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Sample records for regeneratively cooled thrust

  1. A Regeneratively-Cooled Thrust Chamber for the Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kendall; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon; Jim Turner (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of presentation slides about the development of the regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The Fastrac engine was originally developed to demonstrate low cost design and fabrication methods. It was intended to be used in an expendable booster. The regen thrust chamber enables a more cost efficient test program. Using the low cost design and fabrication methodology designed for the 12K regeneratively cooled chamber, the contractor designed, developed and fabricated a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine.

  2. A Regeneratively Cooled Thrust Chamber For The Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kendall K.; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the development of a low-cost, regeneratively-cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The chamber was fabricated using hydraformed copper tubing to form the coolant jacket and wrapped with a fiber reinforced polymer composite Material to form a structural jacket. The thrust chamber design and fabrication approach was based upon Space America. Inc.'s 12,000 lb regeneratively-cooled LOX/kerosene rocket engine. Fabrication of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers by tubewall construction dates back to the early US ballistic missile programs. The most significant innovations in this design was the development of a low-cost process for fabrication from copper tubing (nickel alloy was the usual practice) and use of graphite composite overwrap as the pressure containment, which yields an easily fabricated, lightweight pressure jacket around the copper tubes A regeneratively-cooled reusable thrust chamber can benefit the Fastrac engine program by allowing more efficient (cost and scheduler testing). A proof-of-concept test article has been fabricated and will he tested at Marshall Space Flight Center in the late Summer or Fall of 2000.

  3. Investigation of electroforming techniques. [fabrication of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Copper and nickel electroforming was examined for the purpose of establishing the necessary processes and procedures for repeatable, successful fabrication of the outer structures of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. The selection of electrolytes for copper and nickel deposition is described. The development studies performed to refine and complete the processes necessary for successful chamber shell fabrication and the testing employed to verify the applicability of the processes and procedures to small scale hardware are described. Specifications were developed to afford a guideline for the electroforming of high quality outer shells on regeneratively cooled thrust chamber liners. Test results indicated repeatable mechanical properties could be produced in copper deposits from the copper sulfate electrolyte with periodic current reversal and in nickel deposits from the sulfamate solution. Use of inert, removable channel fillers and the conductivizing of such is described. Techniques (verified by test) which produce high integrity bonds to copper and copper alloy liners are discussed.

  4. A graphite-lined regeneratively cooled thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    Design concepts, based on use of graphite as a thermal barrier for regeneratively cooled FLOX-methane thrust chambers, have been screened and concepts selected for detailed thermodynamic, stress, and fabrication analyses. A single design employing AGCarb-101, a fibrous graphite composite material, for a thermal barrier liner and an electroformed nickel structure with integral coolant passages was selected for fabrication and testing. The fabrication processes and the test results are described and illustrated.

  5. Performance of a transpiration-regenerative cooled rocket thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valler, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing of a liquid rocket engine thrust chamber which is gas transpiration cooled in the high heat flux convergent portion of the chamber and water jacket cooled (simulated regenerative) in the barrel and divergent sections of the chamber are described. The engine burns LOX-hydrogen propellants at a chamber pressure of 600 psia. Various transpiration coolant flow rates were tested with resultant local hot gas wall temperatures in the 800 F to 1400 F range. The feasibility of transpiration cooling with hydrogen and helium, and the use of photo-etched copper platelets for heat transfer and coolant metering was successfully demonstrated.

  6. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers, task 1. [evaluation of filler materials for regeneratively cooled thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Schmid, T. E.; Hecht, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Filler materials proposed for use in the sputter fabrication regeneratively cooled thrust chambers were evaluated. Low melting castable alloys, CERROBEND. CERROCAST, and CERROTRU, slurry applied SERMETEL 481 and flame-sprayed aluminum were investigated as filler materials. Sputter deposition from a cylindrical cathode inverted magnestron was used to apply an OFHC copper closeout layer to filled OFHC copper ribbed-wall cylindrical substrates. The sputtered closeout layer structure was evaluated with respect to filler material contamination, predeposition machining and finishing operations, and deposition parameters. The application of aluminum by flame-spraying resulted in excessiver filler porosity. Though the outgassing from this porosity was found to be detrimental to the closeout layer structure, bond strengths in excess of 10,500 psi were achieved. Removal of the aluminum from the grooves was readily accomplished by leaching in a 7.0 molar solution of sodium hydroxide at 353 K. Of the other filler materials evaluated, CERROTRU was found to be the most suitable material with respect to completely filling the ribbed-wall cylinders and vacuum system compatibility. However, bond contamination resulted in low closeout layer bond strength with the CERROTRU filler. CERROBEND, CERROCAST, and SERMETEL 481 were found to be unacceptable as filler materials.

  7. Development of sputtering process to deposit stoichiometric zirconia coatings for the inside wall of regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia and zirconia-ceria mixtures were deposited by RF reactive sputtering. Coatings were 1-2 mils thick, and were deposited on copper cylinders intended to simulate the inner wall of a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber. Coating stoichiometry and adherence were investigated as functions of deposition parameters. Modest deposition rates (approximately 0.15 mil/hr) and subambient sustrate temperatures (-80 C) resulted in nearly stoichiometric coatings which remained adherent through thermal cycles between -196 and 400 C. Coatings deposited at higher rates or substrates temperatures exhibited greater oxygen deficiences, while coatings deposited at lower temperatures were not adherent. Substrate bias resulted in structural changes in the coating and high krypton contents; no clear effect on stoichiometry was observed.

  8. Development of improved electroforming technique. [for fabricating regeneratively cooled thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandles, L. C.; Davies, L. G.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques were studied to reinforce or strengthen electroformed nickel to allow a fuller utilization of electroforming as a reliable and low cost fabrication technique for regenerately cooled thrust chambers. Techniques for wire wrapping while electrodepositing were developed that can result in a structurally strong wall with less weight than a conventional electroformed wall. Also a technique of codepositing submicron sized THO2 particles with the nickel to form a dispersion strengthened structure was evaluated. The standard nickel cylinders exhibited an average hoop strength of 80,000 psi with a yield strength of 65,000 psi and a modulus of 25.6 x 10 to the 6th power psi. The as produced dispersion strengthened nickel showed a hoop strength of 97,000 psi with a yield strength of 67,000 psi. This is an increase of 17,000 psi or 21% over the standard nickel hoop strength. The wire wrapping cylinders showed an increased strength over the standard nickel test samples of 26,000 to 66,800 psi which is in the range of 26 to 104% increase in strength over the base standard nickel. These latter test results are indicative of a volume percent wire reinforcement from 15 to 31. The measured hoop strengths agree with calculated composite strengths based upon rule of mixtures.

  9. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  10. Propellant feed system of a regeneratively cooled scramjet

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, Takeshi; Masuya, Goro; Wakamatsu, Yoshio )

    1991-04-01

    An expander cycle for an airframe-integrated hydrogen-fueled scramjet is analyzed to study regenerative cooling characteristics and overall specific impulse. Below Mach 10, the specific impulse and thrust coincide with the reference values. At Mach numbers above 10, a reduction of the specific impulse occurs due to the coolant flow rate requirement, which is accompanied by an increase of thrust. It is shown that the thrust may be increased by injecting excess fuel into the combustor to compensate for the decrease of the specific impulse. 9 refs.

  11. Regeneratively cooled rocket engine for space storable propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication, and test efforts were performed for the existing OF2/B2H6 regeneratively cooled lK (4448 N) thrust chamber to illustrate simultaneous B2H6 fuel and OF2 oxidizer cooling and to provide results for a gaseous propellant condition injected into the combustion chamber. Data derived from performance, thermal and flow measurements confirmed predictions derived from previous test work and from concurrent analytical study. Development data derived from the experimental study were indicated to be sufficient to develop a preflight thrust chamber demonstrator prototype for future space mission objectives.

  12. Transpiration And Regenerative Cooling Of Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    Transpiration cooling extends limits of performance. Addition of transpiration cooling to regeneratively-cooled rocket-engine combustion chamber proposed. Modification improves performance of engine by allowing use of higher chamber pressure. Throat section of combustion-chamber wall cooled by transpiration, while chamber and nozzle sections cooled by fluid flowing in closed channels. Concept applicable to advanced, high-performance terrestrial engines or some kinds of industrial combustion chambers. With proper design, cooling scheme makes possible to achieve higher chamber pressure and higher overall performance in smaller engine.

  13. Cooling of rocket thrust chambers with liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Schlumberger, Julie A.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket engines using high pressure liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP-1) as the propellants have been considered for future launch vehicle propulsion. Generally, in regeneratively cooled engines, the fuel is used to cool the combustion chamber. However, hydrocarbons such as RP-1 are limited in their cooling capability at high temperatures and pressures. Therefore, LOX is being considered as an alternative coolant. However, there has been concern as to the effect on the integrity of the chamber liner if oxygen leaks into the combustion zone through fatigue cracks that may develop between the cooling passages and the hot-gas side wall. To address this concern, an investigation was previously conducted with simulated fatigue cracks upstream of the thrust chamber throat. When these chambers were tested, an unexpected melting in the throat region developed which was not in line with the simulated fatigue cracks. The current experimental program was conducted in order to determine the cause for the failure in the earlier thrust chambers and to further investigate the effects of cracks in the thrust chamber liner upstream of the throat. The thrust chambers were tested at oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratios from 1.5 to 2.86 at a nominal chamber pressure of 8.6 MPa. As a result of the test series, the reason for the failure occurring in the earlier work was determined to be injector anomalies. The LOX leaking through the simulated fatigue cracks did not affect the integrity of the chambers.

  14. Cooling of rocket thrust chambers with liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Schlumberger, Julie A.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket engines using high pressure liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP-1) as the propellants have been considered for future launch vehicle propulsion. Generaly, in regeneratively cooled engines, thefuel is used to cool the combustion chamber. However, hydrocarbons such as RP-1 are limited in their cooling capability at high temperatures and pressures. Therefore, LOX is being considered as an alternative coolant. However, there has been concern as to the effect on the integrity of the chamber liner if oxygen leaks into the combustion zone through fatigue cracks that may develop between the cooling passages and the hot-gas side wall. To address this concern, an investigation was previously conducted with simulated fatigue cracks upstream of the thrust chamber throat. When these chambers were tested, an unexpected melting in the throat region developed which was not in line with the simulated fatigue cracks. The current experimental program was conducted in order to determine the cause for the failure in the earlier thrust chambers and to further investigate the effects of cracks in the thrust chamber liner upstream of the throat. The thrust chambers were tested at oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratios from 1.5 to 2.86 at a nominal chamber pressure of 8.6 MPa. As a result of the test series, the reason for the failure occurring in the earlier work was determined to be injector anomalies. The LOX leaking through the simulated fatigue cracks did not affect the integrity of the chambers.

  15. Regeneratively cooled rocket engine for space storable propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.; Waldman, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and experimental studies were performed with the OF2 (F2/O2)/B2H6 propellant combination over a range in operating conditions to determine suitability for a space storable pressure fed engine configuration for an extended flight space vehicle configuration. The regenerative cooling mode selected for the thrust chamber was explored in detail with the use of both the fuel and oxidizer as coolants in an advanced milled channel construction thrust chamber design operating at 100 psia chamber pressure and a nominal mixture ratio of 3.0 with a 60:1 area ratio nozzle. Benefits of the simultaneous cooling as related to gaseous injection of both fuel and oxidizer propellants were defined. Heat transfer rates, performance and combustor stability were developed for impinging element triplet injectors in uncooled copper calorimeter hardware with flow, pressure and temperature instrumentation. Evaluation of the capabilities of the B2H6 and OF2 during analytical studies and numerous tests with flow through electrically heated blocks provided design criteria for subsequent regenerative chamber design and fabrication.

  16. Analysis of Regen Cooling in Rocket Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Merkle, C. L.; Li, D.; Sankaran, V.

    2004-01-01

    The use of detailed CFD modeling for the description of cooling in rocket chambers is discussed. The overall analysis includes a complete three-dimensional analysis of the flow in the regenerative cooling passages, conjugate heat transfer in the combustor walls, and the effects of film cooling on the inside chamber. The results in the present paper omit the effects of film cooling and include only regen cooling and the companion conjugate heat transfer. The hot combustion gases are replaced by a constant temperature wall boundary condition. Load balancing for parallel cluster computations is ensured by using single-block unstructured grids for both fluids and solids, and by using a 'multiple physical zones' to account for differences in the number of equations. Validation of the method is achieved by comparing simple two-dimensional solutions with analytical results. Representative results for cooling passages are presents showing the effects of heat conduction in the copper walls with tube aspect ratios of 1.5:l.

  17. Dimension-optimizing design method for annular-type cooling channel of thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie

    1995-05-01

    The new-generation liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant liquid fuel rocket engine will use a high-pressure combustion chamber arrangement. In this case, cooling the thrust chamber becomes a key technical problem. The article presents a design scheme for the geometric-dimension optimization of annular-type regenerative cooling channels. The aim of the optimization is minimum pressure losses as coolant passes through the cooling channel. As shown in typical computations and experiments, application of this optimizing design method can reduce 50 percent of pressure losses. In other words, the optimization design is advantageous in solving the cooling problem in high-pressure thrust chambers.

  18. Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Oxygen/Methane Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Greene, Christopher B.; Stout, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in concert with industry partner Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) utilized a Space Act Agreement to test an oxygen/methane engine system in the Summer of 2010. PWR provided a 5,500 lbf (24,465 N) LOX/LCH4 regenerative cycle engine to demonstrate advanced thrust chamber assembly hardware and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system. The chamber designs offered alternatives to traditional regenerative engine designs with improvements in cost and/or performance. MSFC provided the test stand, consumables and test personnel. The hot fire testing explored the effective cooling of one of the thrust chamber designs along with determining the combustion efficiency with variations of pressure and mixture ratio. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  19. Formed platelets for low cost regeneratively cooled rocket combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1992-02-01

    The ongoing work performed to demonstrate the fabrication feasibility of a formed platelet regeneratively cooled combustion chamber liner is described. The combustion chambers are fabricated in three or four axial sections from formed platelet stacks joined together. The platelets are etched, stacked, and bonded into flat panels that contain the regen passages. The flat panels are formed into the final contour with a die. The formed platelet approach takes advantage of the inherent low cost, high accuracy, and thin wall capability of photoetched platelet technology to fabricate long life, low cost rocket combustion chambers. Combustion chamber liner sections were fabricated with extremely thin (tw = 0.20 mm (0.008-in.)) hot gas side walls and very high aspect ratio coolant channels (aspect ratio greater than 10:1). Combustion chamber liner sections were formed of both Zr-Cu and stainless steel. The results of both the forming of individual panels and the joining of panels together are discussed. Work performed demonstrating the feasibility of rocket combustion chamber liners from formed platelets is described. A discussion of the benefits of chamber liners so constructed and of a chamber producing 176,000 N (40 Klbf) of thrust currently fabricated is presented. The results of a study examining the forming of large scale platelet panels for an Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) liner are included.

  20. Development of preliminary design program for combustor of regenerative cooled liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Won Kook; Seol, Woo Seok; Son, Min; Seo, Min Kyo; Koo, Jaye

    2011-10-01

    An integrated program was established to design a combustor for a liquid rocket engine and to analyze regenerative cooling results on a preliminary design level. Properties of burnt gas from a kerosene-LOx mixture in the combustor and rocket performance were calculated from CEA which is the code for the calculation of chemical equilibrium. The heat transfer of regenerative cooling was analyzed by using SUPERTRAPP code for coolant properties and by one-dimensional correlations of the heat transfer coefficient from the combustor liner to the coolant. Profiles of the combustors of F-1 and RS-27A engines were designed from similar input data and the present results were compared to actual data for validation. Finally, the combustors of 30 tonf class, 75 tonf class and 150 tonf class were designed from the required thrust, combustion chamber, exit pressure and mixture ratio of propellants. The wall temperature, heat flux and pressure drop were calculated for heat transfer analysis of regenerative cooling using the profiles.

  1. A hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine coolant passage design program (RECOP) for fluid-cooled thrust chambers and nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of coolant passages in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers is critical to the operation and safety of a rocket engine system. Designing a coolant passage is a complex thermal and hydraulic problem requiring an accurate understanding of the heat transfer between the combustion gas and the coolant. Every major rocket engine company has invested in the development of thrust chamber computer design and analysis tools; two examples are Rocketdyne's REGEN code and Aerojet's ELES program. In an effort to augment current design capabilities for government and industry, the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing a computer model to design coolant passages for advanced regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. The RECOP code incorporates state-of-the-art correlations, numerical techniques and design methods, certainly minimum requirements for generating optimum designs of future space chemical engines. A preliminary version of the RECOP model was recently completed and code validation work is in progress. This paper introduces major features of RECOP and compares the analysis to design points for the first test case engine; the Pratt & Whitney RL10A-3-3A thrust chamber.

  2. Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Oxygen/Methane Technology Development Between NASA MSFC and PWR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Greene, Christopher B.; Stout, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in concert with industry partner Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) utilized a Space Act Agreement to test an oxygen/methane engine system in the Summer of 2010. PWR provided a 5,500 lbf (24,465 N) LOX/LCH4 regenerative cycle engine to demonstrate advanced thrust chamber assembly hardware and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system. The chamber designs offered alternatives to traditional regenerative engine designs with improvements in cost and/or performance. MSFC provided the test stand, consumables and test personnel. The hot fire testing explored the effective cooling of one of the thrust chamber designs along with determining the combustion efficiency with variations of pressure and mixture ratio. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  3. Formed platelet liner concept for regeneratively cooled chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, W. M.; Tobin, S. E.; Mueggenburg, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the fabrication of a formed platelet regeneratively cooled combustion chamber liner is described, and the benefits offered by the combustor liner are discussed. The advantages of using formed platelet combustor liners include a substantially increased cycle life and decreased coolant pressure drop in conjunction with low manufacturing costs. In the initial experiments, zirconium copper combustor liner sections with a hot gas wall thickness as small as 0.008 inch and channel aspect ratios of 15 have been achieved. It is also shown that HIP provides an excellent bonding technique for joining chamber liner panels.

  4. Liquid Oxygen Cooling of Hydrocarbon Fueled Rocket Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.

    1989-01-01

    Rocket engines using liquid oxygen (LOX) and hydrocarbon fuel as the propellants are being given serious consideration for future launch vehicle propulsion. Normally, the fuel is used to regeneratively cool the combustion chamber. However, hydrocarbons such as RP-1 are limited in their cooling capability. Another possibility for the coolant is the liquid oxygen. Combustion chambers previously tested with LOX and RP-1 as propellants and LOX as the collant demonstrated the feasibility of using liquid oxygen as a coolant up to a chamber pressure of 13.8 MPa (2000 psia). However, there was concern as to the effect on the integrity of the chamber liner if oxygen leaks into the combustion zone through fatigue cracks that may develop between the cooling passages and the hot gas side wall. In order to study this effect, chambers were fabricated with slots machined upstream of the throat between the cooling passage wall and the hot gas side wall to simulate cracks. The chambers were tested at a nominal chamber pressure of 8.6 MPa (1247 psia) over a range of mixture ratios from 1.9 to 3.1 using liquid oxygen as the coolant. The results of the testing showed that the leaking LOX did not have a deleterious effect on the chambers in the region of the slots. However, there was unexplained melting in the throat region of both chambers, but not in line with the slots.

  5. Nondestructive Inspection Using Neutron for Regenerative Cooling Combustion Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuoka, Tadashi; Sato, Masaki; Moriya, Shin-Ichi; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Iikura, Hiroshi; Matsubayashi, Masatoshi

    The regenerative cooling combustion chamber of a liquid rocket engine is exposed to large temperature difference between the combustion gas and the coolant such as liquid hydrogen. It induces thermal stress, and strain is accumulated over cyclic firing tests in the chamber wall. To evaluate the strain and the deformation of chamber walls is important since the chamber life usually relates to such strain and deformation. The primary objective of the present study is to establish a method to obtain experimental data on strains and deformations for correlation with the numerical data. In this study, residual strains and radiographs of a combustion chamber were obtained by applying a neutron diffraction method and a neutron radiography. Furthermore, two-dimensional nonlinear finite element method (FEM) analyses were conducted to calculate the residual strain in the chamber wall. From data of strain measurements, the feasibility of a neutron diffraction method for a combustion chamber was shown because the data from a X-ray diffraction method and FEM analyses qualitatively corresponded with those from a neutron diffraction method. Concerning neutron radiography, a higher resolution was necessary to observe chamber wall deformation.

  6. Regeneratively cooled transition duct with transversely buffered impingement nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Jay A; Lee, Ching-Pang; Crawford, Michael E

    2015-04-21

    A cooling arrangement (56) having: a duct (30) configured to receive hot gases (16) from a combustor; and a flow sleeve (50) surrounding the duct and defining a cooling plenum (52) there between, wherein the flow sleeve is configured to form impingement cooling jets (70) emanating from dimples (82) in the flow sleeve effective to predominately cool the duct in an impingement cooling zone (60), and wherein the flow sleeve defines a convection cooling zone (64) effective to cool the duct solely via a cross-flow (76), the cross-flow comprising cooling fluid (72) exhausting from the impingement cooling zone. In the impingement cooling zone an undimpled portion (84) of the flow sleeve tapers away from the duct as the undimpled portion nears the convection cooling zone. The flow sleeve is configured to effect a greater velocity of the cross-flow in the convection cooling zone than in the impingement cooling zone.

  7. Design and analysis of a scramjet engine. [regenerative cooled and airframe-integrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts defined for the cooled-structures assembly of a hydrogen fueled, regeneratively cooled, airframe-integrated Scramjet engine are considered. Engine subsystems, in particular, the fuel subsystem associated with the operating engine are included along with the engine mounting and the interfacing with the airplane. The engine structure and thermal protection system, including the fuel injection struts are emphasized.

  8. Formed platelets for low cost regeneratively cooled rocket combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, W. M.; Hayes, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Formed platelet technology can be used to fabricate LO2/LH2-fueled rocket propulsion chambers with higher heat capacity, higher cycle life, and lower pressure drops, in conjunction with lower costs due to the application of high volume production methods. The formed-platelet combustor liner is an assembly of identical platelets, each of which is composed of diffusion-bonded, photoetched laminae with coolant flow passages; the platelets are also joined by diffusion bonding to form the combustor's circumference. Attention is given to the fabrication of a platelet combustion chamber generating 40 Klbf of thrust.

  9. Transient three-dimensional startup side load analysis of a regeneratively cooled nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop a computational methodology to capture the side load physics and to anchor the computed aerodynamic side loads with the available data by simulating the startup transient of a regeneratively cooled, high-aspect-ratio nozzle, hot-fired at sea level. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, reacting flow computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Emphases were put on the effects of regenerative cooling on shock formation inside the nozzle, and ramp rate on side load reduction. The results show that three types of asymmetric shock physics incur strong side loads: the generation of combustion wave, shock transitions, and shock pulsations across the nozzle lip, albeit the combustion wave can be avoided with sparklers during hot-firing. Results from both regenerative cooled and adiabatic wall boundary conditions capture the early shock transitions with corresponding side loads matching the measured secondary side load. It is theorized that the first transition from free-shock separation to restricted-shock separation is caused by the Coanda effect. After which the regeneratively cooled wall enhances the Coanda effect such that the supersonic jet stays attached, while the hot adiabatic wall fights off the Coanda effect, and the supersonic jet becomes detached most of the time. As a result, the computed peak side load and dominant frequency due to shock pulsation across the nozzle lip associated with the regeneratively cooled wall boundary condition match those of the test, while those associated with the adiabatic wall boundary condition are much too low. Moreover, shorter ramp time results show that higher ramp rate has the potential in reducing the nozzle side loads.

  10. Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    In previous tests of liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastropic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed here.

  11. Experimental and simulation study of a Gaseous oxygen/Gaseous hydrogen vortex cooling thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Li, Gongnan; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, RNG k-ε turbulence model and PDF non-premixed combustion model are used to simulate the influence of the diameter of the ring of hydrogen injectors and oxidizer-to-fuel ratio on the specific impulse of the vortex cooling thrust chamber. The simulation results and the experimental tests of a 2000 N Gaseous oxygen/Gaseous hydrogen vortex cooling thrust chamber reveal that the efficiency of the specific impulse improves significantly with increasing of the diameter of the ring of hydrogen injectors. Moreover, the optimum efficiency of the specific impulse is obtained when the oxidizer-to-fuel ratio is near the stoichiometric ratio.

  12. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  13. Thermal Stability of RP-2 for Hydrocarbon Boost Regenerative Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Deans, Matthew C.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.; Psaras, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of tests were performed in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Heated Tube Facility to study the heat transfer and thermal stability behavior of RP-2 under conditions similar to those found in rocket engine cooling channels. It has long been known that hydrocarbon fuels, such as RP-2, can decompose at high temperature to form deposits (coke) which can adversely impact rocket engine cooling channel performance. The heated tube facility provides a simple means to study these effects. Using resistively heated copper tubes in a vacuum chamber, flowing RP-2 was heated to explore thermal effects at a range of test conditions. Wall temperature (850-1050F) and bulk fluid temperature (300-500F) were varied to define thermal decomposition and stability at each condition. Flow velocity and pressure were fixed at 75 fts and 1000 psia, respectively. Additionally, five different batches of RP-2 were tested at identical conditions to examine any thermal stability differences resulting from batch to batch compositional variation. Among these tests was one with a potential coke reducing additive known as 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline (THQ). While copper tubes were used for the majority of tests, two exploratory tests were performed with a copper alloy known as GRCop-42. Each tube was instrumented with 15 thermocouples to examine the temperature profile, and carbon deposition at each thermocouple location was determined post-test in an oxidation furnace. In many tests, intermittent local temperature increases were observed visually and in the thermocouple data. These hot spots did not appear to correspond with a higher carbon deposition.

  14. Advanced thrust chamber designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, F. J.; Leach, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    A regeneratively cooled thrust chamber has been designed and fabricated, consisting of an inner TD nickel liner which was spin formed, welded, and machined and an outer shell of electroformed nickel. Coolant channels were produced in the outer surface of the inner liner by the electric discharge machining process before electroforming the shell. Accessory manifolds and piping were attached by welding. Manufacturing processes employed are described.

  15. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOEpatents

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  16. Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program has been planned at the NASA Lewis Research Center to build confidence in the feasibility of liquid oxygen cooling for hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. Although liquid oxygen cooling has previously been incorporated in test hardware, more runtime is necessary to gain confidence in this concept. In the previous tests, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot-gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastrophic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed in this report. Four thrust chambers, three with cracks and one without, should be tested. The axial location of the cracks should be varied parametrically. Each chamber should be instrumented to determine the effects of the cracks, as well as the overall performance and durability of the chambers.

  17. Transient Three-Dimensional Analysis of Nozzle Side Load in Regeneratively Cooled Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical investigations on the start-up side load physics for a regeneratively cooled, high-aspect-ratio nozzle were performed. The objectives of this study are to identify the three-dimensional side load physics and to compute the associated aerodynamic side load using an anchored computational methodology. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet condition based on an engine system simulation. Computations were performed for both the adiabatic and cooled walls in order to understand the effect of boundary conditions. Finite-rate chemistry was used throughout the study so that combustion effect is always included. The results show that three types of shock evolution are responsible for side loads: generation of combustion wave; transitions among free-shock separation, restricted-shock separation, and simultaneous free-shock and restricted shock separations; along with oscillation of shocks across the lip. Wall boundary conditions drastically affect the computed side load physics: the adiabatic nozzle prefers free-shock separation while the cooled nozzle favors restricted-shock separation, resulting in higher peak side load for the cooled nozzle than that of the adiabatic nozzle. By comparing the computed physics with those of test observations, it is concluded that cooled wall is a more realistic boundary condition, and the oscillation of the restricted-shock separation flow pattern across the lip along with its associated tangential shock motion are the dominant side load physics for a regeneratively cooled, high aspect-ratio rocket engine.

  18. Transient Three-Dimensional Startup Side Load Analysis of a Regeneratively Cooled Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop a computational methodology to capture the startup side load physics and to anchor the computed aerodynamic side loads with the available data from a regeneratively cooled, high-aspect-ratio nozzle, hot-fired at sea level. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, reacting flow computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer formulation, a transient 5 s inlet history based on an engine system simulation, and a wall temperature distribution to reflect the effect of regenerative cooling. To understand the effect of regenerative wall cooling, two transient computations were performed using the boundary conditions of adiabatic and cooled walls, respectively. The results show that three types of shock evolution are responsible for side loads: generation of combustion wave; transitions among free-shock separation, restricted-shock separation, and simultaneous free-shock and restricted shock separations; along with the pulsation of shocks across the lip, although the combustion wave is commonly eliminated with the sparklers during actual test. The test measured two side load events: a secondary and lower side load, followed by a primary and peak side load. Results from both wall boundary conditions captured the free-shock separation to restricted-shock separation transition with computed side loads matching the measured secondary side load. For the primary side load, the cooled wall transient produced restricted-shock pulsation across the nozzle lip with peak side load matching that of the test, while the adiabatic wall transient captured shock transitions and free-shock pulsation across the lip with computed peak side load 50% lower than that of the measurement. The computed dominant pulsation frequency of the cooled wall nozzle agrees with that of a separate test, while that of the adiabatic wall nozzle is more than 50% lower than that of the measurement. The computed teepee-like formation

  19. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.; Yost, M. C.; Tobin, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted on the regenerative cooled thrust chamber of the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine. The conditions for the tests and the durations obtained are presented. The tests demonstrated thrust chamber operation over the nominal ranges of chamber pressure mixture ratio. Variations in auxiliary film coolant flowrate were also demonstrated. High pressure tests were conducted to demonstrate the thrust chamber operation at conditions approaching the design chamber pressure for the derivative space tug application.

  20. Timing and conditions of peak metamorphism and cooling across the Zimithang Thrust, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Clare J.; Singh, Athokpam K.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Regis, Daniele; Halton, Alison M.; Singh, Rajkumar B.

    2014-07-01

    The Zimithang Thrust juxtaposes two lithotectonic units of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Arunachal Pradesh, NE India. Monazite U-Pb, muscovite 40Ar/39Ar and thermobarometric data from rocks in the hanging and footwall constrain the timing and conditions of their juxtaposition across the structure, and their subsequent cooling. Monazite grains in biotite-sillimanite gneiss in the hanging wall yield LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 16 ± 0.2 to 12.7 ± 0.4 Ma. A schistose gneiss within the high strain zone yields overlapping-to-younger monazite ages of 14.9 ± 0.3 to 11.5 ± 0.3 Ma. Garnet-staurolite-mica schists in the immediate footwall yield older monazite ages of 27.3 ± 0.6 to 17.1 ± 0.2 Ma. Temperature estimates from Ti-in-biotite and garnet-biotite thermometry suggest similar peak temperatures were achieved in the hanging and footwalls (~ 525-650 °C). Elevated temperatures of ~ 700 °C appear to have been reached in the high strain zone itself and in the footwall further from the thrust. Single grain fusion 40Ar/39Ar muscovite data from samples either side of the thrust yield ages of ~ 7 Ma, suggesting that movement along the thrust juxtaposed the two units by the time the closure temperature of Ar diffusion in muscovite had been reached. These data confirm previous suggestions that major orogen-parallel out-of-sequence structures disrupt the Greater Himalayan Sequence at different times during Himalayan evolution, and highlight an eastwards-younging trend in 40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling ages at equivalent structural levels along Himalayan strike.

  1. Feasibility Study on Neutron Diffraction Method for Evaluation of Residual Strain Distribution of Regenerative Cooled Combustion Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuoka, Tadashi; Moriya, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Masaki; Yoshida, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    The regenerative cooled combustion chamber of a cryogenic liquid rocket engine is exposed to a large temperature difference between the hot gas (about 3500K) and the liquid hydrogen (about 20K). This induces thermal stress, and strain is accumulated in the chamber wall throughout the cyclic firing tests. Evaluation of the stress and the strain distribution in a chamber wall is essential since chamber life is usually related to such stress and strain. In this study, the residual strain in a regenerative cooled combustion chamber wall was measured by applying the neutron diffraction method and the X-ray diffraction method. The measured data were compared with the numerical data by finite element analysis, and the feasibility of the neutron diffraction method for the regenerative cooled combustion chamber of a cryogenic liquid rocket engine was evaluated.

  2. Altitude testing of a flight weight, self-cooled, 2D thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, W. H.; Blozy, J. T.; Speir, D. W.; Lottig, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Augmented Deflector Exhaust Nozzle (ADEN) was tested in PSL-3 at NASA-Lewis Research Center using an F404 engine. The ADEN is a flight weight Single Expansion Ramp Nozzle with thrust vectoring, an internal cooling system utilizing the available engine fan flow, and a variable area throat controlled by the engine control system. Test conditions included dry and max A/B operation at nozzle pressure ratios from 2.0 to 15.0. High nozzle pressure loading was simulated to verify structural integrity at near maximum design pressure. Nozzle settings covered the full range in throat area and + or - 15 deg deflection angle. Test results demonstrated expected aerodynamic performance, cooling system effectiveness, control system stability, and mechanical integrity.

  3. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Copper Alloy Liners for Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) has been demonstrated as a method to form combustion chambers from copper alloys NARloy-Z and GRCop-84. Vacuum plasma spray forming is of particular interest in the forming of CuCrNb alloys such as GRCop-84, developed by NASA s Glenn Research Center, because the alloy cannot be formed using conventional casting and forging methods. This limitation is related to the levels of chromium and niobium in the alloy, which exceed the solubility limit in copper. Until recently, the only forming process that maintained the required microstructure of CrNb intermetallics was powder metallurgy formation of a billet from powder stock, followed by extrusion. This severely limits its usefulness in structural applications, particularly the complex shapes required for combustion chamber liners. This paper discusses the techniques used to form combustion chambers from CuCrNb and NARloy-Z, which will be used in regeneratively cooled liquid rocket combustion chambers.

  4. Heat transfer in rocket engine combustion chambers and regeneratively cooled nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    A conjugate heat transfer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to describe regenerative cooling in the main combustion chamber and nozzle and in the injector faceplate region for a launch vehicle class liquid rocket engine was developed. An injector model for sprays which treats the fluid as a variable density, single-phase media was formulated, incorporated into a version of the FDNS code, and used to simulate the injector flow typical of that in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Various chamber related heat transfer analyses were made to verify the predictive capability of the conjugate heat transfer analysis provided by the FDNS code. The density based version of the FDNS code with the real fluid property models developed was successful in predicting the streamtube combustion of individual injector elements.

  5. Heat transfer in rocket engine combustion chambers and regeneratively cooled nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A conjugate heat transfer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to describe regenerative cooling in the main combustion chamber and nozzle and in the injector faceplate region for a launch vehicle class liquid rocket engine was developed. An injector model for sprays which treats the fluid as a variable density, single-phase media was formulated, incorporated into a version of the FDNS code, and used to simulate the injector flow typical of that in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Various chamber related heat transfer analyses were made to verify the predictive capability of the conjugate heat transfer analysis provided by the FDNS code. The density based version of the FDNS code with the real fluid property models developed was successful in predicting the streamtube combustion of individual injector elements.

  6. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOEpatents

    Beaufrere, Albert H.

    1983-10-04

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  7. Prediction of engine performance and wall erosion due to film cooling for the 'fast track' ablative thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    1994-01-01

    Efforts have been made at the Propulsion Laboratory (MSFC) to design and develop new liquid rocket engines for small-class launch vehicles. Emphasis of the efforts is to reduce the engine development time with the use of conventional designs while meeting engine reliability criteria. Consequently, the engine cost should be reduced. A demonstrative ablative thrust chamber, called 'fast-track', has been built. To support the design of the 'fast-track' thrust chamber, predictions of the wall temperature and ablation erosion rate of the 'fast-track' thrust chamber have been performed using the computational fluid dynamics program REFLEQS (Reactive Flow Equation Solver). The analysis is intended to assess the amount of fuel to be used for film cooling so that the erosion rate of the chamber ablation does not exceed its allowable limit. In addition, the thrust chamber performance loss due to an increase of the film cooling is examined.

  8. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  9. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Reusable thrust chamber and injector concepts were evaluated for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine (OME). Parametric engine calculations were carried out by computer program for N2O4/amine, LOX/amine and LOX/hydrocarbon propellant combinations for engines incorporating regenerative cooled and insulated columbium thrust chambers. The calculation methods are described including the fuel vortex film cooling method of combustion gas temperature control, and performance prediction. A method of acceptance of a regeneratively cooled heat rejection reduction using a silicone oil additive was also demonstrated by heated tube heat transfer testing. Regeneratively cooled thrust chamber operation was also demonstrated where the injector was characterized for the OME application with a channel wall regenerative thrust chamber. Bomb stability testing of the demonstration chambers/injectors demonstrated recovery for the nominal design of acoustic cavities. Cavity geometry changes were also evaluated to assess their damping margin. Performance and combustion stability was demonstrated of the originally developed 10 inch diameter combustion pattern operating in an 8 inch diameter thrust chamber.

  10. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric data and preliminary designs on liquid rocket engines for low thrust cargo orbit-transfer-vehicles are described and those items where technology is required to enhance the designs are identified. The results of film cooling studies to establish the upper chamber pressure limit are given. The study showed that regen cooling with RP-1 was not feasible over the entire thrust and chamber pressure ranges. The thermal data showed that the RP-1 bulk temperature exceeded the study coking temperature limit of 1010 R. Based upon the results presented, O2/H2 and O2/CH4 regen engine systems and O2/H2 film cooled engines were selected for further study in the system analysis. Six engine design concepts are examined.

  11. Basement control on thermochronometer cooling ages: an example from the Andean fold-thrust belt in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; Ehlers, T. A.; Rak, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the style, geometry and kinematics of basement deformation where it is not exposed is an ongoing challenge in orogenic belts. Basement deformation must be inferred based on the resulting surface observables. Geologic map patterns, thermochronometer cooling signals, and synorogenic sediment distribution in the northern Bolivian Andes strongly argue for displacement on large-scale basement thrust sheets. To show the relationship between basement deformation and surface observables such as mapped geology and thermochronometer cooling ages, we link a forward modeled balanced cross section to a 2-D thermokinematic model to compare predicted to measured cooling ages. Applying isostasy and erosion to sequentially deformed balanced cross sections links the growth of hinterland structures to the developing foreland basins and highlights subsurface controls on surface geology. The cross section kinematics become velocity vectors by assigning ages to displacement amounts. A range of potential velocity vectors is then used to calculate heat transport, erosion, and rock cooling. Predicted cooling ages highlight that large basement ramps impart a significant and tractable cooling signal. This signal is the most visible in the across strike pattern of cooling ages for each system (zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/ He). The pronounced, predicted cooling age pattern generated by large basement thrust sheets match measured ages across the northern Bolivian Andes strongly suggesting basement deformation similar to that show in balanced cross sections.

  12. Liquid oxygen cooling of high pressure LOX/hydrocarbon rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. G.; Masters, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program using liquid oxygen (LOX) and RP-1 as the propellants and supercritical LOX as the coolant was conducted at 4.14, 8.27, and 13.79 MN/sq m (600, 1200, and 2000 psia) chamber pressure. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the cooling characteristics of LOX with the LOX/RP-1 propellants, the buildup of the soot on the hot-gas-side chamber wall, and the effect of an internal LOX leak on the structural integrity of the combustor. Five thrust chambers with throat diameters of 6.6 cm (2.5 in.) were tested successfully. The first three were tested at 4.14 MN/sq m (600 psia) chamber pressure over a mixture ratio range of 2.25 to 2.92. One of these three was tested for over 22 cyclic tests after the first through crack from the coolant channel to the combustion zone was observed with no apparent metal burning or distress. The fourth chamber was tested at 8.27 MN/sq m (1200 psia) chamber pressure over a mixture range of 1.93 to 2.98. The fourth and fifth chambers were tested at 13.79 MN/sq m (2000 psia) chamber pressure over a mixture ratio range of 1.79 to 2.68.

  13. Low-thrust Isp sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the cooling requirements and attainable specific impulse performance of engines in the 445 to 4448N thrust class utilizing LOX/RP-1, LOX/Hydrogen and LOX/Methane propellants is presented. The unique design requirements for the regenerative cooling of low-thrust engines operating at high pressures (up to 6894 kPa) were explored analytically by comparing single cooling with the fuel and the oxidizer, and dual cooling with both the fuel and the oxidizer. The effects of coolant channel geometry, chamber length, and contraction ratio on the ability to provide proper cooling were evaluated, as was the resulting specific impulse. The results show that larger contraction ratios and smaller channels are highly desirable for certain propellant combinations.

  14. Task 12 data dump (phase 2) OME integrated thrust chamber test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.; Pauckert, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics and performance of the orbit maneuvering engine for the space shuttle are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the regeneratively cooled thrust chamber of the engine. Tests were conducted to determine engine operating parameters during the start, shutdown, and restart. Characteristics of the integrated thrust chamber and the performance and thermal conditions for blowdown operation without supplementary boundary layer cooling were investigated. The results of the test program are presented.

  15. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  16. Fluid thrust control system. [for liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, W. L.; Jansen, H. B.; Lehmann, E. N. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A pure fluid thrust control system is described for a pump-fed, regeneratively cooled liquid propellant rocket engine. A proportional fluid amplifier and a bistable fluid amplifier control overshoot in the starting of the engine and take it to a predetermined thrust. An ejector type pump is provided in the line between the liquid hydrogen rocket nozzle heat exchanger and the turbine driving the fuel pump to aid in bringing the fluid at this point back into the regular system when it is not bypassed. The thrust control system is intended to function in environments too severe for mechanical controls.

  17. Reliability assessment of thrust chamber cooling concepts using probabilistic analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    The reliability of OFHC (Oxygen Free High Conductivity) copper and NARloy-Z thrust chambers is assessed by applying probabilistic structural analysis techniques to incorporate design parameter variability and uncertainty. Thrust chambers specifically evaluated are the cylindrical test fixtures employed in a plug-nozzle configuration at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Direct sampling Monte Carlo simulations based on a simplified life prediction methodology established probability densities of firing cycles to structural failure. Simulated cyclic lives demonstrated modest agreement to experiment. Similarly, regions of high structural failure probability were determined using a limit state approach employing calculated cumulative distribution functions for effective stress response and an assumed material strength distribution. A probability of failure of 0.012 was calculated at the center of the coolant channel hot-gas-side wall for an OFHC milled channel. Structural response was found to be sensitive to the uncertainties in the thrust chamber thermal environment and the material's thermal expansion coefficient.

  18. Fabrication of liquid-rocket thrust chambers by electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Kazaroff, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Electroforming has proven to be an excellent fabrication method for building liquid rocket regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. NASA sponsored technology programs have investigated both common and advanced methods. Using common procedures, several cooled spool pieces and thrust chambers have been made and successfully tested. The designs were made possible through the versatility of the electroforming procedure, which is not limited to simple geometric shapes. An advanced method of electroforming was used to produce a wire-wrapped, composite, pressure-loaded electroformed structure, which greatly increased the strength of the structure while still retaining the advantages of electroforming.

  19. Determination of thermal load in film cooled bipropellant thrust chambers by an inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinckel, J. N.; Savonov, R. I.; Patire, H.

    2013-03-01

    A method to obtain the heat load on the internal wall of a rocket thrust chamber using an inverse problem approach is described. According to the "classical" approach, the heat load on the internal wall of the chamber is assumed as the product of a heat transfer coefficient and the temperature difference of adiabatic wall temperature and local wall surface temperature. The time-dependent temperature distribution of the external wall of the thruster chamber is used to obtain empirical curve fittings to the temperature profile of the near wall flow field (adiabatic wall temperature) and the heat transfer coefficient profile. The applicability of the method is verified by applying it to three different problems; a model problem, an analytical solution, and a set of experimental data.

  20. Structural analysis of cylindrical thrust chambers, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A system of three computer programs is described for use in conjunction with the BOPAGE finite element program. The programs are demonstrated by analyzing cumulative plastic deformation in a regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chamber. The codes provide the capability to predict geometric and material nonlinear behavior of cyclically loaded structures without performing a cycle-by-cycle analysis over the life of the structure. The program set consists of a BOPACE restart tape reader routine, and extrapolation program and a plot package.

  1. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.; Tobin, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Analyses and preliminary designs of candidate OME propellant combinations and corresponding engine designs were conducted and evaluated in terms of performance, operating limits, program cost, risk, inherent life and maintainability. For the Rocketdyne recommended and NASA approved propellant combination and cooling concept (NTO/MMH regeneratively cooled engine), a demonstration thrust chamber was designed, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated to define operating characteristics and limits. Alternate fuel (50-50) operating characteristics were also investigated with the demonstration chamber. Adverse operating effects on regenerative cooled operation were evaluated using subscale electrically heated tubes and channels. An investigation of like doublet element characteristics using subscale tests was performed. Full scale 8- and 10-inch diameter like-doublet injectors for the OME were designed, fabricated, and tested. Injector stability was evaluated analytically and experimentally.

  2. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine, reusable thrust chamber program. Task 6: Data dump hot fuel element investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of reusable thrust chambers for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine was conducted. Tests were conducted using subscale injector hot-fire procedures for the injector configurations designed for a regenerative cooled engine. The effect of operating conditions and fuel temperature on combustion chamber performance was determined. Specific objectives of the evaluation were to examine the optimum like-doublet element geometry for operation at conditions consistent with a fuel regeneratively cooled engine (hot fuel, 200 to 250 F) and the sensitivity of the triplet injector element to hot fuels.

  3. Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

  4. Thrust chamber material technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrus, J. S.; Bordeau, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers work performed at Pratt & Whitney on development of copper-based materials for long-life, reusable, regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chambers. The program approached the goal of enhanced cyclic life through the application of rapid solidification to alloy development, to introduce fine dispersions to strengthen and stabilize the alloys at elevated temperatures. After screening of alloy systems, copper-based alloys containing Cr, Co, Hf, Ag, Ti, and Zr were processed by rapid-solidification atomization in bulk quantities. Those bulk alloys showing the most promise were characterized by tensile testing, thermal conductivity testing, and elevated-temperature, low-cycle fatigue (LFC) testing. Characterization indicated that Cu- 1.1 percent Hf exhibited the greatest potential as an improved-life thrust chamber material, exhibiting LCF life about four times that of NASA-Z. Other alloys (Cu- 0.6 percent Zr, and Cu- 0.6 percent Zr- 1.0 percent Cr) exhibited promise for use in this application, but needed more development work to balance properties.

  5. Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovsky, V.; Felix, C.; Mourou, G.

    2002-06-01

    We show that ring cavity regenerative amplifiers (regens) have distinct advantages over the linear ones for applications in chirped pulse amplification. Larger energy, better contrast and better isolation from the oscillator are experimentally demonstrated.

  6. Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovsky, V.; Felix, C.; Mourou, G.

    We show that ring cavity regenerative amplifiers (regens) have distinct advantages over the linear ones for applications in chirped pulse amplification. Larger energy, better contrast and better isolation from the oscillator are experimentally demonstrated.

  7. Graphical method for predicting life of a rocket thrust chamber with half-hard zirconium-copper liner and electroformed nickel closeout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating the life of a regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chamber was developed and is based on the hot-gas wall temperature and the temperature difference between the hot-gas wall and the outside surface of the closeout. This method permits a quick estimate of the life of a thrust chamber when design changes or test-cycle variations are considered. Strain range and life are presented graphically as functions of these temperature parameters for a typical high-performance rocket thrust chamber with a half-hard zirconium-copper liner and an electroformed nickel closeout.

  8. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Schmid, T. E.; Torrey, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques and materials were developed and evaluated for the fabrication and coating of advanced, long life, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. Materials were analyzed as fillers for sputter application of OFHC copper as a closeout layer to channeled inner structures; of the materials evaluated, aluminum was found to provide the highest bond strength and to be the most desirable for chamber fabrication. The structures and properties were investigated of thick sputtered OFHC copper, 0.15 Zr-Cu, Al2O3,-Cu, and SiC-Cu. Layered structures of OFHC copper and 0.15 Zr-Cu were investigated as means of improving chamber inner wall fatigue life. The evaluation of sputtered Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, NASA IIb-11, aluminum and Al2O3-Al alloys as high strength chamber outer jackets was performed. Techniques for refurbishing degraded thrust chambers with OFHC copper and coating thrust chambers with protective ZrO2 and graded ZrO2-copper thermal barrier coatings were developed.

  9. Influence of thrust belt geometry and shortening rate on thermochronometer cooling ages: Insights from thermokinematic and erosion modeling of the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in thermochronology and numerical modeling offer the potential to associate the age of thermochronometric samples to both exhumational and deformational processes. However, understanding how these components are related in compressional systems requires linking the geometry and magnitude of fault slip to the distribution and amount of erosion. To address this, we apply a 2-D thermokinematic model to a forward modeled balanced cross section to quantify the cooling history in fold-thrust belt settings. The restored cross section provides a kinematic path of rocks and structures necessary to reproduce the surface geology. By assigning ages to displacement amounts, we produced a range of potential velocity vectors used to calculate heat transport, erosion, and rock cooling. We test the predicted ages against a suite of previously published thermochronometric data from the Bhutan Himalaya to explore the utility of the data to constrain the timing, rate, and geometry of fault motion as well as variations in the exhumation rate. We evaluate the cooling history associated with a constant rate of shortening of 18 mm/yr, rates that are 2.0, 1.5, 0.75, and 0.5 times the constant rate, and rates that vary with time to determine which kinematic history best matches the measured cooling ages. The combination of relatively old apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He measured ages and younger (15-9 Ma) 40Ar/39Ar ages from white mica is best matched with faster rates (relative to constant rates) between 11.5 and 8 Ma and slower than constant rates from 17 to 11.5 Ma and 8 Ma to present.

  10. Hydrogen film cooling of a small hydrogen-oxygen thrust chamber and its effect on erosion rates of various ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, N.; Roberts, W. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine what arrangement of film-coolant-injection orifices should be used to decrease the erosion rates of small, high temperature, high pressure ablative thrust chambers without incurring a large penalty in combustion performance. All of the film cooling was supplied through holes in a ring between the outer row of injector elements and the chamber wall. The best arrangement, which had twice the number of holes as there were outer row injection elements, was also the simplest. The performance penalties, presented as a reduction in characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency, were 0.8 and 2.8 percentage points for the 10 and 20 percent cooling flows, respectively, The best film-coolant injector was then used to obtain erosion rates for 19 ablative materials. The throat erosion rate was reduced by a factor of 2.5 with a 10 percent coolant flow. Only the more expensive silica phenolic materials had low enough erosion rates to be considered for use in the nozzle throat. However, some of the cheaper materials might qualify for use in other areas of small nozzles with large throat diameters where the higher erosion rates are more acceptable.

  11. Validation of High Aspect Ratio Cooling in a 89 kN (20,000 lb(sub f)) Thrust Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadel, Mary F.; Meyer, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    In order to validate the benefits of high aspect ratio cooling channels in a large scale rocket combustion chamber, a high pressure, 89 kN (20,000 lbf) thrust, contoured combustion chamber was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Rocket Engine Test Facility. The combustion chamber was tested at chamber pressures from 5.5 to 11.0 MPa (800-1600 psia). The propellants were gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen at a nominal mixture ratio of six, and liquid hydrogen was used as the coolant. The combustion chamber was extensively instrumented with 30 backside skin thermocouples, 9 coolant channel rib thermocouples, and 10 coolant channel pressure taps. A total of 29 thermal cycles, each with one second of steady state combustion, were completed on the chamber. For 25 thermal cycles, the coolant mass flow rate was equal to the fuel mass flow rate. During the remaining four thermal cycles, the coolant mass flow rate was progressively reduced by 5, 6, 11, and 20 percent. Computer analysis agreed with coolant channel rib thermocouples within an average of 9 percent and with coolant channel pressure drops within an average of 20 percent. Hot-gas-side wall temperatures of the chamber showed up to 25 percent reduction, in the throat region, over that of a conventionally cooled combustion chamber. Reducing coolant mass flow yielded a reduction of up to 27 percent of the coolant pressure drop from that of a full flow case, while still maintaining up to a 13 percent reduction in a hot-gas-side wall temperature from that of a conventionally cooled combustion chamber.

  12. Hydrogen film/conductive cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewen, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Small scale nozzle tests using heated nitrogen were run to obtain effectiveness and wall heat transfer data with hydrogen film cooling. Effectiveness data are compared with an entrainment model developed from planar, unaccelerated flow data. Results indicate significant effects due to flow turning and acceleration. With injection velocity effects accounted for explicitly, heat transfer correlation coefficients were found to be the same with and without film cooling when properties are evaluated at an appropriate reference temperature for the local gas composition defined by the coolant effectiveness. A design study for an O2/H2 application with 300 psia (207 N/sq cm) chamber pressure and 1500 lbs (6670 N) thrust indicates an adiabatic wall design requires 4 to 5 percent of the total flow as hydrogen film cooling. Internal regenerative cooling designs were found to offer no reduction in coolant requirements.

  13. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  14. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  15. Regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, T.E.; Quinn, D.E.; Watson, J.E.

    1986-08-05

    A regenerative burner is described operable in fire and flue modes comprising: a burner shell having first and second internal chambers, the first chamber being disposed on the flame axis of the burner and the second chamber surrounding the radial perimeter of the first chamber; a gas permeable annular regenerative bed separating the first and second chambers such that gas flow between the first and second chambers must travel through the regenerative bed in a generally radial direction with respect to the flame axis; means for supplying combustion air to the second chamber when the burner is in the fire mode and for exhausting the products of combustion from the second chamber when the burner is in the flue mode; and means for supplying fuel in the vicinity of the flame axis for mixing with combustion air to support combustion when the burner is in the fire mode.

  16. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers. [coolant passage closing by triode sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Broch, J. W.; Allard, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for closing out coolant passages in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers by triode sputtering, using post and hollow Cu-0.15 percent Zr cathodes are described. The effects of aluminum composite filler materials, substrate preparation, sputter cleaning, substrate bias current density and system geometry on closeout layer bond strength and structure are evaluated. High strength closeout layers were sputtered over aluminum fillers. The tensile strength and microstructure of continuously sputtered Cu-0.15 percent Zr deposits were determined. These continuous sputtered deposits were as thick as 0.75 cm. Tensile strengths were consistently twice as great as the strength of the material in wrought form.

  17. Structural analysis of cylindrical thrust chambers, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    Life predictions of regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chambers are normally derived from classical material fatigue principles. The failures observed in experimental thrust chambers do not appear to be due entirely to material fatigue. The chamber coolant walls in the failed areas exhibit progressive bulging and thinning during cyclic firings until the wall stress finally exceeds the material rupture stress and failure occurs. A preliminary analysis of an oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper cylindrical thrust chamber demonstrated that the inclusion of cumulative cyclic plastic effects enables the observed coolant wall thinout to be predicted. The thinout curve constructed from the referent analysis of 10 firing cycles was extrapolated from the tenth cycle to the 200th cycle. The preliminary OFHC copper chamber 10-cycle analysis was extended so that the extrapolated thinout curve could be established by performing cyclic analysis of deformed configurations at 100 and 200 cycles. Thus the original range of extrapolation was reduced and the thinout curve was adjusted by using calculated thinout rates at 100 and 100 cycles. An analysis of the same underformed chamber model constructed of half-hard Amzirc to study the effect of material properties on the thinout curve is included.

  18. Regenerative fuel cell systems for project pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, J. R.; Hedstrom, J.; Vanderborgh, N. E.; Prokopius, P.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of a surface power program, an element of the exploration thrust of the Pathfinder project, and plans for meeting them are outlined. Technological assessment and tradeoff studies of fuel cell and electrolyzer technologies suitable for use in a regenerative fuel cell are described. The viability of proton exchange membranes (PEM) in meeting the system requirements is discussed.

  19. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  20. Analytical investigation of two hydrogen oxygen rocket engine systems for low-thrust application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Two hydrogen oxygen rocket engine system concepts were analyzed parametrically over a thrust range from 100 to 1000 pounds and a chamber pressure range from 175 to 1000 psia. Both concepts were regeneratively cooled with hydrogen and were pump fed by electric motor driven positive displacement pumps. Electric power was provided by either a turboalternator (turboalternator concept) or some means external to the engine system (auxiliary power concept). The turboalternator concept is discussed. The computer program used to conduct the analyses along with the design characteristics of the major engine system components is described. The feasible design range of the systems over the parametric range of thrust is discussed in terms of allowable chamber pressure. Engine system estimated performance, mass, and dimensional envelope parametric data within the feasible design range are presented.

  1. Regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Gitman, G.M.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a method of combusting fuel in a furnace having a pair of regenerative burners, each burner having a combustion chamber. It comprises: supplying fuel and oxygen alternatively to each burner to create alternating firing burners wherein the oxygen is supplied from two sources providing first and second oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations and simultaneously alternating the application of negative pressure to the remaining non-firing burner to recover heat from flue gases exhausted by the regenerative bed of the non-firing burner to be used further to preheat at least part of the oxygen being supplied to the firing burner; mixing the fuel with a fraction of the oxygen under substoichiometric combustion condition to create products of incomplete combustion to form a hot, luminous flame core containing partially pyrolized fuel; and mixing the partially pyrolyzed fuel with a remaining fraction of the oxygen to complete combustion of the pyrolized fuel; and controlling the total flow of fuel and oxygen supplied to each burner to provide each burner with a desired flame stoichiometry.

  2. Regenerative Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals for Mars and Beyond will require new power systems and in situ resource utilization technologies. Regenerative aerobraking may offer a revolutionary approach for in situ power generation and oxygen harvesting during these exploration missions. In theory, power and oxygen can be collected during aerobraking and stored for later use in orbit or on the planet. This technology would capture energy and oxygen from the plasma field that occurs naturally during hypersonic entry using well understood principles of magnetohydrodynamics and oxygen filtration. This innovative approach generates resources upon arrival at the operational site, and thus greatly differs from the traditional approach of taking everything you need with you from Earth. Fundamental analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and some testing of experimental hardware have established the basic feasibility of generating power during a Mars entry. Oxygen filtration at conditions consistent with spacecraft entry parameters at Mars has been studied to a lesser extent. Other uses of the MHD power are presented. This paper illustrates how some features of regenerative aerobraking may be applied to support human and robotic missions at Mars.

  3. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  4. A technology data base for the design of 500 to 5000-lb thrust class liquid rocket engines utilizing hydrogen and oxygen as propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of experimental evaluations of candidate designs for igniters, injectors, and propellant-cooled thrust chambers applicable to restartable high-performance, high-reliability upper-stage engines and to pulsing-type reaction control engines (RCE). Injection element types best suited for liquid, gas, and liquid/gas phase propellant supply are identified. The resulting interactions between element type, combustion efficiency, and chamber wall heating are compared. The distinction between thrust chamber design requirements for upper stage vs RCE applications as measured by cycle life requirements is translated into design configurations consisting of all-film-cooled, all-regeneratively-cooled, and composites of the two cooling approaches. The validity of the design approaches is confirmed by data from engine durability testing involving over 90,000 starts and 9,000 thermal cycles on RCE-type designs and multiple long-duration burns (up to 2,000 sec) on regeneratively cooled upper-stage designs.

  5. Fully relayed regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Alexander J.

    1981-01-01

    A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors, to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

  6. Uncertainty Analysis of Heat Transfer to Supercritical Hydrogen in Cooling Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Justin M.; Landrum, D. Brian

    2005-01-01

    Sound understanding of the cooling efficiency of supercritical hydrogen is crucial to the development of high pressure thrust chambers for regeneratively cooled LOX/LH2 rocket engines. This paper examines historical heat transfer correlations for supercritical hydrogen and the effects of uncertainties in hydrogen property data. It is shown that uncertainty due to property data alone can be as high as 10%. Previous heated tube experiments with supercritical hydrogen are summarized, and data from a number of heated tube experiments are analyzed to evaluate conditions for which the available correlations are valid.

  7. Regenerative (Regen) ECLSS Operations Water Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Barry

    2010-01-01

    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) ECLSS systems which includes the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of "water balance." Even more recently, in 2010 the Sabatier system came online which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water and drinking needs are well documented and used as a general plan when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent on a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS. This paper will review the various inputs to rate changes and inputs to planning events, including but not limited to; crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water containment availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints and finally the operational means by which flight controllers manage this new challenge of "water balance."

  8. Improved Regenerative Sorbent-Compressor Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual regenerative sorbent-compressor refrigerator attains regeneration efficiency and, therefore, overall power efficiency and performance greater than conventional refrigerators. Includes two fluid loops. In one, CH2FCF3 (R134a) ciculates by physical adsorption and desorption in four activated-charcoal sorption compressors. In other, liquid or gas coolant circulated by pump. Wave of regenerative heating and cooling propagates cyclically like peristatic wave among sorption compressors and associated heat exchangers. Powered by electricity, oil, gas, solar heat, or waste heat. Used as air conditioners, refrigerators, and heat pumps in industrial, home, and automotive applications.

  9. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  10. Improved Rhenium Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, John Scott

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-cooled bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for ascent/ descent engines and reaction control systems on various NASA missions and spacecraft, such as the Mars Sample Return and Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Currently, iridium (Ir)-lined rhenium (Re) combustion chambers are the state of the art for in-space engines. NASA's Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, a 150-lbf Ir-Re chamber produced by Plasma Processes and Aerojet Rocketdyne, recently set a hydrazine specific impulse record of 333.5 seconds. To withstand the high loads during terrestrial launch, Re chambers with improved mechanical properties are needed. Recent electrochemical forming (EL-Form"TM") results have shown considerable promise for improving Re's mechanical properties by producing a multilayered deposit composed of a tailored microstructure (i.e., Engineered Re). The Engineered Re processing techniques were optimized, and detailed characterization and mechanical properties tests were performed. The most promising techniques were selected and used to produce an Engineered Re AMBR-sized combustion chamber for testing at Aerojet Rocketdyne.

  11. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  12. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  13. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, Bernard P.; Becse, Imre

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  14. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  15. PPT Thrust Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A torsional-type thrust stand has been designed and built to test Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) in both single shot and repetitive operating modes. Using this stand, momentum per pulse was determined strictly as a function of thrust stand deflection, spring constant, and natural frequency. No empirical corrections were required. The accuracy of the method was verified using a swinging impact pendulum. Momentum transfer data between the thrust stand and the pendulum were consistent to within 1%. Following initial calibrations, the stand was used to test a Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES-8/9) thruster. The LES-8/9 system had a mass of approximately 7.5 kg, with a nominal thrust to weight ratio of 1.3 x 10(exp -5). A total of 34 single shot thruster pulses were individually measured. The average impulse bit per pulse was 266 microN-s, which was slightly less than the value of 300 microN-s published in previous reports on this device. Repetitive pulse measurements were performed similar to ordinary steady-state thrust measurements. The thruster was operated for 30 minutes at a repetition rate of 132 pulses per minute and yielded an average thrust of 573 microN. Using average thrust, the average impulse bit per pulse was estimated to be 260 microN-s, which was in agreement with the single shot data. Zero drift during the repetitive pulse test was found to be approximately 1% of the measured thrust.

  16. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of potential reusable thrust chamber concepts is studied. Propellant condidates were examined and analytically combined with potential cooling schemes. A data base of engine data which would assist in a configuration selection was produced. The data base verification was performed by the demonstration of a thrust chamber of a selected coolant scheme design. A full scale insulated columbium thrust chamber was used for propellant coolant configurations. Combustion stability of the injectors and a reduced size thrust chamber were experimentally verified as proof of concept demonstrations of the design and study results.

  17. A review of thrust-vectoring schemes for fighter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Re, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a review of thrust vectoring schemes for advanced fighter applications. Results are presented from wind tunnel and system integration studies on thrust vectoring nozzle concepts. Vectoring data are presented from wind tunnel tests of axisymmetric C-D (convergent-divergent) and nonaxisymmetric wedge, C-D, single ramp and USB (upper-surface blowing) nozzle concepts. Results from recent airframe/nozzle integration studies on the impact of thrust vectoring on weight, cooling and performance characteristics are discussed. This review indicates that the aircraft designer has, at his disposal, a wide range of thrust vectoring schemes which offer potential for added or improved aircraft capability.

  18. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  19. Ion thrusting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An ion thrusting system is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which a gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas molecules passing therethrough to form ions and electrons, and an accelerator element which accelerates the ions to form thrust. In some variations, a potential is applied to the ionization membrane may be reversed to thrust ions in an opposite direction. The ionization membrane may also include an opening with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of the gas being ionized. Methods of manufacture and use are also provided.

  20. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  1. High-power, null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kunning G; Walker, Mitchell L R

    2009-05-01

    This article presents the theory and operation of a null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand. The thrust stand design supports thrusters having a total mass up to 250 kg and measures thrust over a range of 1 mN to 5 N. The design uses a conventional inverted pendulum to increase sensitivity, coupled with a null-type feature to eliminate thrust alignment error due to deflection of thrust. The thrust stand position serves as the input to the null-circuit feedback control system and the output is the current to an electromagnetic actuator. Mechanical oscillations are actively damped with an electromagnetic damper. A closed-loop inclination system levels the stand while an active cooling system minimizes thermal effects. The thrust stand incorporates an in situ calibration rig. The thrust of a 3.4 kW Hall thruster is measured for thrust levels up to 230 mN. The uncertainty of the thrust measurements in this experiment is +/-0.6%, determined by examination of the hysteresis, drift of the zero offset and calibration slope variation. PMID:19485530

  2. Advanced cooling techniques for high-pressure hydrocarbon-fueled engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    The regenerative cooling limits (maximum chamber pressure) for 02/hydrocarbon gas generator and staged combustion cycle rocket engines over a thrust range of 89,000 N (20,000lbf) to 2,669,000 N (600,000 lbf) for a reusable life of 250 missions were defined. Maximum chamber pressure limits were first determined for the three propellant combinations (O2/CH4, O2/C3H8, and O2/RP-1 without a carbon layer (unenhanced designs). Chamber pressure cooling enhancement limits were then established for seven thermal barriers. The thermal barriers evaluated for these designs were: carbon layer, ceramic coating, graphite liner, film cooling, transpiration cooling, zoned combustion, and a combination of two of the above. All fluid barriers were assessed a 3 percent performance loss. Sensitivity studies were then conducted to determine the influence of cycle life and RP-1 decomposition temperature on chamber pressure limits. Chamber and nozzle design parameters are presented for the unenahanced and enhanced designs. The maximum regenerative cooled chamber pressure limits were attained with the O2/CH4 propellant combination. The O2/RP-1 designs relied on a carbon layer and liquid gas injection chamber contours, short chamber, to be competitive with the other two propellant combinations. This was attributed to the low decomposition temperature of RP-1.

  3. Thrust Vector Control using movable probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalleri, Robert; Tiarn, Weihnurng; Readey, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if movable probes or struts positioned in the nozzle can be used to provide Thrust Vector Control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The study employed CFD to determine estimates of the shock standoff distance from the probe. An empirical correlation was used to construct the shock shape and the pressure distribution generated by the probe. The TVC performance for a single and multiple number of probes was then used to determine requirements for a maximum thrust angle offset of 7.5 degrees. Consideration was given to what materials would be suitable for the probe and if active cooling is required. Based on the performance analysis and thermal requirements, a Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) system was sized. Indications are that a PTVC system weight is in the 1500 1bm weight range, compared to the existing weight of 7500 1bm for the SRB nozzle gimble system.

  4. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  5. Bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Monti, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Prof. Turksen is a very well known scientist in the stem cell biology field and he is also internationally known for his fundamental studies on claudin-6. In addition to his research activity he is editor for the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series (Humana Press) and editor-in-chief of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports..... PMID:26972720

  6. Thrust stand for low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Sun, Bao-yuan

    2010-09-01

    A thrust stand is developed for measuring the pulsed thrust generated by low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines. It mainly consists of a thrust dynamometer, a base frame, a connecting frame, and a data acquisition and processing system. The thrust dynamometer assembled with shear mode piezoelectric quartz sensors is developed as the core component of the thrust stand. It adopts integral shell structure. The sensors are inserted into unique double-elastic-half-ring grooves with an interference fit. The thrust is transferred to the sensors by means of static friction forces of fitting surfaces. The sensors could produce an amount of charges which are proportional to the thrust to be measured. The thrust stand is calibrated both statically and dynamically. The in situ static calibration is performed using a standard force sensor. The dynamic calibration is carried out using pendulum-typed steel ball impact technique. Typical thrust pulse is simulated by a trapezoidal impulse force. The results show that the thrust stand has a sensitivity of 25.832 mV/N, a linearity error of 0.24% FSO, and a repeatability error of 0.23% FSO. The first natural frequency of the thrust stand is 1245 Hz. The thrust stand can accurately measure thrust waveform of each firing, which is used for fine control of on-orbit vehicles in the thrust range of 5-20 N with pulse frequency of 50 Hz. PMID:20887003

  7. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  8. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  9. Regenerative photonic therapy: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

    2012-09-01

    After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

  10. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOEpatents

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  11. Regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Kackley, Nancy D.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1992-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for moderate-temperature, single-unit, regenerative fuel cells using either alkaline or solid polymer proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolytes. Attention is given to the results thus far obtained for Pt, Ir, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts. Alkaline electrolyte tests have been performed on a half-cell basis with a floating-electrode cell; PEM testing has been with complete fuel cells, using Nafion 117.

  12. Cytomics in regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz

    2008-02-01

    Cytomics is the high-content analysis of cell-systems [6, 78]. The area of Cytomics and Systems Biology received great attention during the last years as it harbours the promise to substantially impact on various fields of biomedicine, drug discovery, predictive medicine [6] and may have major potential for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine Cytomics includes process control of cell preparation and culturing using non-invasive detection techniques, quality control and standardization for GMP and GLP conformity and even prediction of cell fate based on sophisticated data analysis. Cytomics requires quantitative and stoichiometric single cell analysis. In some areas the leading cytometric techniques represent the cutting edge today. Many different applications/variations of multicolour staining were developed for flow- or slide-based cytometry (SBC) analysis of suspensions and sections to whole animal analysis [78]. SBC has become an important analytical technology in drug discovery, diagnosis and research and is an emerging technology for systems analysis [78]. It enables high-content high-throughput measurement of cell suspensions, cell cultures and tissues. In the last years various commercial SBC instruments were launched principally enabling to perform similar tasks. Standardisation as well as comparability of different instruments is a major challenge. Hyperspectral optical imaging may be implemented in SBC analysis for label free cell detection based on cellular autofluorescence [3]. All of these developments push the systemic approach of the analysis of biological specimens to enhance the outcome of regenerative medicine.

  13. Environmental Thrust Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This handbook was prepared as a tool to assist U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) employees coordinate their resources and efforts to help people improve their environment. Twenty-two projects are outlined as potential environmental thrusts at the community level. It is the role of USDA employees to encourage and assist, in every way possible,…

  14. Thrust stand for high-power electric propulsion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new high-power thrust stand developed for use with high-power (up to 250 kW) magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, which is installed in a high-vacuum MPD facility at Lewis Research Center. The design of the stand is based on inverted pendulum configuration, with the result of large displacements and high resolution. Calibration results showed that thrust measurements were linear and repeatable to within a fraction of 1 percent. The thrust stand was used for testing water-cooled MPD thrusters at power levels up to 125 kW. The thruster, however, is quite well suited for testing other types of electric propulsion devices.

  15. Design of a thrust stand for high power electric propulsion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    A thrust stand for use with high power electric propulsion devices was designed and tested. The thrust stand was specifically tailored to the needs of a 100 to 250 kW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster program currently in progress at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The thrust stand structure was built as an inverted pendulum arrangement, supported at the base by water-cooled electrical power flexures. Thrust stand tares due to thruster discharge current were demonstrated to be negligible. Tares due to an applied field magnet current, after considerable effort, were reduced to less than 3.0 percent of measured thrust. These tares, however, could be determined independently and subtracted from the indicated thrust measurement. A detailed description is given for the thrust stand design and operation with a 100 kW class MPD device. Other thrust stand tares due to vibration and thermal effects are discussed, along with issues of accuracy and repeatability.

  16. Design of a thrust stand for high power electric propulsion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    A thrust stand for use with high power electric propulsion devices has been designed and tested. The thrust stand was specifically tailored to the needs of a 0.1 to 0.25 MW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster program currently in progress at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The thrust stand structure was built as an inverted pendulum arrangement, supported at the base by water-cooled electrical power flexures. Thrust stand tares due to thruster discharge current were demonstrated to be negligible. Tares due to an applied field magnet current, after considerable effort, were reduced to less than 3.0 percent of measured thrust. These tares, however, could be determined independently and subtracted from the indicated thrust measurement. The paper gives a detailed description of the thrust stand design and operation with a 0.1 MW class MPD device. Other thrust stand tares due to vibration and thermal effects are discussed, along with issues of accuracy and repeatability.

  17. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  18. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  19. REGENERATIVE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Kabell, L.J.

    1958-11-25

    Electrical circults for use in computers and the like are described. particularly a regenerative bistable transistor amplifler which is iurned on by a clock signal when an information signal permits and is turned off by the clock signal. The amplifier porforms the above function with reduced power requirements for the clock signal and circuit operation. The power requirements are reduced in one way by employing transformer coupling which increases the collector circuit efficiency by eliminating the loss of power in the collector load resistor.

  20. Regenerative Sorption Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Wen, Liang-Chi; Bard, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Two-stage sorption refrigerator achieves increased efficiency via regenerative-heating concept in which waste heat from praseodymium/cerium oxide (PCO) chemisorption compressor runs charcoal/krypton (C/Kr) sorption compressor. Waste heat from each PCO sorption compressor used to power surrounding C/Kr sorption compressor. Flows of heat in two compressor modules controlled by gas-gap thermal switches. Has no wearing moving parts other than extremely long life, room-temperature check valves operating about twice per hour. Virtually no measurable vibration, and has potential operating life of at least ten years.

  1. Monte Mountain thrust, additional confirmation of the central Nevada thrust

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, A.K. ); Chamberlain, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    The Monte Mountain thrust, a newly identified thrust exposed in the Timpahute Range, east central Nevada places porous Devonian reservoir rocks over rich Mississippian source rocks at the peak oil generating window. The thrust provides insurmountable evidence of a thrust model that may lead to discovery of giant oil and gas fields along the 400-mi long central Nevada thrust belt. The Timpahute Range lies a little over 50 mi on strike to the south of the prolific Grant Canyon field. Scattered remnants of the north-trending thrust belt are obscured by parallel valleys of Tertiary valley fill and volcanics. The fact that the east-west-trending Timpahute Range could contain exposures of the north-south-trending central Nevada thrust belt attracted them to the range, Familiarity with the stratigraphic section led to the discovery of the thrust. As much as 750 ft of Devonian Guilmette sandstones, in the hanging wall just above the thrust contact have been erroneously mapped as Mississippian Scotty Wash sandstones. These Devonian sandstones could be excellent reservoir rocks. Sandstones in the Guilmette increase in thickness westward. East-vergent thrusting has juxtaposed plates of thicker Guilmette sandstones with plates of thinner sandstones, Reconstruction of Devonian paleogeography provides a clue to the amount of displacement along thrust boundaries.

  2. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out

    PubMed Central

    Pfenning, Michael A.; Gores, Gregory J.; Harper, C. Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Significance Regenerative medicine is at the

  3. Thin-rod Yb:YAG regenerative laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruko, A.; Nishio, M.; Matsubara, S.; Tanaka, M.; Takama, M.; Yoshida, T.; Kyomoto, K.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-average-power, high-repetition-rates picosecond-pulsed regenerative ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser amplifiers were developed. The architecture used in the amplifiers, which are named as thin-rod, has a unique cooling scheme like slab lasers and also has a unique pumping scheme like photonic crystal fiber lasers, is suitable for high-average power Ytterbium lasers. This architecture also has high gain characteristics which is appropriate for the regenerative spectral and pulse shaping on high-repetition-rate, ultrashort-pulse amplifications.

  4. Will Regenerative Medicine Replace Transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Soker, Shay; Stratta, Robert J.; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking advances in organ bioengineering and regeneration have provided evidence that regenerative medicine holds promise to dramatically improve the approach to organ transplantation. The two fields, however, share a common heritage. Alexis Carrel can be considered the father of both regenerative medicine and organ transplantation, and it is now clear that his legacy is equally applicable for the present and future generations of transplant and regenerative medicine investigators. In this review, we will briefly illustrate the interplay that should be established between these two complementary disciplines of health sciences. Although regenerative medicine has shown to the transplant field its potential, transplantation is destined to align with regenerative medicine and foster further progress probably more than either discipline alone. Organ bioengineering and regeneration technologies hold the promise to meet at the same time the two most urgent needs in organ transplantation, namely, the identification of a new, potentially inexhaustible source of organs and immunosuppression-free transplantation of tissues and organs. PMID:23906883

  5. Will regenerative medicine replace transplantation?

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Soker, Shay; Stratta, Robert J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Recent groundbreaking advances in organ bioengineering and regeneration have provided evidence that regenerative medicine holds promise to dramatically improve the approach to organ transplantation. The two fields, however, share a common heritage. Alexis Carrel can be considered the father of both regenerative medicine and organ transplantation, and it is now clear that his legacy is equally applicable for the present and future generations of transplant and regenerative medicine investigators. In this review, we will briefly illustrate the interplay that should be established between these two complementary disciplines of health sciences. Although regenerative medicine has shown to the transplant field its potential, transplantation is destined to align with regenerative medicine and foster further progress probably more than either discipline alone. Organ bioengineering and regeneration technologies hold the promise to meet at the same time the two most urgent needs in organ transplantation, namely, the identification of a new, potentially inexhaustible source of organs and immunosuppression-free transplantation of tissues and organs. PMID:23906883

  6. Advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of the advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis program. The primary objectives of this program were to: (1) provide an in-depth analytical investigation to develop thrust chamber cooling and fatigue life limitations of an advanced, high pressure, high performance H2/O2 engine design of 20,000-pounds (88960.0 N) thrust; and (2) integrate the existing heat transfer analysis, thermal fatigue and stress aspects for advanced chambers into a comprehensive computer program. Thrust chamber designs and analyses were performed to evaluate various combustor materials, coolant passage configurations (tubes and channels), and cooling circuits to define the nominal 1900 psia (1.31 x 10 to the 7th power N/sq m) chamber pressure, 300-cycle life thrust chamber. The cycle life capability of the selected configuration was then determined for three duty cycles. Also the influence of cycle life and chamber pressure on thrust chamber design was investigated by varying in cycle life requirements at the nominal chamber pressure and by varying the chamber pressure at the nominal cycle life requirement.

  7. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  8. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Mccatty, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  9. Hydrogels in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Brandon V.; Khurshid, Shahana S.; Fisher, Omar Z.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels, due to their unique biocompatibility, flexible methods of synthesis, range of constituents, and desirable physical characteristics, have been the material of choice for many applications in regenerative medicine. They can serve as scaffolds that provide structural integrity to tissue constructs, control drug and protein delivery to tissues and cultures, and serve as adhesives or barriers between tissue and material surfaces. In this work, the properties of hydrogels that are important for tissue engineering applications and the inherent material design constraints and challenges are discussed. Recent research involving several different hydrogels polymerized from a variety of synthetic and natural monomers using typical and novel synthetic methods are highlighted. Finally, special attention is given to the microfabrication techniques that are currently resulting in important advances in the field. PMID:20882499

  10. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; McCatty, Stephen A.

    1993-11-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  11. Regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1982-01-12

    Disclosed are several embodiments of a regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle. The device includes a plurality of rubber rollers (24, 26) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (14) connectable to the vehicle drivetrain and an output shaft (16) which is drivingly connected to the input shaft by a variable ratio transmission (20). When the transmission ratio is such that the input shaft rotates faster than the output shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy, thereby slowing the vehicle. When the transmission ratio is such that the output shaft rotates faster than the input shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally relaxed to deliver accumulated energy, thereby accelerating or driving the vehicle.

  12. Low thrust vehicle concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low thrust chemical (hydrogen-oxygen) propulsion systems configured specifically for low acceleration orbit transfer of large space systems were defined. Results indicate that it is cost effective and least risk to combine the OTV and stowed spacecraft in a single 65 K Shuttle. The study shows that the engine for an optimized low thrust stage (1) does not require very low thrust; (2) 1-3 K thrust range appears optimum; (3) thrust transient is not a concern; (4) throttling probably not worthwhile; and (5) multiple thrusters complicate OTV/LSS design and aggravate LSS loads. Regarding the optimum vehicle for low acceleration missions, the single shuttle launch (LSS and expendable OTV) is most cost effective and least risky. Multiple shuttles increase diameter 20%. The space based radar structure short OTV (which maximizes space available for packaged LSS) favors use of torus tank. Propellant tank pressures/vapor residuals are little affected by engine thrust level or number of burns.

  13. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Pancotti, Anthony; Haag, Thomas; King, Scott; Walker, Mitchell; Blakely, Joseph; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, direct measurement of thrust or impulse is one of the most critical elements of electric thruster characterization, and one of the most difficult measurements to make. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has started an initiative to develop standards for many important measurement processes in electric propulsion, including thrust measurements. This paper summarizes recommended practices for the design, calibration, and operation of pendulum thrust stands, which are widely recognized as the best approach for measuring micro N- to mN-level thrust and micro Ns-level impulse bits. The fundamentals of pendulum thrust stand operation are reviewed, along with its implementation in hanging pendulum, inverted pendulum, and torsional balance configurations. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Sources of error are identified and methods for data processing and uncertainty analysis are discussed. This review is intended to be the first step toward a recommended practices document to help the community produce high quality thrust measurements.

  14. Finite thrust orbital transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The finite thrust optimal transfer in the presence of the Earth's shadow and oblate planet perturbations is a problem of strong interest in modern telecommunication satellite design with plasmic propulsion. The Maximum Principle cannot be used in its standard form to deal with the Earth's shadow. In this paper, using a regularization of the Hamiltonian which expands the Maximum Principle application domain, we provide for the first time, the necessary conditions in a very general context for the finite thrust optimal transfer with limited power around an oblate planet. The costate in such problems is generally discontinuous. To obtain fast numerical solutions, the averaging of the Hamiltonian is introduced. Two classes of boundary conditions are analyzed and numerically solved: the minimum time and the minimum fuel at a fixed time. These two problems are the basic tools for designing the orbit raising of a satellite after the launcher injection into its separation orbit. Numerical solutions have been calculated for the more important applications of LEO to GEO/MEO missions and the results have been reported and discussed.

  15. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  16. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-11-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher

  17. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher

  18. Controls on thrust belt curvature, Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Structural curvature in the northern part of the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt (WITB) may be the result of either along-strike variations in pre-thrust stratigraphy or a buttress which physically concentrated shortening, or possibly both. Most thrust sheets of the WITB strike northward and were translated eastward, but in the Snake River Range (SRR) (the northernmost range in the WITB), structural strike curves from northward to nearly westward. Structural cross sections of the SRR are generally drawn in a radial pattern creating a volumetric imbalance in regional palinspastic restorations. Stratigraphic separation diagrams of major, through-going thrust faults in the SRR show extensive cut off in upper Paleozoic strata. New measured sections of upper Paleozoic stratigraphy at locations in several major thrust sheets of the WITB and in the foreland, new structural cross sections and mapping, and existing paleomagnetic data are used in a new interpretation of the origin of structural curvature in the WITB. Published paleomagnetic data require counterclockwise rotation of frontal thrust sheets along the northern boundary of the WITB, but no rotation of eastward-translated thrust sheets farther south along most of the WITB. Evidence for both a pre-existing west-trending depositional margin and rotation of frontal thrust sheets suggests that buttressing and modification of structural strike occurred along an oblique ramp where differences in stratigraphic thickness and possible pre-existing fault partitioning of the Paleozoic strata are localized.

  19. A helium regenerative compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors.

  20. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  1. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  2. Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1995-01-01

    A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

  3. Regenerative hyperpolarization in rods.

    PubMed Central

    Werblin, F S

    1975-01-01

    1. The electrical properties of the rods in Necturus maculosus were studied at the cell body and the outer segments in dark and light under current and voltage clamp with a pair of intracellular electrodes separated by about 1 mum. 2. The membrane resistance in the dark was voltage- and time-dependent both for the cell body and the outer segment. Slight depolarizations in the cell body reduced the slope resistance from 60 to 10 M omega with a time constant of about 1 sec. Polarization in either direction, at the outer segment, when greater than about 20 mV, reduced the slope resistance from 60 to 30 M omega. The dark potential in the cell body was typically -30 to -35 m V; at the outer segment it was typically only -10 to -15 mV. 3. The light-elicited voltage response in both the cell body and the outer segment was largest with the membrane near the dark potential level. In both regions, the response was reduced when the membrane was polarized in either direction. 4. Under voltage-clamp conditions, a reversal potential for the light response near + 10 mV was measured at the outer segment. At the cell body no reversal potential for the light response was measured; there the clamping current required during the light response was almost of the same magnitude at all potential levels. 5. When the membrane at the cell body was hyperpolarized in the dark under voltage clamp, a transient outward current, typically about one-half the magnitude of the initial inward clamping current was required to maintain the membrane at the clamped potential level. This outward current transient was associated with a decrease in membrane resistance with similar time course. The transient outward current reversed and became inward when the membrane was clamped to potentials more negative than -80 mV. Thus, the transient outward current appears to involve a transient activation initiated by hyperpolarization. I is regenerative in that it is initiated by hyperpolarization and tends to

  4. Solid rocket thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Thrust vector control systems that superimpose a side force on the motor thrust, steering being achieved by the side force causing a moment about the vehicle center of gravity are described. A brief review of thrust vector control systems is presented, and two systems, flexible joint and liquid injection, are treated in detail. Treatment of the flexible-joint thrust vector control system is limited to the design of the flexible joint and its insulation against hot motor gases. Treatment of the liquid injection thrust vector control system is limited to discussion of the injectant, valves, piping, storage tanks, and pressurization system; no evaluation is presented of the nozzle except for (1) the effect of the injectant and erosion at the injection port and (2) the effect of injection on pressure distribution within the nozzle.

  5. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1987-03-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report.

  6. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report. 57 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    1998-01-01

    A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator's ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA).

  8. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, E.J.

    1998-11-17

    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  9. Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

    2014-03-01

    Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has

  10. The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Justin M.; Furth, Mark E.; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase “regenerative pharmacology” to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is “the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues.” As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all. PMID:23818131

  11. Liquid rocket engine fluid-cooled combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A monograph on the design and development of fluid cooled combustion chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The subjects discussed are (1) regenerative cooling, (2) transpiration cooling, (3) film cooling, (4) structural analysis, (5) chamber reinforcement, and (6) operational problems.

  12. Fabrication of GRCop-84 Rocket Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William; Ellis, David

    2006-01-01

    GRCop-84, a copper alloy, Cu-8 at% Cr-4 at% Nb developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for regenerative1y cooled rocket engine liners has excellent combinations of elevated temperature strength, creep resistance, thermal conductivity and low cycle fatigue. GRCop-84 is produced from pre-alloyed atomized powder and has been fabricated into plate, sheet and tube forms as well as near net shapes. Fabrication processes to produce demonstration rocket combustion chambers will be presented and includes powder production, extruding, rolling, forming, friction stir welding, and metal spinning. GRCop-84 has excellent workability and can be readily fabricated into complex components using conventional powder and wrought metallurgy processes. Rolling was examined in detail for process sensitivity at various levels of total reduction, rolling speed and rolling temperature representing extremes of commercial processing conditions. Results indicate that process conditions can range over reasonable levels without any negative impact to properties.

  13. Fabrication of GRCop-84 Rocket Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2005-01-01

    GRCop-84, a copper alloy, Cu-8 at% Cr-4 at% Nb developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners has excellent combinations of elevated temperature strength, creep resistance, thermal conductivity and low cycle fatigue. GRCop-84 is produced from prealloyed atomized powder and has been fabricated into plate, sheet and tube forms as well as near net shapes. Fabrication processes to produce demonstration rocket combustion chambers will be presented and includes powder production, extruding, rolling, forming, friction stir welding, and metal spinning. GRCop-84 has excellent workability and can be readily fabricated into complex components using conventional powder and wrought metallurgy processes. Rolling was examined in detail for process sensitivity at various levels of total reduction, rolling speed and rolling temperature representing extremes of commercial processing conditions. Results indicate that process conditions can range over reasonable levels without any negative impact to properties.

  14. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, J.L.

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

  15. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. [Pleasanton, CA

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output.

  16. Low thrust optimal orbital transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1994-01-01

    For many optimal transfer problems it is reasonable to expect that the minimum time solution is also the minimum fuel solution. However, if one allows the propulsion system to be turned off and back on, it is clear that these two solutions may differ. In general, high thrust transfers resemble the well known impulsive transfers where the burn arcs are of very short duration. The low and medium thrust transfers differ in that their thrust acceleration levels yield longer burn arcs and thus will require more revolutions. In this research, we considered two approaches for solving this problem: a powered flight guidance algorithm previously developed for higher thrust transfers was modified and an 'averaging technique' was investigated.

  17. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  18. Micro thrust and heat generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to micromachines such as microengines or micromotors. More specifically, the invention is directed to a micro rocket which functions as a source of heat and thrust, and utilizes chemical energy to drive or power micromechanical apparatuses. The invention is adaptable to applications involving defense, bio-medical, manufacturing, consumer product, aviation, automotive, computer, inspection, and safety systems. A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachine techniques (LIGA).

  19. Regenerative Strategies for Craniofacial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Catharine B.; Pomerantz, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial disorders present markedly complicated problems in reconstruction because of the complex interactions of the multiple, simultaneously affected tissues. Regenerative medicine holds promise for new strategies to improve treatment of these disorders. This review addresses current areas of unmet need in craniofacial reconstruction and emphasizes how craniofacial tissues differ from their analogs elsewhere in the body. We present a problem-based approach to illustrate current treatment strategies for various craniofacial disorders, to highlight areas of need, and to suggest regenerative strategies for craniofacial bone, fat, muscle, nerve, and skin. For some tissues, current approaches offer excellent reconstructive solutions using autologous tissue or prosthetic materials. Thus, new “regenerative” approaches would need to offer major advantages in order to be adopted. In other tissues, the unmet need is great, and we suggest the greatest regenerative need is for muscle, skin, and nerve. The advent of composite facial tissue transplantation and the development of regenerative medicine are each likely to add important new paradigms to our treatment of craniofacial disorders. PMID:23248598

  20. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and

  1. Army (MANTECH) thrust area concept: Optics thrust area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopacz, Stanley P.

    1992-04-01

    With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.

  2. Army (MANTECH) Thrust Area Concept: Optics Thrust Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopacz, Stanley P.

    1992-01-01

    With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.

  3. Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.

    2016-03-01

    Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.

  4. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  5. Regenerative Fuel Cell Test Rig at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Bents, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell development effort at Glenn Research Center (GRC) involves the integration of a dedicated fuel cell and electrolyzer into an energy storage system test rig. The test rig consists of a fuel cell stack, an electrolysis stack, cooling pumps, a water transfer pump, gas recirculation pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), heat exchangers, isolation valves, pressure regulators, interconnecting tubing, nitrogen purge provisions, and instrumentation for control and monitoring purposes. The regenerative fuel cell (RFC) thus formed is a completely closed system which is capable of autonomous cyclic operation. The test rig provides direct current (DC) load and DC power supply to simulate power consumption and solar power input. In addition, chillers are used as the heat sink to dissipate the waste heat from the electrochemical stack operation. Various vents and nitrogen (N2) sources are included in case inert purging is necessary to safe the RFC test rig.

  6. Low Thrust, Deep Throttling, US/CIS Integrated NTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Kolganov, Vyacheslav; Rochow, Richard F.

    1994-07-01

    In 1993 our international team performed a follow-on ``Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine (NTRE) Extended Life Feasibility Assessment'' study for the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) at NASAs Lewis Research Center. The main purpose of this study was to complete the 1992 study matrix to assess NTRE designs at thrust levels of 22.5, 11.3, and 6.8 tonnes, using Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) reactor technology. An additional Aerojet goal was to continue improving the NTRE concept we had generated. Deep throttling, mission performance optimized engine design parametrics, and reliability/cost enhancing engine system simplifications were studied, because they seem to be the last three basic design improvements sorely needed by post-NERVA NTRE. Deep throttling improves engine life by eliminating damaging thermal and mechanical shocks caused by after-cooling with pulsed coolant flow. Alternately, it improves mission performance with steady flow after-cooling by minimizing reactor over-cooling. Deep throttling also provides a practical transition from high pressures and powers of the high thrust power cycle to the low pressures and powers of our electric power generating mode. Two deep throttling designs are discussed; a workable system that was studied and a simplified system that is recommended for future study. Mission-optimized engine thrust/weight (T/W) and Isp predictions are included along with system flow schemes and concept sketches.

  7. Electrospun Nanofibers for Regenerative Medicine**

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenying; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent progress in applying electrospun nanofibers to the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We begin with a brief introduction to electrospinning and nanofibers, with a focus on issues related to the selection of materials, incorporation of bioactive molecules, degradation characteristics, control of mechanical properties, and facilitation of cell infiltration. We then discuss a number of approaches to fabrication of scaffolds from electrospun nanofibers, including techniques for controlling the alignment of nanofibers and for producing scaffolds with complex architectures. We also highlight applications of the nanofiber-based scaffolds in four areas of regenerative medicine that involve nerves, dural tissues, tendons, and the tendon-to-bone insertion site. We conclude this review with perspectives on challenges and future directions for design, fabrication, and utilization of scaffolds based on electrospun nanofibers. PMID:23184683

  8. CMD kinetics and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The author’s theory of the cell memory disc (CMD) offers a radical and holistic picture of the cell from both functional and structural perspectives. Despite all of the attention that has been focused on different regenerative strategies, several serious CMD-based obstacles still remain that make current cell therapies inherently unethical, harmful, and largely ineffective from a clinical viewpoint. Accordingly, unless there is a real breakthrough in finding an alternative or complementary approach to overcome these barriers, all of the discussion regarding cell-based therapies may be fruitless. Hence, this paper focuses on the issue of CMD kinetics in an attempt to provide a fresh perspective on regenerative medicine. PMID:27186287

  9. Nanotechnology Biomimetic Cartilage Regenerative Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Jose Paulo; Myers, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage has a limited regenerative capacity. Faced with the clinical challenge of reconstruction of cartilage defects, the field of cartilage engineering has evolved. This article reviews current concepts and strategies in cartilage engineering with an emphasis on the application of nanotechnology in the production of biomimetic cartilage regenerative scaffolds. The structural architecture and composition of the cartilage extracellular matrix and the evolution of tissue engineering concepts and scaffold technology over the last two decades are outlined. Current advances in biomimetic techniques to produce nanoscaled fibrous scaffolds, together with innovative methods to improve scaffold biofunctionality with bioactive cues are highlighted. To date, the majority of research into cartilage regeneration has been focused on articular cartilage due to the high prevalence of large joint osteoarthritis in an increasingly aging population. Nevertheless, the principles and advances are applicable to cartilage engineering for plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:24883273

  10. Regenerative medicine in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Little, Melissa H; Kairath, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of renal failure has changed little in decades. Organ transplantation and dialysis continue to represent the only therapeutic options available. However, decades of fundamental research into the response of the kidney to acute injury and the processes driving progression to chronic kidney disease are beginning to open doors to new options. Similarly, continued investigations into the cellular and molecular basis of normal kidney development, together with major advances in stem cell biology, are now delivering options in regenerative medicine not possible as recently as a decade ago. In this review, we will discuss advances in regenerative medicine as it may be applied to the kidney. This will cover cellular therapies focused on ameliorating injury and improving repair as well as advancements in the generation of new renal tissue from stem/progenitor cells. PMID:27234568

  11. Low thrust propulsion literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Darrel

    1989-01-01

    A literature search was performed to investigate the area of low thrust propulsion. In an effort to evaluate this technology, a number of articles, obtained through the use of the NASA-RECON database, were collected and categorized. The study indicates that although much was done, particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, more can be done in the area of practical navigation and guidance. It is suggested that the older studies be reinvestigated to see what potential there exists for future low thrust applications.

  12. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  13. Elimination of High-Frequency Combustion Instability in the Fastrac Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, Marvin; Nesman, Tomas E.

    1999-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to stabilize the combustion of the Fastrac engine thrust chamber. The first few stability tests resulted in unstable combustion due ineffective acoustic cavity designs. The thrust chamber exhibited unstable combustion in the first-tangential mode and its harmonics. Combustion was stabilized by increasing the volume of the acoustic cavities and by plugging the dump-cooling orifices so that the cavities were uncooled. Although the first few stability tests resulted in unstable combustion, prior and subsequent long-duration performance tests of the Fastrac thrust chamber were spontaneously stable. Stability considerations during the injector faceplate design were based on the Hewitt correlation.

  14. Pulsed Electric Propulsion Thrust Stand Calibration Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andrea R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance of any propulsion device requires the accurate measurement of thrust. While chemical rocket thrust is typically measured using a load cell, the low thrust levels associated with electric propulsion (EP) systems necessitate the use of much more sensitive measurement techniques. The design and development of electric propulsion thrust stands that employ a conventional hanging pendulum arm connected to a balance mechanism consisting of a secondary arm and variable linkage have been reported in recent publications by Polzin et al. These works focused on performing steady-state thrust measurements and employed a static analysis of the thrust stand response. In the present work, we present a calibration method and data that will permit pulsed thrust measurements using the Variable Amplitude Hanging Pendulum with Extended Range (VAHPER) thrust stand. Pulsed thrust measurements are challenging in general because the pulsed thrust (impulse bit) occurs over a short timescale (typically 1 micros to 1 millisecond) and cannot be resolved directly. Consequently, the imparted impulse bit must be inferred through observation of the change in thrust stand motion effected by the pulse. Pulsed thrust measurements have typically only consisted of single-shot operation. In the present work, we discuss repetition-rate pulsed thruster operation and describe a method to perform these measurements. The thrust stand response can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system with a repetitive delta forcing function to represent the impulsive action of the thruster.

  15. Combustion effects on film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of: (1) a reactive environment on film cooling effectiveness, and (2) film cooling on rocket engine performance were determined experimentally in a rocket thrust chamber assembly operating with hydrogen and oxygen propellants at 300 psi chamber pressure. Tests were conducted using hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen film coolants in an instrumented, thin walled, steel thrust chamber. The film cooling, performance loss, and heat transfer coefficient data were correlated with the ALRC entrainment film cooling model which relates film coolant effectiveness and mixture ratio at the wall to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. In addition, a comprehensive thermal analysis computer program, HOCOOL, was prepared from previously existing ALRC computer programs and analytical techniques.

  16. Tectonothermal history of an exhumed thrust-sheet-top basin: An example from the south Pyrenean thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaume, Pierre; Meresse, Florian; Jolivet, Marc; Teixell, Antonio; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new balanced structural cross section of the Jaca thrust-sheet-top basin of the southern Pyrenees combined with paleothermometry and apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology data. The cross section, based on field data and interpretation of industrial seismic reflection profiles, allows refinement of previous interpretations of the south directed thrust system, involving the identification of new thrust faults, and of the kinematic relationships between basement and cover thrusts from the middle Eocene to the early Miocene. AFT analysis shows a southward decrease in the level of fission track resetting, from totally reset Paleozoic rocks and lower Eocene turbidites (indicative of heating to Tmax > ~120°C), to partially reset middle Eocene turbidites and no/very weak resetting in the upper Eocene-lower Oligocene molasse (Tmax < ~60°C). AFT results indicate a late Oligocene-early Miocene cooling event throughout the Axial Zone and Jaca Basin. Paleomaximum temperatures determined by vitrinite reflectance measurements and Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material reach up to ~240°C at the base of the turbidite succession. Inverse modeling of AFT and vitrinite reflectance data with the QTQt software for key samples show compatibility between vitrinite-derived Tmax and the AFT reset level for most of the samples. However, they also suggest that the highest temperatures determined in the lowermost turbidites correspond to a thermal anomaly rather than burial heating, possibly due to fluid circulation during thrust activity. From these results, we propose a new sequential restoration of the south Pyrenean thrust system propagation and related basin evolution.

  17. Simulation of a regenerative MW FEL amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, R.T.; Colson, W.B.; Wong, R.K.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1997-08-01

    Both oscillator and regenerative amplifier configurations are being studied to optimize the design of a MW class FEL. The regenerative amplifier uses a longer undulator and relies on higher extraction efficiency to achieve high average power, whereas the oscillator is a more compact overall design requiring the transport of the high energy electron beam around bends for energy recovery. Using parameters extrapolated from the 1 kW LANL regenerative amplifier, simulations study the feasibility of achieving 1 MW average power.

  18. [Nodular regenerative hyperplasia following liver tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Foulet, Armelle; Pilette, Christophe

    2005-10-01

    We reported a case of nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealed by hemorrhage from portal hypertention and ascites in a 81 years old patient. This patient presented two years ago hepatic tuberculosis well documented by liver biopsy. If this patient do not have exhaustive etiologic research of nodular regenerative hyperplasia, the relationship between the tuberculosis infection and the developpement of this nodular regenerative hyperplasia appears highly probable and must be researched. PMID:16435515

  19. Recognizing thrust faults on remote sensing images

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, G.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This article examines the geomorphic evidence for thrusting and compares it to the expression of other faults and unconformities on remote sensing images. No single feature identifies thrusting, but rather the coincidence of several factors builds a case for a thrust interpretation. An example from Pakistan illustrates the geomorphic criteria in an area with excellent exposures and classic thrust features. The structure interpretation is supported by construction of cross sections; together these are used to suggest areas of exploration interest.

  20. Regenerative Engineering and Bionic Limbs

    PubMed Central

    James, Roshan; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2015-01-01

    Amputations of the upper extremity are severely debilitating, current treatments support very basic limb movement, and patients undergo extensive physiotherapy and psychological counselling. There is no prosthesis that allows the amputees near-normal function. With increasing number of amputees due to injuries sustained in accidents, natural calamities and international conflicts, there is a growing requirement for novel strategies and new discoveries. Advances have been made in technological, material and in prosthesis integration where researchers are now exploring artificial prosthesis that integrate with the residual tissues and function based on signal impulses received from the residual nerves. Efforts are focused on challenging experts in different disciplines to integrate ideas and technologies to allow for the regeneration of injured tissues, recording on tissue signals and feed-back to facilitate responsive movements and gradations of muscle force. A fully functional replacement and regenerative or integrated prosthesis will rely on interface of biological process with robotic systems to allow individual control of movement such as at the elbow, forearm, digits and thumb in the upper extremity. Regenerative engineering focused on the regeneration of complex tissue and organ systems will be realized by the cross-fertilization of advances over the past thirty years in the fields of tissue engineering, nanotechnology, stem cell science, and developmental biology. The convergence of toolboxes crated within each discipline will allow interdisciplinary teams from engineering, science, and medicine to realize new strategies, mergers of disparate technologies, such as biophysics, smart bionics, and the healing power of the mind. Tackling the clinical challenges, interfacing the biological process with bionic technologies, engineering biological control of the electronic systems, and feed-back will be the important goals in regenerative engineering over the next

  1. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  2. Studies on Thrust Characteristic of High-Thrust Spiral Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominami, Tsutomu; Fujimoto, Yasutaka

    Linear actuators are used in various industrial applications. Connentional linear actuators are a combination of a rotational motor and a ball screw, a hydraulic actuator, or a linear motor. However, these actuators have some demerits. This paper proposes a spiral motor (SPRM) that comprises a spiral stator and a spiral mover. Owing to its spiral structure, the SPRM can be expected to show better performance as compared to the conventional linear actuator. However, it is not easy to manufacture spiral stators and spiral movers. In this paper, thrust and torque equations derived from a magnetic circuit are introduced. A prototype is developed and its specifications are provided. Sixty fan-shaped stator blocks are mounted on the frame and forty-eight fan-shaped mover blocks with flat surfaces are mounted on the axis. These blocks form an approximately spiral structure. The blocks are not difficult to manufacture. The feasibility of the developed SPRM is confirmed by performing basic experiments. First, the SPRM is driven by using synchronous control. Subsequently, the thrust is measured by a load cell and the thrust constant is determined.

  3. Effect of Tube Geometry on Regenerative Cooling Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parris, Daniel K.; Landrum, D. Brian

    2005-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in a rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by use of a commercial CFD and multiphysics software developed by the CFD Research Corp. called CFD-ACE+. The channels are characterized by high Reynolds number flow, varying aspect ratio, varying curvature, asymmetric and symmetric heating. The supercritical hydrogen coolant introduces large property variations that have a strong influence on the developing flow and the resulting heat transfer. This paper only shows the effect of aspect ratio and curvature for constant properties.

  4. Wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, D.J.; Bado, P.

    1988-11-01

    We describe a wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier which is used to amplify nanosecond slices from a single-frequency cw dye laser or 50-ps pulses emitted by a diode laser to energies in the 10-mJ range. The amplified 5-ns slices generated by the cw-pumped line narrowed dye laser are Fourier transform limited. The 50-ps pulses emitted by a gain-switched diode laser are amplified by more than 10 orders of magnitude in a single stage.

  5. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  6. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  7. Entropy Generation in Regenerative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Heat exchange to the oscillating flows in regenerative coolers generates entropy. These flows are characterized by oscillating mass flows and oscillating temperatures. Heat is transferred between the flow and heat exchangers and regenerators. In the former case, there is a steady temperature difference between the flow and the heat exchangers. In the latter case, there is no mean temperature difference. In this paper a mathematical model of the entropy generated is developed for both cases. Estimates of the entropy generated by this process are given for oscillating flows in heat exchangers and in regenerators. The practical significance of this entropy is also discussed.

  8. Low thrust orbit determination program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, P. E.; Shults, G. L.; Huling, K. R.; Ratliff, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Logical flow and guidelines are provided for the construction of a low thrust orbit determination computer program. The program, tentatively called FRACAS (filter response analysis for continuously accelerating spacecraft), is capable of generating a reference low thrust trajectory, performing a linear covariance analysis of guidance and navigation processes, and analyzing trajectory nonlinearities in Monte Carlo fashion. The choice of trajectory, guidance and navigation models has been made after extensive literature surveys and investigation of previous software. A key part of program design relied upon experience gained in developing and using Martin Marietta Aerospace programs: TOPSEP (Targeting/Optimization for Solar Electric Propulsion), GODSEP (Guidance and Orbit Determination for SEP) and SIMSEP (Simulation of SEP).

  9. Experimental fatigue life investigation of cylindrical thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The thrust chambers studied in the investigation have been designed for a possible use in the Space Shuttle main engine. An annular combustion chamber configuration was used, consisting of an annular injector, a liquid hydrogen cooled outer cylinder, which served as the test section, and a contoured water cooled centerbody which formed the throat. Twenty-two cylinders were fabricated by milling cooling channels into liners fabricated from the material to be evaluated. The three materials chosen for the liners include OFHC copper, Amzirc, and NARloy-Z. The cylinders were cyclically tested until failure occurred due to fatigue cracks in the hot-gas-side wall. It was found that cylinders with liners fabricated from NARloy-Z and aged Amzirc had the best cyclic life characteristics.

  10. The thrust minimization problem and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyukhin, A. V.; Petukhov, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    An indirect approach to the optimization of trajectories with finite thrust based on Pontryagin's maximum principle is discussed. The optimization is aimed at calculating the minimum thrust for a point-to-point flight completed within a given interval of time with a constant exhaust velocity and a constant power. This may help calculate the region of existence of the optimum trajectory with thrust switching: it is evident that the latter problem may be solved if minimum thrust is lower than or equal to the available thrust in the problem with switching. A technique for calculating the optimum trajectories with a finite thrust by solving the problem of minimization of the thrust acceleration with a subsequent numerical continuation with respect to the mass flow towards the thrust minimization problem is proposed. This technique offers an opportunity to detect degeneracies associated with the lack of thrust or specific impulse. In effect, it allows one to calculate the boundaries of the region of existence of trajectories with thrust switching and thus makes it possible to automate the process of solving the problem of optimization of trajectories with thrust switching.

  11. Regenerative thermal oxidation for non-conventional applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselin, G.; Gravel, J.J.O.

    1999-07-01

    Regenerative Thermal Oxidation has been applied by Biothermica to treat non-conventional emissions. These emissions include pollutants as VOC, COC, TRS, PAH, PCB, HCl and odors. In the kraft pulping industry, environmental requirements for reduced emissions of total reduced sulfur (TRS) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from pulping operations are leading to incinerators of high destruction efficiency and thermal performance. The first installation in Canada of a Regenerative Thermal Oxidation (RTO) was placed in service early in 1997 at a kraft pulp mill in the province of Quebec. Tests have shown a TRS reduction of 99.6% with a thermal efficiency of 88.5% in the RTO. It can be considered the best method to comply with the new norms for TRS atmospheric emissions in the pulp and paper industry. In the primary aluminum process, a marked improvement in anode properties can be gained by preparing the paste at high temperature, followed by cooling with a water addition in an intensive mixer. However, the addition of cooling water results in a large increase in the emissions of VOC and PAH which can prejudice the process. A number of emission control processes were evaluated. An improved Regenerative Thermal Oxidation (RTO) unit was installed in a modern aluminum plant in Canada. The emissions of VOCs and PAHs from an EIRICH intensive mixer-cooler were reduced by more than 99.9% while all troublesome deposits in the fumes collection system were eliminated. This enabled the plant to remain well within the emission levels allowed by the environmental authority while enjoying considerable benefits from improved anode qualities. In the asphalt roofing industry, RTO was applied to treat the VOC and COC emissions and several units have been in operation since 1990. In the United States two units were installed in asphalt shingle plants and new features in the process show a VOC and COC reduction of 99%.

  12. Theoretical and experimental study on regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Raggi, L.; Katsuta, Masafumi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Isshiki, Seita

    1997-12-31

    Recently a quite new type of hot air engine called rotary displacer engine, in which the displacer is a rotating disk enclosed in a cylinder, has been conceived and developed. The working gas, contained in a notch excavated in the disk, is heated and cooled alternately, on account of the heat transferred through the enclosing cylinder that is heated at one side and cooled at the opposite one. The gas temperature oscillations cause the pressure fluctuations that get out mechanical power acting on a power piston. In order to attempt to increase the performances for this kind of engine, the authors propose three different regeneration methods. The first one comprises two coaxial disks that, revolving in opposite ways, cause a temperature gradient on the cylinder wall and a regenerative axial heat conduction through fins shaped on the cylinder inner wall. The other two methods are based on the heat transferred by a proper closed circuit that in one case has a circulating liquid inside and in the other one is formed by several heat pipes working each one for different temperatures. An engine based on the first principle, the Regenerative Tandem Contra-Rotary Displacer Stirling Engine, has been realized and experimented. In this paper experimental results with and without regeneration are reported comparatively with a detailed description of the unity. A basic explanation of the working principle of this engine and a theoretical analysis investigating the main influential parameters for the regenerative effect are done. This new rotating displacer Stirling engines, for their simplicity, are expected to attain high rotational speed especially for applications as demonstration and hobby unities.

  13. AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative) refrigeration for low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative) refrigeration technology for low temperature applications that is a novel cooling method to expand the temperature span of magnetic refrigerator. The key component of the AMR system is a porous magnetic regenerator which allows a heat transfer medium (typically helium gas) to flow through it and therefore obviate intermittently operating an external heat switch. The AMR system alternatingly heats and cools the heat transfer medium by convection when the magneto-caloric effect is created under varying magnetic field. AMR may extend the temperature span for wider range than ADR (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) at higher temperatures above 10 K because magneto-caloric effects are typically concentrated in a small temperature range in usual magnetic refrigerants. The regenerative concept theoretically enables each magnetic refrigerant to experience a pseudo-Carnot magnetic refrigeration cycle in a wide temperature span if it is properly designed, although adequate thermodynamic matching of strongly temperature-dependent MCE (magneto-caloric effect) of the regenerator material and the heat capacity of fluid flow is often tricky due to inherent characteristics of magnetic materials. This paper covers historical developments, fundamental concepts, key components, applications, and recent research trends of AMR refrigerators for liquid helium or liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  14. Regenerative Medicine for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    YASUHARA, Takao; KAMEDA, Masahiro; AGARI, Takashi; DATE, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine for Parkinson’s disease (PD) is expected to develop dramatically with the advancement of biotechnology as represented by induced pluripotent stem cells. Existing therapeutic strategy for PD consists of medication using L-DOPA, surgery such as deep brain stimulation and rehabilitation. Current treatment cannot stop the progression of the disease, although there is definite therapeutic effect. True neurorestoration is strongly desired by regenerative medicine. This review article describes the historical development of regenerative medicine for PD, with a focus on fetal nigral cell transplantation and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor infusion. Subsequently, the current status of regenerative medicine for PD in terms of cell therapy and gene therapy are reviewed. In the end, the future direction to realize regenerative medicine for PD is discussed. PMID:25746305

  15. Changes in Regenerative Capacity through Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Yun, Maximina H

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms experience changes in regenerative abilities through their lifespan. During aging, numerous tissues exhibit a progressive decline in homeostasis and regeneration that results in tissue degeneration, malfunction and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for this decay are both cell intrinsic, such as cellular senescence, as well as cell-extrinsic, such as changes in the regenerative environment. Understanding how these mechanisms impact on regenerative processes is essential to devise therapeutic approaches to improve tissue regeneration and extend healthspan. This review offers an overview of how regenerative abilities change through lifespan in various organisms, the factors that underlie such changes and the avenues for therapeutic intervention. It focuses on established models of mammalian regeneration as well as on models in which regenerative abilities do not decline with age, as these can deliver valuable insights for our understanding of the interplay between regeneration and aging. PMID:26512653

  16. Changes in Regenerative Capacity through Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Maximina H.

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms experience changes in regenerative abilities through their lifespan. During aging, numerous tissues exhibit a progressive decline in homeostasis and regeneration that results in tissue degeneration, malfunction and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for this decay are both cell intrinsic, such as cellular senescence, as well as cell-extrinsic, such as changes in the regenerative environment. Understanding how these mechanisms impact on regenerative processes is essential to devise therapeutic approaches to improve tissue regeneration and extend healthspan. This review offers an overview of how regenerative abilities change through lifespan in various organisms, the factors that underlie such changes and the avenues for therapeutic intervention. It focuses on established models of mammalian regeneration as well as on models in which regenerative abilities do not decline with age, as these can deliver valuable insights for our understanding of the interplay between regeneration and aging. PMID:26512653

  17. Constraints on the tectonics of the Mule Mountains thrust system, southeast California and southwest Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M. )

    1990-11-10

    The Mule Mountains thrust system crops out discontinuously over a 100-km-strike length in the Blythe-Quartzsite region of southeast California and southwest Arizona. Along the thrust system, middle and upper crustal metamorphic and plutonic rocks of Proterozoic and Mesozoic age are thrust north-northeastward (015{degree} to 035{degree}) over a lower plate metamorphic terrane that formed part of the Proterozoic North American craton, its Paleozoic sedimentary rock cover, overlying Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and the intruding Jurassic and Cretaceous granitic rocks. Stratigraphic, petrologic, and Pb isotopic ties for Jurassic granitoids and for Jurassic( ) and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the various parts of the thrust system indicate that related crustal blocks are superposed and preclude it from having large displacements. The thick-skinned thrust system is structurally symmetrical along its length with a central domain of synmetamorphic thrust faults that are flanked by western and eastern domains where lower plate domains where lower plate synclines underlie the thrusts. Deformation occurred under low greenschist facies metamorphic conditions in the upper crust. Movement along the thrust system was probably limited to no more than a few tens of kilometers and occurred between 79{plus minus}2 Ma and 70{plus minus}4 Ma. The superposition of related rocks and the geometry of the thrust system preclude it from being a major tectonic boundary of post-Middle Jurassic age, as has been previously proposed. Rather, the thrust system forms the southern boundary of the narrow zone of Cretaceous intracratonic deformation, and it is one of the last tectonic events in the zone prior to regional cooling.

  18. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  19. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  20. Performance of Simple Gas Foil Thrust Bearings in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Foil bearings are self-acting hydrodynamics devices used to support high speed rotating machinery. The advantages that they offer to process fluid lubricated machines include: high rotational speed capability, no auxiliary lubrication system, non-contacting high speed operation, and improved damping as compared to rigid hydrodynamic bearings. NASA has had a sporadic research program in this technology for almost 6 decades. Advances in the technology and understanding of foil journal bearings have enabled several new commercial products in recent years. These products include oil-free turbochargers for both heavy trucks and automobiles, high speed electric motors, microturbines for distributed power generation, and turbojet engines. However, the foil thrust bearing has not received a complimentary level of research and therefore has become the weak link of oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to both provide machine designers with basic performance parameters and to elucidate the underlying physics of foil thrust bearings, NASA Glenn Research Center has completed an effort to experimentally measure the performance of simple gas foil thrust bearing in air. The database includes simple bump foil supported thrust bearings with full geometry and manufacturing techniques available to the user. Test conditions consist of air at ambient pressure and temperatures up to 500 C and rotational speeds to 55,000 rpm. A complete set of axial load, frictional torque, and rotational speed is presented for two different compliant sub-structures and inter-pad gaps. Data obtained from commercially available foil thrust bearings both with and without active cooling is presented for comparison. A significant observation made possible by this data set is the speed-load capacity characteristic of foil thrust bearings. Whereas for the foil journal bearing the load capacity increases linearly with rotational speed, the foil thrust bearing operates in the hydrodynamic high speed limit. In

  1. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Mihaela; Corselli, Mirko; Chen, William CW; Péault, Bruno; Moldovan, NI

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We and others recently described that MSC originate from two types of perivascular cells, namely pericytes and adventitial cells and contain the in situ counterpart of MSC in developing and adult human organs, which can be prospectively purified using well defined cell surface markers. Pericytes encircle endothelial cells of capillaries and microvessels and express the adhesion molecule CD146 and the PDGFRβ, but lack endothelial and haematopoietic markers such as CD34, CD31, vWF (von Willebrand factor), the ligand for Ulex europaeus 1 (UEA1) and CD45 respectively. The proteoglycan NG2 is a pericyte marker exclusively associated with the arterial system. Besides its expression in smooth muscle cells, smooth muscle actin (αSMA) is also detected in subsets of pericytes. Adventitial cells surround the largest vessels and, opposite to pericytes, are not closely associated to endothelial cells. Adventitial cells express CD34 and lack αSMA and all endothelial and haematopoietic cell markers, as for pericytes. Altogether, pericytes and adventitial perivascular cells express in situ and in culture markers of MSC and display capacities to differentiate towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic cell lineages. Importantly, adventitial cells can differentiate into pericyte-like cells under inductive conditions in vitro. Altogether, using purified perivascular cells instead of MSC may bring higher benefits to regenerative medicine, including the possibility, for the first time, to use these cells uncultured. PMID:22882758

  2. Modular multi-engine thrust control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a modular thrust control lever assembly for controling forward/reverse thrust generated by an aircraft engine. It includes an electric/electronic engine thrust control system, an inhibit mechanism for preventing inadverent or premature establishment of at least one of forward and reverse engine thrust. It consists of a (a) housing; (b) a control lever assembly pivotally mounted within the housing for fore and aft pivotal movement in a single vertical plane; (c) movable inhibit mechanism normally mounted in the path of movement of the laterally projecting roller on the control lever assembly between at least one of the maximum thrust limit positions of the assembly and the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (d) a electric/electronic engine thrust control system including an mechanism for reconfiguring the thrust controls of the engine upon movement of the thrust control lever assembly to the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (e) a mechanism responsive to the output signal for shifting the inhibit mechanism out of the path of movement of the control lever assembly.

  3. Modeling regenerative braking and storage for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Donnelly, K.

    1997-12-31

    The fuel savings benefits of regenerative braking and storage for vehicles are often described but not quantified. For example, the federal government and automobile manufacturers are sponsoring a Program for a New Generation of Vehicles (PGNV) with a goal of obtaining a performance of 80 mpg in a family size car. It is typically suggested that such a vehicle will be a hybrid engine and electric drive with regenerative braking. The authors note that while regenerative braking has the potential of saving fuel, it may also do more harm than good as a result of additional weight, less than ideal charge/discharge efficiency on the batteries or storage flywheels and the limited portion of the entire driving cycle when regenerative braking can be utilized. The authors also noted that if regenerative braking can have a net benefit, it would be on a heavy vehicle such as a municipal bus because of the frequent stop and go requirements for both traffic light and passengers. Thus the authors initiated a study of regenerative braking on such a vehicle. The resulting analysis presented in this paper includes data following municipal buses to define the driving cycle, modeling the bus power requirements from weight, aerodynamics and rolling resistance, and then calculating the fuel saving that could result from an ideal regenerative braking system.

  4. Optimal thermoeconomic performance of an irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhichao; Guo, Juncheng; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of the Langevin theory of classical statistical mechanics, the magnetization, entropy, and iso-field heat capacity of ferromagnetic materials are analyzed and their mathematical expressions are derived. An irreversible regenerative Ericsson refrigeration cycle by using a ferromagnetic material as the working substance is established, in which finite heat capacity rates of low and high temperature reservoirs, non-perfect regenerative heat of the refrigeration cycle, additional regenerative heat loss, etc. are taken into account. Based on the regenerative refrigeration cycle model, a thermoeconomic function is introduced as one objective function and optimized with respect to the temperatures of the working substance in the two iso-thermal processes. By means of numerical calculation, the effects of the effective factor of the heat exchangers in high/low temperature reservoir sides, efficiency of the regenerator, heat capacity rate of the low temperature reservoir, and applied magnetic field on the optimal thermoeconomic function as well as the corresponding cooling rate and coefficient of performance are revealed. The results obtained in this paper can provide some theoretical guidance for the optimal design of actual regenerative magnetic refrigerator cycle.

  5. Transient Three-Dimensional Side Load Analysis of a Film Cooled Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Guidos, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Transient three-dimensional numerical investigations on the side load physics for an engine encompassing a film cooled nozzle extension and a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber, were performed. The objectives of this study are to identify the three-dimensional side load physics and to compute the associated aerodynamic side load using an anchored computational methodology. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Ultimately, the computational results will be provided to the nozzle designers for estimating of effect of the peak side load on the nozzle structure. Computations simulating engine startup at ambient pressures corresponding to sea level and three high altitudes were performed. In addition, computations for both engine startup and shutdown transients were also performed for a stub nozzle, operating at sea level. For engine with the full nozzle extension, computational result shows starting up at sea level, the peak side load occurs when the lambda shock steps into the turbine exhaust flow, while the side load caused by the transition from free-shock separation to restricted-shock separation comes at second; and the side loads decreasing rapidly and progressively as the ambient pressure decreases. For the stub nozzle operating at sea level, the computed side loads during both startup and shutdown becomes very small due to the much reduced flow area.

  6. Transient Three-Dimensional Side Load Analysis of Out-of-Round Film Cooled Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Lin, Jeff; Ruf, Joe; Guidos, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nozzle out-of-roundness on the transient startup side loads. The out-of-roundness could be the result of asymmetric loads induced by hardware attached to the nozzle, asymmetric internal stresses induced by previous tests and/or deformation, such as creep, from previous tests. The rocket engine studied encompasses a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and a film cooled nozzle extension with film coolant distributed from a turbine exhaust manifold. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Transient startup computations were performed with the out-of-roundness achieved by four degrees of ovalization of the nozzle: one perfectly round, one slightly out-of-round, one more out-of-round, and one significantly out-of-round. The computed side load physics caused by the nozzle out-of-roundness and its effect on nozzle side load are reported and discussed.

  7. Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

    1990-01-01

    Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

  8. Chronology of paleozoic metamorphism and deformation in the Blue Ridge thrust complex, North Carolina and Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, S.A.; Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1997-05-01

    The Blue Ridge province in northwestern North Carolina and northeastern Tennessee records a multiphase collisional and accretionary history from the Mesoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. To constrain the tectonothermal evolution in this region, radiometric ages have been determined for 23 regionally metamorphosed amphibolites, granitic gneisses, and pelitic schists and from mylonites along shear zones that bound thrust sheets and within an internal shear zone. The garnet ages from the Pumpkin Patch a thrust sheet (458, 455, and 451 Ma) are similar to those from the structurally overlying Spruce Pine thrust sheet (460, 456, 455, and 450 Ma). Both thrust sheets exhibit similar upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Because of the high closure temperature for garnet, the garnet ages are interpreted to date growth at or near the peak of Taconic metamorphism. Devonian metamorphic ages are recognized in the Spruce Pine thrust sheet, where Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr garnet ages of 386 and 393 Ma and mineral isochron ages of 397 {+-} 14 and 375 {+-} 27 Ma are preserved. Hornblendes record similar {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr ages of 398 to 379 Ma. Devonian {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar hornblende ages are also recorded in the structurally lower Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet. The Devonian mineral ages are interpreted to date a discrete tectonothermal event, as opposed to uplift and slow cooling from an Ordovician metamorphic event. The Mississippian mylonitization is interpreted to represent thrusting and initial assembly of crystalline sheets associated with the Alleghanian orogeny. The composite thrust stack of the Blue Ridge complex was subsequently thrust northwestward along the Linville Falls fault during middle Alleghanian orogeny (about 300 Ma).

  9. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care. PMID:24750059

  10. Weakening inside incipient thrust fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, B.; Tesei, T.; Collettini, C.; Oliot, E.

    2013-12-01

    In fold-and-thrust belts, shortening is mainly accommodated by thrust faults that nucleate along décollement levels. Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that these faults might be weak because of a combination of processes such as pressure-solution, phyllosilicates reorientation and delamination, and fluid pressurization. In this study we aim to decipher the processes and the kinetics responsible for weakening of tectonic décollements. We studied the Millaris thrust (Southern Pyrenees): a fault representative of a décollement in its incipient stage. This fault accommodated a total shortening of about 30 meters and is constituted by a 10m thick, intensively foliated phyllonite developed inside a homogeneous marly unit. Detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses have been carried out to characterize the mineralogical change, the chemical transfers and volume change in the fault zone compared to non-deformed parent sediments. We also carried out microstructural analysis on natural and experimentally deformed rocks. Illite and chlorite are the main hydrous minerals. Inside fault zone, illite minerals are oriented along the schistosity whereas chlorite coats the shear surfaces. Mass balance calculations demonstrated a volume loss of up to 50% for calcite inside fault zone (and therefore a relative increase of phyllosilicates contents) because of calcite pressure solution mechanisms. We performed friction experiments in a biaxial deformation apparatus using intact rocks sheared in the in-situ geometry from the Millaris fault and its host sediments. We imposed a range of normal stresses (10 to 50 MPa), sliding velocity steps (3-100 μm/s) and slide-hold slide sequences (3 to 1000 s hold) under saturated conditions. Mechanical results demonstrate that both fault rocks and parent sediments are weaker than average geological materials (friction μ<<0.6) and have velocity-strengthening behavior because of the presence of phyllosilicate horizons. Fault rocks are

  11. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators Thrust-Measurement Methodology Incorporating New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a large diameter, grounded, metal sleeve.

  12. Low NO sub x regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, J.E.; Finke, H.P.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvements in a regenerative burner having a regenerative bed, a burner port and a fuel nozzle. The improvement comprises: a burner baffle having apertures therein for selectively directing combustion air and inducing combustion gas recirculation into a primary combustion zone for suppressing NO{sub x} emissions, the baffle and the fuel nozzle being positioned substantially adjacent the burner port and being substantially coplanar in a plane perpendicular to a burner axis.

  13. Global strategic partnerships in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    French, Anna; Suh, Jane Y; Suh, Carol Y; Rubin, Lee; Barker, Richard; Bure, Kim; Reeve, Brock; Brindley, David A

    2014-09-01

    The approach to research and development in biomedical science is changing. Increasingly, academia and industry seek to collaborate, and share resources and expertise, by establishing partnerships. Here, we explore the co-development partnership landscape in the field of regenerative medicine, focusing on agreements involving one or more private entities. A majority of the largest biopharmaceutical companies have announced strategic partnerships with a specific regenerative medicine focus, signifying the growth and widening appeal of this emerging sector. PMID:25150363

  14. Double regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhen-ao; Chen, Li-yuan; Bai, Zhen-xu; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

    2012-04-01

    An double Nd:YAG regenerative amplification picosecond pulse laser is demonstrated under the semiconductor saturable absorption mirror(SESAM) mode-locking technology and regenerative amplification technology, using BBO crystal as PC electro-optic crystal. The laser obtained is 20.71ps pulse width at 10 KHz repetition rate, and the energy power is up to 4W which is much larger than the system without pre-amplification. This result will lay a foundation for the following amplification.

  15. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  16. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John L.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  17. Clinical imaging in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Anna V; Modo, Michel; Moore, Anna; Murry, Charles E; Frank, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, clinical imaging is indispensable for characterizing damaged tissue and for measuring the safety and efficacy of therapy. However, the ability to track the fate and function of transplanted cells with current technologies is limited. Exogenous contrast labels such as nanoparticles give a strong signal in the short term but are unreliable long term. Genetically encoded labels are good both short- and long-term in animals, but in the human setting they raise regulatory issues related to the safety of genomic integration and potential immunogenicity of reporter proteins. Imaging studies in brain, heart and islets share a common set of challenges, including developing novel labeling approaches to improve detection thresholds and early delineation of toxicity and function. Key areas for future research include addressing safety concerns associated with genetic labels and developing methods to follow cell survival, differentiation and integration with host tissue. Imaging may bridge the gap between cell therapies and health outcomes by elucidating mechanisms of action through longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25093889

  18. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for high heat flux thrust chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Christopher M.

    The last 30 years materials engineers have been under continual pressure to develop materials with a greater temperature potential or to produce configurations that can be effectively cooled or otherwise protected at elevated temperature conditions. Turbines and thrust chambers produce some of the harshest service conditions for materials which lead to the challenges engineers face in order to increase the efficiencies of current technologies due to the energy crisis that the world is facing. The key tasks for the future of gas turbines are to increase overall efficiencies to meet energy demands of a growing world population and reduce the harmful emissions to protect the environment. Airfoils or blades tend to be the limiting factor when it comes to the performance of the turbine because of their complex design making them difficult to cool as well as limitations of their thermal properties. Key tasks for space transportation it to lower costs while increasing operational efficiency and reliability of our space launchers. The important factor to take into consideration is the rocket nozzle design. The design of the rocket nozzle or thrust chamber has to take into account many constraints including external loads, heat transfer, transients, and the fluid dynamics of expanded hot gases. Turbine engines can have increased efficiencies if the inlet temperature for combustion is higher, increased compressor capacity and lighter weight materials. In order to push for higher temperatures, engineers need to come up with a way to compensate for increased temperatures because material systems that are being used are either at or near their useful properties limit. Before thermal barrier coatings were applied to hot-section components, material alloy systems were able to withstand the service conditions necessary. But, with the increased demand for performance, higher temperatures and pressures have become too much for those alloy systems. Controlled chemistry of hot

  19. The Beaufort Sea fold-and-thrust belt, northwestern Canada: Implications for thrust-belt evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The northeasternmost segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt of western North American underlies the Beaufort Sea continental margin. Folds and associated northesat-directed thrusts in this region formed synchronously with Tertiary sedimentation. As a result, the times of fold development can be determined from reflection seismic data by analyzing lateral thickness changes in stratigraphic sequences of known ages, and onlap and truncation relationships at unconformities. Thrust faulting occurred throughout the late Paleocene-Pliocene. The abundant temporal data indicate the deformational seuqence was significantly differet from the simple, steplike, foreland-propagating model formulated in other less well-dated thrust belts. Many thrusts were active simultaneously, especially during the late Eocnee, when the region of active thrusting had an across-strike width of greater than 200 km. This observation calls into question the popular concept that only one thrust moves at a time as a thrust belt develops. The thrust belt propagated along, as well as across, strike. During the late Paleocene-middle Eocene, the area of active thrusting was bounded on the southeast by poorly imaged zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults that apparently are the northern offshore continuation of the Rapid fault array. The change in the age of thrusting along strike results in no obvious geometrical anomalies and could not be deduced without timing information. This has an important implication: temporal data cannot necessarily be projected along strike in a thrust belt.

  20. Low thrust rocket test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    A low thrust chemical rocket test facility has recently become operational at the NASA-Lewis. The new facility is used to conduct both long duration and performance tests at altitude over a thruster's operating envelope using hydrogen and oxygen gas for propellants. The facility provides experimental support for a broad range of objectives, including fundamental modeling of fluids and combustion phenomena, the evaluation of thruster components, and life testing of full rocket designs. The major mechanical and electrical systems are described along with aspects of the various optical diagnostics available in the test cell. The electrical and mechanical systems are designed for low down time between tests and low staffing requirements for test operations. Initial results are also presented which illustrate the various capabilities of the cell.

  1. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  2. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    A technology program aimed at improving the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft onboard applications is reviewed. Navier-Stokes analyses of low Reynolds number rocket flows have been compared with local flow property measurements obtained using Rayleigh and Raman diagnostics in a 100 N gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen rocket. It is indicated that computational domain should include the near injector flow and that the shear layer combustion model needs improvement. The system analyses and technical efforts intended to develop a technology base for higher performance propellants are presented. A LOX/hydrazine engine is demonstrated to have a 95 percent theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1.

  3. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  4. Regenerative fuel cell engineering - FY99

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Inbody; Rodney L. Borup; James C. Hedstrom; Jose Tafoya; Byron Morton; Lois Zook; Nicholas E. Vanderborgh

    2000-01-01

    The authors report the work conducted by the ESA-EPE Fuel Cell Engineering Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY99 on regenerative fuel cell system engineering. The work was focused on the evaluation of regenerative fuel cell system components obtained through the RAFCO program. These components included a 5 kW PEM electrolyzer, a two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack, and samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode. The samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode were analyzed to determine their structure and operating characteristics. Tests were conducted on the two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack to characterize its operation as an electrolyzer and as a fuel cell. The 5 kW PEM electrolyzer was tested in the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Test Facility. These tests served to characterize the operation of the electrolyzer and, also, to verify the operation of the newly completed test facility. Future directions for this work in regenerative fuel cell systems are discussed.

  5. Thrust-Vector Deflectors For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soong, William C.

    1990-01-01

    Rotating shield steers thrust in desired direction. Report discusses use of thrust-vector deflectors (TVD's) to enhance controllability and reduce number of small rocket engines (thrustors) needed to control attitudes of artificial satellites. Developed in aircraft industry for use in jet engines. Principal advantages gained, lower cost and greater simplicity.

  6. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  7. Pulsed thrust measurements using laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubbin, E. A.; Ziemer, J. K.; Choueiri, E. Y.; Jahn, R. G.

    1997-06-01

    An optical interferometric proximeter system (IPS) for measuring thrust and impulse bit of pulsed electric thrusters was developed. Unlike existing thrust stands, the IPS-based thrust stand offers the advantage of a single system that can yield electromagnetic interference-free, high accuracy (<2% error) thrust measurements within a very wide range of impulses (100 μN s to above 10 N s) covering the impulse range of all known pulsed plasma thrusters. In addition to pulsed thrusters, the IPS is theoretically shown to be capable of measuring steady-state thrust values as low as 20 μN for microthrusters such as the field emission electric propulsion thruster. The IPS-based thrust stand relies on measuring the dynamic response of a swinging arm using a two-sensor laser interferometer with 10 nm position accuracy. The wide application of the thrust stand is demonstrated with thrust measurements of an ablative pulsed plasma thruster and a quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thruster.

  8. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tadolini, Stephen C.; Dolinar, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  9. Solar-electric propulsion breadboard thrust subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A solar-electric propulsion breadboard thrust subsystem has been designed, built, and tested. A 1500-h test was performed to demonstrate the functional capabilities of the subsystem. Described are the subsystem functions and testing process. The results show that the ground work has been established for development of an engineering model of the thrust subsystem.

  10. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) for the mu rhythm (8–13 Hz) and beta (13−25 Hz) bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance. PMID:26441599

  11. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  12. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  13. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  14. Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

  15. Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

    1999-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

  16. Transpiration Cooling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

    1997-01-01

    The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

  17. Preserving human cells for regenerative, reproductive, and transfusion medicine

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Waseem; Assal, Rami El; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M.; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Cell cryopreservation enables maintaining cellular life at sub-zero temperatures by slowing down biochemical processes. Various cell types are routinely cryopreserved in modern reproductive, regenerative, and transfusion medicine. Current cell cryopreservation methods involve freezing (slow/rapid) or vitrifying cells in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA). Although these methods are clinically utilized, cryo-injury due to ice crystals, osmotic shock, and CPA toxicity cause loss of cell viability and function. Recent approaches using minimum volume vitrification provide alternatives to the conventional cryopreservation methods. Minimum volume vitrification provides ultra-high cooling and rewarming rates that enable preserving cells without ice crystal formation. Herein, we review recent advances in cell cryopreservation technology and provide examples of techniques that are utilized in oocyte, stem cell, and red blood cell cryopreservation. PMID:24995723

  18. Preserving human cells for regenerative, reproductive, and transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Waseem; El Assal, Rami; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-07-01

    Cell cryopreservation maintains cellular life at sub-zero temperatures by slowing down biochemical processes. Various cell types are routinely cryopreserved in modern reproductive, regenerative, and transfusion medicine. Current cell cryopreservation methods involve freezing (slow/rapid) or vitrifying cells in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA). Although these methods are clinically utilized, cryo-injury due to ice crystals, osmotic shock, and CPA toxicity cause loss of cell viability and function. Recent approaches using minimum volume vitrification provide alternatives to the conventional cryopreservation methods. Minimum volume vitrification provides ultra-high cooling and rewarming rates that enable preserving cells without ice crystal formation. Herein, we review recent advances in cell cryopreservation technology and provide examples of techniques that are utilized in oocyte, stem cell, and red blood cell cryopreservation. PMID:24995723

  19. A reevaluation of the age of the Vincent-Chocolate Mountains thrust system, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, C.E. . Dept. of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences); Barth, A.P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Vincent-Chocolate Mountains (VCM) thrust superposes Mesozoic arc plutons and associated Precambrian country rock above subduction-related Pelona-Orocopia schist. The thrust is disrupted in many areas by postmetamorphic deformation, but appears to be intact in the San Gabriel Mountains. Two Rb-Sr mineral-isochron ages from Pelona Schist and mylonite in the San Gabriel Mountains led Ehlig (1981) to conclude that the original thrusting event occurred at c. 60 Ma. However, biotite K-Ar ages determined by Miller and Morton (1980) for upper plate in the same area caused Dillon (1986) to reach a different conclusion. The biotite ages range mainly from 74--60 Ma and increase structurally upward from the VCM thrust. Dillon (1986) inferred that the age gradient was due to uplift and cooling of the upper plate during underthrusting of Pelona Schist. This would indicate that the VCM thrust was at least 74 Ma in age. An alternative to the interpretation of Dillon (1986) is that the biotite age gradient largely predates the VCM thrust. Upward heat flow, leading to older ages at higher structural levels, could have resulted from either static cooling of Cretaceous plutons or uplift and erosion induced by crustal thickening during possible west-directed intra-arc thrusting at c. 88--78 Ma (May and Walker, 1989). Subsequent underthrusting of Pelona Schist would establish a cold lower boundary to the crust and cause the closure of isotopic systems in the base of the upper plate. A 60 Ma time of thrusting is also suggested by two amphibole [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages from the Pelona Schist of the San Gabriel Mountains. Peak metamorphic temperature in this area was below 480 C and amphibole ages should thus indicate time of crystallization rather than subsequent cooling. Four phengite [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages of 55--61 Ma from Pelona Schist and mylonite indicate rapid cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures, consistent with subduction refrigeration.

  20. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Angelo S.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  1. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Angelo S; Mooney, David J

    2015-11-24

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  2. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel having the configuration of an assembly having a combustion chamber portion connected to a nozzle portion through a throat portion is wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The width of the tape is positioned at an angle of 30 to 50 deg. to the axis of the mandrel such that one edge of the tape contacts the mandrel while the other edge is spaced from the mandrel. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined to provide a frusto-conical surface extending at an angle of 15 to 30 deg. with respect to the axis of the mandrel for starting a second wrap on the mandrel to cover the throat portion. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape having its width positioned at a angle of 5 to 20 deg. from the axis of the mandrel. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined to provide a smooth outer surface. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  3. Insulated Engine, 100-Pound Thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, N. R.

    1966-01-01

    The design and test results of an insulated, 100-pound thrust engine capable of delivering high performance, providing long, steady state and pulse mode endurance, and maintaining a low outside surface temperature of 4000 F, are presented. Included are descriptions of the injector designs and insulation materials investigated, plus a discussion of the thermal analysis and test results. Continuous operation in excess of 29 minutes, and start capability in excess of 4900 pulses, have been demonstrated. To allow the use of available chamber materials and coating systems under insulated conditions, the major challenge to the designer was to define an injector design that would provide gas temperatures and performance of a predetermined value. The solution was the development of an unbalanced, 8-element triplet injector having an unequal fuel distribution within each element, capable of providing a specific impulse in excess of 290 pounds at reduced wall temperatures. The design consists of a columbium chamber and nozzle utilizing a silicide coating, a columbium injector, a composite insulation system of aluminum oxide

  4. Collar nut and thrust ring

    DOEpatents

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  5. Functional imaging for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Martin; Thompson, Kerry; Zafar, Haroon; Alexandrov, Sergey; Foley, Mark; O'Flatharta, Cathal; Dockery, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In vivo imaging is a platform technology with the power to put function in its natural structural context. With the drive to translate stem cell therapies into pre-clinical and clinical trials, early selection of the right imaging techniques is paramount to success. There are many instances in regenerative medicine where the biological, biochemical, and biomechanical mechanisms behind the proposed function of stem cell therapies can be elucidated by appropriate imaging. Imaging techniques can be divided according to whether labels are used and as to whether the imaging can be done in vivo. In vivo human imaging places additional restrictions on the imaging tools that can be used. Microscopies and nanoscopies, especially those requiring fluorescent markers, have made an extraordinary impact on discovery at the molecular and cellular level, but due to their very limited ability to focus in the scattering tissues encountered for in vivo applications they are largely confined to superficial imaging applications in research laboratories. Nanoscopy, which has tremendous benefits in resolution, is limited to the near-field (e.g. near-field scanning optical microscope (NSNOM)) or to very high light intensity (e.g. stimulated emission depletion (STED)) or to slow stochastic events (photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM)). In all cases, nanoscopy is limited to very superficial applications. Imaging depth may be increased using multiphoton or coherence gating tricks. Scattering dominates the limitation on imaging depth in most tissues and this can be mitigated by the application of optical clearing techniques that can impose mild (e.g. topical application of glycerol) or severe (e.g. CLARITY) changes to the tissue to be imaged. Progression of therapies through to clinical trials requires some thought as to the imaging and sensing modalities that should be used. Smoother progression is facilitated by the use of

  6. Pulsed Ejector Thrust Amplification Tested and Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack

    2004-01-01

    There is currently much interest in pulsed detonation engines for aeronautical propulsion. This, in turn, has sparked renewed interest in pulsed ejectors to increase the thrust of such engines, since previous, though limited, research had indicated that pulsed ejectors could double the thrust in a short device. An experiment has been run at the NASA Glenn Research Center, using a shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger tube as a source of pulsed flow, to measure the thrust augmentation of a statistically designed set of ejectors. A Hartmann- Sprenger tube directs the flow from a supersonic nozzle (Mach 2 in the present experiment) into a closed tube. Under appropriate conditions, an oscillation is set up in which the jet flow alternately fills the tube and then spills around flow emerging from the tube. The tube length determines the frequency of oscillation. By shrouding the tube, the flow was directed out of the shroud as an axial stream. The set of ejectors comprised three different ejector lengths, three ejector diameters, and three nose radii. The thrust of the jet alone, and then of the jet plus ejector, was measured using a thrust plate. The arrangement is shown in this photograph. Thrust augmentation is defined as the thrust of the jet with an ejector divided by the thrust of the jet alone. The experiments exhibited an optimum ejector diameter and length for maximizing the thrust augmentation, but little dependence on nose radius. Different frequencies were produced by changing the length of the Hartmann-Sprenger tube, and the experiment was run at a total of four frequencies. Additional measurements showed that the major feature of the pulsed jet was a starting vortex ring. The size of the vortex ring depended on the frequency, as did the optimum ejector diameter.

  7. Advances in understanding tissue regenerative capacity and mechanisms in animals

    PubMed Central

    Poss, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Questions about how and why tissue regeneration occurs capture the attention of countless biologists, biomedical engineers, and clinicians. Regenerative capacity differs greatly across organs and organisms, and a spectrum of model systems with different technical advantages and regenerative strategies are studied. Several key issues common to natural regenerative events are receiving new attention from improving models and approaches, including: the determination of regenerative capacity; the importance of stem cells, dedifferentation and transdifferentiation; how regenerative signals are initiated and targeted; and the mechanisms that control regenerative proliferation and patterning. PMID:20838411

  8. Low-thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for large structures in high orbit is reported in terms of the many mission opportunities which require such structures. Mission and transportation options for large structures are presented, and it is shown that low-thrust propulsion is an enabling requirement for some missions and greatly enhancing to many others. Electric and low-thrust chemical propulsion are compared, and the need for an requirements of low-thrust chemical propulsion are discussed in terms of the interactions that are perceived to exist between the propulsion system and the large structure.

  9. Rocket thrust variation with foamed liquid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, G

    1957-01-01

    An analysis is presented on a method for varying rocket thrust by varying the bulk density of the propellants. This density variation was accomplished by uniformly dispersing an inert, insoluble gas in the liquid propellants. Only qualitative agreement with theory was obtained from preliminary experiments with a 1000-pound-thrust ammonia - nitric acid rocket engine; the required experimental gas-flow rates were two to six times greater than those predicted by theory. It was demonstrated, however, that this method of rocket-thrust variation is feasible.

  10. Transpiration cooled throat for hydrocarbon rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Lee R.; Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective for the Transpiration Cooled Throat for Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines Program was to characterize the use of hydrocarbon fuels as transpiration coolants for rocket nozzle throats. The hydrocarbon fuels investigated in this program were RP-1 and methane. To adequately characterize the above transpiration coolants, a program was planned which would (1) predict engine system performance and life enhancements due to transpiration cooling of the throat region using analytical models, anchored with available data; (2) a versatile transpiration cooled subscale rocket thrust chamber was designed and fabricated; (3) the subscale thrust chamber was tested over a limited range of conditions, e.g., coolant type, chamber pressure, transpiration cooled length, and coolant flow rate; and (4) detailed data analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the key performance and life enhancement variables.