphene, in a purely two-dimensional Dirac fermionic structure, have led to intense research spanning from condensed matter physics to nanoscale device applications covering the electrical, thermal, mechanical and optical domains. Here we report three consecutive first-observations in graphene-silicon hybrid optoelectronic devices: (1) ultralow power resonant optical bistability; (2) self-induced regenerative oscillations; and (3) coherent four-wave mixing, all at a few femtojoule cavity recirculating energies. These observations, in comparison with control measurements with solely monolithic silicon cavities, are enabled only by the dramatically-large and chi(3) nonlinearities in graphene and the large Q/V ratios in wavelength-localized photonic crystal cavities. These results demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of hybrid two-dimensional graphene-silicon nanophotonic devices for next-generation chip-scale ultrafast optical communications, radio-freque...

  14. Hydrodynamic parameters of mesh fillers relevant to miniature regenerative cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrum, E. C.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, Carl S.

    2010-06-01

    Directional hydrodynamic parameters of two fine-mesh porous materials that are suitable for miniature regenerative cryocoolers were studied under steady and oscillating flows of helium. These materials included stacked discs of #635 stainless steel (wire diameter of 20.3 ?m) and #325 phosphor bronze (wire diameter of 35.6 ?m) wire mesh screens, which are among the commercially available fillers for use in small-scale regenerators and heat exchangers, respectively. Experiments were performed in test sections in which pressure variations across these fillers, in the axial and lateral (radial) directions, were measured under steady and oscillatory flows. The directional permeability and Forchheimer's inertial coefficient were then obtained by using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-assisted method. The oscillatory flow experiments covered a frequency range of 50-200 Hz. The results confirmed the importance of anisotropy in the mesh screen fillers, and indicated differences between the directional hydrodynamic resistance parameters for steady and oscillating flow regimes.

  15. QPSK/SQPSK modulators in advanced technology for regenerative repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberty, Michael; Spinnler, Matthias; Ohm, Gerhard

    1990-11-01

    This paper presents QPSK and SQPSK modulators for use in regenerative satellite repeaters. Design considerations, realization and modulator performance are described. Much effort has been concentrated on size and mass reduction of conventional satellite PSK modulators. The approaches finally adopted use a compact MIC circuit for the microwave part and a single custom IC for the digital part. The modulators are designed for a center frequency of 15 GHz and a bit rate of 300 Mbps. Measured phase and amplitude deviations at room temperature are below 1.6 deg and 0.25 dB, respectively. The extremely short phase transition times of less than 0.6 nsec allow operation of the modulators up to 660 Mbps. Implemented in a 120-Mbps QPSK test system, the modulators show bit-error-rate degradations of 0.5 dB and 0.25 dB, respectively.

  16. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-11-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground-based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 1011 Colony Forming Units (CFU) g-1, 105 CFU ml-1, 105 CFU ml-1, and 600 CFU m-3, respectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 105 CFU g-1 in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU ml-1 in thespent nutrient medium, 110 CFU ml-1 in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU m-3 in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  17. Bioengineering Heart Muscle: A Paradigm for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Kathy O.; Tandon, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The idea of extending the lifetime of our organs is as old as humankind, fueled by major advances in organ transplantation, novel drugs, and medical devices. However, true regeneration of human tissue has becoming increasingly plausible only in recent years. The human heart has always been a focus of such efforts, given its notorious inability to repair itself following injury or disease. We discuss here the emerging bioengineering approaches to regeneration of heart muscle as a paradigm for regenerative medicine. Our focus is on biologically inspired strategies for heart regeneration, knowledge gained thus far about how to make a “perfect” heart graft, and the challenges that remain to be addressed for tissue-engineered heart regeneration to become a clinical reality. We emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research and training, as recent progress in the field is largely being made at the interfaces between cardiology, stem cell science, and bioengineering. PMID:21568715

  18. Regenerative multi-pass beam breakup in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Eduard Pozdeyev

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a formula, describing a threshold of the regenerative multi-pass Beam Breakup (BBU) for a single dipole higher order mode with arbitrary polarization in a two-pass accelerator with a general-form, 4x4 recirculation matrix, is derived. Also a new two-dimensional BBU code is introduced. To illustrate specifics of the BBU in two dimensions, the formula is used to calculate the threshold in several cases including two-dimensional uncoupled optics, reflecting optics, and rotating optics. The analytical results are compared to results of simulation obtained with the new code. At the end of the paper, a mathematical relation between transfer matrices between cavities of the accelerating structure and recirculation matrices for each cavity, which must be satisfied in order to successfully suppress the BBU by reflection or rotation in several cavities, is presented.

  19. A regenerative damper with MR fluids working between gear transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yan; Chen, Chao; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2013-04-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are used for semi-active vibration control of various dynamic systems. Existing MR dampers are usually cylinder-piston based design, which may limit the shapes and have constraints to the design of MR devices. In this paper, we propose a new MR-fluid working operation, in which MR fluids work between gear transmissions. This operation could provide more design flexibility. A prototype of the regenerative damper with MR fluids working between gear transmissions was designed, fabricated, and tested. This MR damper has the capability of power generation and velocity sensing. The feasibilities of the controllable MR damping force, power generation and velocity sensing are experimentally verified. The results of this research would be beneficial to advance the design and multiple functions of MR dampers while not limited to traditional piston-type design.

  20. Robust Bio-regenerative Life Support Systems Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duatis, Jordi; Angulo, Cecilio; Puig, Vicenç; Ponsa, Pere

    Recent developments in the international space community have shown that there is an increasing interest in the human exploration of outer space. In particular, the objective of sending a manned mission to Mars by 2030 has been settled. The feasibility of such a mission will require "life support systems" (LSSs) able to provide vital elements to the exploration crew in an autonomous, self-sustained manner, as resupply from Earth will not be possible. Bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSSs) are considered to be the LSS technology alternatives that can meet this demand. Developing effective BLSSs is a challenge for the control community because of the high degree of automation, indeterminism, non-linearity, and instability in such systems. This chapter proposes to provide "robustness" to the system for tasks such as distributed control, intelligent control, fault detection and identification, or high-level planning and supervision.

  1. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  2. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    The development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000 pound class are described. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  3. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  4. Regenerative Medicine Approach to Reconstruction of the Equine Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Grevemeyer, Bernard; Bogdanovic, Lewis; Canton, Stephen; St. Jean, Guy; Cercone, Marta; Ducharme, Norm G.

    2014-01-01

    Airway obstruction is a common cause of poor performance in horses. Structural abnormalities (insufficient length, rigidity) can be a cause for the obstruction. Currently, there are a few effective clinical options for reconstruction of the equine larynx. A regenerative medicine approach to reconstruction may provide the capability to stabilize laryngeal structures and to encourage restoration of site-appropriate, functional, and host-derived tissue. The purpose of this study was the histopathological evaluation of (1) decellularization of equine (horse) laryngeal cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoids); (2) the host response to decellularized laryngeal cartilages implanted subcutaneously in a donkey model as a test of biocompatibility; and (3) the use of decellularized laryngeal cartilages in a clinically relevant pilot study in the horse larynx. Equine laryngeal cartilages were found to be sufficiently decellularized and were subsequently implanted subcutaneously in donkeys to test biocompatibility. After 4 weeks, the implanted cartilage was harvested. In the subcutaneous model, the samples did not elicit a rejection or foreign body type reaction and were judged suitable for implantation in a clinically relevant equine model. Implants were placed in the upper airway (arytenoids and epiglottis) of one horse. At 4 weeks, the implants were observed to remodel rapidly and were replaced by dense connective tissue with signs of new hyaline cartilage formation in the arytenoids and by connective tissue containing glandular structures and an epithelial covering in the epiglottis. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of a scaffold-based regenerative medicine approach to reconstruction of the equine upper airway; however, further studies investigating long-term integration, formation of new cartilage, and mechanical properties are needed. PMID:24160675

  5. Cartilage repair: past and future – lessons for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Brittberg, Mats; Dennis, James E; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Erben, Reinhold G; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Luyten, Frank P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since the first cell therapeutic study to repair articular cartilage defects in the knee in 1994, several clinical studies have been reported. An overview of the results of clinical studies did not conclusively show improvement over conventional methods, mainly because few studies reach level I of evidence for effects on middle or long term. However, these explorative trials have provided valuable information about study design, mechanisms of repair and clinical outcome and have revealed that much is still unknown and further improvements are required. Furthermore, cellular and molecular studies using new technologies such as cell tracking, gene arrays and proteomics have provided more insight in the cell biology and mechanisms of joint surface regeneration. Besides articular cartilage, cartilage of other anatomical locations as well as progenitor cells are now considered as alternative cell sources. Growth Factor research has revealed some information on optimal conditions to support cartilage repair. Thus, there is hope for improvement. In order to obtain more robust and reproducible results, more detailed information is needed on many aspects including the fate of the cells, choice of cell type and culture parameters. As for the clinical aspects, it becomes clear that careful selection of patient groups is an important input parameter that should be optimized for each application. In addition, the study outcome parameters should be improved. Although reduced pain and improved function are, from the patient's perspective, the most important outcomes, there is a need for more structure/tissue-related outcome measures. Ideally, criteria and/or markers to identify patients at risk and responders to treatment are the ultimate goal for these more sophisticated regenerative approaches in joint surface repair in particular, and regenerative medicine in general. PMID:19453519

  6. Geroconversion of aged muscle stem cells under regenerative pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sousa-Victor, Pedro; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on a population of quiescent stem cells (satellite cells) and is impaired in very old (geriatric) individuals undergoing sarcopenia. Stem cell function is essential for organismal homeostasis, providing a renewable source of cells to repair damaged tissues. In adult organisms, age-dependent loss-of-function of tissue-specific stem cells is causally related with a decline in regenerative potential. Although environmental manipulations have shown good promise in the reversal of these conditions, recently we demonstrated that muscle stem cell aging is, in fact, a progressive process that results in persistent and irreversible changes in stem cell intrinsic properties. Global gene expression analyses uncovered an induction of p16INK4a in satellite cells of physiologically aged geriatric and progeric mice that inhibits satellite cell-dependent muscle regeneration. Aged satellite cells lose the repression of the INK4a locus, which switches stem cell reversible quiescence into a pre-senescent state; upon regenerative or proliferative pressure, these cells undergo accelerated senescence (geroconversion), through Rb-mediated repression of E2F target genes. p16INK4a silencing rejuvenated satellite cells, restoring regeneration in geriatric and progeric muscles. Thus, p16INK4a/Rb-driven stem cell senescence is causally implicated in the intrinsic defective regeneration of sarcopenic muscle. Here we discuss on how cellular senescence may be a common mechanism of stem cell aging at the organism level and show that induction of p16INK4a in young muscle stem cells through deletion of the Polycomb complex protein Bmi1 recapitulates the geriatric phenotype. PMID:25485497

  7. Tissue-engineering-based Strategies for Regenerative Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, M.T.P.; Valera, M.C.; Nakashima, M.; Nör, J.E.; Bottino, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Stemming from in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical and human models, tissue-engineering-based strategies continue to demonstrate great potential for the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex, particularly in necrotic, immature permanent teeth. Nanofibrous scaffolds, which closely resemble the native extracellular matrix, have been successfully synthesized by various techniques, including but not limited to electrospinning. A common goal in scaffold synthesis has been the notion of promoting cell guidance through the careful design and use of a collection of biochemical and physical cues capable of governing and stimulating specific events at the cellular and tissue levels. The latest advances in processing technologies allow for the fabrication of scaffolds where selected bioactive molecules can be delivered locally, thus increasing the possibilities for clinical success. Though electrospun scaffolds have not yet been tested in vivo in either human or animal pulpless models in immature permanent teeth, recent studies have highlighted their regenerative potential both from an in vitro and in vivo (i.e., subcutaneous model) standpoint. Possible applications for these bioactive scaffolds continue to evolve, with significant prospects related to the regeneration of both dentin and pulp tissue and, more recently, to root canal disinfection. Nonetheless, no single implantable scaffold can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of the multiple tissue types involved in the functional regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive perspective on the latest discoveries related to the use of scaffolds and/or stem cells in regenerative endodontics. The authors focused this review on bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds, injectable scaffolds and stem cells, and pre-clinical findings using stem-cell-based strategies. These topics are discussed in detail in an attempt to provide future direction and to shed light on their potential translation to clinical settings. PMID:25201917

  8. Particle assemblies: toward new tools for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Roux, R; Ladavière, C; Montembault, A; Delair, T

    2013-04-01

    Regenerative medicine is a demanding field in terms of design and elaboration of materials able to meet the specifications that this application imposes. The regeneration of tissue is a multiscale issue, from the signaling molecule through cell expansion and finally tissue growth requiring a large variety of cues that should be delivered in place and time. Hence, the materials should be able to accommodate cells with respect to their phenotypes, to allow cell division to the right tissue, to maintain the integrity of the surrounding sane tissue, and eventually use their signaling machinery to serve the development of the appropriate neo-tissue. They should also present the ability to deliver growth factors and regulate tissue development, to be degraded into safe products, in order not to impede tissue development, and finally be easily implanted/injected into the patients. In this context, colloid-based materials represent a very promising family of products because one can take advantage of their high specific area, their capability to carry/deliver bio-active molecules, and their capacity of assembling (eventually in vivo) into materials featuring other mechanical, rheological, physicochemical properties. Other benefits of great interest would be their ease of production even via high through-put processes and their potential manufacturing from safe, biodegradable and biocompatible parent raw material. This review describes the state-of-the-art of processes leading to complex materials from the assembly of colloids meeting, at least partially, the above-described specifications for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:23827536

  9. Space Station Freedom ECLSS: A step toward autonomous regenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to extensive automation primarily due to its comparatively long control system latencies. These allow longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to prevent and diagnose faults. The regenerative nature of the Space Station Freedom ECLSS will contribute closed loop complexities never before encountered in life support systems. A study to determine ECLSS automation approaches has been completed. The ECLSS baseline software and system processes could be augmented with more advanced fault management and regenerative control systems for a more autonomous evolutionary system, as well as serving as a firm foundation for future regenerative life support systems. Emerging advanced software technology and tools can be successfully applied to fault management, but a fully automated life support system will require research and development of regenerative control systems and models. The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support System utilizes ground tests in development of batch chemical and microbial control processes. Long duration regenerative life support systems will require more active chemical and microbial feedback control systems which, in turn, will require advancements in regenerative life support models and tools. These models can be verified using ground and on orbit life support test and operational data, and used in the engineering analysis of proposed intelligent instrumentation feedback and flexible process control technologies for future autonomous regenerative life support systems, including the evolutionary Space Station Freedom ECLSS.

  10. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference in platelet or endothelium function between untreated and verapamil-treated animals, we examined the direct effect of verapamil on smooth muscle. Verapamil significantly inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil treatment significantly reduces intimal hyperplasia in experimental vein grafts and inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in culture. Furthermore the enhanced reactivity to norepinephrine and histamine in the verapamil-treated vessels has no detrimental effect on the patency rate at 4 weeks. Thus by inhibiting intimal hyperplasia, calcium antagonists may improve the long-term patency of vein bypass grafts. Images Figs. 1A-C. PMID:2363608

  11. 700 MW peak power of a 380 fs regenerative amplifier with Tm:YAP.

    PubMed

    Wienke, Andreas; Wandt, Dieter; Morgner, Uwe; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar

    2015-06-29

    We report on a high power ultrashort pulse regenerative amplifier system, entirely based on thulium-doped laser materials operating around 1.94 ?m. At a repetition rate of 1 kHz the Tm:YAP regenerative amplifier emits pulse energies > 700 ?J, only limited by the damage threshold of the Tm:YAP crystal. The pulses can be compressed to 380 fs at an efficiency of 50 %. Purging of the regenerative amplifier cavity with nitrogen is necessary due to atmospheric absorptions causing long ps pedestals in the autocorrelation. PMID:26191699

  12. Time-resolved protein dynamics using synchronized Ti sapphire regenerative amplifier/infrared FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, R.J.; Haar, P.; Boxer, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    We have synchronized a femtosecond 5 kHz Ti Sapphire regenerative amplifier (regen) to the Stanford Superconducting Accelerator/Free Electron laser (SCA/FEL) to within 2 picoseconds time jitter. We are using this capability to measure the time resolved spectral evolution of the radical cation band of the initial electron donor from bacterial reaction centers (Rb sphaeroides) after the initiation of electron transfer using a {approximately} 120 fs NIR pulse from the regen. The FEL is used to probe for the appearance of the radical cation band at {approximately} 4 {mu}m.

  13. Scaffold characterization using NLO multimodal microscopy in metrology for regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortati, Leonardo; Divieto, Carla; Boffitto, Monica; Sartori, Susanna; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Sassi, Maria Paola

    2013-09-01

    Metrology in regenerative medicine aims to develop traceable measurement technologies for characterizing cellular and macromolecule behaviour in regenerative medicine products and processes. One key component in regenerative medicine is using three-dimensional porous scaffolds to guide cells during the regeneration process. The regeneration of specific tissues guided by tissue analogous substrates is dependent on diverse scaffold architectural properties that can be derived quantitatively from scaffolds images. This paper discuss the results obtained with the multimodal NLO microscope recently realized in our laboratory in characterizing 3D tissue engineered (TE) scaffolds colonized from human Mesenchimal stem cells (hMSC), focusing on the study of the three-dimensional metrological parameters.

  14. 2882 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Super-Regenerative

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Joel

    -Domain Analysis of Super-Regenerative Amplifiers Jose L. Bohorquez, Student Member, IEEE, Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Fellow, IEEE, and Joel L. Dawson, Member, IEEE Abstract--Since its invention in 1922, the super-regenerative sensitivity matches theory within 1 dB. Index Terms--Super-regenerative amplifier (SRA), super-regen- erative

  15. News & Views ISSN 1746-075110.2217/RME.13.31 2013 Future Medicine Ltd Regen. Med. (2013) 8(4), 409412 409

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    News & Views ISSN 1746-075110.2217/RME.13.31 © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd Regen. Med. (2013) 8 for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine in Toronto (ON, Canada). Peter Zandstra Stem Cell Bioengineering for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine, Toronto, ON, Canada peter.zandstra@utoronto.ca #12;Regen. Med. (2013) 8

  16. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  17. Bringing regenerative medicines to the clinic: the future for regulation and reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Bubela, Tania; McCabe, Christopher; Archibald, Peter; Atkins, Harold; Bradshaw, Steven; Kefalas, Panos; Mujoomdar, Michelle; Packer, Claire; Piret, James; Raxworthy, Mike; Soares, Marta; Viswanathan, Sowmya

    2015-10-01

    Significant investments in regenerative medicine necessitate discussion to align evidentiary requirements and decision-making considerations from regulatory, health system payer and developer perspectives. Only with coordinated efforts will the potential of regenerative medicine be realized. We report on discussions from two workshops sponsored by NICE, University of Alberta, Cell Therapy Catapult and Centre for Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine. We discuss methods to support the assessment of value for regenerative medicine products and services and the synergies that exist between market authorization and reimbursement regulations and practices. We discuss the convergence in novel adaptive licensing practices that may promote the development and adoption of novel therapeutics that meet the needs of healthcare payers. PMID:26565607

  18. High-energy multi-kilohertz Ho-doped regenerative amplifiers around 2 µm.

    PubMed

    von Grafenstein, Lorenz; Bock, Martin; Griebner, Uwe; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    We report a high-gain, cw-pumped regenerative amplifier which is based on Ho-doped crystals and seeded by a versatile broadband source emitting between 2050 and 2100 nm. The regenerative amplifier is implemented in a chirped-pulse amplification system operating at room temperature. Using Ho:YLF as gain medium, 1.1 mJ pulses with a 50 ps pulse duration and a 10 kHz repetition rate are generated at 2050 and 2060 nm, corresponding to an average power of 11 W. Using the same seed source, a 10 kHz Ho:YAG regenerative amplifier at 2090 nm is studied in the same configuration. In all cases the regenerative amplifier parameters are chosen to operate in a tunable single-energy regime without instabilities. PMID:26072833

  19. Wound Healing Versus Regeneration: Role of the Tissue Environment in Regenerative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Atala, Anthony

    One of the major challenges in the field of regenerative medicine is how to optimize tissue regeneration in the body by therapeutically manipulating its natural ability to form scar at the time of injury or disease. It is ...

  20. An Optical DIfferentiator Based on a Regenerative Amplifier with an Intracavity Tunable Volume Bragg Grating Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Okishev, A.V.; Smirnov, V.I.; Glebov, L.B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2008-04-08

    An optical differentiator based on a regenerative amplifier with temperature-tuned volume Bragg grating as an intracavity spectral filter is demonstrated for the first time. Its applications for temporal contrast enhancement and other areas are discussed.

  1. "Microscale Sensors and Systems for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications"

    E-print Network

    SEMINAR "Microscale Sensors and Systems for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications" Dr. Mehmet Dokmeci Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School . ·Abstract: Tissue engineered constructs and organ on chip platforms are emerging platforms for drug screening applications

  2. Cell Microenvironment Engineering and Monitoring for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: The Recent Advances

    E-print Network

    Barthes, Julien

    In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, the conditions in the immediate vicinity of the cells have a direct effect on cells’ behaviour and subsequently on clinical outcomes. Physical, chemical, and biological ...

  3. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1994-10-25

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

  4. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, Susan R. (Wixom, MI)

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  5. Feeding and healing the world: through regenerative agriculture and permaculture.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The study of soil is a mature science, whereas related practical methods of regenerative agriculture and permaculture are not. However, despite a paucity of detailed peer reviewed research published on these topics, there is overwhelming evidence both that the methods work and they may offer the means to address a number of prevailing environmental challenges, e.g. peak oil, climate change, carbon capture, unsustainable agriculture and food shortages, peak phosphorus (phosphate), water shortages, environmental pollution, desert reclamation, and soil degradation. What is lacking is a proper scientific study, made in hand with actual development projects. By elucidating the scientific basis of these remarkable phenomena, we may obtain the means for solving some of the otherwise insurmountable problems confronting humanity, simply by observing, and working with, the patterns and forces of nature. This article is intended as a call to arms to make serious investment in researching and actualising these methods on a global scale. Despite claims that peak oil is no longer a threat because vast resources of gas and shale oil (tight oil) can now be recovered by fracking (hydraulic fracturing) combined with horizontal drilling, the reality is that proven actual reserves are only adequate to delay the peak by a few years. Furthermore, because of the rapid depletion rates of flow from gas wells and oil wells that are accessed by fracking, it will be necessary to drill continuously and relentlessly to maintain output, and there are material limits of equipment, technology and trained personnel to do this. Moreover, to make any sensible difference to the liquid fuel crisis, which is the most immediate consequence of peak oil, it would be necessary to convert the worlds one billion vehicles to run on natural gas rather than liquid fuels refined from crude oil, and this would take some considerable time and effort. The loss of widespread personalised transportation is thus inevitable and imminent, meaning a loss of globalised civilisation and a mandatory return to living in smaller localised communities. Permaculture and regenerative agriculture offer potentially the means to provide food and materials on the small scale, and address the wider issues of carbon emissions, and resource shortages. Since over half the World's population lives in cities, it seems likely that strengthening the resilience of these environments, using urban permaculture, may be a crucial strategy in achieving a measured descent in our use of energy and other resources, rather than an abrupt collapse of civilization. PMID:23469709

  6. Soy Protein Scaffold Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Karen B.

    Developing functional biomaterials using highly processable materials with tailorable physical and bioactive properties is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Soy protein is an abundant, natural resource with potential use for regenerative medicine applications. Preliminary studies show that soy protein can be physically modified and fabricated into various biocompatible constructs. However, optimized soy protein structures for tissue regeneration (i.e. 3D porous scaffolds) have not yet been designed. Furthermore, little work has established the in vivo biocompatibility of implanted soy protein and the benefit of using soy over other proteins including FDA-approved bovine collagen. In this work, freeze-drying and 3D printing fabrication processes were developed using commercially available soy protein to create porous scaffolds that improve cell growth and infiltration compared to other soy biomaterials previously reported. Characterization of scaffold structure, porosity, and mechanical/degradation properties was performed. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on various designed soy scaffolds was analyzed. Biological characterization of the cell-seeded scaffolds was performed to assess feasibility for use in liver tissue regeneration. The acute and humoral response of soy scaffolds implanted in an in vivo mouse subcutaneous model was also investigated. All fabricated soy scaffolds were modified using thermal, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking to change properties and cell growth behavior. 3D printing allowed for control of scaffold pore size and geometry. Scaffold structure, porosity, and degradation rate significantly altered the in vivo response. Freeze-dried soy scaffolds had similar biocompatibility as freeze-dried collagen scaffolds of the same protein content. However, the soy scaffolds degraded at a much faster rate, minimizing immunogenicity. Interestingly, subcutaneously implanted soy scaffolds affected blood glucose and insulin sensitivity levels. Furthermore, soy scaffolds implanted in the intraperitoneal cavity attached to adjacent liver tissue with no abnormalities. In vitro, soy scaffolds supported hMSC viability and transdifferentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. These results support the use of soy scaffolds for liver tissue engineering and for treating metabolic diseases. Based on achievable structural and mechanical properties, as well as systemic effects of ingested and degraded soy proteins, soy protein scaffolds may serve as new multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  7. Regenerative medicine for the treatment of reproductive system disorders: current and potential options.

    PubMed

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Atala, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Regenerative medicine has opened new avenues for treating patients with severe reproductive system disorders, such as congenital abnormalities, cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation and iatrogenic injuries. Over the past two decades, scientists have advanced the field of reproductive tissue engineering to restore normal sexual function and preserve fertility in both female and male patients. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the use of cell, tissue, and organ-based regenerative medicine strategies for clinical application in reproductive system disorders. PMID:25453265

  8. [Regenerative potential of human adult precursor cells: cell therapy--an option for treating cartilage defects?].

    PubMed

    Dehne, T; Tschirschmann, M; Lauster, R; Sittinger, M

    2009-05-01

    Cell-based therapeutical approaches are already in clinical use and are attracting growing interest for the treatment of joint defects. Mesenchymal stem and precursor cells (MSC) cover a wide range of properties that are useful for the regeneration process of bone and cartilage defects. The following article is an overview of the regenerative potential of MSC and discusses how the properties of these cells can be used for the development of new strategies in regenerative medicine. PMID:19384550

  9. Highly Stable, All-Solid-State Nd:YLF Regenerative Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Okishev,A.V.; Zuegel,J.D.

    2004-11-20

    A diode-pumped Nd:YLF regenerative amplifier (regen) has been developed and is in use in the 60-beam, 30-kJUV OMEGA laser system's driver line. The high stability, compactness, and reliability of this all-solid-state modular design are the key features of this concept. Stable, millijoule-level output-pulse energies with an overall gain of 109 have been demonstrated.

  10. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:16822218

  11. Improving arteriovenous fistula patency: Transdermal delivery of diclofenac reduces cannulation-dependent neointimal hyperplasia via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    MacAskill, Mark G.; Watson, David G.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; Wadsworth, Roger; Jackson, Andrew; Aitken, Emma; MacKenzie, Graeme; Kingsmore, David; Currie, Susan; Coats, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Creation of an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access in haemodialysis is the modality of choice. However neointimal hyperplasia and loss of the luminal compartment result in AVF patency rates of ~ 60% at 12 months. The exact cause of neointimal hyperplasia in the AVF is poorly understood. Vascular trauma has long been associated with hyperplasia. With this in mind in our rabbit model of AVF we simulated cannulation autologous to that undertaken in vascular access procedures and observed significant neointimal hyperplasia as a direct consequence of cannulation. The neointimal hyperplasia was completely inhibited by topical transdermal delivery of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) diclofenac. In addition to the well documented anti-inflammatory properties we have identified novel anti-proliferative mechanisms demonstrating diclofenac increases AMPK-dependent signalling and reduced expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. In summary prophylactic transdermal delivery of diclofenac to the sight of AVF cannulation prevents adverse neointimal hyperplasic remodelling and potentially offers a novel treatment option that may help prolong AVF patency and flow rates. PMID:25866325

  12. Characterization of Acute Biliary Hyperplasia in Fisher 344 Rats Administered the Indole-3-Carbinol Analog, NSC-743380

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Sandy R.; Covey, Joseph; Morris, Joel; Fang, Bingliang; Horn, Thomas L.; Elsass, Karen E.; Hamre, John R.; McCormick, David L.; Davis, Myrtle A.

    2014-01-01

    NSC-743380 (1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carbinol) is in early stages of development as an anticancer agent. Two metabolites reflect sequential conversion of the carbinol functionality to a carboxaldehyde and the major metabolite, 1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3- carboxylic acid. In an exploratory toxicity study in rats, NSC-743380 induced elevations in liver-associated serum enzymes and biliary hyperplasia. Biliary hyperplasia was observed 2 days after dosing orally for 2 consecutive days at 100 mg/kg/day. Notably, hepatotoxicity and biliary hyperplasia were observed after oral administration of the parent compound, but not when major metabolites were administered. The toxicities of a structurally similar but pharmacologically inactive molecule and a structurally diverse molecule with a similar efficacy profile in killing cancer cells in vitro were compared to NSC-743380 to explore scaffold versus target-mediated toxicity. Following two oral doses of 100 mg/kg/day given once daily on two consecutive days, the structurally unrelated active compound produced hepatic toxicity similar to NSC-743380. Thee structurally similar inactive compound did not, but, lower exposures were achieved. The weight if evidence implies that the hepatotoxicity associated with NSC-743380 is related to the anticancer activity of the parent molecule. Furthermore, because biliary hyperplasia represents an unmanageable and non-monitorable adverse effect in clinical settings, this model may provide an opportunity for investigators to use a short-duration study design to explore biomarkers of biliary hyperplasia. PMID:25448049

  13. Improving arteriovenous fistula patency: Transdermal delivery of diclofenac reduces cannulation-dependent neointimal hyperplasia via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    MacAskill, Mark G; Watson, David G; Ewart, Marie-Ann; Wadsworth, Roger; Jackson, Andrew; Aitken, Emma; MacKenzie, Graeme; Kingsmore, David; Currie, Susan; Coats, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Creation of an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access in haemodialysis is the modality of choice. However neointimal hyperplasia and loss of the luminal compartment result in AVF patency rates of ~60% at 12months. The exact cause of neointimal hyperplasia in the AVF is poorly understood. Vascular trauma has long been associated with hyperplasia. With this in mind in our rabbit model of AVF we simulated cannulation autologous to that undertaken in vascular access procedures and observed significant neointimal hyperplasia as a direct consequence of cannulation. The neointimal hyperplasia was completely inhibited by topical transdermal delivery of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) diclofenac. In addition to the well documented anti-inflammatory properties we have identified novel anti-proliferative mechanisms demonstrating diclofenac increases AMPK-dependent signalling and reduced expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. In summary prophylactic transdermal delivery of diclofenac to the sight of AVF cannulation prevents adverse neointimal hyperplasic remodelling and potentially offers a novel treatment option that may help prolong AVF patency and flow rates. PMID:25866325

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Powering MEMS portable devices—a review of non-regenerative and regenerative power supply systems with special emphasis on piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook-Chennault, K. A.; Thambi, N.; Sastry, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    Power consumption is forecast by the International Technology Roadmap of Semiconductors (ITRS) to pose long-term technical challenges for the semiconductor industry. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to provide an overview of strategies for powering MEMS via non-regenerative and regenerative power supplies; (2) to review the fundamentals of piezoelectric energy harvesting, along with recent advancements, and (3) to discuss future trends and applications for piezoelectric energy harvesting technology. The paper concludes with a discussion of research needs that are critical for the enhancement of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  15. Regenerative braking systems with torsional springs made of carbon nanotube yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Martin, C.; Lashmore, D.; Schauer, M.; Livermore, C.

    2014-11-01

    The demonstration of large stroke, high energy density and high power density torsional springs based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns is reported, as well as their application as an energy-storing actuator for regenerative braking systems. Originally untwisted CNT yarn is cyclically loaded and unloaded in torsion, with the maximum rotation angle increasing until failure. The maximum extractable energy density is measured to be as high as 6.13 kJ/kg. The tests also reveal structural reorganization and hysteresis in the torsional loading curves. A regenerative braking system is built to capture the kinetic energy of a wheel and store it as elastic energy in twisted CNT yarns. When the yam's twist is released, the stored energy reaccelerates the wheel. The measured energy and mean power densities of the CNT yarns in the simple regenerative braking system are up to 4.69 kJ/kg and 1.21 kW/kg, respectively. A slightly lower energy density of up to 1.23 kJ/kg and a 0.29 kW/kg mean power density are measured for the CNT yarns in a more complex system that mimics a unidirectional rotating regenerative braking mechanism. The lower energy densities for CNT yarns in the regenerative braking systems as compared with the yarns themselves reflect the frictional losses of the regenerative systems.

  16. A report of the ASPS Task Force on regenerative medicine: opportunities for plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Richard A; Rubin, J Peter; Neumeister, Michael W; Del Vecchio, Daniel A; Cederna, Paul S; Seward, William; Shoaf, Lori

    2013-02-01

    In 2011, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) created the Task Force on Regenerative Medicine to address the Society's strong interest in the emerging field of regenerative medicine, particularly cell- and tissue-based therapies applicable to plastic surgery procedures. The Task Force's U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Workgroup is informing ASPS interactions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Engaging in dialogue with the agency to determine which research protocols will produce scientific data necessary to determine safety and efficacy for regenerative cellular therapies can allow research to be targeted to gather data that prove safety and efficacy of specific categories of therapies and/or products. This article reviews the regulatory backdrop of regenerative medicine, briefly reviews the history of regenerative medicine, and then looks at current research and potential future areas of research and clinical application. The historic ability of plastic surgeons to innovate and apply translational research positions the specialty of plastic surgery as a strong leader in clinical applications of regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:23358001

  17. Tocopherols inhibit oxidative and nitrosative stress in estrogen-induced early mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Soumyasri; So, Jae Young; Wall, Brian; Wahler, Joseph; Smolarek, Amanda K; Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Soewono, Kelvin Y; Yu, Haixiang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Thomas, Paul E; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring ?-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (?-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9?mg of 17?-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% ?-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7, and 14 d. ?-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or ?-TmT diet. ?-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine, and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by ?-TmT. Noticeably, ?-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of ?-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, ?-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer. PMID:24782330

  18. E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on neointimal hyperplasia in canine vein graft.

    PubMed

    Cho, W H; Lee, S O; Kim, H T; Ahn, J D; Lee, I K

    2005-01-01

    Double-stranded DNA with high affinity to E2F as a decoy cis-element blocks the activation of genes mediating the cell cycle, resulting in effective suppression of the smooth muscle cell proliferation that causes intimal hyperplasia. To evaluate the effect of the E2F decoy to suppress neointimal hyperplasia autogenous venous bypass grafts were performed in dogs after incubation with heparin (group 1), with E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) (groups 2 and 3), or with a random ODN (group 4) using a Japan-liposomeal method based on a hemagglutinating virus. The intimal and medial cross-sectional surface area of the anastomotic site was measured at 4 months after bypass surgery in groups 1, 3, and 4 by computerized planimetry and at 4 weeks in group 2 to compare the intimal/medial (I/M) area ratios. Autogenous vein grafts treated with E2F decoy showed a significant reduction in I/M area ratio (0.26 +/- 0.11) compared with the heparin-treated control group (1.49 +/- 0.29) or the mismatched ODN-treated group (1.61 +/- 0.28; P = .000). There was no difference in the I/M area ratio according to experimental periods (groups 2 vs 3: 0.26 +/- 0.11 vs 0.37 +/- 0.32; P = .446) or the anastomotic sites (proximal vs distal; P = .934). In conclusion, an E2F decoy can suppress neointimal hyperplasia in autogenous vein grafts, which may prolong patency by reducing graft stenosis. PMID:15808553

  19. Inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Nan; Xu, Yuan; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Wang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (GTW) against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, vehicle control group (sham-operated and treated with vehicle); Group II, BPH group; Group III, BPH rats treated with finasteride at a dose of 5 mg·kg(-1); and Groups IV and V, BPH rats treated with GTW at dose levels of 10 and 20 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The drugs were administered orally once a day for 14 days. Prostate weight, prostatic index, and the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum and prostate, and the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured; prostate tissues were taken for histopathological examination; and serum biochemical analysis was also performed. The BPH rats displayed an increase in prostate weight, prostatic index with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and increased serum PSA levels. GTW treatment at both doses resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight, prostatic index, testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and serum PSA levels, compared with BPH group. Histopathological examination also indicated that GTW treatment at both doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Serum biochemical analysis showed that the liver and renal functions were normal. In conclusion, GTW inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats, without host toxicity, providing a basis for the development of GTW as a novel therapy for BPH. PMID:26073338

  20. Pituitary hyperplasia: case series and literature review of an under-recognised and heterogeneous condition

    PubMed Central

    Earls, Peter; McCormack, Ann I

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pituitary hyperplasia (PH) occurs in heterogeneous settings and remains under-recognised. Increased awareness of this condition and its natural history should circumvent unnecessary trans-sphenoidal surgery. We performed an observational case series of patients referred to a single endocrinologist over a 3-year period. Four young women were identified with PH manifesting as diffuse, symmetrical pituitary enlargement near or touching the optic apparatus on MRI. The first woman presented with primary hypothyroidism and likely had thyrotroph hyperplasia given prompt resolution with thyroxine. The second and third women were diagnosed with pathological gonadotroph hyperplasia due to primary gonadal insufficiency, with histopathological confirmation including gonadal-deficiency cells in the third case where surgery could have been avoided. The fourth woman likely had idiopathic PH, though she had concomitant polycystic ovary syndrome which is a debated cause of PH. Patients suspected of PH should undergo comprehensive hormonal, radiological and sometimes ophthalmological evaluation. This is best conducted by a specialised multidisciplinary team with preference for treatment of underlying conditions and close monitoring over surgical intervention. Learning points Normal pituitary dimensions are influenced by age and gender with the greatest pituitary heights seen in young adults and perimenopausal women.Pituitary enlargement may be seen in the settings of pregnancy, end-organ insufficiency with loss of negative feedback, and excess trophic hormone from the hypothalamus or neuroendocrine tumours.PH may be caused or exacerbated by medications including oestrogen, GNRH analogues and antipsychotics.Management involves identification of cases of idiopathic PH suitable for simple surveillance and reversal of pathological or iatrogenic causes where they exist.Surgery should be avoided in PH as it rarely progresses. PMID:26124954

  1. A minimal form of Proteus syndrome presenting with macrodactyly and hand hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Federica; Feliciani, Claudio; Toto, Paola; De Benedetto, Anna; Tulli, Antonello

    2003-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by progressive course and great variability of clinical presentation with partial gigantism of extremities, hemihyperplasia with macrocephaly, epidermal nevus, mesodermal hamartomas and the presence of peculiar cerebriform masses on the palms/soles. Many atypical cases have been reported and this is probably due to the mosaicism of the genetic disorder displaying different clinical features. We describe a patient with an extremely mild form of Proteus syndrome presenting macrodactyly and hyperplasia of one hand which was misdiagnosed until the age of 33 years. PMID:12695139

  2. Spontaneous Ruptured Uterus in an Adolescent With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Endometrial Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Baquing, Mary Anne; Brotherton, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Uterine diverticula and rudimentary horns are rare forms of uterine anomalies that occur during embryogenesis. They can communicate with the endometrial cavity and may have the potential to develop pathology. This case report presents an obese, anovulatory adolescent with polycystic ovarian syndrome who was admitted with acute abdominal pain and found to have radiological findings that were concerning for a ruptured mass contiguous with the uterine cavity, which was likely a uterine horn or diverticulum. Further evaluation revealed simple hyperplasia without atypia on endometrial sampling, supporting the surgical resection and subsequent medical management of this young patient. PMID:26025488

  3. Woman with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Leydig cell tumor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García Salazar, Rosario; Muñoz-Darias, Carmen; Haro-Mora, Juan Jesús; Almaraz, M Cruz; Audí, Laura; Martínez-Tudela, Juana; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Esteva, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, and corticosteroid replacement therapy since birth. She manifested persistent virilization and high testosterone levels that were attributed to nonadherence to medical treatment. The patient was referred to our gender unit for genitoplastic surgery. We recommended the patient for left oophorectomy after detecting an ovarian mass. Pathologic findings confirmed an ovarian hilus cell tumor. Testosterone levels fell back to normal and masculinization disappeared but ACTH remained elevated. This case represents a very rare type of primary ovarian tumor that must be considered in persistent virilizing symptoms in women with CAH. PMID:24702195

  4. Bilateral spontaneous urinary extravasation shown by computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Haopeng; Dang, Xuefei; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Guangyao

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous extravasation of urine (SUE) is a rare urologic manifestation. Predisposing conditions of SUE include ureteric calculus, retrograde pyelography, pregnancy, abdominal aorta aneurysm, tumors, or enlargement of the prostate gland. Usually, SUE is a self-limiting condition that mandates differentiaton from other catastrophic conditions of pelviureteric ruptures. Most reported cases of SUE based on urograms are unilateral in presentation. Herein, we report a case of bilateral SUE evident on computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also review the literature briefly. PMID:26649120

  5. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: a case report of a 12-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Almohawes, Eman; Khoumais, Nuha; Arafah, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign lesion, characterized by a dense proliferation of stromal mesenchymal cells of myofibroblastic origin forming empty, slit-like channels. We report PASH in a 12-year-old girl with a huge rapidly enlarged right breast. Biopsy of the mass showed histopathologic features characteristic of PASH. Immunohistochemical studies revealed diffuse positive membranous immunoreactivity to CD34. Although it is a benign lesion, lumpectomy was performed to minimize the damage from developing breast tissue. PMID:26649107

  6. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia: Diagnostic Sequence and Literature Review of an Orofacial Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya; Saikrishna, Degala; Yelamali, Tejesh

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's tumor is a rare reactive disease of vascular origin characterized by exuberant proliferation of endothelial cells notably occurring within blood vessels of head, neck, and extremities. The importance of this entity is its ability to mimic a variety of diseases both benign and malignant in the orofacial region. Here, we present a case of Masson's tumor within the masseter muscle in a 40-year-old female with emphasis on the sequential investigative procedures performed to diagnose this entity. PMID:24891960

  7. Hypoxis hemerocallidea--not merely a cure for benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Drewes, S E; Elliot, E; Khan, F; Dhlamini, J T B; Gcumisa, M S S

    2008-10-28

    The use of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. and C.A. Mey. (Hypoxidaceae) extracts for ailments other than benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is now a reality. The whole extract, the phytosterols, as well as the major constituents it contains (hypoxoside, and its active derivative rooperol) are now finding new applications in the area of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatories, anti-diabetics, anti-convulsants, inhibitors of drug marker substances and new evidence is presented of activity against cancerous and premalignant cancer cells. In addition, the over-the-counter (OTC) trade has undergone enormous expansion. PMID:18602776

  8. Bilateral spontaneous urinary extravasation shown by computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Haopeng; Dang, Xuefei; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Guangyao

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous extravasation of urine (SUE) is a rare urologic manifestation. Predisposing conditions of SUE include ureteric calculus, retrograde pyelography, pregnancy, abdominal aorta aneurysm, tumors, or enlargement of the prostate gland. Usually, SUE is a self-limiting condition that mandates differentiaton from other catastrophic conditions of pelviureteric ruptures. Most reported cases of SUE based on urograms are unilateral in presentation. Herein, we report a case of bilateral SUE evident on computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also review the literature briefly.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew B; Moncivais, Kathryn; Caplan, Arnold I

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are partially defined by their ability to differentiate into tissues including bone, cartilage and adipose in vitro, but it is their trophic, paracrine and immunomodulatory functions that may have the greatest therapeutic impact in vivo. Unlike pharmaceutical treatments that deliver a single agent at a specific dose, MSCs are site regulated and secrete bioactive factors and signals at variable concentrations in response to local microenvironmental cues. Significant progress has been made in understanding the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms and feedback associated with MSC response. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capacity of MSC may be paramount in the restoration of localized or systemic conditions for normal healing and tissue regeneration. Allogeneic MSC treatments, categorized as a drug by regulatory agencies, have been widely pursued, but new studies demonstrate the efficacy of autologous MSC therapies, even for individuals affected by a disease state. Safety and regulatory concerns surrounding allogeneic cell preparations make autologous and minimally manipulated cell therapies an attractive option for many regenerative, anti-inflammatory and autoimmune applications. PMID:24232253

  10. Regenerative gas turbine with thermal-energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Best, G.C.

    1982-06-17

    A thermal-energy conservation system for a regenerative gas turbine, and preferably a highly-regenerated high-temperature two-shaft gas-turbine engine, operating at an equilibrium temperature is provided. The gas-turbine engine includes a compressor, a combustor, a fuel throttle, a turbine, and a regenerator which transfers thermal energy from the heated exhaust gases of the turbine to the compressed air delivered to the combustor. A compressor air-inlet throttle is operatively associated with the fuel throttle so that the flow of air to the compressor is reduced to a predetermined level when the fuel throttle is moved from a high power position to a low power or negative power position. This reduced air flow to the compressor causes a corresponding reduced flow of gases to the turbine and results in engine braking. With the heat added by engine braking, the thermal energy of the gas-turbine engine and particularly of the regenerator is substantially maintained and conserved at the equilibrium temperature with minimum cooling. In a preferred embodiment, the compressor air-inlet throttle is constituted by the guide vanes of the compressor.

  11. Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S.; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

  12. Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

  13. Thermal inkjet printing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Boland, Thomas; D'Lima, Darryl D; Lotz, Martin K

    2012-08-01

    With the advantages of high throughput, digital control, and highly accurate placement of cells and biomaterial scaffold to the desired 2D and 3D locations, bioprinting has great potential to develop promising approaches in translational medicine and organ replacement. The most recent advances in organ and tissue bioprinting based on the thermal inkjet printing technology are described in this review. Bioprinting has no or little side effect to the printed mammalian cells and it can conveniently combine with gene transfection or drug delivery to the ejected living systems during the precise placement for tissue construction. With layer-by-layer assembly, 3D tissues with complex structures can be printed using scanned CT or MRI images. Vascular or nerve systems can be enabled simultaneously during the organ construction with digital control. Therefore, bioprinting is the only solution to solve this critical issue in thick and complex tissues fabrication with vascular system. Collectively, bioprinting based on thermal inkjet has great potential and broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This review article introduces some important patents related to bioprinting of living systems and the applications of bioprinting in tissue engineering field. PMID:22436025

  14. Polymer-based microparticles in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mariana B; Mano, João F

    2011-07-01

    Different types of biomaterials, processed into different shapes, have been proposed as temporary support for cells in tissue engineering (TE) strategies. The manufacturing methods used in the production of particles in drug delivery strategies have been adapted for the development of microparticles in the fields of TE and regenerative medicine (RM). Microparticles have been applied as building blocks and matrices for the delivery of soluble factors, aiming for the construction of TE scaffolds, either by fusion giving rise to porous scaffolds or as injectable systems for in situ scaffold formation, avoiding complicated surgery procedures. More recently, organ printing strategies have been developed by the fusion of hydrogel particles with encapsulated cells, aiming the production of organs in in vitro conditions. Mesoscale self-assembly of hydrogel microblocks and the use of leachable particles in three-dimensional (3D) layer-by-layer (LbL) techniques have been suggested as well in recent works. Along with innovative applications, new perspectives are open for the use of these versatile structures, and different directions can still be followed to use all the potential that such systems can bring. This review focuses on polymeric microparticle processing techniques and overviews several examples and general concepts related to the use of these systems in TE and RE applications. The use of materials in the development of microparticles from research to clinical applications is also discussed. PMID:21584949

  15. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I

    2015-11-26

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell suspensions and allowed to dedifferentiate into lipid-free multipotent cells, referred to as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. Compared to other adult stem cells, the DFAT cells have unique advantages in their abundance, ease of isolation and homogeneity. Under proper condition in vitro and in vivo, the DFAT cells have exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, cardiomyogenc, angiogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic potentials. In this review, we first discuss the phenomena of dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of cells, and then dedifferentiation of adipocytes in particular. Understanding the dedifferentiation process itself may contribute to our knowledge of normal growth processes, as well as mechanisms of disease. Second, we highlight new developments in DFAT cell culture and summarize the current understanding of DFAT cell properties. The unique features of DFAT cells are promising for clinical applications such as tissue regeneration. PMID:26640620

  16. Regenerative flywheel storage system. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-27

    This report describes the development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000-lb class. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all-electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a d-c battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system includes a 108-volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited d-c propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses. This volume reports the theoretical and experimental studies which were performed and the results of these studies.

  17. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-27

    This report describes the development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000-pound class. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all-electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a d-c battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system includes a 108-volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited d-c propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses. This volume summarizes information on the scope of the program, vehicle system studies, the flywheel system design, vehicle power conditioner and control, and test results. (LCL)

  18. Regenerative Translation of Human Blood-Vessel-Derived MSC Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C. W.; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising adult progenitor cell source for tissue repair and regeneration. Their mysterious identity in situ has gradually been unveiled by the accumulating evidence indicating an association between adult multipotent stem/progenitor cells and vascular/perivascular niches. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we and other groups have prospectively identified and purified subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the blood vessels within multiple human organs. The three precursor subsets, myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are located, respectively, in the three structural tiers of typical blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. MECs, PCs, and ACs have been extensively characterized in prior studies and are currently under investigation for their therapeutic potentials in preclinical animal models. In this review, we will briefly discuss the identification, isolation, and characterization of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cells (hBVSCs) and summarize the current status of regenerative applications of hBVSC subsets. PMID:26273304

  19. Design and test of a regenerative satellite transmultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kenny King-Ming

    1993-05-01

    In a multiple access scheme for regenerative satellite communications, the bulk frequency division multiple access (FDMA) uplink signal is demodulated on board the satellite and then remodulated for time division multiplexing (TDM) downlink transmission. Conversion from frequency to time division multiplex format requires that the uplink signal be frequency demultiplexed and each individual carrier be subsequently demodulated. For thin-route application which consists of a large number of channels with fixed data rate, multicarrier demodulation can be accomplished efficiently by a digital transmultiplexer (TMUX) using a fast Fourier transform processor followed by a bank of per-channel processors. A time domain description of the TMUX algorithm is derived which elucidates how the TMUX functions. The per-channel processor performs timing and carrier recovery for optimum and coherent data detection. Timing recovery is necessarily achieved asynchronously by a filter coefficient interpolation. Carrier recovery is performed using an all-digital phase-locked loop. The combination of both timing and carrier loops is investigated for a multi-user system. The performance of the overall system is assessed over a multi-user, additive white Gaussian noise channel for a bit energy to noise power spectral density ratio down to zero dB.

  20. Chromatin signaling in muscle stem cells: interpreting the regenerative microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Brancaccio, Arianna; Palacios, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Muscle regeneration in the adult occurs in response to damage at expenses of a population of adult stem cells, the satellite cells. Upon injury, either physical or genetic, signals released within the satellite cell niche lead to the commitment, expansion and differentiation of the pool of muscle progenitors to repair damaged muscle. To achieve this goal satellite cells undergo a dramatic transcriptional reprogramming to coordinately activate and repress specific subset of genes. Although the epigenetics of muscle regeneration has been extensively discussed, less emphasis has been put on how extra-cellular cues are translated into the specific chromatin reorganization necessary for progression through the myogenic program. In this review we will focus on how satellite cells sense the regenerative microenvironment in physiological and pathological circumstances, paying particular attention to the mechanism through which the external stimuli are transduced to the nucleus to modulate chromatin structure and gene expression. We will discuss the pathways involved and how alterations in this chromatin signaling may contribute to satellite cells dysfunction during aging and disease. PMID:25904863

  1. Regenerative life support technology challenges for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.; Theis, Ronald L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems have been identified as one of the critical enabling technologies for future human exploration of space. This discipline encompasses processes and subsystems which regenerate the air, water, solid waste, and food streams typical of human habitation so as to minimize the mass and volume of stored consumables which must accompany the humans on a mission. A number of key technology challenges within this broad discipline are described, ranging from the development of new physical, chemical, and biological processes for regenerating the air, water, solid waste, and food streams to the development of improved techniques for monitoring and controlling microbial and trace constituent contamination. A continuing challenge overarching the development of these new technologies is the need to minimize the mass, volume, and electrical power consumption of the flight hardware. More important for long duration exploration missions, however, is the development of highly reliable, long-lived, self- sufficient systems which absolutely minimize the logistics resupply and operational maintenance requirements of the life support system and which ensure human safety through their robust, reliable operating characteristics.

  2. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented. PMID:26140302

  3. Refurbishment of one-person regenerative air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.

    1989-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of spacecraft atmospheres and reclamation of waste waters are essential for making long-term manned space missions a reality. Processes studied include: static feed water electrolysis for oxygen generation, Bosch carbon dioxide reduction, electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration, vapor compression distillation water recovery, and iodine monitoring. The objectives were to: provide engineering support to Marshall Space Flight Center personnel throughout all phases of the test program, e.g., planning through data analysis; fabricate, test, and deliver to Marshall Space Flight Center an electrochemical carbon dioxide module and test stand; fabricate and deliver an iodine monitor; evaluate the electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem configuration and its ability to ensure safe utilization of hydrogen gas; evaluate techniques for recovering oxygen from a product oxygen and carbon dioxide stream; and evaluate the performance of an electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator module to operate without hydrogen as a method of safe haven operation. Each of the tasks were related in that all focused on providing a better understanding of the function, operation, and performance of developmental pieces of environmental control and life support system hardware.

  4. The clinical use of regenerative therapy in COPD.

    PubMed

    Lipsi, Roberto; Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Segreti, Andrea; Cazzola, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative or stem cell therapy is an emerging field of treatment based on stimulation of endogenous resident stem cells or administration of exogenous stem cells to treat diseases or injury and to replace malfunctioning or damaged tissues. Current evidence suggests that in the lung, these cells may participate in tissue homeostasis and regeneration after injury. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that tissue-specific stem cells and bone marrow-derived cells contribute to lung tissue regeneration and protection, and thus administration of exogenous stem/progenitor cells or humoral factors responsible for the activation of endogenous stem/progenitor cells may be a potent next-generation therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The use of bone marrow-derived stem cells could allow repairing and regenerate the damaged tissue present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by means of their engraftment into the lung. Another approach could be the stimulation of resident stem cells by means of humoral factors or photobiostimulation. PMID:25548520

  5. Processing of Materials for Regenerative Medicine Using Supercritical Fluid Technology.

    PubMed

    García-González, Carlos A; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-07-15

    The increase in the world demand of bone and cartilage replacement therapies urges the development of advanced synthetic scaffolds for regenerative purposes, not only providing mechanical support for tissue formation, but also promoting and guiding the tissue growth. Conventional manufacturing techniques have severe restrictions for designing these upgraded scaffolds, namely, regarding the use of organic solvents, shearing forces, and high operating temperatures. In this context, the use of supercritical fluid technology has emerged as an attractive solution to design solvent-free scaffolds and ingredients for scaffolds under mild processing conditions. The state-of-the-art on the technological endeavors for scaffold production using supercritical fluids is presented in this work with a critical review on the key processing parameters as well as the main advantages and limitations of each technique. A special stress is focused on the strategies suitable for the incorporation of bioactive agents (drugs, bioactive glasses, and growth factors) and the in vitro and in vivo performance of supercritical CO2-processed scaffolds. PMID:25587916

  6. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell suspensions and allowed to dedifferentiate into lipid-free multipotent cells, referred to as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. Compared to other adult stem cells, the DFAT cells have unique advantages in their abundance, ease of isolation and homogeneity. Under proper condition in vitro and in vivo, the DFAT cells have exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, cardiomyogenc, angiogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic potentials. In this review, we first discuss the phenomena of dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of cells, and then dedifferentiation of adipocytes in particular. Understanding the dedifferentiation process itself may contribute to our knowledge of normal growth processes, as well as mechanisms of disease. Second, we highlight new developments in DFAT cell culture and summarize the current understanding of DFAT cell properties. The unique features of DFAT cells are promising for clinical applications such as tissue regeneration. PMID:26640620

  7. Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Curley, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle s Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Dioxide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and has undergone extensive testing at Johnson Space Center. The tests were performed to evaluate performance characteristics under range of operating conditions and human loads expected in future spacecraft applications, as part of maturation to increase its readiness for flight. Early tests, conducted at nominal atmospheric pressure, used human metabolic simulators to generate loads, with later tests making us of human test subjects. During these tests many different test cases were performed, involving from 1 to 6 test subjects, with different activity profiles (sleep, nominal and exercise). These tests were conducted within the airlock portion of a human rated test chamber sized to simulate the Orion cabin free air volume. More recently, a test was completed that integrated the CAMRAS with a simulated suit loop using prototype umbilicals and was conducted at reduced atmospheric pressure and elevated oxygen levels. This paper will describe the facilities and procedures used to conduct these and future tests, and provide a summary of findings.

  8. The Mouse Median Nerve Experimental Model in Regenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Buskbjerg Jager, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Sciatic nerve crush injury in rat animal model is one of the most common experimental models used in regenerative research. However, the availability of transgenic mouse for nerve regeneration studies is constantly increasing and, therefore, the shift from rat model to mouse model is, in some cases, necessary. Moreover, since most of the human nerve lesions occur in the upper limb, it is also advantageous to shift from sciatic nerve to median nerve. In this study we described an experimental model which involves lesions of the median nerve in the mouse. Data showed that the finger flexor muscle contraction strength, assessed to evaluate the motor function recovery, and reached values not different from the control already 20 days after injury. The degree of nerve regeneration evaluated with stereological methods in light microscopy showed that, 25 days after injury, the number of regenerated myelinated fibers was comparable to the control, but they were smaller with a thinner myelin thickness. Stereological analysis made in electron microscopy confirmed these results, although the total number of fibers quantified was significantly higher compared to light microscopy analysis, due to the very small size of some fibers that can be detected only in electron microscopy. PMID:25180190

  9. Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey; Curley, Suzanne

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Diox-ide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and has undergone extensive testing at Johnson Space Center. The tests were per-formed to evaluate performance characteristics under range of operating conditions and human loads expected in future spacecraft applications, as part of maturation to increase its readiness for flight. Early tests, conducted at nominal atmospheric pressure, used human metabolic sim-ulators to generate loads, with later tests making us of human test subjects. During these tests many different test cases were performed, involving from 1 to 6 test subjects, with different activity profiles (sleep, nominal and exercise). These tests were conducted within the airlock portion of a human rated test chamber sized to simulate the Orion cabin free air volume. More recently, a test was completed that integrated the CAMRAS with a simulated suit loop using prototype umbilicals and was conducted at reduced atmospheric pressure and elevated oxygen levels. This paper will describe the facilities and procedures used to conduct these and future tests, and provide a summary of findings.

  10. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Duanqing; Xu, Jianyong; Zhuang, Qiang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Esteban, Miguel A.

    The potential of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for regenerative medicine is unquestionable, but practical and ethical considerations have hampered clinical application and research. In an attempt to overcome these issues, the conversion of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells similar to ESCs, commonly termed nuclear reprogramming, has been a top objective of contemporary biology. More than 40 years ago, King, Briggs, and Gurdon pioneered somatic cell nuclear reprogramming in frogs, and in 1981 Evans successfully isolated mouse ESCs. In 1997 Wilmut and collaborators produced the first cloned mammal using nuclear transfer, and then Thomson obtained human ESCs from in vitro fertilized blastocysts in 1998. Over the last 2 decades we have also seen remarkable findings regarding how ESC behavior is controlled, the importance of which should not be underestimated. This knowledge allowed the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka to overcome brilliantly conceptual and technical barriers in 2006 and generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts by overexpressing defined combinations of ESC-enriched transcription factors. Here, we discuss some important implications of human iPSCs for biology and medicine and also point to possible future directions.

  11. Potency of Fish Collagen as a Scaffold for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro

    2014-01-01

    Cells, growth factors, and scaffold are the crucial factors for tissue engineering. Recently, scaffolds consisting of natural polymers, such as collagen and gelatin, bioabsorbable synthetic polymers, such as polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid, and inorganic materials, such as hydroxyapatite, as well as composite materials have been rapidly developed. In particular, collagen is the most promising material for tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Collagen contains specific cell adhesion domains, including the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. After the integrin receptor on the cell surface binds to the RGD motif on the collagen molecule, cell adhesion is actively induced. This interaction contributes to the promotion of cell growth and differentiation and the regulation of various cell functions. However, it is difficult to use a pure collagen scaffold as a tissue engineering material due to its low mechanical strength. In order to make up for this disadvantage, collagen scaffolds are often modified using a cross-linker, such as gamma irradiation and carbodiimide. Taking into account the possibility of zoonosis, a variety of recent reports have been documented using fish collagen scaffolds. We herein review the potency of fish collagen scaffolds as well as associated problems to be addressed for use in regenerative medicine. PMID:24982861

  12. Systemically Administered, Target Organ-Specific Therapies for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors and other agents that could potentially enhance tissue regeneration have been identified, but their therapeutic value in clinical medicine has been limited for reasons such as difficulty to maintain bioactivity of locally applied therapeutics in the protease-rich environment of regenerating tissues. Although human diseases are treated with systemically administered drugs in general, all current efforts aimed at enhancing tissue repair with biological drugs have been based on their local application. The systemic administration of growth factors has been ruled out due to concerns about their safety. These concerns are warranted. In addition, only a small proportion of systemically administered drugs reach their intended target. Selective delivery of the drug to the target tissue and use of functional protein domains capable of penetrating cells and tissues could alleviate these problems in certain circumstances. We will present in this review a novel approach utilizing unique molecular fingerprints (“Zip/postal codes”) in the vasculature of regenerating tissues that allows target organ-specific delivery of systemically administered therapeutic molecules by affinity-based physical targeting (using peptides or antibodies as an “address tag”) to injured tissues undergoing repair. The desired outcome of targeted therapies is increased local accumulation and lower systemic concentration of the therapeutic payload. We believe that the physical targeting of systemically administered therapeutic molecules could be rapidly adapted in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:26437400

  13. Insulin enhances the effect of nitric oxide at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Varu, Vinit N.; Ahanchi, Sadie S.; Hogg, Melissa E.; Bhikhapurwala, Hussein A.; Chen, Amy; Popowich, Daniel A.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Hrabie, Joseph A.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes confers greater restenosis from neointimal hyperplasia following vascular interventions. While localized administration of nitric oxide (NO) is known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia, the effect of NO in type 1 diabetes is unknown. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of NO following arterial injury, with and without exogenous insulin administration. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from lean Zucker (LZ) rats were exposed to the NO donor, DETA/NO, following treatment with different glucose and/or insulin concentrations. DETA/NO inhibited VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner to a greater extent in VSMC exposed to normal-glucose vs. high-glucose environments, and even more effectively in normal-glucose/high-insulin and high-glucose/high-insulin environments. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cell death were not responsible for the enhanced efficacy of NO in these environments. Next, type 1 diabetes was induced in LZ rats with streptozotocin. The rat carotid artery injury model was performed. Type 1 diabetic rats experienced no significant reduction in neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury and treatment with the NO donor PROLI/NO. However, daily administration of insulin to type 1 diabetic rats restored the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia (60% reduction, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that NO is ineffective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in an uncontrolled rat model of type 1 diabetes; however, insulin administration restores the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia. Thus insulin may play a role in regulating the downstream beneficial effects of NO in the vasculature. PMID:20562340

  14. A GRHL3-regulated repair pathway suppresses immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, William M.; Zeller, Michael D.; Klein, Rachel H.; Swindell, William R.; Ho, Hsiang; Espetia, Francisco; Gudjonsson, Johann E.; Baldi, Pierre F.; Andersen, Bogi

    2014-01-01

    Dermal infiltration of T cells is an important step in the onset and progression of immune-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis; however, it is not known whether epidermal factors play a primary role in the development of these diseases. Here, we determined that the prodifferentiation transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3), which is essential during epidermal development, is dispensable for adult skin homeostasis, but required for barrier repair after adult epidermal injury. Consistent with activation of a GRHL3-regulated repair pathway in psoriasis, we found that GRHL3 is upregulated in lesional skin and binds known epidermal differentiation gene targets. Using an imiquimod-induced model of immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, we found that mice lacking GRHL3 have an exacerbated epidermal damage response, greater sensitivity to disease induction, delayed resolution of epidermal lesions, and resistance to anti–IL-22 therapy compared with WT animals. ChIP-Seq and gene expression profiling of murine skin revealed that while GRHL3 regulates differentiation pathways both during development and during repair from immune-mediated damage, it targets distinct sets of genes in the 2 processes. In particular, GRHL3 suppressed a number of alarmin and other proinflammatory genes after immune injury. This study identifies a GRHL3-regulated epidermal barrier repair pathway that suppresses disease initiation and helps resolve existing lesions in immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25347468

  15. Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins: Rare case of ischemic colitis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Kota; Yamada, Rin; Fujiwara, Takashi; Koizumi, Koichi; Horiguchi, Shin-Ichiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins (IMHMV) is a rare and poorly understood ischemic colitis that occurs in the rectosigmoid colon of predominantly young, previously healthy, male patients. A 76-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a 1-year history of worsening diarrhea, lower abdominal pain, and weight loss (-6 kg). Laboratory evaluation revealed white blood cell count of 13?200/?L, C-reactive protein level of 2.0?mg/dL (normal range, 0.0-0.3), and negative results for stool culture (including Clostridium difficile). Colonoscopy showed circumferential and edematous narrowing of the sigmoid colon with deep longitude ulceration. Biopsy was done and examination of the specimen demonstrated no specific ischemia. The patient was treated with bowel rest, antibiotics, and i.v. fluids; however, his symptoms worsened. Finally, sigmoidectomy was carried out. Histological examination demonstrated significant myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins leading to thickening and stenosis of the venous lumen. Therefore, the final diagnosis was IMHMV. Three months following sigmoidectomy, he was asymptomatic. PMID:25777655

  16. Dasatinib-related Follicular Hyperplasia: An Underrecognized Entity With Characteristic Morphology.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Michael G; Ewalt, Mark D; Gratzinger, Dita

    2015-10-01

    Dasatinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against BCR-ABL1 and other Src family tyrosine kinases, is approved as a first-line treatment option for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. Recently, lymphadenopathy with morphologic features of reactive follicular hyperplasia was described in a cohort of patients with CML on long-term dasatinib therapy. However, the complete morphologic and immunophenotypic features of this previously underappreciated adverse effect have not been fully described. Herein, we report 3 cases of unexplained lymphadenopathy resulting in multiple diagnostic procedures in patients with CML and a history of long-term dasatinib therapy. Morphologic examination demonstrated preserved nodal architecture showing hybrid features of progressive transformation of germinal centers and Castleman-type changes in a background of florid follicular hyperplasia. Large germinal centers were disrupted by complex infolding of IgD mantle zones arranged as cuffs surrounding perforating capillaries. Other abnormalities variably present included decreased CD20 expression among polytypic B cells and increased Epstein-Barr virus reactivity in scattered paracortical cells and/or individual germinal centers. B-cell clonality studies showed no predominant clonal rearrangements. Consideration of dasatinib-related lymphadenopathy may pre-empt unnecessary repeat diagnostic procedures in patients with CML or other dasatinib-susceptible malignancies and persistent lymphadenopathy. PMID:26360368

  17. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5?-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. PMID:25600492

  18. Antrodan, a ?-glucan obtained from Antrodia cinnamomea mycelia, is beneficial to benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Lin, Yi-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-02-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), one of the most common disease usually occurring in men in their 50s, has now become an atypical direct cause of mortality. Currently, phytotherapeutic agents are emerging and are frequently used as a complementary alternative treatment of BPH. ?-glucan has shown a diversity of bioactivities involving anticancer, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Antrodia cinnamomea exhibits a diversity of biological activities. Only a few literature references have cited the biomedicinal effects of antrodan, which is a unique ?-glucan present in A. cinnamomea mycelia. We hypothesized that antrodan could be beneficial to BPH. Using the Sprague-Dawley rat model, we performed this present experiment. Results indicated that antrodan alleviated most of the pathophysiological manifestations that can be elicited by BPH, by alleviating the prostatic epithelial hyperplasia and collagen deposition, increasing the total cholesterol biosynthesis and conversion into HDL, and suppressing the production of LDL and ROS and the upregulation of IL-1, COX-2 and CD68. Antrodan also effectively suppressed the serum level testosterone and DHT and downregulated aromatase, estradiol and the expression of the androgen receptor. More importantly, antrodan downregulated N-cadherin and vimentin and upregulated E-cadherin, underlying the effective inhibition on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Conclusively, the ?-glucan antrodan present in the A. cinamomea mycelia is beneficial to the BPH therapy. PMID:25537160

  19. Epidemic trichodinosis associated with severe epidermal hyperplasia in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, from North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Huh, Min Do; Thomas, Chad D; Udomkusonsri, Pareeya; Noga, Edward J

    2005-07-01

    An epidemic of trichodinosis associated with severe epidermal hyperplasia occurred in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from the Chowan River drainage, North Carolina (USA) in late winter to early spring 2002. Initial reports by anglers of fish with a "jelly-like slime coat" on the skin prompted an electrofishing survey in which about 10% of sampled largemouth bass had a very thick, bluish-white "mucoid layer" on the body and fins. Moderate to heavy infestations of the ciliate Trichodina were detected in wet mounts of skin from five of five fish having the mucoid layer; these fish also had significant gill infestations. An additional two fish with only mild reddening and four asymptomatic fish (no skin lesions) had mild skin infestations but no gill infestations. Two asymptomatic fish had no skin parasites. Four fish with the mucoid layer were necropsied and had extremely severe epidermal hyperplasia on the body and fins. The hyperplasic epidermis had relatively few mucus cells and typically was about 5-10 times thicker than healthy epidermis. The upper four fifths of the epidermis consisted of finely vacuolated, highly flattened, somewhat disorganized epithelial cells. No other significant clinical or histopathologic abnormalities were detected. No systemic infection by pathogenic bacteria was noted. The environmental cause of the epidemic is uncertain but the lesions suggest that some chronic stressor was involved. PMID:16244080

  20. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa) oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Crean, Joanne; de Almeida Borges, Vinícius Raphael; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Tajber, Lidia; Boylan, Fabio; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2013-01-01

    The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa) is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS). BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23990721