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  1. Birth control pills - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe ...

  2. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... frequency of your menstrual cycles. Types of Combination Birth Control Pills Birth control pills come in packages. You ...

  3. Birth control pill overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control pill overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended ...

  4. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    The pill - combination; Oral contraceptives - combination; OCP - combination; Contraception - combination ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most ...

  5. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pill - progestin; Oral contraceptives - progestin; OCP - progestin; Contraception - progestin ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The pills with only progestin come in 28-day ...

  6. Birth control pills overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines ...

  7. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  8. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  9. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC About Birth Control Birth Control Methods: How Well Do They Work? ... You Need a Pelvic Exam to Get Birth Control? How Can I Get on the Pill Without Telling My Parents? How Can I Get the Pill if I ...

  10. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The ...

  11. Birth control pill - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ... The lower levels of estrogen in birth control pills suppress FSH ... woman is pregnant. Ovulation will then not occur, which prevents ...

  12. Fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Shiekh, Abdul Gaffar; Hussain, Waleed M; Miamini, Wail Al; Khoujah, Amer M; Zayyani, Najah R

    2011-01-01

    Pill-induced oesophagitis is well reported in people of all ages (range 3–98 years), with females outnumbering males by 1.5:1. Antibiotic pills, cardiac pills and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and alendronate are the most common culprits. We report a case of fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis in a young adult without any underlying pathological abnormalities of the oesophagus. PMID:22693306

  13. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured. PMID:17901607

  14. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups are very effective at reducing swelling and mucus ... liver or cause sterility Available as pills and syrups. Often necessary for treating more severe episodes of ...

  15. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mary; Black, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen. Pills containing levonorgestrel or norethisterone in combination with ethinyloestradiol 35 microgram or less are considered first-line. They are effective if taken correctly, have a relatively low risk of venous thromboembolism, and are listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The pill is usually taken in a monthly cycle. Some women may prefer an extended pill regimen with fewer or no inactive pills. PMID:26648603

  16. EVALUATION OF THE PILLS IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the operating characteristics of the PILLS IV (Particulate Instrumentation by Laser Light Scattering) in situ particle sizing instrument. Results of both investigations show large errors in sizing particle...

  17. Birth control pill - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The internal female reproductive organs include the uterus, ovaries, cervix and vagina. These organs are necessary to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function.

  18. Hounding the pill.

    PubMed

    Smibert, J

    1980-01-12

    The removal of Serial C from the market 4 years ago because its progestogen -- megestrol acetate -- had been found to cause benign mammary tumors in beagle bitches, caused much concern because at least 10% of this writer's patients using oral contraceptives were using Serial C. It needs to be restated that one cannot extrapolate straight from the breasts of lower animals to the human, although some test results do warrant additional investigation. This physician was unaware of any increase in breast lumps in humans after the use of megestrol acetate. There is no question that the Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) has the important duty of preventing the release of drugs whose side effects may not be justified by their beneficial effects, but ADEC also has the responsibility of assuring that the Australian public is not denied the use of drugs whose beneficial effects outweigh their side effects. It is hoped that the ADEC -influenced by the United States in its decision to remove megestrol acetate and therefore ban Serial C -- will reconsider their decision. There are many women who continued to need a predominantly estrogenic contraceptive pill and Serial C was the answer for this group. PMID:7360074

  19. Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pill. Birth control pills can help irregular periods, PCOS, endometriosis, acne, menstrual cramps, and low estrogen conditions. ... PMS, endometriosis, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) and for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Girls who are diagnosed with PCOS are ...

  20. Editorial: Pills over the counter.

    PubMed

    1975-05-17

    A pamphlet published by the Birth Control Trust and followed by a letter in the British Medical Journal has recommended that paramedical personnel be allowed to dispense oral contraceptives if properly supervised. Also, others have recommended that these drugs should be on direct sale to the public. However, because of the multiple risk factors, there is a place for screening before the pills are prescribed. The main objection to freeing the pill from prescription would be the abdication of medical responsibility for supply of potentially dangerous drugs. For an exception to be made for oral contraceptives there should be evidence of a clear benefit to society, which is not believed to be the case. Present contraceptive services would not be improved if the pill went on display on the counters of chemists' shops. PMID:1131602

  1. RU-486: the "abortion pill".

    PubMed

    Herranz, G

    1991-05-23

    A report sent by the Vatican to bishops' conferences throughout the world calls RU-486, the so-called abortion pill currently available in France, "a new, serious threat to human life." The report was developed at the Vatican's request by Gonzalo Herranz, a Spanish bioethicist. A cover letter to bishops' conferences from Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, suggested that the report be used "to resist the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486 into your country." Related to TU-486 and to new terminology some use to characterize its non-surgical approach to abortion is an intention "to amoralize and thereby place the transmission of human life into an ethically neutral terrain and reduce it to pure biology," says the report. The report discusses possible future uses of RU-486 as a contraceptive, stating: "Women would no longer have to worry themselves about whether they have conceived or not. Each month they would proceed to clean out their uterus chemically." The report refers to RU-486 as "a technical step forward in an area that did not need it." It says, "The abortion pill favors a woman's privacy and secret, but it condemns her to solitude." The English text from the Vatican follows. PMID:16145821

  2. British Experience of the Pill

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Clifford R.

    1970-01-01

    We have set up a study that can make a contribution to our knowledge of the effect of the present oral contraceptive agents. We may also learn something about the characteristics of women who chose the pill and about those who reject it. Perhaps our results will provide a more secure base from which research for a better product can begin. It may be, however, that we have demonstrated something of greater importance: that meaningful large-scale morbidity statistics can be accurately collected from the point at which the greatest information is available-the records of the family physician. Imagesp57-a PMID:20468506

  3. [Contraceptive pill amenorrhea--does it exist?].

    PubMed

    Fries, H; Nillius, S J

    1975-11-01

    The possibility of amenorrhea as a direct result of discontinuing oral contraceptives is discussed and its etiology is explored. In a study of 1860 women in Uppsala county in Sweden, 16% of the amenorrhea cases among these women could be temporally related to the discontinuation of oral contraceptive use. Earlier irregularities of menstruation and psychological stress are discussed as indications that "contraceptive pill amenorrhea" could occur. Loss of weight, often combined with symptoms of anorexia nervosa, is also a frequent indication of susceptibility to "contraceptive pill amenorrhea." The possibility of "contraceptive pill amenorrhea" as an iatrogenic syndrome is discussed. PMID:1186384

  4. The mother of the pill.

    PubMed

    Djerassi, C

    1995-01-01

    The first synthesis of an active ingredient of the pill was performed on October 15, 1951, at Syntex in Mexico City. These preliminary results, obtained in late 1951, encouraged the submission of a synthetic progestin, norethindrone (19-nor-17alpha-ethynyltestosterone), to a number of outside investigators for more extensive biological scrutiny. Norethynodrel, together with many other steroids synthesized in the Searle laboratories, as well as Syntex's norethindrone, were examined by Pincus and collaborators for ovulation inhibition in animals and humans. Contrary to predictions, orally effective steroid ovulation inhibitors became the most widely used method of reversible birth control in most parts of the world some 40 years after their first synthesis. Toward the end of the 1960s, at least 13 international pharmaceutical companies (9 of them US) had active research and development programs dedicated to new advances in the field of contraception. Every drug to which a woman or man is exposed to for long periods of time (e.g., vaccines, systemic contraceptives, cholesterol-lowering agents, antihypertensives) in the end has to pass through large-scale postmarketing experiments. The most damaging was the requirement for 6-year toxicology in beagle dogs, which resulted in enormous development costs. Another setback was a 1986 judgment in Georgia against Ortho Pharmaceutical Company for the amount of $5,151,030 for alleged birth defects caused by the use of its spermicide Ortho-Gynol in spite of overwhelming epidemiological evidence against such a cause-effect relationship. Mifepristone (RU-486) is clearly the most significant new development in birth control as an important alternative to conventional abortion. A priority list of six new contraceptive methods for future development includes a spermicide with antiviral properties, a once-a-month menses inducer, a reliable ovulation predictor, easily reversible male sterilization, a male contraceptive pill, and an

  5. The story of the pill.

    PubMed

    Davis, K S

    1978-01-01

    A 1951 meeting between feminist Margaret Sanger, philanthropist Katherine McCormick and biologist Dr. G.G. Pincus is described as the beginning of the project which was to culminate in the development of the oral contraceptive. The stories of the lives of the 3 participants are told. Dr. Pincus' field, endocrinology and mammalian reproduction, is explained in general terms for the lay reader. The results of early experimental work on mammalian sex hormones are described, as are some of the early problems in manufacturing synthetic estrogen and progesterone. Pincus' career is outlined, beginning at the time of his brief appointment at Harvard University in 1930-36. Notes on related work done by other scientists in this period are interspersed with the biographical sketches. The work of Dr. John Rock on induction of pregnancy through administration of estrogen and progesterone is described, with reference to Pincus' work. Pincus' search for an inexpensive progesterone which would be effective when taken orally is described, with a tangential story of how diosgenin was produced in Mexico. Pincus' bold declaration to the general public that the development of a safe oral contraceptive would be soon attained enabled him to obtain funding for conducting field trials. Results of field trials in Puerto Rico and subsequent changes in the pill are discussed. The possible consequences of use of a technology developed from a primitive science are discussed, as is the attitude of Puerto Rican and Haitian women who were willing to take the risks explained to them in order to avoid future pregnancy. Popular controversies over the pill in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s are described. PMID:11631375

  6. The Return of Rainbow Diet Pills

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Pieter A.; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics’ adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements. PMID:22813089

  7. Noncontraceptive Benefits of Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... that contain hormones) and one week of inactive placebo Treatment for acne, hirsutism (excess hair) and alopecia ( ... growth in the midline that the sugar or placebo pills are taken. A woman can increase the ...

  8. Dynamically programmable electronic pill dispenser system.

    PubMed

    Boquete, Luciano; Rodriguez-Ascariz, Jose Manuel; Artacho, Irene; Cantos-Frontela, Joaquin; Peixoto, Nathalia

    2010-06-01

    Compliance in medicine dispensation has proven critical for dosage control, diagnosis, and treatment. We have designed, manufactured, and characterized a novel dynamically programmable e-pill dispensing system. Our system is initially programmed remotely through a cell phone. After programming, the system may be reconfigured in order to adapt pill dispensation to new conditions. In this paper we describe the mechanics, electronics, control, and communication protocols implemented. Our dyn-e-pill devices can be actuated for over 350 h with two pill retrievals per hour. We challenged the charging circuit and demonstrated that the system has a lifetime longer than 6 h with a 30 min charging cycle, while it lasts for 14 h of uninterrupted use with a full charge. PMID:20503621

  9. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production. PMID:27485865

  10. Contraceptives and dysplasia: higher rate for pill choosers.

    PubMed

    Stern, E; Clark, V A; Coffelt, C F

    1970-07-31

    Among women choosing the pill in preference to other contraceptive methods there is a higher rate of the cancer precursor, dysplasia of the cervix, before any possible effect of the pill. PMID:17739011

  11. Osteoarthritis: No Pills Yet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis "No Pills Yet..." Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Robert Boston "There are no pills yet for osteoarthritis, but we're working on it," says Linda ...

  12. "Take your pill": the role and fantasy of pills in modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has undergone a vast expansion in the 20th and 21st centuries. This article explores the central role now played by pills in clinical practice, but also in the public imagination. First, this article analyzes four properties that, together, account for many of the promises and perils associated with pills: They are ingestible, potent, reproducible, and miniaturized. This allows them to serve as ideal consumer items for widespread distribution and sale and also as model technological "devices" capable of downloading into the body healing chemicals. As such, they seem to promise a disburdening solution to many of life's ills. In our cultural fantasy, often shared by physician and patient alike, pills can be used not only to treat and prevent disease but also raise energy, lose weight, lessen pain, lift mood, cope with stress, and enhance sexual and athletic performance. This article also explores many adverse effects not only of pills themselves but of this exaggerated cultural fantasy of the pill. It tends to distract us from other, more holistic understandings of the locus of disease and healing. It even fosters misunderstandings of the ways in which pills themselves work, which is to assist bodily processes, and the mind's "meaning response." The intent here is not to demonize all pills-many have great therapeutic potential-but to learn how to better choose and use them wisely. We propose that this process be assisted through recontextualizing the pill as a multidimensional gift. Taken in such a way, with appropriate gratitude and discernment, we may ingest fewer pills, but with greater efficacy. PMID:24766064

  13. Emergency contraception pill--controversies and use.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, C; Sivalingam, N

    2007-03-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) are effective, safe and cheap, with profound global health and economic benefits. Patient education and easy access to ECP will contribute immensely to avoiding unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Issues related to morality, its perceived status as an abortifacient and harmful behaviour should it be easily available, has limited the widespread use of ECP in many countries. PMID:17682587

  14. Contraception. Low-dose pill launched.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    At a vibrant ceremony in Kampala, Uganda, the Minister of Women in Development, Youth and Culture launched the new low-dose oral contraceptive Pilplan which provides women more options for birth spacing. Diplomats, physicians, government officials, and business leaders attended the ceremony at the Sheraton Hotel Kampala. A dance group did an interpretation of "Women in Uganda: Gaining Momentum." The Minister considered the introduction of this new pill as a turning point for reproductive rights. A baseline survey among Ugandan women has shown that although almost all women were familiar with the pill, only 36% have ever used it and only 15% were currently using it. 80% thought that pill use was preferable to having an unplanned pregnancy. These findings convinced the Minister that ignorance and misconception keep women from using the pill. The government, health providers, and others need to educate women about Pilplan and how to use it correctly. A bilateral agreement between the Ministry of Health and USAID set in motion a social marketing project which has now launched two contraceptive methods: Pilplan in 1993 and the Protector condom in 1990. USAID vowed to continue to support Pilplan, particularly if men could also help in supporting birth spacing. A Uganda-based pharmaceutical firm will distribute Pilplan in Uganda through pharmacies, clinics, and health facilities. Pilplan targets all middle- to low-income women. PMID:12319754

  15. Pill Properties that Cause Dysphagia and Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jeremy; Go, Jorge T.; Schulze, Konrad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pills (tablets and capsules) are widely used to administer prescription drugs or to take supplements such as vitamins. Unfortunately, little is known about how much effort it takes Americans to swallow these various pills. More specifically, it is not known to what extent hard-to-swallow pills might affect treatment outcomes (eg, interfering with adherence to prescribed medications or causing clinical complications). It is also unclear which properties (eg, size, shape, or surface texture) Americans prefer or reject for their pills. To learn more about these issues, we interviewed a small group of individuals. Methods We invited individuals in waiting rooms of our tertiary health care center to participate in structured interviews about their pill-taking habits and any problems they have swallowing pills. We inquired which pill properties they believed caused swallowing problems. Participants scored capsules and pills of representative size, shape, and texture for swallowing effort and reported their personal preferences. Results Of 100 successive individuals, 99 participants completed the interview (65% women, mean age = 41 years, range = 23-77 years). Eighty-three percent took pills daily (mean 4 pills/d; 56% of those pills were prescribed by providers). Fifty-four percent of participants replied yes to the question, "Did you ever have to swallow a solid medication that was too difficult?" Four percent recounted serious complications: 1% pill esophagitis, 1% pill impaction, and 2% stopped treatments (antibiotic and prenatal supplement) because they could not swallow the prescribed pills. Half of all participants routinely resorted to special techniques (eg, plenty of liquids or repeated or forceful swallows). Sixty-one percent of those having difficulties cited specific pill properties: 27% blamed size (20% of problems were caused by pills that were too large whereas 7% complained about pills that were too small to sense); 12% faulted rough surface

  16. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  17. How to use mini-pills: helpful patient instructions.

    PubMed

    1982-09-01

    Progestin only birth control pills appeared on the US market in 1973. As there is no estrogen in these mini pills, they may have fewer dangerous side effects than the combined pills. Some clinics suggest mini pills for women who suffer from estrogen excess side effects. The 3 mini pills available in the U.S. are called Micronor, NOR-QD, and Ovrette. Instructions are presented for patients who are interested in using mini pills. The mini pills most likely work by affecting a women's fertility in several ways: act as a messenger to the woman's ovaries and uterus to prevent the release of an egg; thicken the mucous on the cervix, making it difficult for the sperm to "get through" the cervix and reach the egg; and change the lining of the uterus so that it may not develop properly for the fertilized egg to grow. The mini pills can be 97% effective is used perfectly. The mini pills are only effective for as long as a woman takes them. A woman must take a pill every day to prevent pregnancy. A woman should not use the mini pill if she has or ever has had any of these problems: blood clotting problems in veins; stroke; cancer of the breast or reproductive parts of the body; suspected pregnancy, current pregnancy; and undiagnosed, abnormal genital bleeding. Possible benefits for a woman using mini pills include: an effective method of birth control; a method for nursing mothers since it does not seem to affect the amount of their breast milk; and a possible reduction in premenstrual cramps. Possible risks for a woman using mini pills include: irregular periods; and a less effective method if the patient does not take a pill every day. The danger signals to look for are abdominal pain, chest pain, headaches, eye problems, and severe leg pain. A patient should revisit a clinic in the following situations: has not had a period within 45 days of the last period; severe abdominal pains while taking mini pills; experiences a warning signal; any time one thinks the pills are

  18. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are now taking any kind of birth control pill or are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose ... of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health ...

  19. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms. PMID:11089290

  20. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    Lottes, Ilsa L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  1. Pill impaction mimicking appendicitis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Torno, Mauro; Shallman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent presenting symptom among HIV-positive patients seeking care at emergency departments. We report a case of a 45-year-old HIV-infected Hispanic man who presented with right lower quadrant pain accompanied by fever, decreased appetite, nausea, and vomiting. The results of a CT scan of his abdomen were normal with no evidence of appendicitis. A colonoscopy was performed and revealed an impacted pill in the appendiceal orifice. The pill was removed endoscopically, and pill impaction has not recurred. PMID:19209455

  2. Atripla™ – HIV therapy in one pill

    PubMed Central

    Julg, Boris; Bogner, Johannes R

    2008-01-01

    In July 2006 Atripla™ was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), combining the active ingredients of one NNRTI and two NRTIs. Atripla™ is the first “one-pill-daily” regimen licensed for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in patients older than 18 years. H was licensed in Europe in December 2007 Atripla™ contains efavirenz 600 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg. It therefore combines 3 compounds which have been widely used before and which were recommended for initial therapy due to their potency, tolerability, and safety profile. Efficacy and safety data of efavirenz, tenofovir DF, and emtricitabine are reviewed and compared with other antiretroviral drugs, which are used as initial therapy for treatment-naive patient. PMID:18827852

  3. Standardized pill imprint codes: a pharma fantasy.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Gordon

    2004-02-01

    To safely use medications, professionals and consumers need usable and reliable methods to identify tablets patients are prescribed and taking. Currently, each manufacturer assigns its own identifying codes and symbols. Standardization of the system for identifying solid dosage forms is a goal that has been widely advocated, yet stubbornly resistant to progress. Physicians, pharmacists, and consumers attempting to identify pills must use various methods which have shortcomings in ease of use, availability, and accuracy. Arguments have been advanced, particularly by pharmaceutical manufacturers, that evidence of unworkability of the current system is not compelling, and costs of retooling current manufacturing processes could be prohibitive. These issues are currently being explored by a task force led by the U.S. Pharmacopeia Safe Medication Use, and Pharmaceutical Forms Dosage Expert Committees. This paper presents a fictitious case study of an elderly patient succumbing to digoxin overdose illustrating the dilemmas posed in the tablet-imprint debate. PMID:15171065

  4. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  5. 'Female Libido' Pill May Not Be Worth It: Researchers

    MedlinePlus

    ... html 'Female Libido' Pill May Not Be Worth It: Researchers Addyi carries host of serious side effects ... per month, on average, according to the report. It was published online Feb. 29 in the journal ...

  6. Fabrication of CPA Salt Pill with Circulating Solution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, A.; Tokoi, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; McCammon, D.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on fabrication of a Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill. CPA is a typical paramagnetic salt used as refrigerant of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) because of its low Curie point, 4 11 mK. We made an test model of CPA salt pill by fast crystallizing method, namely circulating solution between 36°C and 15°C. The crystallizing rate was 0.5 g h-1, and 40 g of CPA crystal was obtained inside a stainless steel cylinder equipped with 160 copper wires. The cooling test was operated utilizing a commercial ADR system. We attached three thermometers and four heaters to the salt pill, in order to measure thermal conductance among different parts of the pill. It is confirmed that our salt pill was cooled down from B/ T=4 T/2 K to 64 mK at zero magnetic field. We suspect the cause of limiting the cooling temperature in the present level to be the dehydration of CPA, non-uniformity of magnetic field, and stainless steel of the pill which has large heat capacity below 0.1 K.

  7. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Won; Lee, Kook Lae; Byeon, Sun-ju; Choi, Euno; Chang, Mee Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell) and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR). As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases), 9% (2 cases) and 32% (7 cases) of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases) versus 10% (2 cases), respectively (P < 0.05). Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse dilated

  8. Monitoring Location and Angular Orientation of a Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system moves through, or adjacent to, one or more organs in an animal or human body, while transmitting signals from its present location and/or present angular orientation. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates angular orientation and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into, or onto, the body. Optionally, the pill, as it moves, provides a sequence of visually perceptible images. The times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one of at least four criteria. This invention provides and supplies an algorithm for exact determination of location coordinates and angular orientation coordinates for a mobile pill transmitter (PT), or other similar device that is introduced into, and moves within, a GI tract of a human or animal body. A set of as many as eight nonlinear equations has been developed and applied, relating propagation of a wireless signal between either two, three, or more transmitting antennas located on the PT, to four or more non-coplanar receiving antennas located on a signal receiver appliance worn by the user. The equations are solved exactly, without approximations or iterations, and are applied in several environments: (1) association of a visual image, transmitted by the PT at each of a second sequence of times, with a PT location and PT angular orientation at that time; (2) determination of a position within the body at which a drug or chemical substance or other treatment is to be delivered to a selected portion of the body; (3) monitoring, after delivery, of the effect(s) of administration of the treatment; and (4) determination of one or more positions within the body where provision and examination of a finer-scale image is warranted.

  9. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  10. Analyzing Adherence to Prenatal Supplement: Does Pill Count Measure Up?

    PubMed Central

    Appelgren, Kristie E.; Nietert, Paul J.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Wagner, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control), 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels (absolute change in 25(OH)D over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OH)D levels). A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications. PMID:20169132

  11. Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157758.html Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare ... suggests. Dutch researchers found that obese women on birth control pills were nearly 30 times more likely ...

  12. To pill or not to pill in GnRH-antagonist cycles: the answer is in the data already!

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Georg; Venetis, Christos A; Tarlatzis, Basil; Kolibianakis, Efstratios Michaelis

    2015-07-01

    The planning of IVF treatment by scheduling menstruation and hence initiation of ovarian stimulation using sex-steroid pre-treatment is commonly used. Pooling data from six randomized-controlled trials encompassing 1343 patients, with and without combined oral contraceptive pill pre-treatment, suggests that the ongoing pregnancy rate per randomized woman is significantly lower in patients with oral contraceptive pill pre-treatment (relative risk [RR]: 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-0.97; rate difference [RD]: -5%, 95% CI: -10% to -1%; fixed effects model). This finding remains remarkably robust in multiple sensitivity analyses: exclusion of a study on poor responders, exclusion of the three smallest studies or exclusion of studies with a pill-free interval of less than 5 days, results in RR of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64-0.94), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98) and 0.79, (95% CI: 0.64-0.99), respectively. Furthermore, the finding of a significant reduction in ongoing pregnancy rate is not inconsistent with other evidence from the literature. The potential benefit of using oral contraceptive pill pre-treatment for cycle planning should therefore be balanced against its detrimental effect. Further randomized studies should test whether an effect similar to the one observed after combined oral contraceptive pill usage exists after other sex steroid pre-treatment regimens. PMID:25985996

  13. The sleep-wake cycle and sleeping pills.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Björn

    2007-02-28

    Sleeping pills are drugs which are used world-wide to combat sleep disturbances, and to prevent symptoms due to maladjustment to shiftwork or jet-lag. Today, benzodiazepines and the so-called "non-benzodiazepines", such as zolpidem, which both act on benzodiazepine receptors, are drugs of first choice and they are substitutes for barbiturates. Their use as sleeping pills in insomniacs is established after appropriate medical diagnosis. Symptoms from shiftwork or jet-lag are due to an internal desynchronisation of biological rhythms, and there is ample evidence that benzodiazepines are not effective in preventing these symptoms. Cabin crews in particular should never take sleeping pills, in order not to impair cognitive functions or to reduce the reactivity needed to fly an aircraft safely. The biological clock(s) cannot be reset instantaneously by any drug. PMID:17049955

  14. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns. PMID:19081798

  15. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  16. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  17. Unexpected advantages of a temporary fluid-loss control pill

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.

    1996-09-01

    Economics often dictate research; however, serendipity can benefit the results of research and simultaneously soften the rigidity of economic demands. Such as the case with a recently developed fluid-loss control pill. Economic reasons compelled researchers to find a replacement for an existing field product, the characteristics of which had to be duplicated. Initially, researchers sought to develop a pill that blocked fluid flow into and out of the wellbore and was mixable in brines from 8.35 to 19 lb/gal. The degradation of the replacement crosslinkable hydroxyethyl cellulose fluid (RXHEC) involves uncrosslinking and unzipping of backbone, which simplifies the disposal of returns. In addition to being environmentally acceptable, RXHEC is capable of breaking with weak acids, allowing the use of external breakers in acid-sensitive wells. Additional advantages include the ease with which tubulars can pass through the RXHEC pill and leave it in place, making a remedial pill unnecessary. The RXHEC uses a liquid gel concentrate (LGC) system and is stable beyond 125 C.

  18. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  19. The pill in Japan: will approval ever come?

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1999-01-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare voted in March 1998 to indefinitely delay the licensing of oral contraceptives in Japan. Over years of attempts to gain approval of the pill for contraception, health officials have cited a range of reasons for their position against the pill, including concern over side effects, fears about the potential spread of sexually transmitted diseases if pill use replaces condom use, and worries about the environmental effects of hormonal contraceptive use. Japan is unique in banning all hormonal methods of contraception. The author describes the history of hormonal agents in Japan, from their initial approval in the country for noncontraceptive therapeutic uses in the late 1950s through the defeat in March 1998. Given the higher failure rates associated with condom use and fertility awareness, it is no wonder that abortion is rather common in Japan. Making hormonal methods of contraception available would help to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The uphill battle to legalize the low-dose pill in Japan continues. PMID:10029933

  20. Ephedrine as an anorectic: the story of the 'Elsinore pill'.

    PubMed

    Malchow-Møller, A; Larsen, S; Hey, H; Stokholm, K H; Juhl, E; Quaade, F

    1981-01-01

    Obese patients, age 18-60 years, overweight 20-80 per cent, entered a controlled, clinical study comparing the effects of two anorectic drugs, ie a prescription containing ephedrine and caffein ('Elsinore pills') and diethylpropion, with placebo. All 132 patients were instructed in a 1200-kcal diet, and 108 patients completed 12 weeks' treatment. There was a significantly better effect on body weight of diethylpropion (39 patients, median weight loss 8.4 kg, P less than 0.01) as well as of 'Elsinore pills' (38 patients, median weight loss 8.1 kg, P less than 0.01) compared to the effect of placebo treatment ( 31 patients, median weight loss 4.1 kg). Four patients treated with diethylpropion, and four patients treated with 'Elsionore pills' were withdrawn because of complaints of exaltation, tremor and insomnia. Tremor, in some cases only transient, was significantly more frequent in the 'Elsinore pill' group, but no serious side effects were observed. PMID:7228474

  1. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  2. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-06-24

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  3. Determination and application of location and angular orientation of a pill transmitter within a body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system that moves through or adjacent to one or more organs in an animal's body and that provides signals from which the pill's present location and/or present angular orientation can be determined. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into or onto the body. Optionally, the pill as it moves also provides a sequence of visually perceptible images; the times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one or at least four different criteria.

  4. Discussing Smart Pills versus Endorsing Smart Pills: Reply to Swanson, Wigal, and Volkow (2011) and Elliott and Elliott (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Martha J.; Smith, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We find much of interest, and little to disagree with, in the commentaries on our article. We take issue only with the suggestion that our article was provocative and submit that the attempt to understand the use of stimulants as smart pills does not imply an endorsement of the practice.

  5. Social constructions of the male contraception pill: When are we going to break the vicious circle?

    PubMed

    Dismore, Lorelle; Van Wersch, Anna; Swainston, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Social constructions of men towards the availability of a male hormonal contraceptive, the 'male pill', were explored. A qualitative approach applying semi-structured interviews and scenarios with 22 men (mean age 35 years) from the North East of England revealed two core constructs and six sub-constructs using a Thematic-Construct Analysis in line with the method of Toerien and Wilkinson and Clarke and Kitzinger. Verbal accounts were inductively used to balance the deductively created two core constructs 'Constructing the male pill norm: dominant system of sensemaking' and 'Living by the male pill norm' to represent a normative framework within a changing ideology of shared responsibility in contraceptive choice. Constructing the male pill norm was divided into two sub-constructs: 'Male pill: we are going to join the women and become responsible - too!' and 'Male pill: you look so girly - what are they going to think of me?' The 'Living by the male pill norm' was further divided into four sub-constructs 'Male pill - thank you for giving me promises not to have to become a dad as yet!'; 'Male pill: thank you for the idea of fun - sorry about my morals!'; 'Male pill: in stable relations - yes, I would have you now - sorry, I am too late!' and 'Male pill, we love you - but we are too anxious - we are not ready as yet!' From this male discourse, it is clear that discussions over the male pill follow the line of a vicious circle. In order to establish long-term side effects, Phase IV studies are necessary, and these cannot commence without the male hormonal contraception being a marketable product. So, unless this circle gets broken by some brave men, the male pill will remain a virtual rotating idea for a long time. PMID:24997170

  6. Salt pill design and fabrication for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; McCammon, Dan

    2014-07-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of “salt pills” for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single- or poly-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low- and mid-temperature applications.

  7. Brief Report: Apparent Antiretroviral Overadherence by Pill Count is Associated With HIV Treatment Failure in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okatch, Harriet; Beiter, Kaylin; Eby, Jessica; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Matshaba, Mogomotsi; Anabwani, Gabriel M; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Pill counts with calculated adherence percentages are used in many settings to monitor adherence, but can be undermined by patients discarding pills to hide nonadherence. Pill counts suggesting that >100% of prescribed doses were taken can signal "pill dumping." We defined "overadherence" among a cohort of 300 HIV-infected adolescents as having greater than one-third of pill counts with >100% adherence during a year of follow-up. Apparent overadherence was more common in those with virologic failure than in those with suppressed viral loads (33% vs 13%, χ P = 0.001). Pill count adherence repeatedly >100% may identify HIV-infected adolescents at increased risk of treatment failure. PMID:26990822

  8. A comparison of patient adherence and preference of packaging method for oral anticancer agents using conventional pill bottles versus daily pill boxes.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, P W; Pond, G R; Pond, B J; Leung, V; Siu, L L

    2007-07-01

    Adherence to medications is an important issue in oncology due to the increasing number of anticancer agents, such as targeted therapies, formulated for oral dosing. A prospective, crossover design was utilized in which patients on capecitabine were randomly assigned to one of two packaging methods for one cycle, and then switched over to the alternate packaging method in the subsequent cycle. Twenty-five patients were accrued to this study. Adherence rates were similar when using the daily pill boxes (17/21 = 81%) and when using the conventional pill bottles (18/21 = 86%). However, more patients were satisfied with the daily pill boxes (61% versus 11%, P = 0.027), preferred the daily pill boxes (61% versus 17%, P = 0.061), and thought the daily pill boxes were more helpful in reminding them to take their medications (50% versus 11%, P = 0.070). In conclusion, this small pilot study did not demonstrate that the use of daily pill boxes improved patient adherence with capecitabine, but patient satisfaction and preference for this packaging method were greater than for the conventional pill bottles. Further exploration of this intervention in a larger study is warranted. PMID:17587364

  9. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Ioos, Vincent; Das, Vincent; Maury, Eric; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Guéchot, Jérôme; Guidet, Bertrand; Offenstadt, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia. PMID:19337445

  10. Is [symbol: see text] Yasmin a "truly different" pill?

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    A combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing the progestogen drospirenone (pronounced dro-spi-re-known) plus the oestrogen ethinylestradiol ([symbol: see text] Yasmin--Schering Health Care) is now available in the UK. Company advertising claims that Yasmin is "truly different", as reliable and safe as other COCs and is "the pill for well-being", with "no associated weight gain" and "a demonstrable positive effect" on premenstrual symptoms and skin condition. Such claims have also appeared in the lay media. Are they justified? PMID:12216337

  11. A new contraceptive pill containing 17β-estradiol and nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Laroche, Emmanuelle; Bricaire, Léopoldine

    2013-01-01

    Most combined oral contraceptive pills contain ethinyl estradiol (EE) with progestins. In order to minimize the pill's cardiovascular risks, the concept of using 17β-estradiol (E2), the endogenous estradiol, arose in the 1970s. Many attempts to develop a pill containing 17β-E2 have failed as cycle control was low. The first pill containing 17β-E2 was launched in 2011. This monophasic pill contains 24 pills with 1.5 mg 17β-E2 and 2.5 mg nomegestrol acetate, and four placebo pills. Studies conducted in Europe and the USA demonstrate that its Pearl index is 0.38 and 1.13, respectively. It has less influence on hemostasis, fibrinolysis markers, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the combined oral contraceptive levonorgestrel/EE (150 g/30 g and 100 µg/20 µg). Withdrawal bleedings are shorter and lighter as compared with women using drospirenone/EE (3 mg/ 30 µg). The number of women without withdrawal bleeding is approximately 30% after 12 months. Even though its contraindications are identical to other combined oral contraceptives, this nomegestrol acetate/E2 pill should be considered to be of interest for many women. PMID:23241152

  12. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p < 0.0001). When expressed relative to baseline, lactate levels were lower in PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Cortisol levels were also significantly greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Norepinephrine levels were significantly increased during exercise (p < 0.0001) and in H versus N (p < 0.0001). However, epinephrine levels were not different over time or with trial. Thus, the presence of circulating estradiol and progesterone during the PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  13. A Case of Significant Endobronchial Injury due to Recurrent Iron Pill Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Joo-Hee; Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric mucosal damage by iron pills is often reported. However, iron pill aspiration is uncommon. Oxidation of the impacted iron pill causes bronchial mucosal damage that progresses to chronic bronchial inflammation, necrosis, endobronchial stenosis and rarely, perforation. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with chronic productive cough and significant left-sided atelectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed substantial luminal narrowing with exudative inflammation of the left main bronchus. Bronchial washing cytology showed necroinflammatory exudate and a small amount of brown material. Mucosal biopsy showed diffuse brown pigments indicative of ferrous pigments, crystal deposition, and marked tissue degeneration. After vigorous coughing, she expectorated dark sediments and her symptoms and radiological abnormalities improved. There are a few such reports worldwide; however, this was the first case reported in Korea. Careful observation of aspiration-prone patients and early detection of iron pill aspiration may prevent iron pill-induced bronchial injury. PMID:26508942

  14. [Estrogens and feminine brain maturation during adolescence: emergency contraceptive pill].

    PubMed

    López Moratalla, Natalia; Errasti Alcalá, Tania; Santiago, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    In the period between puberty and maturity takes place the process of brain maturation. Hormone levels induce changes in neurons and direct the architecture and structural functionality thus affecting patterns of development of different brain areas. The onset of puberty brings with it the invasion of the female brain by high levels of hormones, cyclic surges of estrogen and progesterone in addition to steroids produced in situ. Control centers of emotions (amygdala), memory and learning (hippocampus) and sexual activity (hypothalamus) are modified according to the cyclical concentrations of both hormones. Sex hormones stimulate multimodal actions, both short and longer terms, because neurons in various brain areas have different types of receptors, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear. The composition of emergency contraceptive pill (postcoital pill) with high hormonal content raises the urgency of a thorough knowledge about the possible effect that the lack of control of the menstrual cycle in a time of consolidation of brain maturation, can bring in structuring and development of brain circuitry. Changes in the availability of sex steroids during puberty and adolescence underlie psychiatric disorders whose prevalence is typically feminine, such as depression, anxiety disorders. It is a fundamental ethical duty to present scientific data about the influence of estrogen in young female brain maturation, both for full information to potential users, and also to induce the appropriate public health measures. PMID:22040134

  15. Cloxacillin: A New Cause of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Zezos, Petros; Harel, Ziv; Saibil, Fred

    2016-01-01

    A large variety of medications can cause pill-induced esophagitis. Herein we present a case of cloxacillin-induced esophagitis. A 66-year-old male presented with an acute onset of epigastric and retrosternal pain on the 5th day of a course of oral cloxacillin prescribed for erysipelas. Initial clinical and imaging assessment was negative and he was sent home. A few days later, he returned with persistent severe retrosternal pain; endoscopy at the same day revealed a normal upper esophagus, several small stellate erosions in the midesophagus, and a normal squamocolumnar junction with a small hiatus hernia. Treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg bid and MucaineR suspension resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. Pill-induced esophagitis may be underreported by patients, when symptoms are mild and unrecognized and/or underdiagnosed by the clinicians as a cause of retrosternal pain, odynophagia, or dysphagia. Failure of early recognition may result in unnecessary diagnostic investigations and prolongation of the patient's discomfort. This case signifies the importance of enhancing clinician awareness for drug-associated esophageal injury when assessing patients with retrosternal pain, as well as the value of prophylaxis against this unpleasant condition by universally recommending drinking enough water in an upright position during ingestion of any oral medication. PMID:27446834

  16. Unannounced telephone-based pill counts: a valid and feasible method for monitoring adherence

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, R; Feldman, BJ; Brown, T; Schmidt, S; Crane, PK; Harrington, RD; Dhanireddy, S; McReynolds, J; Lober, WB; Bangsberg, DR; Kitahata, MM; Crane, HM

    2015-01-01

    Phone-based unannounced pill counts to measure medication adherence are much more practical and less expensive than home-based unannounced pill counts, but their validity has not been widely assessed. We examined the validity of phone vs. home-based pill counts using a simplified protocol streamlined for studies embedded in clinical care settings. A total of 100 paired counts were used to compare concordance between unannounced phone and home-based pill counts using interclass correlations. Discrepancy analyses using χ2 tests compared demographic and clinical characteristics across patients who were concordant between phone and home-based pill counts and patients who were not concordant. Concordance was high for phone-based and home-based unannounced total pill counts, as well as individual medication counts and calculated adherence. This study demonstrates that a simplified phone-based pill count protocol can be implemented among patients from a routine clinical care setting and is a feasible means of monitoring medication adherence. PMID:25331265

  17. Association between Physician Specialty and Risk of Prescribing Inappropriate Pill Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Chou, Chia-Lin; Wu, Min-Shan; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Han-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription errors that occur due to the process of pill splitting are a common medication problem; however, available prescription information involving inappropriate pill splitting and its associated factors is lacking. Methods We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of ambulatory prescriptions involving extended-release or enteric-coated formulations in a Taiwan medical center during a 5-month period in 2010. For this study, those pill splitting prescriptions involving special oral formulations were defined as inappropriate prescriptions. Information obtained included patient demographics, prescriber specialty and prescription details, which were assessed to identify factors associated with inappropriate pill splitting. Results There were 1,252 inappropriate prescriptions identified in this cohort study, representing a prescription frequency for inappropriate pill splitting of 1.0% among 124,300 prescriptions with special oral formulations. Among 35 drugs with special oral formulations in our study, 20 different drugs (57.1%, 20/35) had ever been prescribed to split. Anti-diabetic agents, cardiovascular agents and central nervous system agents were the most common drug classes involved in inappropriate splitting. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was higher in older (over 65 years of age) patients (1.1%, 832/75,387). Eighty-seven percent (1089/1252) of inappropriate prescriptions were prescribed by internists. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was highest from endocrinologists (3.4%, 429/12,477), nephrologists (1.3%, 81/6,028) and cardiologists (1.3%, 297/23,531). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the strongest factor associated with individual specific drug of inappropriate splitting was particular physician specialties. Conclusion This study provides important insights into the inappropriate prescription of special oral formulation related to pill splitting, and helps to aggregate information that can assist

  18. Multi-components determination by single reference standard and HPLC fingerprint analysis for Lamiophlomis rotata Pill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yang; Sun, Guoxiang; Ma, Yongfu; Guo, Xingjie

    2016-07-01

    A validated HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill combining the multi-components analysis by single reference standard with HPLC fingerprint analysis. Five bioactive components (shanzhiside methyl ester, loganin, 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, forsythoside B and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) were selected as markers to control the quality of L. rotata Pill. The results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint method coupled with multi-components analysis provides an effective and feasible way to determine the components in L. rotata Pill. PMID:26595778

  19. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Collumbien, Martine; Douthwaite, Megan

    2003-01-01

    An innovative social marketing intervention in Pakistan distributes audiocassettes via chemist shops and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to reach women in a segregated society with accurate information on hormonal contraceptives. Operations research was done to assess the utility of the cassette in knowledge dissemination and adoption of hormonal use. In total 187 structured questionnaires were completed with couples who had obtained a cassette. Listeners were significantly more knowledgeable than non-listeners about correct use of hormonals (OR = 8.6 for women and OR = 12.7 for men). Hormonal use increased from 12% to 25%. LHVs also organized discussion groups for women, and attending such a chat group was the strongest predictor for adoption of pills and injectables (OR = 4.15). Equivalent male groups are suggested to reach apprehensive men. By providing accurate information to urban couples and by acquiring a knowledgeable critical mass of satisfied users, the cassette could be a powerful catalyst to further contraceptive diffusion. PMID:12537155

  20. Adolescents at risk: pain pills to heroin: part II.

    PubMed

    Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-02-01

    Casually exposing adolescents to prescription opioid agents may escalate to daily use. A trend exists for adolescents using prescription opioid agents to substitute heroin because it is significantly cheaper than pills (approximately half of the cost) and is often more readily available. Additionally, it is more potent than most prescription opioid agents and carries increased risks of overdose and death. Although treatment for substance use disorders has traditionally centered on total abstinence, opioid replacement therapy (ORT) is an option that saves lives and prevents overdose deaths. In the United States, ORT is based on two medicines: methadone and buprenorphine. These drugs can be substituted for other opiate agents and have much lower overdose risks. Nursing implications and web-based resources for teaching are presented. PMID:25654572

  1. Decision-making and Anticipation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium vulgare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Migita, Masao

    2004-08-01

    In the previous study, decision-making of the direction of motion was found in pill bugs. In the present experiment, we find that they autonomously choose specific places for the decision-making. Each individual was placed in a circle track surrounded by water. Small columnar marks were placed in the center of the track at equal intervals. At first, when they encountered the marks, they moved along and passed it. After some minutes, they tended to mount on the top of the marks, stayed for a while and swung the antennae as if they searched for the direction of motion. As time went on, they sometimes traced several marks. It seemed that they anticipated the appearance of the mark in advance to use it for decision-making of the direction of the next motion. In another circle track surrounded by wall, such behaviors were not observed.

  2. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind. PMID:26071918

  3. Mainstreaming of Emergency Contraception Pill in India: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anvita; Khan, M. E.; Bhatnagar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. Materials and Methods: This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP's easy access for potential users from (i) a cross-sectional survey of providers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii) three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii) evidence from scientific literature. Results: The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users) including influential gynecologists. Conclusion: For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW). PMID:25657513

  4. Is It Safe to Provide Abortion Pills over the Counter? A Study on Outcome Following Self-Medication with Abortion Pills

    PubMed Central

    Nivedita, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to study the implications of self-administration of abortion pills by pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study done in Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College & Hospital between the period of July 2013 to June2014. Case sheets were analysed to obtain data regarding self-administration of abortion pills and complications secondary to its administration. The following data were collected. Age, marital status, parity, duration of pregnancy as perceived by the women, confirmation of pregnancy, duration between pill intake and visit to hospital, whether any intervention done elsewhere, any known medical or surgical complications, Hb level on admission, whether patient was in shock, USG findings, evidence of sepsis, blood transfusion, treatment given and duration of hospital stay. Descriptive analysis of the collected data was done. Results: Among the 128 cases of abortion in the study period, 40 (31.25%) patients had self-administered abortion pills. Among these 40 patients 27.5% had consumed abortion pills after the approved time period of 63 days of which 17.5% had consumed pills after 12 weeks of gestation. The most common presentation was excessive bleeding (77.5%) Severe anaemia was found in 12.5% of the patients and 5% of patients presented with shock. The outcome was as follows : 62.5% of the patients were found to have incomplete abortion, 22.5% had failed abortion and 7.5% of patients had incomplete abortion with sepsis. Surgical evacuation

  5. Highs and lows: patterns of use, positive and negative effects of benzylpiperazine-containing party pills (BZP-party pills) amongst young people in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Rachael A; Sheridan, Janie L

    2007-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products. Methods A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Results The sample included 58 young people aged 17–23 years who had used BZP-party pills in the previous 12 months. Young people were using these substances in a range of settings – primarily during weekend social occasions – particularly as part of the dance party culture. They were mostly used for their stimulant properties and to enhance socialisation, and were often taken in combination with other legal and illicit drugs. Young people had suffered a range of physical and emotional negative effects, although none of these was reported as being life-threatening or long-term. Many participants had reduced the frequency with which they used BZP-party pills due to adverse effects. Potentially risky behaviours identified included taking large doses, mixing BZP-party pills with alcohol and other substances, and driving whilst under the influence of BZP-party pills. Conclusion Findings suggest that young people in this study were not suffering excessive or dangerous adverse effects. However, potentially risky use of these products raises the issue of the need for developing harm reduction interventions. PMID:18021425

  6. Effects of Bak Foong Pills and Menoease Pills on white blood cell distribution in old age female rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alice Lok Sze; Gou, Yu Lin; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of Bak Foong Pills (BFP) and the new BFP-derived post-menopause formula, Menoease Pills (MBFP), on the distribution of peripheral white blood cells (WBC) between BFP/MBFP-treated and non-treated rats. Eighteen months old female SD rats were used to mimic post-menopausal and old age animal models. The percentage distribution of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes were measured using flow cytometry with and without treatments of BFP or MBFP. Results showed that WBC distribution in old age rats were significantly different from that of adult rats, suggesting that as the animal aged, their WBC distributions were altered. Old age rats were observed to have much lower percentages of lymphocytes, but higher percentages of granulocytes when compared to the adult rats, indicating possible attenuated immunity. Following treatment with BFP or MBFP, WBC populations were found to be redistributed back into the ranges observed in adult animals. Furthermore, MBFP, was found to alter WBC distribution in a dose-dependent manner. When compared to estrogen (E(2)), a well documented regulator of immune function, results showed that MBFP was able to show significantly greater effects on WBC redistribution compared to E(2). However, in ovariectomised (ovx) old age rats, neither MBFP nor E(2) treated groups showed any changes in WBC redistribution. These results indicate that MBFP may share similarities to E(2). Indeed, the effect of MBFP and E(2) seems to require intact ovaries, which are believed to be necessary for the modulation of WBC distributions and immune functions. Overall, our findings suggest that BFP and MBFP may be able to regulate WBC population in old age female rats, and thus, indicate their potential role on improving the attenuated immunity evident in post-menopausal and elderly women. PMID:14646184

  7. Birth Control Pills Linked to Fewer Severe Knee Injuries in Teen Girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Linked to Fewer Severe Knee Injuries in Teen Girls Study reinforces theory that estrogen may be why ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teen girls who take birth control pills may be less ...

  8. Balloon-In-A-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159005.html Balloon-in-a-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool Those using the device were ... 2016 TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new ingestible and inflatable balloon system seems to be ...

  9. Are Birth Control Pills Tied to Decline in Ovarian Cancer Deaths?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control Pills Tied to Decline in Ovarian Cancer Deaths? Rates down 16 percent in U.S., 8 percent ... WEDNESDAY, Sept. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ovarian cancer deaths are down dramatically in many parts of the ...

  10. Got Unwanted Pills? Drug Take-Back Day Is April 30

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158560.html Got Unwanted Pills? Drug Take-Back Day Is April 30 National effort coordinates drop-off ... drop-off centers nationwide during Drug Take-Back Day, which takes place this year on Saturday, April ...

  11. A Pill to Ward Off Cavities? Scientists Say It Could Happen

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Pill to Ward Off Cavities? Scientists Say It Could Happen Researchers spotted a strain of 'good' ... cavity-causing bacteria in check. The investigators said it might be possible to use this beneficial bacteria ...

  12. Balloon-In-A-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Balloon-in-a-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool Those using the device were nearly 7 ... while current balloons prompt 80 percent of their weight loss in the first three months before trailing off, ...

  13. A radiotelemetry pill for the measurement of ionising radiation using a mercuric iodide detector.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Pearce, G; Edwards, J P

    1978-03-01

    A small radiation measuring pill is briefly described which utilises the principles of radiotelemetry and the properties of a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector such as mercuric iodide. By transmitting a radio signal to a remote receiver the pill could be an effective tool in localising bleeding sites along the gastrointestinal tract and also possibly in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal carcinoma. Other uses of the radiopill are suggested. The size of the pill is 27 mm x 10 mm diameter and consists of a mercuric iodide crystal, an amplifier, a frequency modulated transmitter and one battery. The radiotransmitter operates at about 106 MHz and has a range of about 10m, and the sensitivity of the pill has been found for 99Tcm, 131I and 32P. PMID:306112

  14. Condom Use Falls When Teen Girls Opt for IUDs Vs. the Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157762.html Condom Use Falls When Teen Girls Opt for IUDs vs. The Pill Experts ... a related editorial. "Dual protection for sexually active adolescents should be encouraged, so that adolescents are not ...

  15. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF. PMID:26935150

  16. Bringing smart pills to market: FDA regulation of ingestible drug/device combination products.

    PubMed

    Avery, Matthew; Liu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a pill that, after you swallow it, can track its position in your body. Or imagine a pill that can transmit a message to a doctor to tell him that you have taken your bitter medicine. Pills like this already exist. These so-called smart pills are an emerging type of medical therapy. However, this nascent technology has yet to reach the market and developers of these novel therapies face significant regulatory challenges. This article predicts how the Food and Drug Administration will regulate smart pills and shows how the current regulatory regime is inadequate. The article then proposes modifying the current regulatory regime to encourage development of smart pills and other innovative combination products by: (1) regulating combination products based on their "novel mode of action" rather than their "primary mode of action," (2) creating a marketing approval pathway specifically for combination products, and (3) eliminating regulations that require sponsors to get marketing approval from multiple centers within FDA and providing regulatory guidance specifically for ingestible drug/device combination products. PMID:24505852

  17. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  18. Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill improves cardiac function after myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    JianXin, Chen; Xue, Xu; ZhongFeng, Li; Kuo, Gao; FeiLong, Zhang; ZhiHong, Li; Xian, Wang; HongCai, Shang

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) is one of the leading causes of death, while Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QYDP) is a representative traditional Chinese medicine to treat this disease. Unveiling the pharmacological mechanism of QYDP will provide a great opportunity to promote the development of novel drugs to treat MI. 64 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: MI model group, sham operation group, QYDP treatment group and Fosinopril treatment group. Echocardiography results showed that QYDP exhibited significantly larger LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) and LV end-systolic dimension (LVEDs), compared with the MI model group, indicating the improved cardiac function by QYDP. 1H-NMR based metabonomics further identify 9 significantly changed metabolites in the QYDP treatment group, and the QYDP-related proteins based on the protein-metabolite interaction networks and the corresponding pathways were explored, involving the pyruvate metabolism pathway, the retinol metabolism pathway, the tyrosine metabolism pathway and the purine metabolism pathway, suggesting that QYDP was closely associated with blood circulation. ELISA tests were further employed to identify NO synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the networks. For the first time, our work combined experimental and computational methods to study the mechanism of the formula of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27075394

  19. Pills easier to obtain as nations start to relax rules.

    PubMed

    1975-01-01

    In both developing and developed nations it has become easier to obtain oral contraception (OC). Generally, this means that the OC becomes available without a doctor's prescription and/or sources from outside a pharmacy. Sometimes there is no charge for the OC. In the People's Republic of China barefoot doctors distribute OC free of charge. Fiji, Israel, Korea and Pakistan have removed the prescription requirement. In India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Turkey private family planning clinics distribute the OC on prescription but free of charge. Specially trained and registered midwives distribute OCs in Chile and Antigua has also recently lifted the prescription requirement. Free OC is available to low income women in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Peru. In Egypt family planning centers distribute the OC free and without prescription. The United Kingdom is making OCs available free-of-charge through the National Health Service. OCs are free in France. In the U.S. government agencies have provided free OCs to low-income women in government health centers and have subsidized free pills for distribution in private family planning clinics. In Canada and in the Democratic Republic of Germany, OCs are distributed free, on prescription, to low-income women. PMID:12259672

  20. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior. PMID:26621257

  1. Pill side effects, continuation found similar whether self-prescribed or prescribed by doctor.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    In developing countries, especially Latin America, women obtain oral contraceptives without a physician's prescription. While these women experience more side effects, they have fewer accidental pregnancies than women who obtain the pills through a physician/prescription. A probability sample of 6692 Colombian women in Bogota were interviewed in 1974. Almost 1 in 20 of all women, and almost 1 in 13 of those married or living in a union, said they began using the pill on their own as their first method of contraception. The characteristics of the women without prescriptions were similar to those with, but self-prescribers were slightly older, had more children, and were less educated. 7 in 10 women of both groups continued pill use for 1 year; about 6 in 10 still used the pill after 2 years. Both groups gave side effects as their reason for discontinuation. The most frequently cited side effect was headache. None of the women reported the more serious complications, thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism. Women who did not begin with medical advice were less likely to seek it when they had side effects attributed to the pill. Half as many self-prescribers (24%), as users with a prescription (46%), reported visiting a private physician about side effects. 11% self-prescribers, compared with 25%, sought other professional help. PMID:12299650

  2. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Daanen, H A M

    2012-06-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (T(pill)) was compared with the rectal temperature (T(re)) and esophageal temperature (T(es)). T(pill) corresponded well to T(re) during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T(es) during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT(pill)-T(re) and ΔT(pill)-T(es) were 0.13 ± 0.26 and -0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for T(pill) and T(re.) T(es) responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T(pill). In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, T(pill) is still a representative of T(re). The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T(pill) and T(es) (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T(pill) is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. PMID:22551669

  3. Suicide, Canadian law, and Exit International's "peaceful pill".

    PubMed

    Ogden, Russel D

    2010-11-01

    Australia's Exit International ("Exit") is probably the most visible and controversial right-to-die organization in the world. Founded by Dr. Philip Nitschke, Exit is known for do-it-yourself ("DIY") suicide workshops and a book banned in Australia: The Peaceful Pill Handbook. In 2009, Exit held its first workshop in Canada. Due to legal concerns, the Vancouver Public Library reneged on a commitment to give Exit a venue, so the workshop proceeded in the sanctuary of a church hall. This article summarizes the history of suicide law in Canada and gives an overview of the emerging DIY movement. A case report describes how a Canadian woman studied Exit's literature and learned how to import veterinary pentobarbital. In accordance with Exit's information, she ended her life. Ethical and legal implications for researching DIY suicide are discussed and it is argued that prohibition contributes to an undesirable situation of uncontrolled and unregulated suicide. Whether they are prohibited, permitted, or tolerated, suicide and assisted suicide are controversial. Their legal treatment in Canada is conflicting because suicide is not a crime but it is a serious offense to assist, encourage, or counsel someone to suicide. Individuals can lawfully take their lives, but they must act independently. This legal situation has given rise to a do-it-yourself ("DIY") right-to-die movement dedicated to technologies and information to enhance the possibilities for planned and humane suicide, while limiting the legal exposure of sympathetic third parties (Martin, 2010; Ogden 2001). My aim is to summarize the legal history of suicide in Canada and discuss the emerging social movement for DIY suicide and assistance in suicide. Exit International ("Exit"), based in Australia, is a leading organization in this movement. I present a case report that describes how a Canadian woman ended her life using DIY techniques learned from Exit. Some ethical and legal implications for researching DIY

  4. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  5. Honduran women received no written information on contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In the period 1989-1994, Honduran women participating in the Project Health Sector 2 have been exposed to a contraceptive mini-pill, Ovrette. The Institute of Honduran Social Security (IHSS) approved the program (in which Ovrette distribution is included) in May 1990. The program is partly funded by the Population Council, which is funded by USAID Registry with the Department of Health was not required under the Health Code since Ovrette had entered the country as a donation. In June 1993, a Commission of the Honduran Medical Association reported that the women were not given any written information on the drug. Ovrette is an oral contraceptive manufactured by Wyeth. Its active ingredient is a progestagen, Norgestrel. Contraindications for Ovrette include: non-lactating women who exhibit side-effects such as dizziness, water retention, migraine, etc.; non-lactating women with contraindications for estrogen; lactating women who reject other contraceptive drugs. The US Pharmacopeia and the US Food and Drug Administration do not authorize the drug for use by lactating women. As with other progestagens, Norgestrel passes through to the mother's milk. In 1993, the US Pharmacopeia reported that these hormones can cause harmful effects to the child, and recommended switching medications or discontinuation of lactation. In 1983, the WHO expressed concern about the possibility of injury caused by the progestagens. The possibilities included alterations to personality, behavior, anatomy of sexual organs, reproductive capacity, immunological function and development of neoplasia. Possible damages in puberty or during the reproductive age are not known since there is no study of exposed children that are older than 12 years of age. PMID:12318716

  6. High order mode damping in a pill box cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, F.; Lambertson, G.; Rimmer, R.

    1991-04-01

    We have substantially damped the higher order modes (HOM's) in a pill box cavity with attached beam pipe, while reducing the Q of the principal mode by less that 10%. This was accomplished by cutting slots in the cavity end wall at a radius at which the magnetic field of the lowest frequency HOM's is large. The slots couple energy from the cavity into waveguides which are below cut off for the principal mode, but which propagate energy at the HOM frequencies. Three slots 120 degrees apart couple HOM energy to three waveguides. We are concerned primarily with accelerating and deflecting modes: i.e. the TM{sub mnp} modes of order m=0 and m=1. For the strongest damping, only three m=0 and m=1 modes were detectable. These were the principal TM{sub 010} mode, the TM{sub 011} longitudinal mode, and the TM{sub 110} deflecting mode. In addition the HOM Q's and the reduction of Q for the principal mode were determined by computer calculation. The principal mode Q for an actual rf cavity could not be measured because the bolted joints used in the construction of the cavity were not sufficiently good to support Q's above 6000. The measured Q of the first longitudinal mode was 31 and of the first transverse mode 37. Our maximum damping was limited by how well we could terminated the waveguides, and indeed, the computer calculations for the TM{sub 011} and TM{sub 110} modes give values in the range we measured. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Normalizing the exceptional: incorporating the "abortion pill" into mainstream medicine.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Carole; Weitz, Tracy A

    2003-06-01

    Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, and in the US known as "the French abortion pill", finally received FDA approval in the United States in September 2000. This paper discusses the steps now in process to integrate this drug into mainstream healthcare and the sociological implications of those efforts. Each of the steps that is normally taken to introduce a newly approved medication in the US context is rendered highly complex in the case of mifepristone--because of the unique circumstances of abortion in both American culture generally, and medical culture specifically. The story of RU-486/mifepristone, as it is currently unfolding, can be understood as one of attempting to "normalize the exceptional". After offering a brief historical overview of the protracted struggle for FDA approval of mifepristone in the US, this paper discusses the typical processes for integration of a newly approved medication into mainstream medicine and contrasts this process with the special challenges posed by a drug that is associated with abortion. We outline the challenges to implementation, including both external and internal obstacles. We compare the traditional role of a pharmaceutical company in drug diffusion and the circumstances of the company that produces mifepristone in the US. We discuss such external obstacles as the conflict between the FDA-approved regime and an evidence-based alternative; the necessity for physicians to order and dispense this drug; the ambiguity over the need for ultrasonography; and insurance reimbursement, malpractice, and other legal issues. Internal issues addressed include "turf issues" between medical specialties and between physicians and advanced practice clinicians as well as concerns over "cowboy medicine", and patient compliance. This paper concludes with an exploration of the sociological implications of this effort to "normalize the exceptional". PMID:12742600

  8. [Study on fluorescence sequencing typing technology identification of raw materials in liuwei dihuang pill].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Min-Hui; Jiang, Chao; Zhou, Li-She

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, Liuwei Dihuang pill was used to study the identification of Chinese patent medicine by fluorescence sequencing typing technology. The DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa was used as template to amplify by five pair of FAM fluorescence labeling primers. Then, the amplified products were sequenced. The sequencing results were analyzed by GeneMarker V1.80 to screen the best fluorescence labeling primers. As a result, psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer was used to identify the raw materials of Liuwei Dihuang pill. The results showed that three kinds of raw plant medicinal materials in Liuwei Dihuang pill were able to be correctly identified by psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer. The fluorescence sequencing typing technology can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicine. PMID:25612423

  9. Autopsy report on pseudo-Bartter syndrome with renal calcification induced by diuretics and diet pills

    PubMed Central

    Unuma, Kana; Tojo, Akihiro; Harada, Kazuki; Saka, Kanju; Nakajima, Makoto; Ishii, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    A woman in her mid-forties had repeated vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied by muscle weakness soon after she started taking seven different diet pills imported from Thailand. After she had taken the pills for 8 days, respiratory depression progressed rapidly to arrest. Blood tests at the Emergency Department showed severe hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis. We diagnosed that she had developed pseudo-Bartter syndrome from the findings based on ionic abnormalities and high renin and aldosterone levels, and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A postmortem blood analysis indicated subtherapeutic levels of furosemide. We concluded that the patient died from pseudo-Bartter syndrome, which was triggered by chronic self-administration of furosemide and aggravated by the diet pills. This is the first pseudo-Bartter syndrome autopsy report to show histological localisation of calcification in the kidneys. PMID:21686346

  10. Imbibition, desiccation and mechanical deformations of zein pills in relation to their porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, M. A.; Pauchard, L.; Allain, C.; Colonna, P.; Lourdin, D.

    2006-05-01

    This paper deals with the interaction between zein (the main protein component of corn grain) and water. It induces macroscopic properties changes and may allow for the understanding of the basis of zein endosperm structure: vitreous endosperm is compact and floury endosperm is porous, giving the endosperm its hard and soft textures, respectively. In that aim porous pills made by compaction of zein powder submitted to different hydration/dehydration processes have been prepared and studied. In particular, imbibition measurements of a pure-water drop deposited onto a zein pill were performed. Also, desiccation of a zein pill previously imbibed induces strong mechanical stresses leading to crack formation and/or large deformations.

  11. Pill burden does not influence compliance with oral medication in recipients of renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Uma Rani; Taraphder, Abhijit; Hazra, Avijit; Das, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Insights about the predictors of noncompliance are key to develop compliance enhancing strategy in a given therapeutic situation. Renal transplantation is a critical surgical procedure that imposes a large medication burden on patients. There is a suspicion that the large pill burden may lead to noncompliance. Our objective was to ascertain the influence of pill burden on medication compliance in renal transplant patients in the Indian sociocultural context. Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted in two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Kolkata running renal transplant program – one each from the government and private sectors. Totally 120 literate adult transplant recipients were recruited through purposive sampling and followed up at 3 months intervals for 1 year. Data were collected through interview and review of prescriptions and medical records. Results: Data of 110 subjects were analyzed. The pill burden was high – ranging from 10-21 (median 14) at first visit shortly after discharge to 7–22 (median 11) at last visit at 12 months in the government sector; corresponding figures in the private sector were 14–32 (median 21) and 10–28 (median 17). Pill burden increased with age. Only 60.91% of the patients were fully compliant until 1 year after transplantation. The rate of immunosuppressant noncompliance was 27.78% in government sector and 25.00% in private sector. There was no significant association between median pill burden and medication compliance. Satisfaction with caregiver support was associated with better immunosuppressant compliance. Conclusions: Noncompliance in renal transplant recipients is likely to be multifactorial. Contrary to popular belief, pill burden was not a major determinant of noncompliant behavior. PMID:26997717

  12. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology. PMID:25204172

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin) versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Ho; Ko, Su-Kyoung; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin) might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin) in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (%) attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL) based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered). A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal). Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION: A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25773438

  14. Comparison of dual antiplatelet therapy prescribed as one-pill versus two-pill regimen. A pooled analysis of individual patient data from the three MR-CAPCIS trials.

    PubMed

    Lim, Woo-Hyun; Chae, In-Ho; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Choi, Dong-Ju; Lim, Sang Wook; Park, Woo Jung; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Jung Han; Ahn, Young Keun; Hyon, Min-Su; Kim, Ki Seok; Kim, Young Kwon; Lee, Han Cheol; Seol, Sang-Hoon; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Choi, Si-Wan; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Shin, Eun-Seok; Kim, Sang-Wook; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-dose combination (FDC) drugs can simplify the medication regimen and potentially improve adherence. However, evidence is lacking about the efficacy and safety of FDC drugs of clopidogrel plus aspirin. Individual data from the three independent MR-CAPCIS trials were pooled and analysed. In those trials, subjects who had been treated with either dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or aspirin alone after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation were randomly assigned to one-pill or to two-pill DAPT group. Platelet reactivity was measured with VerifyNow-P2Y12 and aspirin point-of-care assays at baseline and eight weeks after treatment. In the present study, primary efficacy endpoint was changes in platelet reactivity unit (PRU) between baseline and eight weeks. A total of 965 subjects were analysed. In prior clopidogrel and aspirin users, PRU was well maintained regardless of switching to either one-pill or two-pill DAPT (ΔPRU=0.4 vs 0.0, p=0.939). In prior aspirin users, PRU was decreased by 73.7 in one-pill DAPT and 77.5 in two-pill DAPT group, with no differences between them (p=0.499). The incidence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity at eight weeks, defined as PRU≥235 in Western people, was 34.8 % in one-pill DAPT group and 37.6 % in two-pill DAPT group (p=0.380), and that defined as PRU ≥275 in Oriental people was 17.7 vs 21.7 % (p=0.129). Independent predictors of high platelet reactivity on clopidogrel were female gender, increasing age, and diabetes. Study drugs were well tolerated. In conclusion, FDC one-pill DAPT showed similar efficacy to two-pill DAPT in terms of platelet reactivity in patients receiving DES in Korea. PMID:27029284

  15. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2016-02-01

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women's empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398

  16. Real-time electronic adherence monitoring is feasible, comparable to unannounced pill counts, and acceptable

    PubMed Central

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Ybarra, Michele; Monk, Alexandra; Ragland, Kathleen; Weiser, Sheri D.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Second generation electronic medication adherence monitors provide real-time data on pill bottle opening behavior. Feasibility, validity, and acceptability, however, have not been established. Med-eMonitor is a multi-compartment adherence device with reminder and education capacity that transmits data through a telephone connection. Monthly adherence levels were measured for 52 participants over approximately three months using the Med-eMonitor (unadjusted and adjusted for participant confirmed dosing) and unannounced pill counts. HIV RNA was assessed before and after the three-month period. Acceptability of Med-eMonitor was determined. Over 92% of Med-eMonitor data was transmitted daily. Unannounced pill counts significantly correlated with adjusted Med-eMonitor adherence (r=0.29, p=0.04). HIV RNA significantly correlated with unannounced pill counts (r=−0.34, p=0.02), and trended toward a significant correlation with unadjusted Med-eMonitor adherence (r=−0.26; p=0.07). Most, but not all, participants liked using the Med-eMonitor. Med-eMonitor allows for real-time adherence monitoring and potentially intervention, which may be critical for prolonging treatment success. PMID:21448728

  17. Medicine and the law. The postcoital pill and intrauterine device: contraceptive or abortifacient?

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1983-05-01

    The use of the postcoital pill and the IUD might be illegal under British law if, as some groups contend, conception is defined as fertilization of the ovum. An amendment stipulating that conception includes implantation would erase the potential conflict between the law and current practice or dictionary definitions of conception. PMID:6133073

  18. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  19. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  20. Modal analysis of wake fields and its application to elliptical pill-box cavity with finite aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Yang, J. S.

    1990-11-01

    The potential of the wake-field produced by a bunch of relativistic charged particles passing through a pill-box cavity is expressed by using Floquet's theorem, and an obvious requirement that the energy gain over all acceleration cavity of many pill boxes must be proportional to the number of pill boxes, based on the previous modal approach (BWW theory). It is found that the wake-field is consisted of two classes of modes: the longitudinal modes which are independent of the aperture and the pill-box gap, the hybrid (pill-box) modes which are dependent of the pill-box gap. The wake field is predominated by the fundamental longitudinal mode whose wavelength is on the order of the effective diameter of the cavity, and its magnitude is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the cavity for practical cavities with small apertures. Both longitudinal and transverse wake fields due to the longitudinal modes in an elliptical pill box cavity are expressed analytically in a closed series form by solving exactly the longitudinal eigenmode equation in the elliptical cylindrical coordinates in terms of Mathieu functions. It is found that both longitudinal and transverse wake fields whose amplitudes per driving charge are greater than 100 MV/m/μC can be generated in an elliptical cavity.

  1. Modal analysis of wake fields and its application to elliptical pill-box cavity with finite aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H. ); Chen, K.W.; Yang, J.S. )

    1990-11-15

    The potential of the wake-field produced by a bunch of relativistic charged particles passing through a pill-box cavity is expressed by using Floquet's theorem, and an obvious requirement that the energy gain over all acceleration cavity of many pill boxes must be proportional to the number of pill boxes, based on the previous modal approach (BWW theory). It is found that the wake-field is consisted of two classes of modes: the longitudinal modes which are independent of the aperture and the pill-box gap, the hybrid (pill-box) modes which are dependent of the pill-box gap. The wake field is predominated by the fundamental longitudinal mode whose wavelength is on the order of the effective diameter of the cavity, and its magnitude is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the cavity for practical cavities with small apertures. Both longitudinal and transverse wake fields due to the longitudinal modes in an elliptical pill box cavity are expressed analytically in a closed series form by solving exactly the longitudinal eigenmode equation in the elliptical cylindrical coordinates in terms of Mathieu functions. It is found that both longitudinal and transverse wake fields whose amplitudes per driving charge are greater than 100 MV/m/{mu}C can be generated in an elliptical cavity.

  2. Effect of sour tea (Lipicom) pill versus captopril on the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Ali-Reza; Akbari, Hossein; Soleimani, Saeid; Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Tamadon, Mohamad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines are traditionally prescribed to manage blood pressure. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate effect of sour tea pill containing the herb’s extract versus captopril on the treatment of hypertension. Patients and Methods: In our crossover clinical trial 20 patients were enrolled in the study and advised for life style modification then the participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. Sour tea pills was prescribed at a dose of 500 mg and captopril at a dose of 12.5 mg twice daily. In order to improve precision and final measurement, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed both prior and after measuring the hypertension in 2 successive visits. After 6 weeks of therapy, the methods changed and 6 weeks later ABPM was performed three times (baseline, at end of the 6th and 12th week). The 2 groups were merged together before data analysis. Results: Of the 20 patients, 13 (65%) were male and 7 (35%) were female. No significant difference of sex, age, and job was detected between 2 groups (P ≥ 0.05). Mean decreasing in systolic blood pressure was 7.75 ± 8.3 and 13.3 ± 16.1 mm Hg in the captopril and sour tea groups, respectively. Also, mean decline in diastolic blood pressure decreases was 2.15 ± 4.14 and 5.8 ± 7.8 mm Hg for captopril and sour tea groups, respectively. No side effect was observed in the sour tea pill group in the study. Conclusion: According to the effect of sour tea pill on decreasing blood pressure, without giving priority over captopril, sour tea pill containing the herb’s extract can be prescribed as an adjuvant therapy for lowering the prescribed dosage of captopril. PMID:26468478

  3. Syndrome of iron pill inhalation in four patients with accidental tablet aspiration: Severe airway complications are described

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, U.; Battistoni, P.; Batzella, S.; Iacono, R. Dello; Lucantoni, G.; Galluccio, G.

    2015-01-01

    Iron pill inhalation represents a uncommon cause of syntomatic endobronchial foreign bodies. Unlike foreign body, the direct contact of iron tablet onto the bronchial mucosa results in severe bronchial damage in addition to obstruction and local irritation. Four patients with Iron Pill Inhalation Syndrome are described. All but one patient developed irreversible bronchial stenosis as late post inflammatory complication. Bronchoscopic features and clinical evolution are described in order to reduce the risk of severe side-effects in patients highly suspected for iron pill aspiration. PMID:26236596

  4. Syndrome of iron pill inhalation in four patients with accidental tablet aspiration: Severe airway complications are described.

    PubMed

    Caterino, U; Battistoni, P; Batzella, S; Iacono, R Dello; Lucantoni, G; Galluccio, G

    2015-01-01

    Iron pill inhalation represents a uncommon cause of syntomatic endobronchial foreign bodies. Unlike foreign body, the direct contact of iron tablet onto the bronchial mucosa results in severe bronchial damage in addition to obstruction and local irritation. Four patients with Iron Pill Inhalation Syndrome are described. All but one patient developed irreversible bronchial stenosis as late post inflammatory complication. Bronchoscopic features and clinical evolution are described in order to reduce the risk of severe side-effects in patients highly suspected for iron pill aspiration. PMID:26236596

  5. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states. PMID:22776477

  6. Facilitators of Adherence to the Study Pill in the FEM-PrEP Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Corneli, Amy; Perry, Brian; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Malamatsho, Fulufhelo; Van Damme, Lut

    2015-01-01

    Introduction FEM-PrEP did not demonstrate a reduction in HIV acquisition because of low study pill adherence. Yet, plasma and intracellular drug concentrations indicated that some participants had evidence of recent pill use. We conducted a follow-up study to identify, among other topics, participants’ reasons for taking the study pill. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were conducted with 88 FEM-PrEP participants. Participants were purposefully selected based on their adherence drug concentrations collected during FEM-PrEP and placed into three adherence interview groups: “high,” “moderate,” and “none/scarce.” Participants in the high and moderate groups described reasons why they adhered most or some of the time, including factors that facilitated their adherence. Participants in all groups described what they believed made it possible for other FEM-PrEP participants to adhere. In addition, 224 FEM-PrEP participants reported on their reasons for taking the study pills through a quantitative, audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Results Five themes were identified from the SSIs as facilitating factors of adherence: 1) participants’ support for the research, 2) HIV risk reduction, 3) routine formation and use of tools, 4) adherence counseling, and 5) partner awareness and support. Participants described similar facilitators when they spoke about other participants’ adherence. Among the 172 participants who reported in ACASI that they had taken a study pill, wanting to help answer the research question was the most frequently stated reason for taking the pills (94%, n = 161). We also found evidence of preventive misconception. Conclusions Adherence was facilitated by personal motivations, such as risk reduction and interest in the research outcome, and by adherence strategies consisting of external

  7. Pill Burden in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Germany: Subanalysis From the Prospective, Noninterventional PROVIL Study.

    PubMed

    Blüher, Matthias; Kurz, Ira; Dannenmaier, Simone; Dworak, Markus

    2015-04-01

    IN BRIEF Type 2 diabetes and its associated comorbidities often require polypharmacotherapy, which may result in poor adherence to treatment. This study evaluated, using subjective patient and physician questionnaire surveys, the impact of pill burden and its associated consequences on patients treated with vildagliptin as add-on to metformin, a fixed-dose combination of vildagliptin/metformin, or another dual oral antidiabetic therapy. Patients' responses were also analyzed by age (<65 or ≥65 years). The surveys revealed that a high pill count in antidiabetic therapy constitutes a large burden for patients with type 2 diabetes. Treating physicians are aware of the problems that result from a high pill burden, and a majority of them prefer prescribing fixed-dose combinations that have better efficacy and tolerability to reduce pill burden. PMID:25897184

  8. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ujuju, Chinazo; Adebayo, Samson B; Anyanti, Jennifer; Oluigbo, Obi; Muhammad, Fatima; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method This study is based on findings from a ‘mystery client’ approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills); user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons) necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical

  9. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking tests after 14-day Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were detected using immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg Ruyi Zhenbao for 14 days significantly improved neurological function, and increased the number of von Willebrand Factor- and neuronal nuclear antigen-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of rats. Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment also significantly enhanced the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF in the ischemic hemisphere. The results demonstrated that the Ruyi Zhenbao pill improved neurological function following ischemia in rats. The mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill are associated with increasing the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF, and subsequently promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic zone. PMID:26893831

  10. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.' PMID:24901232

  11. Abraham Lincoln's blue pills. Did our 16th president suffer from mercury poisoning?

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N; Feldman, R G; Greaves, I A

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that Abraham Lincoln took a medicine called "blue mass" or "blue pill," commonly prescribed in the 19th century. What is now hardly known is that the main ingredient of blue mass was finely dispersed elemental mercury. As his friends understood, mercury was often prescribed for melancholy or "hypochondriasis," a condition Lincoln famously endured. Mercury in the form of the blue pill is a potential neurotoxin, which we have demonstrated by recreating and testing the recipe. We present the testimony of many of Lincoln's contemporaries to suggest that Lincoln suffered the neurobehavioural consequences of mercury intoxication but, perhaps crucial to history, before the main years of his presidency; he was astute enough to recognize the effects and stop the medication soon after his inauguration. PMID:11482002

  12. Comparison of contraceptive implant adopters and pill users in a family planning clinic in Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Weisman, C S; Plichta, S B; Tirado, D E; Dana, K H

    1993-01-01

    All 133 women who began using the Norplant contraceptive implant between August and December of 1991 at a Planned Parenthood clinic in Baltimore were compared with a sample of 112 women who obtained prescriptions for the pill at the same clinic during the same time period. A multivariate analysis found that women of Medicaid are significantly more likely than those who are self-paying to select the implant rather than the pill. Similarly, compared with women who have had no children, those who have had two or more are also significantly more likely to choose the implant. However, adolescents and women who have had an abortion are no more likely than other women to select the implant. PMID:8262172

  13. Swallowable smart pills for local drug delivery: present status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Rosa; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Smart pills were originally developed for diagnosis; however, they are increasingly being applied to therapy - more specifically drug delivery. In addition to smart drug delivery systems, current research is also looking into localization systems for reaching the target areas, novel locomotion mechanisms and positioning systems. Focusing on the major application fields of such devices, this article reviews smart pills developed for local drug delivery. The review begins with the analysis of the medical needs and socio-economic benefits associated with the use of such devices and moves onto the discussion of the main implemented technological solutions with special attention given to locomotion systems, drug delivery systems and power supply. Finally, desired technical features of a fully autonomous robotic capsule for local drug delivery are defined and future research trends are highlighted. PMID:26118473

  14. Knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills among a college-age population: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Harper, C; Ellertson, C

    1995-01-01

    Results from focus-group discussions with a population of university students who have convenient access to emergency contraceptive pills show that basic awareness about this method is high, although specific knowledge on appropriate use, such as the time limit for use, the level of effectiveness and the possible side effects, is lacking. Approval of the method is widespread among both female and male students, although students did voice anxieties about irresponsible use and the lack of protection against the human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases. Many of their concerns stem from incomplete information about how the regimen works. Students noted how rarely emergency contraceptive pills are discussed, and were curious to know more. They asked for routine education on the method, as well as more general discussion. PMID:7589355

  15. Images of American sexuality in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L; Trussell, James

    2006-11-01

    The debate over emergency contraceptive pill access in the United States revolves around speculations about Americans' sexual lives. The recently released internal U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) memo that expresses fears that adolescents will form "sex-based cults" around emergency contraceptive pills echoes arguments made against the nonprescription switch at the 2003 FDA hearings. In these hearings, opponents argued that nonprescription access would lead to adolescent promiscuity and disease transmission and that adult predators would use the drug to facilitate the sexual abuse of young women. In contrast, proponents of expanded access to emergency contraceptive pills overwhelmingly portrayed their model user as a responsible adult who experiences a torn condom during consensual sex. These imaginations of American sexuality are tied to competing models of the role of medical providers in women's sexual decision making. Opponents of the nonprescription switch argued that women need a learned intermediary, not only to determine their need for emergency contraception, but also to educate them about proper sexual behavior and protect them from abuse. Proponents advocated putting more responsibility for sexual health decision making in the hands of women, not doctors, and complained about the moralizing scrutiny of medical providers. In the absence of nonprescription access to emergency contraception, advance prescription of emergency contraceptive pills can ensure that contraceptive education is not tied to a specific sexual act and therefore not perceived as a judgment about women's sexual decisions. However, advance prescription does not help women who lack access to health care or women who make sexual and contraceptive decisions without consulting physicians. PMID:17077255

  16. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity. PMID:27273551

  17. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  18. Knowledge about missed contraceptive pills among married women at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Aba Al Khail, Bahaa Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most reliable methods of contraception. However, lack of knowledge about oral contraceptive use and inconsistent pill-taking might result in decreased efficacy. The study reported here aimed to explore women’s knowledge about oral contraceptive use and assess the factors associated with knowledge about OCPs among users. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between April and June 2014. We included married, non-pregnant women >18 years old who had used a combined 21-day OCP for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. A questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ demographic information. It also assessed their knowledge about OCPs. Data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS software. Results A total of 357 women were recruited. Of these, 57.7% reported they knew what to do after missing one or two pills, but only 18.3% knew exactly what to do after missing more than two pills consecutively. Postgraduate women had a significantly higher knowledge score than illiterate women (P=0.002) and those who had completed at least primary education (P=0.001). Conversely, there was no difference in knowledge scores between Saudi and expatriate women (P=0.2). Monthly incomes (P=0.2) and mode of OCP selection (P=0.2) were also not significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion Women had poor knowledge about OCP use. Appropriate measures should be taken to educate women about proper oral contraceptive use. PMID:25792813

  19. Single-pill triple-combination therapy: an alternative to multiple-drug treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2011-11-01

    Hypertension (HTN) affects an estimated 76.4 million US adults. Despite improvements in blood pressure (BP) control rates and the availability of effective antihypertensive agents, only 50% of these individuals achieve BP control. It is now recognized that many patients will require ≥ 2 antihypertensive agents to achieve BP control. Both the current US and reappraisal of the 2007 European guidelines include dual-combination regimens among recommended treatments for initial HTN therapy. For patients requiring 3 drugs, the combination of agents with complementary mechanisms of action (ie, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blocker, calcium channel blocker, and diuretic) has been recognized as rational and effective. Three single-pill triple-drug combinations have recently been approved for use in HTN in the United States: valsartan (VAL)/amlodipine (AML)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ); olmesartan medoxomil (OM)/AML/HCTZ; and aliskiren (ALI)/VAL/HCTZ. Triple-combination regimens have resulted in a greater proportion of patients achieving BP control compared with dual-combination regimens, with significantly lower BP levels documented after only 2 weeks at maximum doses. Single-pill combinations offer convenience to address barriers to BP control such as poor adherence to therapy and therapeutic inertia. Additional benefits of combining antihypertensive agents from different classes include improved efficacy, safety, and reduction of cardiovascular risk. In patients with essential HTN for whom dual therapy is inadequate, single-pill triple-drug therapy can offer a simplified and effective treatment strategy. PMID:22104451

  20. [Reexaminations of dosages in Shanghanlun: comparison of the dosages among decoctions, pills and powder formulations].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper reveals the dosages of decoctions in Shanghanlun in relation of pills and powder formulations, and obtains following results. At the first examination of the system of weight, while Taohongjing shows three kinds of system of weight; [(1)1liang is equivalent to 14 g. (2) 1liang = 7 g (3) 1liang = 1.4 g], he describes the necessity of the corrective system of weight among the decoctions, the pills and the powder formulations. After Song dynasty, Zhusanfa, which is the method of preparing the decoction by placing powder ingredients of prescriptions in water and simmer, have been mainly adopted. In the term of Zhusanfa, although the whole quantities of prescriptions are written with the ancient weight unit, the notation of the dosage is indicated by the current weight unit, Qian. In Shanghanlun, since the dosage form seems to have been changed from the pills or the powders into the decoction, some of decoctions contain impractical dose for decoction. PMID:21796994

  1. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. PMID:24051215

  2. Physiologic and psychologic symptoms associated with use of injectable contraception and 20 µg oral contraceptive pills

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Odom, Susan D.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare menstrual, physiologic, and psychologic symptoms over 2 years among women initiating use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or an oral contraceptive pill with a reduced pill-free interval, and those not using hormonal contraception. Methods A total of 608 women reported their experience regarding 17 symptoms prior to initiating contraception and every 6 months thereafter for 24 months. Longitudinal relationships between symptoms and contraceptives were assessed after adjusting for age, visits, and baseline status of symptoms. Results Oral contraceptive pills were protective against mastalgia (OR = 0.7), cramping (OR = 0.5), hair loss (OR = 0.6), acne (OR = 0.4), nervousness (OR = 0.5), and mood swings (OR = 0.7). DMPA was protective against bloating (OR = 0.5) and mood swings (OR = 0.7), but caused weight gain (OR = 2.3), bleeding episodes >20 days (OR = 13.4), and missed periods (OR = 96.9). Both methods caused intermenstrual bleeding. Conclusion Evidence-based data regarding beneficial and adverse symptoms associated with these methods may help clinicians counsel patients appropriately prior to contraceptive initiation. PMID:18599013

  3. Urea kinetics in healthy young women: minimal effect of stage of menstrual cycle, contraceptive pill and protein intake.

    PubMed

    McClelland, I S; Jackson, A A

    1996-08-01

    Urea kinetics were measured using prime/intermittent oral doses of [15N15N]urea, on five separate protocols in thirteen normal young women. Each woman underwent either two or three study protocols. Measurements were made at day 12 and day 22 of the menstrual cycle, whilst consuming their habitual protein intake in seven women not taking the contraceptive pill and in six women taking the contraceptive pill. In three women taking the pill, and three not taking the pill, urea kinetics were measured whilst taking a diet in which the intake was restricted to 55 g protein/d. There was no difference in the rate of urea production, urea excretion or urea hydrolysis between the women taking the pill and those not taking the pill at day 22. In the women not taking the pill there was no difference in any measure between day 12 and day 22. In the women taking the pill there was a significant difference in the disposal of urea N to excretion or hydrolysis on day 12 compared with day 22, with a relative decrease in excretion and enhancement of hydrolysis at day 12 compared with day 22. On the restricted diet, an intake of 55 g protein/d represented 77% of the habitual intake and urea production, excretion and hydrolysis were reduced to about 84% of the rate found on the habitual intake. In paired studies the reduction in urea production was statistically significant, and there was a statistically significant linear relationship between urea production and either intake or the sum of intake plus hydrolysis. The within-individual variability for urea production was about 10%, for excretion 15% and for hydrolysis 44%. The between-individual variability for intake was about 17% on the habitual intake. The variability for production, excretion and hydrolysis (14, 13, 36%) was less in the women not taking the contraceptive pill than in those taking the pill 23, 32, 42% respectively). The variability was reduced on the controlled low intake of 55 g protein compared with the habitual

  4. Effect of a “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization: The case of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Lyapustina, Tatyana; Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Ramji, Alim F.; Faul, Mark; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Background States have attempted to reduce prescription opioid abuse through strengthening the regulation of pain management clinics; however, the effect of such measures remains unclear. We quantified the impact of Texas’s September 2010 “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization. Methods We used the IMS Health LRx LifeLink database to examine anonymized, patient-level pharmacy claims for a closed cohort of individuals filling prescription opioids in Texas between September 2009 and August 2011. Our primary outcomes were derived at a monthly level and included: (1) average morphine equivalent dose (MED) per transaction; (2) aggregate opioid volume; (3) number of opioid prescriptions; and (4) quantity of opioid pills dispensed. We compared observed values with the counterfactual, which we estimated from pre-intervention levels and trends. Results Texas’s pill mill law was associated with declines in average MED per transaction (−0.57 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.09, −0.057), monthly opioid volume (−9.99 kg/month, CI −12.86, −7.11), monthly number of opioid prescriptions (−12,200 prescriptions/month, CI −15,300, −9,150) and monthly quantity of opioid pills dispensed (−714,000 pills/month, CI −877,000, −550,000). These reductions reflected decreases of 8.1–24.3% across the outcomes at one year compared with the counterfactual, and they were concentrated among prescribers and patients with the highest opioid prescribing and utilization at baseline. Conclusions Following the implementation of Texas’s 2010 pill mill law, there were clinically significant reductions in opioid dose, volume, prescriptions and pills dispensed within the state, which were limited to individuals with higher levels of baseline opioid prescribing and utilization. PMID:26778760

  5. The origins of the giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J; Sierwald, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Giant pill-millipedes (order Sphaerotheriida) are large-bodied millipedes without poison glands which can roll-up into a complete ball. Their disconnected area of distribution spanning South Africa, Madagascar, India, SE Asia, Australia and New Zealand makes them interesting model organisms for biogeographic studies. The here presented phylogeny is based on a molecular dataset covering all areas of distribution with a special focus on Madagascar, where some species of giant pill-millipedes show island gigantism, reaching the size of a baseball. For our study, two mitochondrial genes (partial 16S rRNA and COI) as well as the complete nuclear 18S rDNA were sequenced. While many recent vertebrate studies hint that the ancestors of the recent Malagasy fauna crossed the >350 km wide Mozambique Channel several times, no such crossing was discovered in the Sphaerotheriida. For the first time in a molecular phylogenetic study of soil arthropods, a Madagascar-India group, the family Arthrosphaeridae, is recovered, hinting to a Gondwanan origin of the Sphaerotheriida. The Malagasy-Indian family Arthrosphaeridae forms a monophyletic, statistically well-supported group in all obtained trees. The giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar are paraphyletic because the Malagasy genus Sphaeromimus is the sister-taxon of the Indian Arthrosphaera. In Sphaeromimus, an ecotone shift occurred only once: the spiny forest species Sphaeromimus musicus forms the sister-clade to the species collected in rainforests and littoral rainforests. The two species of the Malagasy genus Zoosphaerium which express island gigantism form a monophyletic group in some trees, but these trees lack good statistical support. Deeper nodes inside the Sphaerotheriida, like the position of the Australian genera Procyliosoma and Epicyliosoma, the Southeast Asian family Zephroniidae and the South African genus Sphaerotherium could not be resolved. This study is the first genetic study inside the order Sphaerotheriida

  6. Water-compatible imprinted pills for sensitive determination of cannabinoids in urine and oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Cela-Pérez, M Concepción; Bates, Ferdia; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Lendoiro, Elena; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, M Victoria

    2016-01-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) methodology followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed using cylindrical shaped molecularly imprinted pills for detection of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in urine and oral fluid (OF). The composition of the molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) was optimized based on the screening results of a non-imprinted polymer library (NIP-library). Thus, acrylamide as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker were selected for the preparation of the MIP, using catechin as a mimic template. MISPE pills were incubated with 0.5 mL urine or OF sample for adsorption of analytes. For desorption, the pills were transferred to a vial with 2 mL of methanol:acetic acid (4:1) and sonicated for 15 min. The elution solvent was evaporated and reconstituted in methanol:formic acid (0.1%) 50:50 to inject in LC-MS/MS. The developed method was linear over the range from 1 to 500 ng mL(-1) in urine and from 0.75 to 500 ng mL(-1) in OF for all four analytes. Intra- and inter-day imprecision were <15%. Extraction recovery was 50-111%, process efficiency 15.4-54.5% and matrix effect ranged from -78.0 to -6.1%. Finally, the optimized and validated method was applied to 4 urine and 5 OF specimens. This is the first method for the determination of THC, THC-COOH, CBN and CBD in urine and OF using MISPE technology. PMID:26718187

  7. Promiscuity and pill: etiologic agents in the genesis of cervical malignancy.

    PubMed

    Leppäluoto, P A

    1977-01-01

    An 800% increase in the number of "suspicious" Papanicolaou smears from young women have been reported since 1970. In cases diagnosed from tissue specimens as "surface dysplasia," the majority of patients gave histories of use of birth control pills and sexual promiscuity. Sexually active women have an increased incidence of cervical ectopy. In cervical ectopy the endocervical columnar cells are exposed to the acid vaginal content. Development of squamous metaplasia may result. An ideal contraceptive would be one contributing to the preservation of a healthy cervical epithelium without ectopy, and a healthy vaginal content as shown by the presence of Doderlein flora. These conditions would serve to prevent cervical malignancy. PMID:266326

  8. A pill-box shaped vacuum window connected with circular waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Kunihito; Arai, Hiroyuki; Goto, Naohisa

    1987-07-01

    From an analysis of the boundary value problem for the pill-box shaped window connected with circular waveguides, the reflection coefficient from the input side and the field distributions inside the window are derived. The window structure boundary is reduced by even and odd excitation, and the integral equation is solved by the method of moments. The E(z) field on the dielectric surface is shown to be primarily related to the edge effect at the junction between the window and the circular waveguide, and the E(z) field in the window is found to be smaller than that for a rectangular waveguide.

  9. [Zoely, a combined oral contraceptive, monophasic pill containing estradiol and nomegestrol acetate].

    PubMed

    Pintiaux, A; Gaspard, U; Nisolle, M

    2012-03-01

    A new combined oral contraceptive called Zoely has just been marketed in Belgium. It contains nomegestrol acetate, a progestin known for its high contraceptive reliability based on its antigonadotropic power and long half-life. This progestin is associated with estradiol and Zoely is devoid of ethinyl estradiol, which is the usual component of the majority of combined oral contraceptives and is primarily responsible for thrombotic side effects of the pill. The compositon and type of regimen of this new oral contraceptive contribute to its efficacy and excellent clinical tolerance. PMID:22611833

  10. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported. PMID:24722681

  11. The Pill Really Can Be Mightier Than the Sword: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Malcolm; Graves, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    We appreciate the four commentaries that add new material and fresh perspectives to our article "The pill is mightier than the sword." In emphasizing the role of voluntary family planning and girls’ education as achievable strategies with a potential to make the world a more peaceable place, we did not mean to oversimplify or disregard the intrinsic complexity of human conflict. On the whole, the commentators support and add to our thesis, although we question Pillai and Ya-Chien Wang’s suggestion that we may have overstated the unique human predisposition to kill our own species. We present additional data on male team aggression. PMID:26927598

  12. The Pill Really Can Be Mightier Than the Sword: A Response to Recent Commentaries.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Graves, Alisha

    2016-03-01

    We appreciate the four commentaries that add new material and fresh perspectives to our article "The pill is mightier than the sword." In emphasizing the role of voluntary family planning and girls' education as achievable strategies with a potential to make the world a more peaceable place, we did not mean to oversimplify or disregard the intrinsic complexity of human conflict. On the whole, the commentators support and add to our thesis, although we question Pillai and Ya-Chien Wang's suggestion that we may have overstated the unique human predisposition to kill our own species. We present additional data on male team aggression. PMID:26927598

  13. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and…

  14. Designing a flashcard with knowledge pills for learning to solve chemistry exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the proposed tool combines a flashcards-based method with knowledge pills. The framework has three levels: definition of problem for a teacher; the quiz; use of the quiz for the student. The tool could provide predefined or automatically generated exercises of chemicals. Students could practise where and whenever they like via the Internet. Theirs answers would be registered automatically by the tool and if the students have doubts about any of the questions, they can see a knowledge pill with a teacher explanation about the solution of the exercise. Moreover, they would be able to check their scores from the tests. Once the flashcards were designed and produced, the opinions of other lecturers and students about them were considered. Both groups considered that the tool could be useful to improve the students' learning process. For future work, this design will be used with the students and its effectiveness will be analysed.

  15. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2016-01-01

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398

  16. Statistico epidemiological study of changes in the vaginal flora of contraceptive pill users in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Fares, E; El-Ghazzawi, E; Bedwani, R N

    1979-01-01

    A stratified random sample of 1000 women with proportionate allocation according to district of residence was taken from normal females living in Alexandria, Egypt, and attending family planning centers in order to understand social-pathological changes in the vaginal flora of oral contraceptive (OC) users. Cases were examined over 18 months, and all cases were given a combined OC. Bacteriology and pH changes in vaginal flora were determined after 18 months. Results of the bacteriological examination revealed a positive correlation between those having a vaginal discharge and pH above 5, mixed infection, and illiteracy. As the duration of pill use increased, so did the incidence of monilla, staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic streptococci, gram negative bacilli, trichomonas vaginalis, and hemophilus vaginalis, whereas lactobacilli decreased. Duration of pill use also corresponded to increase in vaginal pH. Longer duration of OC use, practice of bad hygiene, and illiteracy were factors associated with an alkaline pH, changed pattern of vaginal flora, and greater susceptibility to infection by staph aureus and E. coli. PMID:44312

  17. Paramagnetic Salt Pill Design for Magnetic Refrigerators Used In-Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, C.; Benford, D. J.; Richards, P. L.

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is described which was designed for use in the multiband imaging photometer for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This refrigerator was required to cool bolometric detectors for infrared and millimetre waves to 0.1 K. A paramagnetic salt pill with a number of novel features was developed to meet the stringent requirements for an ADR used in space. An unusual paramagnetic salt, chromic caesium alum (CCA), is used to meet the requirement of thermal stability under the bake-out temperatures used in commissioning space cryogenic vacuum systems. The cycle time for the refrigerator has been reduced to almost-equal-to 30 min by attention to thermal time constants and by growing the CCA salt directly on to an array of gold wires. Crystal growing procedures were developed to overcome problems with the low solubility of CCA in water. The salt pill is sealed in stainless steel to retain water of hydration and is constructed of materials which are not corroded by commonly used paramagnetic salts.

  18. Antigonadotropic progestogens as contraceptive agents in women with contraindication to combined pill.

    PubMed

    Maitrot-Mantelet, Lorraine; Agopian, Anahid; Gompel, Anne

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic progestogens belong to different pharmacological classes and are mixed steroids. They display different properties due to their various affinities to the different steroid receptors. In addition, the dosage used can modify their side effects. Normethyltestosterone used at minimal doses, also called progestogen only pill (POP), constitute the standard recommended hormonal contraception for women with vascular and metabolic contraindications to combined pill (COC). However, POP efficacy and gynecological tolerance are limited. We have developed for more than 20 years in France the use of two pregnane derivatives as contraceptive agents in women with contraindication to COC. Chlormadinone acetate and cyproterone acetate have different antigonadotropic potencies but remain neutral on vascular risk. We have analyzed the efficacy, vascular and gynecological tolerances in 187 women with systemic lupus erythematous with or without antiphospholipids. Venous thrombosis and arterial events rates were lower than those reported in the literature. The current experience in women with thrombophilia is similar as reported in a series of 150 patients. In addition, we have also used antigonadotropic progestins in women with hereditary angioedema (HAE) types I, II or III. HAE symptoms can be induced or worsened by COC. We could demonstrate a significant improvement of the symptoms in most women with HAE under antigonadotropic progestins. Gynecological and general tolerances were satisfactory. In conclusion, antigonadotropic progestins could have clinical positive benefits as contraceptive agents in women with contraindication to COC. PMID:25961217

  19. A pill for HIV prevention: déjà vu all over again?

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Sepkowitz, Kent A

    2013-06-01

    Recent FDA approval of tenofovir-emtricitabine for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a form of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has led to concern about implementation of this strategy. Fifty years ago, a very similar national and international debate occurred when the oral contraceptive pill ("the Pill" or "OCP") was approved. Contentious issues included OCP safety, cost, and the potential impact on sexual behavior--many of the same concerns being voiced currently about PrEP. In this article, we review the social and medical history of OCP, drawing parallels with the current PrEP debate. We also explore the key areas where PrEP differs from its forbear: lower efficacy, presence of drug resistance, and a more circumscribed (and marginalized) target population. A thoughtful approach to PrEP implementation, bearing in mind the historical insights gained from the 1960s, might serve as well as we begin this new chapter in the control of the HIV epidemic. PMID:23408681

  20. An Incidental Finding of a Radiopaque Pill following Cervical Spinal Surgery in a Parkinson's Disease Patient.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Sub; Choi, Soo-Jung; Yoo, Byoungwoo; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Jin Hoon

    2015-09-01

    There are previous reports of the identification of radiopaque medications on abdominal X-rays or computed tomography (CT). We describe an interesting case of the incidental identification of a radiopaque medication on cervical spinal CT following cervical spinal surgery. A sixty seven-year-old male patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) visited our emergency center with a C5-6 dislocation and fracture. Surgery was performed with open reduction and pedicle screw fixation through the posterior approach. No abnormal events occurred during the perioperative period. However, a radiopaque incidental foreign body in front of the C6 vertebrae was found on a cervical spinal CT and X-rays that were performed as routine examinations on postoperative day 3. After 6 hours, we performed gastrofibroscopy (GFS) but were unable to find anything. Therefore, we checked all of his medications related to the neck and check X-ray again. One enteric-coated pill he had taken exhibited strong radiodensity. Although our patient underwent an unnecessary GFS, every spinal surgeon should keep in mind that radiopaque pills can appear similar to spinal instruments on X-ray and CT. In addition, we should also know the associated dysphagia is a possible cause of the delayed passage of medicine in PD with or without cervical osteophytes. PMID:26512272

  1. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter. PMID:27385872

  2. De-constructing 'choice': the social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the social construction of 'choice' in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo-liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on 'choice' positions women in contradictory ways-requiring them to be both 'choosing' reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de-construct contemporary understandings of choice and finds that women's use of the birth control pill is less an exercise of idealized individual agency than it is an act of repetition, tied to ambiguity around what a lived experience of choice might be. To elaborate elements of the theoretical discussion, findings from a qualitative study of women's use of the oral contraceptive are discussed. These reveal that women's articulations of 'choice' challenge the notion of genuinely available and viable alternatives for women, and demonstrate how the use of a technology can silence understandings of contraception as something other than an individual responsibility. PMID:17364713

  3. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  4. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... but not a rush. Other effects include irritability/aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions, and insomnia. What are their ... full-blown toxic psychosis (often exhibited as violent, aggressive behavior). This violent, aggressive behavior is usually coupled ...

  5. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory. PMID:26903909

  6. Cure for empire: the 'Conquer-Russia-Pill', pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the making of patriotic Japanese, 1904-45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoi-Eun

    2013-04-01

    Seirogan, a popular anti-diarrhoeal pill, is arguably one of the most successful pharmaceutical products of modern Japan. What is less known is that the Japanese army initially developed Seirogan during the Russo-Japanese War as the ‘Conquer-Russia-Pill’, which was later marketed to the public by private manufacturers. Previous scholars have emphasised the top–down governmental method of mobilising private sectors to manipulate public opinion for the cause of external imperialist expansion and domestic stability during wartime Japan. But the matrix that the Conquer-Russia-Pill allows us to glimpse is an inverted power relation among the state, commercial sectors, and imperial citizens. While the Japanese government remained indifferent if not hostile to jingoistic pharmaceutical manufacturers who could easily disrupt international relations, pharmaceutical companies quickly recognised and exploited the opportunities that the Conquer-Russia-Pill and its symbolism provided under the banner of the empire. In turn, Japanese consumers reacted to commercial sermons carefully anchored in patriotic and militaristic discourses and images by opening their wallets. In other words, the popularity of the Conquer-Russia-Pill was a culmination of the convergence of a governmental initiative to enhance military capabilities, the commercial ingenuity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and a consumer response to patriotic exhortations. PMID:24070348

  7. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P < 0.001). Their biomass increased during post-monsoon, summer and monsoon in the plantation ( P < 0.001), but not in forest ( P > 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  8. [Identification of yougui and jisheng shenqi pills with FTIR and EDS fingerprint spectra by new visual comparison].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Shuang; Zou, Hua-Bin; Tian, Fang; Du, Ai-Qin; Dong, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Xin-Ling

    2011-09-01

    FTIR combined with EDS fingerprint spectra was first applied to the identification of two kind of traditional Chinese compound formulae-Yougui pill and Jisheng shenqi pills, which have the similar composition The IR FPS of extraction of two kinds of pills extracted with chloroform were measured by liquid membrane method. The exclusively characteristic peak groups of these two kinds of formulae were theoretically established based on the Shapiro-Wilk W testing method,and the characteristic radicals and compound species corresponding to each characteristic peak were determined. Meanwhile, EDS fingerprint spectra of the two kinds of original powders were also measured which can reflect the element species and content information. Based on the three kinds of information (characteristic peak groups, radicals and compound species, different elements), Yougui and Jisheng shenqi pills were identified quickly, precisely and reliably. In this method, infrared fingerprint spectra possess the similar ability with chromatograph fingerprint spectra in identification of traditional Chinese compound formulae. The results show that the new visual comparison method is suitable for identifying traditional Chinese compound formulae with the same dosage-form and similar composition. PMID:22097837

  9. 'Clueless about contraception': the introduction and circulation of the contraceptive pill in state-socialist Poland (1960s-1970s).

    PubMed

    Ignaciuk, Agata

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction of the pill into the state-socialist Polish market in the late 1960s and its circulation over the following decade. Abortion, legalised for socio-economic reasons in 1956, had been available practically on demand since 1959, and there were no legal obstacles to contraception. The pill first appeared in Poland in the early 1960s, but was not widely available in pharmacies until 1969, when the local pharmaceutical industry began production. Throughout the 1970s, only two brands were widely available: Femigen and Angravid. The pill played a marginal role in family planning during the 1960s and 1970s in Poland, with cycle-observation, backed by the possibility of a legal abortion, being the main resource for birth control. This was due to structural limits to the distribution of the pill on a centrally-planned market closed to Western pharmaceutical companies, cultural patterns of sexual behaviour, and the availability of abortion. PMID:26054213

  10. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory. PMID:26903909

  11. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and

  12. Serum metabolomics strategy for understanding pharmacological effects of ShenQi pill acting on kidney yang deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yang; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Aihua; Guan, Yu; Lin, Shanhua; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2016-07-15

    Kidney yang deficiency syndrome, a diagnostic pattern in Chinese medicine, is similar with clinical features of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. The aim of this present study was to explore low molecular mass differentiating metabolites between control group and model group of kidney yang deficiency rats induced with corticosterone as well as the therapeutic effect of Shen Qi Pill, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula for treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome in China. This study utilized ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization synapt quadrupole time-of-flight high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-SYNAPT-QTOF-HDMS) to identify the underlying biomarkers for clarifying mechanism of Shen Qi Pill in treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome based on metabolite profiling of the serum samples and in conjunction with multivariate and pathway analysis. Meanwhile, blood biochemistry assay and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes in the model group rats. Distinct changes in the pattern of metabolites were observed by UPLC-HDMS. The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their baseline values after treatment with Shen Qi Pill according to the combined with a principal component analysis (PCA) score plots. Altogether, the current metabolomics approach based on UPLC-HDMS and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) demonstrated 27 ions (18 in the negative mode, 9 in the positive mode, 17 ions restored by Shen Qi Pill). These results indicated that effectiveness of Shen Qi Pill in Kidney yang deficiency syndrome rats induced a substantial change in the metabolic profiles by regulating the biomarkers and adjusting the metabolic disorder. It suggested that the metabolomics approach was a powerful approach for elucidation of pathologic changes of Chinese medicine syndrome and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26747643

  13. A randomized controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stip, Emmanuel; Vincent, Philippe D.; Sablier, Juliette; Guevremont, Catherine; Zhornitsky, Simon; Tranulis, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5% in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or treatment as usual groups for 6 weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67% after 6 weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen. PMID:23950746

  14. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers. PMID:18853641

  15. [Intervention effect of Tibetan patent medicine Ruyi Zhenbao pills in acute ischemic stroke in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-ying; Wu, Wei-jie; Tan, Rui; Xie, Bin; Zhong, Zhen-dong; He, Jing-ping; Chen, Yao; Kang, Xin-li

    2015-02-01

    Ischemic stroke is a primary cause of death and long-term disability all over the world. This disease is resulted from ischemia and hypoxia in brain tissues because of insufficient blood supply and causes a series of physiochemical metabolism disorders and physiological dysfunction. Its high disability ratio has bright huge burdens to society, governments and families. However, there is not efficacious medicine to treat it. In this study, a right middle cerebral artery occlusion was established in rats to observe the multi-path and multi-aspect intervention effects of Tibetan patent medicine Ruyi Zhenbao pills in reducing injuries to Nissl bodies, cerebral edema and inflammatory reactions and preventing cellular apoptosis, in order to lay a foundation for defining its therapeutic mechanism in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26084187

  16. [The "morning after pill": the impact of the Supreme Court ruling in the medical field].

    PubMed

    Cossío-Díaz, José Ramón

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the Court's ruling regarding the constitutionality of the Official Norm "NOM-046-SSA2-2005". Jalisco's Governor challenged the validity of the referred norm arguing that it was against articles 4, 5, 14, 16, 20, 21, 29, 31-V, 49, 73, 74, 89-I, 123, 124 y 133 of the Federal Constitution. The Supreme Court disregarded Governor's claim and determined that the members of the National Health System are obliged to offer and give the "day after pill" to sexual violation victims. According to article 5 of General Health Law, the National Health System includes private and public hospitals, whether they are local or federal. This means that all these health institutions have the obligation to observe the dispositions contained in the appealed Official Norm Given the significance of the Court's ruling in the medical sphere, in this article the most relevant issues of the Court decision and its implications are analyzed. PMID:20964067

  17. Review on the Applications and Molecular Mechanisms of Xihuang Pill in Tumor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiujun; Lin, Jinyin; Liu, Rui; Gao, Yebo; He, Shulin; Xu, Xinyao; Hua, Baojin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Zheng, Honggang; Bao, Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Xihuang pill (XH) is a complementary and alternative medicine that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of tumors since the 18th century. XH has clinical effects on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and bone metastasis. XH can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells and cancer stem cells, prevent tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and regulate the tumor microenvironment. XH is composed of Ru Xiang (olibanum), Mo Yao (Commiphora myrrha), She Xiang (Moschus), and Niu Huang (Calculus bovis). Some of the compounds found in these ingredients exert multiple antitumor effects and may synergize with the other ingredients. We aimed to summarize the clinical applications and molecular mechanisms of XH and its chemical composition. This review will provide potential new strategies and alternative perspectives for tumor treatments and basic research into complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:26170886

  18. Cell turnover in the "resting" human breast: influence of parity, contraceptive pill, age and laterality.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, T. J.; Ferguson, D. J.; Raab, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological identification of cell multiplication (mitosis) and cell deletion (apoptosis) within the lobules of the "resting" human breast is used to assess the response of the breast parenchyma to the menstrual cycle. The responses are shown to have a biorhythm in phase with the menstrual cycle, with a 3-day separation of the mitotic and apoptotic peaks. The study fails to demonstrate significant differences in the responses between groups defined according to parity, contraceptive-pill use or presence of fibroadenoma. However, significant differences are found in the apoptotic response according to age and laterality. The results highlight the complexity of modulating influences on breast parenchymal turnover in the "resting" state, and prompt the investigation of other factors as well as steroid hormones and prolactin in the promotion of mitosis. The factors promoting apoptosis in the breast are still not clear. PMID:7126427

  19. Oral contraceptive pill use and menstrual cycle phase are associated with altered resting state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Nicole; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Goharzad, Azaadeh; Cahill, Larry

    2014-04-15

    At rest, brain activity can be characterized not by an absence of organized activity but instead by spatially and temporally correlated patterns of activity. In this experiment, we investigated whether and to what extent resting state functional connectivity is modulated by sex hormones in women, both across the menstrual cycle and when altered by oral contraceptive pills. Sex hormones have been shown to have important effects on task-related activity, but few studies have investigated the extent to which they can influence the behavior of functional networks at rest. These hormones are dramatically altered by the use of hormonal contraception, which is used by approximately 100 million women worldwide. However, potential cognitive side effects of hormonal contraception have been given little attention. Here, we collected resting state data for naturally-cycling women (n=45) and women using combined oral contraceptive pills (n=46) and evaluated the differences in resting state activity between these two groups using independent component analysis. We found that in the default mode network and in a network associated with executive control, resting state dynamics were altered both by the menstrual cycle and by oral contraceptive use. Specifically, the connectivity of the left angular gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex were different between groups. Because the anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus are important for higher-order cognitive and emotional processing, including conflict monitoring, changes in the relationship of these structures to the functional networks with which they interact may have important consequences for attention, affect, and/or emotion regulation. PMID:24365676

  20. ARB-based single-pill platform to guide a practical therapeutic approach to hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Massimo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Kreutz, Reinhold; Laurent, Stéphane; Manolis, Athanasios J

    2014-06-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk for the development of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal diseases. Thus, effective treatment of high blood pressure is an important strategy for reducing disease burden; however, in spite of the availability of numerous effective therapies only 30-40 % of patients with hypertension achieve the recommended blood pressure goals of <140/90 mmHg. Lack of adherence to therapy and reluctance to intensify therapy are cited frequently to explain the discrepancy between potential and attained outcomes. Adherence is closely related to the tolerability, effectiveness and complexity of therapy. Therapeutic inertia may be influenced by concerns over tolerability, as well as the lack of clear preferences for therapies when managing patients with risk factors and comorbidities. Effective and well-tolerated single pill combination therapies are now available that improve adherence and simplify treatment. The combination of a renin-angiotensin system blocker with a calcium channel blocker and a diuretic improves adherence to therapy. We have devised a practical tool for orienting the application of well-tolerated single pill 2/3 drug fixed dose combination therapies in clinical situations commonly encountered when treating hypertensive patients. This approach employs the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan alone or in combinations with amlodipine and/or hydrochlorothiazide. This platform is based on clinical evidence, guidelines, best practice, and clinical experience where none of these is available. We believe it will increase the percentage of hypertensive patients who achieve blood pressure control when applied as part of an integrative approach that includes regular follow-up and instruction on lifestyle changes. PMID:24532183

  1. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    PubMed

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (P<0.05) and increased plasma fibrinolytic activity by 22.4% (P<0.05). One more study was performed in high-risk patients to evaluate the changes of prognostic cardiovascular risk that was calculated using algorithms derived from Framingham and Muenster Studies. Twelve-months treatment lowered 10-years prognostic risk of CHD by 13.2% in men (P=0.005), and by 7.1% in women (P=0.040). Ten-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden coronary death was lowered by 26.1% in men (P=0.025). The Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction Study (AMAR) was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with garlic powder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26561055

  2. How to uncoil your partner—"mating songs" in giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesener, Thomas; Köhler, Jörn; Fuchs, Stefan; van den Spiegel, Didier

    2011-11-01

    The stridulation of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaerotherium from South Africa, one of only three groups of millipedes that produce sounds, was studied. One hundred one stridulation series of a total of nine different species ( Sphaerotherium dorsaloide, Sphaerotherium hanstroemi, Sphaerotherium mahaium, Sphaerotherium similare, Sphaerotherium punctulatum, Sphaerotherium convexitarsum, Sphaerotherium dorsale, Sphaerotherium rotundatum, and Sphaerotherium perbrincki) were analyzed. Stridulation sounds are produced only with a special field of ribs on the posterior surface of the posterior telopod, which is actively moved over a field of sclerotized nubs on the inner margin of the anal shield. The Sphaerotherium male usually stridulates only when in contact with a female to initiate mating. This seems to prevent the female from volvating into a ball or stimulate the female to uncoil when already rolled in. The sound analyzes revealed a broad frequency spectrum in all stridulation sounds produced, without obvious differences in frequency distribution among species. However, the temporal pattern of the stridulation varies greatly between species and seems to be species-specific, arguing for a species recognition function of the stridulation during courtship behavior. A single species ( S. punctulatum) was found to stridulate during mating while three species also show postcopulatory stridulation. Apparently, pill-millipedes are not capable of acoustic perception, as no hearing organs are known, indicating that the communication is mainly based on perception of temporal vibration patterns, and not of the acoustic signal itself. The need to overcome the rolling-in reflex of the female is developed as a hypothesis why stridulation exists only in millipedes able to coil into a ball, and apparently evolved four times independently in the superorder Oniscomorpha.

  3. Factors affecting the decision to hospitalise children admitted to the emergency department due to non-fatal suicide attempts by pills

    PubMed Central

    Gokalp, Gamze; Anil, Murat; Bal, Alkan; Bicilioglu, Yuksel; Kamit Can, Fulya; Anil, Ayse Berna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Suicide attempts (SAs) in the paediatric age group represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to examine the factors affecting the decision to hospitalize children with a diagnosis of non-fatal SA by pills. Methods: Children <18 years of age admitted with SA by pills during 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: Group-I comprised hospitalised patients and Group-II included those who were discharged from the PED. These two groups were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics recorded upon PED admission. Results: A total of 196 patients were included in the study. The number of pills taken for self-poisoning in Group-I (median: 20 pills) was higher than that in Group-II (median: 12 pills) (p < 0.001), and the rate of pathological findings during the first paediatric psychiatric consultation was higher in Group-I (91.1%) than in the Group-II (54.8%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Factors affecting the disposition decision in cases of children who performed non-fatal SA via pills included the amount of medication taken for the suicide attempt and the presence of psychiatric disorders, as determined by a paediatric psychiatrist during the acute phase. PMID:27375723

  4. Efficacy of a reduced pill burden on therapeutic adherence to calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplant recipients: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Garofalo, Gianluca; Borrelli, Silvio; Vitale, Sossio; Torino, Massimiliano; Capone, Domenico; Russo, Luigi; Pisani, Antonio; Carrano, Rosa; Gallo, Riccardo; Federico, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nonadherence in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and to evaluate prospectively whether more intense clinical surveillance and reduced pill number enhanced adherence. Patients and methods The study was carried out in 310 stable RTRs in whom adherence, life satisfaction, and transplant care were evaluated by specific questionnaires (time 0). The patients under tacrolimus (TAC; bis in die [BID]) were then shifted to once-daily TAC (D-TAC) to reduce their pill burden (Shift group) and were followed up for 6 months to reevaluate the same parameters. Patients on cyclosporin or still on BID-TAC constituted a time-control group. Results The prevalence of nonadherence was 23.5% and was associated with previous rejection episodes (P<0.002), and was inversely related to Life Satisfaction Index, anxiety, and low glomerular filtration rate (minimum P<0.03). Nonadherent patients were significantly less satisfied with their medical care and their relationships with the medical staff. A shift from BID-TAC to D-TAC was performed in 121 patients, and the questionnaires were repeated after 3 and 6 months. In the Shift group, a reduction in pill number was observed (P<0.01), associated with improved adherence after 3 and 6 months (+36%, P<0.05 versus basal), with no change in controls. Decreased TAC trough levels after 3 and 6 months (−9%), despite a slight increase in drug dosage (+6.5%), were observed in the Shift group, with no clinical side effects. Conclusion The reduced pill burden improves patients’ compliance to calcineurin-inhibitors, but major efforts in preventing nonadherence are needed. PMID:24470756

  5. Review of the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the combined dienogest/estradiol valerate contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Guida, Maurizio; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Scala, Mariamaddalena; Fernandez, Loredana Maria Sosa; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to define the role of the combined dienogest (DNG)/estradiol valerate (E2V) contraceptive pill, in terms of biochemistry, metabolic and pharmacological effects and clinical application as well. E2V is the esterified form of 17β-estradiol (E2), while dienogest is a fourth-generation progestin with a partial antiandrogenic effect. The cycle stability is achieved with 2 to 3 mg DNG, supporting contraceptive efficacy. In this new oral contraceptive, E2V is combined with DNG in a four-phasic dose regimen (the first two tablets contain 3 mg E2V; the next five tablets include 2 mg E2V + 2 mg DNG, followed by 17 tablets with 2 mg E2V + 3 mg DNG; followed by two tablets with 1 mg E2V only, and finally two placebo tablets). Duration and intensity of scheduled withdrawal bleeding are lower with this contraceptive pill, whereas the incidence and the intensity of intra-cyclic bleeding are similar to the other oral contraceptive. With this new pill the levels of high density lipoprotein increased, while the levels of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and D-dimer remained relatively unchanged; the levels of sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol binding globulin, thyroxine binding globulin increased. The most frequently reported adverse events are: breast pain, headache, acne, alopecia, migraine, increase of bodyweight. The satisfaction rate is about 79.4%. PMID:21151673

  6. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. Material/Methods Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. Results Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. Conclusions In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy. PMID:27459306

  7. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy. PMID:27459306

  8. Oral contraceptive pill use is associated with localized decreases in cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Nicole; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCs), which are used to prevent pregnancy by the majority of women in the United States, contain steroid hormones that may affect the brain’s structure and function. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that OC use is associated with differences in brain structure using a hypothesis-driven, surface-based approach. In 90 women, (44 OC users, 46 naturally-cycling women), we compared the cortical thickness of brain regions that participate in the salience network and the default mode network, as well as the volume of subcortical regions in these networks. We found that OC use was associated with significantly lower cortical thickness measurements in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. These regions are believed to be important for responding to rewards and evaluating internal states/incoming stimuli, respectively. Further investigations are needed to determine if cortical thinning in these regions are associated with behavioral changes, and also to identify whether OC use is causally or only indirectly related to these changes in brain morphology. PMID:25832993

  9. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenda; Zhou, Xin; Yi, Nan; Jiang, Lihua; Tao, Weiwei; Wu, Runjie; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Jingjing; Ge, Xiaoyin; Wang, Yuyue; Wu, Haoxin; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression. PMID:23710213

  10. Thin CVD-diamond RF Pill-Box vacuum windows for LHCD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, G. L.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cardinali, A.; Cesario, R.; Mirizzi, F.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The preliminary assessment of a Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the DEMOnstration power plant (DEMO) is mainly focused on the R&D needs of the less conventional RF components of the Main Transmission Line (MTL) and of the launcher. 500 kW, CW klystrons will be used to deliver the RF power to independent Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) launcher modules at 5 GHz. This paper describes the criteria followed to investigate the optimum solution for the RF window used as vacuum barrier between the MTL and the launcher, an open issue in the LHCD system for ITER too. The best candidate, capable of withstanding a power level of, or above, 0.5 MW in CW operation and to satisfy the electrical and thermonuclear requirements, is a Pill-Box assembly, based on a thin single disk of CVD-diamond as dielectric, water cooled at the edge. A thickness of 3 mm, much shorter than half a wavelength of the TE°11 mode in the dielectric as in the conventional window (unfeasible and too expensive with CVD-diamond at these frequencies), is sufficient to limit the exerted stress at the edge under the fracture stress for a maximum pressure applied of 0.9 MPa. In this paper the simulation results of conventional and thin CVD-diamond vacuum windows are presented comparing S-parameters, losses and electric fields in both matching condition and with VSWR = 2, using WR284 and WR229 as input/output rectangular waveguide.

  11. A pill-box design, flow type, gas scintillation proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, S. P.; Sharma, R. C.; Bhati, S.; Somasundaram, S.

    1982-07-01

    A gas scintillation proportional counter of "pill-box" design, operated with argon +2.5% nitrogen gas in continuous flow, has been developed. An energy resolution of 1.6% is obtained for 239Pu α-particles emitted from a mixed nuclide source of 239Pu- 241Am - 244Cm and injected into the counter parallel to the anode. The risetime of the scintillation pulse is found to be less than 0.5 μs. Measurements have been made of charge and light gain factors as a function of anode voltage. It is found that for a given anode voltage, the scintillation pulse amplitude increases sharply with the addition of nitrogen to argon and reaches a maximum at about 2.5% and then decreases slowly, whereas the charge pulse amplitude reduces monotonically. Nitrogen improvement factors with the addition of 2.5% nitrogen to argon are found to be different for two photomultipliers with different photocathode responses. The improvement in energy resolution as a result of addition of nitrogen to argon is discussed. Comments are made on the intrinsic energy resolution capabilities of such a counter.

  12. What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands†

    PubMed Central

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular “Blue Dolphin” tablets to the powdered form called “Molly.” We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees’ descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers’ ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy’s purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships. PMID:19455907

  13. Systematic review of compound danshen dropping pill: a chinese patent medicine for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao; Chen, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified outcomes. Results. Seven RCTs enrolling 1215 patients were included. CDDP was associated with statistically significant reductions in the risk of cardiac death and heart failure compared with no intervention based on conventional therapy for AMI. In addition, CDDP was associated with improvement of quality of life and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the safety of CDDP was unproven for the limited data. The quality of evidence for each outcome in the main comparison (CDDP versus no intervention) was "low" or "moderate." Conclusion. CDDP showed some potential benefits for AMI patients, such as the reductions of cardiac death and heart failure. However, the overall quality of evidence was poor, and the safety of CDDP for AMI patients was not confirmed. More evidence from high quality RCTs is warranted to support the use of CDDP for AMI patients. PMID:23843882

  14. Systematic Review of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Chen, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified outcomes. Results. Seven RCTs enrolling 1215 patients were included. CDDP was associated with statistically significant reductions in the risk of cardiac death and heart failure compared with no intervention based on conventional therapy for AMI. In addition, CDDP was associated with improvement of quality of life and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the safety of CDDP was unproven for the limited data. The quality of evidence for each outcome in the main comparison (CDDP versus no intervention) was “low” or “moderate.” Conclusion. CDDP showed some potential benefits for AMI patients, such as the reductions of cardiac death and heart failure. However, the overall quality of evidence was poor, and the safety of CDDP for AMI patients was not confirmed. More evidence from high quality RCTs is warranted to support the use of CDDP for AMI patients. PMID:23843882

  15. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  16. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  17. Presence and formation of cobalamin analogues in multivitamin-mineral pills.

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, H; Binder, M J; Kolhouse, J F; Smythe, W R; Podell, E R; Allen, R H

    1982-01-01

    Because the origin of cobalamin (vitamin B12) analogues in animal chows and animal and human blood and tissues is unknown, we investigated the possibility that multivitamin interactions might convert cobalamin to cobalamin analogues. We homogenized three popular multivitamin-mineral pills in water, incubated them at 37 degrees C for 2 h, and isolated the cobalamin. Using paper chromatography we observed that 20-90% of the cobalamin was present as cobalamin analogues. Studies using CN-[57Co]cobalamin showed that these analogues were formed due to the concerted action of vitamin C, thiamine, and copper on CN-cobalamin. These cobalamin analogues are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of mice and either fail to stimulate or actually inhibit cobalamin-dependent enzymes when injected parenterally. We conclude that CN-cobalamin can be converted to potentially harmful cobalamin analogues by multivitamin-mineral interactions and that these interactions may be responsible for the presence of cobalamin analogues in animal chows and animal and human blood and tissues. PMID:6126492

  18. Establishment of the method for screening the potential targets and effective components of huatuo reconstruction pill.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke-Zhu; Jiang, Yun-Gen; Zuo, Ying; Li, Ai-Xiu

    2014-06-01

    Huatuo reconstruction pill (HTRP) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription that mainly treats for hemiplegia and postoperation of brain stroke. Existing pharmacological studies have previously shown that HTRP could inhibit in vitro thrombosis, delay platelet adhesion, dilate blood vessels, and improve the microcirculation disturbances. In this paper, we chiefly concerned about the potential targets of HTRP and tried to figure out the active components of it. Computer-aided drug design method was emploied to search for the active components and explain the mechanism between the targets and the small molecules at molecular lever. The potential targets of this compound pharmaceutics were searched through relevant pharmacological studies and three pharmacophore models which involved the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT2A) were constructed by Discotech method of Sybyl. Thus, the candidate compounds which agreed with the pharmacophore models were obtained by the virtual screening to the known ingredients of HTRP. Based on that, sequence and structure prediction of the unknown targets were realized by homology modeling which were used for molecular docking with those candidate compounds. Results showed that three compounds, which may prove to be valid to these targets, got higher scores than the existing corresponding inhibitors after molecular docking, including ferulic acid, onjixanthone I and albiflorin. And the three molecules may refer to the singificant substances to the total compounds of HTRP which were effective to the disease. PMID:25172450

  19. Exploring knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraceptive pills among university students in Jamaica. A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, A; Becker, D; Fletcher, H; Garcia, S; Mitchell, S

    2004-01-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important option for university students who may be at high risk for unplanned pregnancies. In the Caribbean, little research has been carried out on university student's knowledge and opinions of this method. This study uses qualitative methodology to explore knowledge and opinions on ECPs among university students attending The University of the West Indies (UWI) Mona campus. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 71) with female and male university students at The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, in March 2000. The group discussions lasted approximately two hours. We tape-recorded discussions and then transcribed and analyzed them by coding responses according to themes. General knowledge of ECPs was high, but students lacked specific information about the method such as its time frame and its mechanism of action. Most students supported the method, especially after learning correct information. However, several students were concerned about its side effects and the potential for abuse or irresponsible use by young adults. Although the university students in this study lacked detailed information about ECPs, their opinion toward the method was favourable. We suggest further research to investigate the prevalence of misinformation about the method among other groups of Jamaicans. PMID:15114892

  20. Pill Burden Influences the Association Between Time-Based Prospective Memory and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Younger But Not Older HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, David P; Weber, Erica; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Avci, Gunes; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is associated with antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in HIV, but little is known about how pill burden and age might affect this association. One hundred seventeen older (≥50 years) and 82 younger (<50 years) HIV-infected adults were administered a measure of PM in the laboratory and subsequently were monitored for ARV adherence for 30 days using the Medication Event Monitoring System. In the older group, better time-based PM performance was associated with higher likelihood of adherence, irrespective of pill burden. Within the younger sample, time-based PM was positively related to adherence only in participants with lower pill burdens. Younger HIV-infected individuals with higher pill burdens may overcome the normal effects of time-based PM on adherence through compensatory medication-taking strategies, whereas suboptimal use of these strategies by younger HIV-infected individuals with lower pill burdens may heighten their risk of ARV nonadherence secondary to deficits in time-based PM. PMID:27160771

  1. The effects of ethinylestradiol and progestins ("the pill") on cognitive function in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Andrea; Wu, YeeWen Candace; Williams, Amy S; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs), often referred to as "the pill", are the most commonly employed form of reversible contraception. OCs are comprised of combined synthetic estrogen and progestin, which work to suppress ovulation and subsequently protect against pregnancy. To date, almost 200 million women have taken various formulations of OC, making it one of the most widely consumed classes of medication in the world. While a substantial body of literature has been dedicated to understanding the physical effects of OCs, much less is known about the long term consequences of OC use on brain anatomy and the associated cognitive effects. Accumulating evidence suggests that sex hormones may significantly affect human cognition. This phenomenon has been commonly studied in older populations, such as in post-menopausal women, while research in healthy, pre-menopausal women remains limited. The current review focused on the effects of OCs on human cognition, with the majority of studies comparing pre-menopausal OC users to naturally cycling women. Human neuroimaging data and animal studies are also described herein. Taken together, the published findings on OC use and human cognition are varied. Of those that do report positive results, OC users appear to have improved verbal memory, associative learning and spatial attention. We recommend future research to employ blinding procedures and randomised designs. Further, more detailed information pertaining to the specific generation and phasic type of OCs, as well as menstrual cycle phase of the OC non-users should be considered to help unmask the potential impact of OC use on human cognition. PMID:25266552

  2. Effect and Mechanism of QiShenYiQi Pill on Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shichao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Background To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Material/methods Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were randomized into 3 groups: model, valsartan, and QSYQ groups. Rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were used as the control group. Rats were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks, and we weighed rat body mass, heart mass, and left ventricular mass. Myocardium sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome. Myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. Results QSYQ reduced HMI and LVMI, as well as the histological score of hearts and CVF, which further decreased over time, and its effect was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, QSYQ inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF, and its effect on lowering CTGF was significantly greater than that of valsartan. In addition, after 8 weeks, QSYQ also inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial TGF-β1. Conclusions This study provides evidence that QSYQ can improve cardiac remodeling of experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of TGF-β1 CTGF. PMID:26946470

  3. Suxiao Jiuxin Pill Induces Potent Relaxation and Inhibition on Contraction in Human Artery and the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Qin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jun; Tong, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Song-Jin; Liu, Li-Hua; Wang, Lei; He, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Suxiao Jiuxin Pill, a compound Chinese traditional medicine with main components of tetramethylpyrazine and borneol, is widely used for antiangina treatment in China but its pharmacological effect on human blood vessels is unknown. We investigated the effect and possible mechanism of SJP in the human internal mammary artery (IMA, n = 78) taken from patients undergoing coronary surgery. SJP caused full relaxation in KCl- (99.4 ± 10.5%, n = 6) and U46619- (99.9 ± 5.6%, n = 6) contracted IMA. Pretreatment of IMA with plasma concentrations of SJP (1 mg/mL), calculated from the plasma concentration of its major component borneol, significantly depressed the maximal contraction to KCl (from 35.8 ± 6.0 mN to 12.6 ± 5.6 mN, P = 0.03) and U46619 (from 19.4 ± 2.9 mN to 5.7 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.007) while SJP at 10 mg/mL abolished the subsequent contraction. Endothelium denudation and inhibition of eNOS significantly altered the SJP-induced relaxation without changes of eNOS expression. We conclude that SJP has a potent inhibitory effect on the vasoconstriction mediated by a variety of vasoconstrictors in human arteries. The vasorelaxation involves both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Thus, the effect of SJP on human arteries demonstrated in this study may prove to be particularly important in vasorelaxing therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24808920

  4. Semi-Classical Dynamics of an Electron in a Wide Pill-Box; Non-Uniform Azimuthal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masale, M.

    The influence of a spatially dependent magnetic field on the orbital motion of an electron in a wide pill-box is evaluated. Expressions for the velocity components perpendicular to the magnetic flux lines are obtained. these form the basis for the derivations of the analytical expressions for the particle trajectories. The results for the special case when the initial radial velocity is zero are suggestive of potential applications, for example, current- amplification'or the generation of high magnetic fields in semiconductor nanostructures. A brief discussion of the overall results is also given in the context of the problem of the critical field of a current-carrying type II superconducting cylinder.

  5. Low-loss and lightweight on-board 20 GHz-band pill-box-type directional filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtomo, I.; Kumazawa, H.

    1987-05-01

    An on-board channel multiplexer using pill-box-shaped TM(310) travelling-wave cavities with high unloaded Q-factor has been developed in the 20 GHz band. The measured branching loss of a three-cavity filter is 0.27 dB at a resonant frequency of 19.99 GHz. The weight of the filter made of thin-walled super-Invar is 71 g. Its size is 4.5 x 4.6 x 5.1 cm.

  6. Electronic pill-boxes in the evaluation of antihypertensive treatment compliance: comparison of once daily versus twice daily regimen.

    PubMed

    Andrejak, M; Genes, N; Vaur, L; Poncelet, P; Clerson, P; Carré, A

    2000-02-01

    The objective was to compare the compliance of hypertensive patients treated with captopril twice daily or trandolapril once daily. After a 2-week placebo period, hypertensive patients (diastolic BP 95-115 mm Hg) were randomly allocated to trandolapril 2 mg once daily or to captopril 25 mg twice daily for 6 months. Trandolapril and captopril were packed in electronic pill-boxes equipped with a microprocessor that recorded date and time of each opening (MEMS). Patients' compliance was assessed both by standard pill-count and by electronic monitoring. Blood pressure was measured using a validated semi-automatic device at the end of the placebo period and of the treatment period. One hundred sixty-two patients entered the study. Compliance data were evaluable for 133 patients (62 in the captopril group and 71 in the trandolapril group). Treatment groups were comparable at baseline except for age (P = .046). Using electronic pill-box, overall compliance was 98.9% in the trandolapril group and 97.5% in the captopril group (P = .002). The percentage of missed doses was 2.6% in the trandolapril group and 3.3% in the captopril group (P = .06). The percentage of delayed doses was 1.8% in the trandolapril group and 11.7% in the captopril group (P = .0001). The percentage of correct dosing periods, ie, a period with only one correct recorded opening, was 94.0% in the trandolapril group and 78.1% in the captopril group (P = .0001). Results were unchanged when adjusted for age. At the end of the study, 41% of patients in the trandolapril group and 27% in the captopril group (NS) had their blood pressure normalized (systolic BP <140 and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg). In this 6-month study, the electronic pill-box allowed refined analysis of compliance of hypertensive patients. Patients' compliance with once daily trandolapril was higher than with twice daily captopril. The between-group difference is mainly explained by an increase in delayed doses in the twice daily group. PMID

  7. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-01

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA. PMID:15527402

  8. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate. PMID:24259515

  9. Cardiotonic Pill Reduces Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Increasing EET Concentrations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meijuan; Hao, Haiping; Jiang, Lifeng; Wei, Yidan; Zhou, Fang; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Jingwei; Ji, Hui; Wang, Guangji; Ju, Wenzheng; Li, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating data suggest that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, both cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), play important roles in cardiovascular diseases. For many years, the cardiotonic pill (CP), an herbal preparation derived from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in China for the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, its pharmacological mechanism has not been well elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of the CP on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) and AA P450 enzyme metabolism in rats (in vivo) and H9c2 cells (in vitro). The results showed that CP dose dependently (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) mitigated MIRI in rats. The plasma concentrations of EETs in CP-treated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats (40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in controls. Cardiac Cyp1b1, Cyp2b1, Cyp2e1, Cyp2j3, and Cyp4f6 were significantly induced (P < 0.05); CYP2J and CYP2C11 proteins were upregulated (P < 0.05); and AA-epoxygenases activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) after CP (40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) administration in rats. In H9c2 cells, the CP also increased (P < 0.05) the EET concentrations and showed protection in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) cells. However, an antagonist of EETs, 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid, displayed a dose-dependent depression of the CP's protective effects in H/R cells. In conclusion, upregulation of cardiac epoxygenases after multiple doses of the CP-leading to elevated concentrations of cardioprotective EETs after myocardial I/R-may be the underlying mechanism, at least in part, for the CP's cardioprotective effect in rats. PMID:27149899

  10. Role of pill-taking, expectation and therapeutic alliance in the placebo response in clinical trials for major depression

    PubMed Central

    Leuchter, Andrew F.; Hunter, Aimee M.; Tartter, Molly; Cook, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pill-taking, expectations and therapeutic alliance may account for much of the benefit of medication and placebo treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Aims To examine the effects of medication, placebo and supportive care on treatment outcome, and the relationships of expectations and therapeutic alliance to improvement. Method A total of 88 participants were randomised to 8 weeks of treatment with supportive care alone or combined with double-blind treatment with placebo or antidepressant medication. Expectations of medication effectiveness, general treatment effectiveness and therapeutic alliance were measured (trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00200902). Results Medication or placebo plus supportive care were not significantly different but had significantly better outcome than supportive care alone. Therapeutic alliance predicted response to medication and placebo; expectations of medication effectiveness at enrolment predicted only placebo response. Conclusions Pill treatment yielded better outcome than supportive care alone. Medication expectations uniquely predicted placebo treatment outcome and were formed by time of enrolment, suggesting that they were shaped by prior experiences outside the clinical trial. PMID:25213159

  11. Pregnancy is more dangerous than the pill: A critical analysis of professional responses to the Yaz/Yasmin controversy.

    PubMed

    Geampana, Alina

    2016-10-01

    The fourth and most recent generation of hormones used in oral contraceptives has stirred a significant amount of debate regarding the safety of these compounds. Drospirenone, a new type of synthetic hormone used in popular oral contraceptives Yaz and Yasmin, has been found by epidemiologists to increase the risk of blood clots when compared to the previous generations of pills. North American regulatory bodies have investigated the health risks of drospirenone and concluded that the increased risks do not require pulling the new contraceptive technology off the market. Instead, the FDA and Health Canada along with several medical associations have actively managed the Yaz/Yasmin controversy through official statements and press releases between 2010 and 2014. This study provides an analysis of these documents and how risk information about drospirenone-containing pills has been presented to the public. The analysis addresses a gap in our knowledge about cultural factors that impact contraceptive risk assessment. Prevalent risk models used by professionals are highlighted and examined through the use of critical discourse analysis methods. More specifically, this paper highlights the main strategies used to put drospirenone risks into perspective and classify it as safe. I argue that while risks related to pregnancy and the postpartum period are overly-emphasized, other risks are downplayed through a selection process underscored by normative beliefs about women's bodies and sexuality. Future research needs to address consumer perspectives and bridge the gap between lay and scientific risk/benefit assessment of oral contraceptives. PMID:27522113

  12. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  13. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  14. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  15. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  16. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  17. Economic evaluation of a single-pill triple antihypertensive therapy with valsartan, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide against its dual components.

    PubMed

    Stafylas, Panagiotis; Kourlaba, Georgia; Hatzikou, Magda; Georgiopoulos, Dimitrios; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Maniadakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the first available single-pill triple combination antihypertensive therapy containing valsartan (V), amlodipine (A) and hydrochlorothiazide (H), with each of the same components dual combinations in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. A Markov model with eight health states was constructed. The short-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on blood pressure was extrapolated through the Hellenic SCORE and Framingham risk equations, estimating the long-term survival and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved. Costs and outcomes were evaluated over lifetime, divided into annual cycles and discounted at 3.0 % with 2013 as reference year. The analysis was conducted by the Greek third-party-payer perspective. The triple combination treatment cost was estimated at €16,525 compared to €15,480 for V/A, €14,125 for V/H and €11,690 for A/H. The QALYs saved with the triple combination were 12.76 vs. 12.64, 12.61 and 12.38 for double combinations respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the triple combination versus V/A and A/H was far lower than the Greek GDP per capita (€8,690/QALY and €12,695/QALY, respectively) and really close for V/H (€16,192/QALY), suggesting V/A/H combination to be cost-effective. Extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. The probability that the triple combination is cost effective was more than 90 % at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €18,000/QALY. This is the first study to evaluate the cost-utility of a single-pill triple combination. The single-pill V/A/H therapy is a cost-effective antihypertensive choice for the treatment of moderate to severe hypertension, compared to its dual components. PMID:26097434

  18. [Isolation and mass spectrometric analysis of antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of roasted pills of Asini Corii Colla].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Li-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Gao, Jian-Ping; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Jin-Yu; Tong, Yan; Zhang, Gui-Feng

    2013-04-01

    A fraction named GFC-1 with high antioxidant activities in vitro was isolated from the enzymatic hydrolysates of roasted pills of Asini Corii Colla, and the peptides in this fraction were identified. The enzymatic hydrolysates were isolated and purified with anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-25 filtration chromatography successively. GFC-1, a fraction isolated from the hydrolysates, exhibited the highest DPPH and ABTS scavenging capacity (DPPH 47. 95% at 2.0 g x L(-1) and ABTS 97.20% at 0.40 g x L(-1). Nine peptides from GFC-1 were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS coupled with TurboSEQUEST search software and Swiss-Prot data base, and a high repetition core sequence GPAGPP*GPP* was also found. PMID:23847950

  19. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice. PMID:26830535

  20. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs. PMID:22698049

  1. Developing suitable service systems. The private sector is now a main source for a majority of condom and pill users.

    PubMed

    Pham Ba Nhat

    1995-01-01

    The January 1993 Resolution on Population and Family Planning adopted by the Central Committee of the Community Party of Vietnam proposed to implement an effective family planning program, promoting a small family norm, population reduction, and a stable population size. Family planning services, including the distribution of contraception, are now being provided through the health sector, population and family planning committees, and commercial outlets including private and nongovernmental organization clinics. The private sector is a major source for a majority of condom and oral contraceptive pill users. The author describes successful efforts to promote family planning services at the community level in Vietnam. The training of family planning service providers in family planning counseling is also briefly discussed. Since 1993, the mass media has been advertising contraceptives with high frequency, causing a favorable impact upon clients and communities for the acceptance of a small family norm. PMID:12320326

  2. Faced with a double-edged risk: Ugandan university students' perception of the emergency contraceptive pill in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Mirembe, Florence M; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-03-01

    Whereas in high-income countries potential users of Emergency Contraception (EC) have information and access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), it has remained secretive in low-income countries like Uganda. Although several studies have been conducted in relation to EC, few have addressed users' perceptions. The objective of our study was to explore perceptions of EC by university students in Kampala, Uganda. Seven focus group discussions and four key informant interviews were conducted at Makerere University, Kampala. The transcribed data was analyzed for content and recurrent themes. Participants expressed ambivalence about ECPs. The method was generally recommended but only to the "right people", in this context being those aged eighteen years and more. There were reservations surrounding provision of ECPs like similarity with abortion and fear of side effects. Users' and potential-users' perceptions are crucial in the accessibility and utilization of ECPs. PMID:20687265

  3. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions between teachers and guardians regarding the emergency contraceptive pill in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sripichyakan, Kasara; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat

    2006-03-01

    Teachers and guardians (parents or authorized persons) are expected to collaborate in educating female students about emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) but it is unknown whether they have similar perspectives on ECPs. This study aimed to compare their knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions regarding ECPs. Questionnaires were distributed to 720 female teachers and guardians of eight randomly selected high schools and vocational schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand. There were significantly more teachers who knew about the existence of ECPs than guardians. More guardians reported some accurate information regarding ECPs than did teachers. More teachers than guardians believed that the use of ECPs was not morally wrong. Both teachers and guardians had similar experience with ECP use and similar agreement in teaching female adolescents about ECPs. The teachers and guardians had some different opinions on teaching barriers. It is suggested that both teachers and guardians are suited to teach female adolescents about ECPs, but they need preparation in different aspects. PMID:16451426

  4. The Rationale and Design of the Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L.; Roumie, Christianne L.; Cawthon, Courtney; Businger, Alexandra; Dalal, Anuj K.; Mugalla, Ileko; Eden, Svetlana; Jacobson, Terry A.; Rask, Kimberly J.; Vaccarino, Viola; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Bates, David W.; Johnson, Daniel C.; Labonville, Stephanie; Gregory, David; Kripalani, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Background Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge, due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high risk patients such as those with low health literacy. Methods and Results The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers – Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomized to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomized to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy. Conclusions The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00632021, NCT00632021 PMID:20233982

  5. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xue Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-15

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  6. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-01

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  7. Analysis of bioactive components and pharmacokinetic study of herb-herb interactions in the traditional Chinese patent medicine Tongmai Yangxin Pill.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Li, Hongfa; Liu, Yuanxue; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-20

    Tongmai Yangxin (TMYX) Pill is a traditional Chinese patent medicine, composed of eleven Chinese medicinal herbs. It has been used to treat coronary heart disease for several decades. In this study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with TMYX methanol extract, and a serum pharmacochemistry technique was used to screen absorbed bioactive compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. By comparing MS spectra to the published literature data, 40 bioactive components were identified. The results indicated that almost 45% of the absorbed compounds were from Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC). Subsequently, a reliable HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma following oral administration of GC or the combination of GC and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ). The results showed that GZ enhanced the absorption of four bioactive components: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid. The data demonstrate that herb combination in TMYX Pill exhibit a synergistic action. PMID:26771134

  8. Soft X-Ray Stimulated Bremsstrahlung In Traveling Longitudinal Electric Wake-Fields Of Two-Beam Pill-Box Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    The amplification of laser light in a free electron laser (FEL) due to stimulated bremsstrahlung in a traveling longitudinal undulating electric field is derived. It is shown that this FEL provides sufficient gain to be used as a coherent radiation source down to the soft x-ray regime. It is suggested that, among other possibilities, the wake-field produced in a two-beam elliptical or annular pill-box cavity is suitable for the required traveling longitudinal undulating electric field.

  9. Soft X-ray stimulated bremsstrahlung in traveling longitudinal electric wake-fields of two-beam pill-box cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    The amplification of laser light in a free electron laser (FEL) due to stimulated bremsstrahlung in a traveling longitudinal undulating electric field is derived. It is shown that this FEL provides sufficient gain to be used as a coherent radiation source down to the soft X-ray regime. It is suggested that, among other possibilities, the wake-field produced in a two-beam elliptical or annular pill-box cavity is suitable for the required traveling longitudinal undulating electric field.

  10. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department. PMID:25298542

  11. The 'chest pain kit' study: A 'pill in the pocket' concept to improve the pre-hospital therapy of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kralev, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The 'pill in the pocket' concept is an established therapy for atrial fibrillation. The current guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction endorse the concept that faster time to reperfusion is associated with important reductions in morbidity and mortality. The mechanical reperfusion and outcome of these patients is significantly supported by dual antiplatelet therapy. There is no data comparing the effect of early self-application by the patient ('pill in the pocket') versus application by the emergency doctor of dual antiplatelet therapy and a factor Xa inhibitor in case of severe chest pain. In patients with a high risk of developing an acute coronary syndrome and previously selected by a cardiologist, early self-application of dual antiplatelet therapy and a factor Xa inhibitor (e.g. fondaparinux) immediately after calling the emergency doctor might be of significance in cases of acute coronary syndrome or pulmonary embolism. In particular, in less developed areas where it might take a long time for the emergency doctor to arrive, this 'pill in the pocket' concept may be significant. PMID:20865688

  12. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills. PMID:27279557

  13. Knowledge and Use of Emergency Contraceptive Pill: An Analysis of Perception and Practice among Unmarried Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neetu; Mathur, Rakhi; Bakhshi, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to collect evidence with respect to perception and practice of unmarried women toward the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Materials and Methods: Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select respondents. A total of 250 respondents were administered the tools for the study, of which 228 were considered for analysis. Results and Discussion: Descriptive statistics showed that nearly 87% of the respondents were aware of ECPs and there was a significant difference in the knowledge of ECP of the respondents by type of the institution they had studied. More than half of the (52%) respondents admitted to have boyfriends of which 16% were sexually involved and were using some form of contraception. Nearly 84% of the respondents used ECP, which superseded the use of other contraceptives. It was further found that around two-third respondents were using ECP regularly. The reason that “ECP did not hinder pleasure” and that it was handy in case of “unplanned contact” were the most cited reasons for using ECP as a regular contraceptive. Conclusion: The fact that ECPs was preferred over condom and was used regularly shows that the respondents were at a risk of sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus. Health-care providers could be the most authentic source of information for orienting young women toward the use of safe sexual practices. PMID:26664845

  14. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  15. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%-8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278

  16. Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pills on the Blood Serum Enzymes and DNA Damage in Lymphocytes Among Users.

    PubMed

    Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Akhtar, Nishat; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2016-07-01

    The continuous use of synthetic hormones as contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement therapy among women is increasing day by day. The widespread use of different formulations as oral contraceptives by women throughout their reproductive cycle has given rise to a serious concern for studying the effects of oral contraceptives on enzymatic profile and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among users. The present study was carried out on women taking oral contraceptives. The study was based on the questionnaire having the information of reproductive history, fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding and other disease. The profile of the blood serum enzymes i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aminotransferases (SGOT and SGPT), serum proteins (albumin and globulin) and DNA damage in lymphocytes was studied among users and non-users. The results of the present study suggest that OCs not only effects enzymatic activity but also results in DNA damage that may vary with the duration of using oral contraceptives. A significant increase in LDH, GGT, SGPT, SGOT, globulin and decrease in ALP as well as albumin was found among users as compared to non-users. The observed DNA damage was more in users as compared to non-users. Hormonal contraceptives seem to exert DNA damage and also have significant effects on blood serum enzymes. PMID:27382200

  17. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  18. Studies on the analgesic activities of Jia-Yuan-Qing pill and its safety evaluation in mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Teng, Li-rong; Song, Jing-jing; Meng, Qing-fan; Lu, Jia-hui; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wei, Kang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Di; Teng, Le-sheng

    2014-09-01

    The analgesic activity of Porcellio laevis Latreille, Rhizoma Corydalis, and Radix Cynanchi Paniculati have been reported in recent years. A new formula named Jia-Yuan-Qing pill (JYQP) is therefore created by combining the three herbs at 9:7:7 ratio according to traditional Chinese theories. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of JYQP as a novel painkiller in various models. Acute toxicity test was applied to evaluate the safety of JYQP. Acetic-acid-induced writhing, hot plate test, formalin test, and naloxone-pretreated writhing test were employed to elaborate the analgesic activity of JYQP and its possible mechanism. A bone cancer pain mouse model was performed to further assess the effect of JYQP in relieving cancer pain. Test on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms was conduct to examine the physical dependence of mice on JYQP. Data revealed that JYQP reduced writhing and stretching induced by acetic acid; however, this effect could not be blocked by naloxone. JYQP specifically suppressed the phase II reaction time in formalin-treated mice; meanwhile, no analgesic effect of JYQP in hot plate test was observed, indicating that JYQP exerts analgesic activity against inflammatory pain rather than neurogenic pain. Furthermore, JYQP could successfully relieve bone cancer pain in mice. No physical dependence could be observed upon long-term administration in mice. Collectively, our present results provide experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of JYQP as an effective and safe agent for pain treatment. PMID:24677096

  19. Clinical Experience with the PillCam Patency Capsule prior to Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Real-World Experience.

    PubMed

    Römmele, C; Brueckner, J; Messmann, H; Gölder, S K

    2016-01-01

    Background. In patients with known or suspected risk factors for gastrointestinal stenosis, the PillCam patency capsule (PC) is given before a video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in order to minimize the risk of capsule retention (CR). CR is considered unlikely upon excretion of the PC within 30 hours, excretion in an undamaged state after 30 hours, or radiological projection to the colon. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with risk factors for CR, who received a PC from 02/2013 to 04/2015 at Klinikum Augsburg. Results. Sixteen of our 38 patients observed a natural excretion after a mean time of 34 hours past ingestion. However, only 8 patients observed excretion within 30 hours, as recommended by the company. In 20 patients passage of the PC into the colon was shown via RFID-scan or radiological imaging (after 33 and 45 hours, resp.). Only 2 patients showed a pathologic PC result. In consequence, 32 patients received the VCE; no CR was observed. Conclusion. Our data indicates that a VCE could safely be performed even if the PC excretion time is longer than 30 hours and the excreted PC was not screened for damage. PMID:26880902

  20. Arachidonic acid metabolomic study of BPH in rats and the interventional effects of Zishen pill, a traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Bian, Qiaoxia; Wang, Weihui; Wang, Nannan; Peng, Yan; Ma, Wen; Dai, Ronghua

    2016-09-01

    Zishen pill (ZSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The study used a metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-MS/MS to profile arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic changes and to investigate the interventional mechanisms of ZSP in testosterone- induced BPH rats. In order to explore the potential therapeutic effect of ZSP, rat models were constructed and orally administrated with ZSP. Plasma and urine samples were collected after four weeks and then eleven potential biomarkers (15-HETE, 12-HETE, TXA2, 5-HETE, AA, PGI2, PGF2α, 8-HETE, PGD2, PGE2 and LTB4) were identified and quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was carried out with gradient elution using a mobile phase comprised of 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution (pH=3.3) (A) and acetonitrile: methanol (80:20, V/V) (B), and each AA metabolites was measured using electrospray ionization source with negative mode and multiple reaction monitoring. The eleven biomarkers in BPH group rat plasma and urine were significant higher than those in sham group rats. Using the potential biomarkers as a screening index, the results suggest that ZSP can potentially reverse the process of BPH by partially regulating AA metabolism through refrain the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX). This study demonstrates that a metabolomic strategy is useful for identifying potential BPH biomarkers and investigating the underlying mechanisms of a TCM in BPH treatment. PMID:27262108

  1. Effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill on hemorheology in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Yuhui; Zeng, Zhu; Sun, Dagong; Ka, Weibo; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Zhixin; Wen, Zongyao

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill (CDRDP) (Tasly Group, Tianjing, China) on hemorheology and biorheology of dogs suffering from hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet. Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into two groups: the high-fat diet group (H group); the control group (C group), fed with a standard laboratory diet. Six month later, six dogs in the H group were chosen as the drug-taking group (D group), to which CDRDP was administered, fed with the same diet as H group. In the 4th month, blood was taken from the veins of the dogs, and blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), RBC hemorheological indexes as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione transferase (GSH-ST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in plasma and erythrocytes were measured. Compared with H group, TC, TG, plasma MDA levels, the whole blood viscosity, RBC osmotic fragility and the value of CHOL (cholesterol)/PL (phospholipid) of the membrane of D group decreased, however, erythrocyte GSH-ST, histopathological changes in liver, deformation index (DI), orientation index (DI)or, small deformation index (DI)d, electrophoresis ratio and microfluidity of the membrane lipid bilayer of RBCs, increased distinctly. CDRDP can improve micro-hemorheological characteristics, therefore has a significant therapy application of hyperlipidemia. PMID:15665423

  2. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills for the Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Junhua; Yao, Chen; Liu, Baoyan; Gao, Xiumei; Ren, Ming; Cao, Hongbao; Dai, Guohua; Weng, Weiliang; Zhu, Sainan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Boli

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several types of drugs have been recommended for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). However, these conventional strategies have several limitations, such as low adherence, high cost, and side effects during long time use. Novel approaches to this problem are still needed. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness and safety of Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ), a multi-ingredient Chinese patent medicine, for the secondary prevention of MI. Methods and Findings. A total of 3505 eligible patients were randomly assigned to QSYQ group (1746 patients) or aspirin group (1759). Patients took their treatments for 12 months. The final follow-up visit took place 6 months after the end of the trial drugs. The 12-month and 18-month estimated incidences of the primary outcome were 2.98% and 3.67%, respectively, in the QSYQ group. The figures were 2.96% and 3.81% in the aspirin group. No significant difference was identified between the groups. Conclusions. This trial did not show significant difference of primary and secondary outcomes between aspirin and QSYQ in patients who have had an MI. Though inconclusive, the result suggests that QSYQ has similar effects to aspirin in the secondary prevention of MI. PMID:23935677

  3. Compound Danshen Dripping Pill for Treating Early Diabetic Retinopathy: A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Qin, Yali; Yuan, Wei; Deng, Hui; Zhang, Youhua; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-dummy, double-blind study was to observe the therapeutic effects of compound Danshen dripping pill (CDDP) in treating early diabetic retinopathy (DR). All the 57 type 2 diabetes cases in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) stage were divided into two groups randomly: 28 cases treated with CDDP as the treated group and 29 cases treated with calcium dobesilate as the control group. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the treated group was significantly improved after treatment when compared to that before treatment (P < 0.05). Mean defect (MD) of visual field, hemorrhage area of the fundus, microaneurysm number, fluorescent leakage area, and capillary nonperfusion area evaluated by visual field, fundus photography, and fundus fluorescein angiography in the treated group had the same results as BCVA. However, there was no statistical difference in each index between the two groups. No obvious adverse events with clinical significance occurred. Our present study showed that CDDP has a similar improvement and safety to calcium dobesilate for NPDR. In future DR treatments, CDDP may function as the auxiliary drug. PMID:26457110

  4. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278

  5. Use of electronic pill boxes to assess risk of poor treatment compliance: results of a large-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Vaur, L; Vaisse, B; Genes, N; Elkik, F; Legrand, C; Poggi, L

    1999-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the predictive factors of treatment compliance in hypertensive patients. This was an open large-scale multicenter study where mild to moderate essential hypertensive patients received trandolapril (2 mg) once daily for 30 to 60 days in addition to their usual treatment. Trandolapril was packed in electronic pill boxes that registered date and time of each opening. The main compliance parameters were the percentage of missed doses, the percentage of delayed doses, and the percentage of correct dosing periods. Predictive factors of poor compliance (correct dosing periods < 80%) were determined using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Two thousand one hundred seventy-three patients aged 60 +/- 12 years were analyzed. Of the total patients 37% were poor compliers; 29% of patients forgot more than 10% of doses and 36% of patients delayed more than 10% of doses. Ranked predictive factors of poor compliance were: age < 60 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.80 [1.49 to 2.17], P = .0001), the Paris area (OR, 1.70 [1.32 to 2.19], P = .0001), smokers (OR, 1.65 [1.29 to 2.11], P = .0001), monotherapy (OR, 1.40 [1.14 to 1.72], P = .0012), and baseline diastolic blood pressure > or = 100 mm Hg (OR, 1.21 [1.01 to 1.46], P = .044). Therefore, we conclude that young hypertensives, large city dwellers, and smokers are more likely to be poor compliers. The presence of some of these characteristics might incite the physician either to encourage patient compliance or to prescribe antihypertensive drugs that have an effect that persists even beyond 24 h. PMID:10232497

  6. Awareness and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills among young people in the entertainment places, Vientiane City, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency Contraception is not officially available to the public sector in Laos. The potential of emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is well documented in developed countries, but in Laos no studies of ECPs exist. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) in Vientiane, the capital city of the Lao PDR. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 young adults in entertainment venues by using the convenience sampling between May to July, 2007. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview. Participants were asked about socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes related to ECPs, and source of information about ECPs. Data analysis was performed with chi-square test and logistic regression (p < .05). Results Only 22.4 percent of respondents had heard of ECPs and of these only 17.9 percent knew the correct time-frame for effective use. Most of the respondents (85%) agreed on the need for ECPs to be available in Laos and 66.8 percent stated that they would use them should the need arise, if they were available. Among those who said they would not use ECPs, 63.8 percent were concerned about possible health effects, or other side effects. Awareness of ECPs was associated with increasing age (OR = 2.78, p = .025) and male sex (OR = 2.91, p = .010). Conclusions There is needed to provide effective health education about the method, timing of use, and how to obtain ECPs through both informal, peer channels, and also through formal channels such as health care providers. PMID:23514104

  7. A review of the benefits of early treatment initiation with single-pill combinations of telmisartan with amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses the rationale for earlier use of single-pill combinations (SPCs) of antihypertensive drugs, with a focus on telmisartan/amlodipine (T/A) and telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide (T/H) SPCs. Compared with the respective monotherapies, the once-daily T/A and T/H SPCs have been shown to result in significantly higher blood pressure (BP) reductions, BP goal rates, and response rates in patients at all stages of hypertension. As expected, BP reductions are highest with the highest dose (T80/A10 and T80/H25) SPCs. Subgroup analyses of the telmisartan trials have reported the efficacy of both SPCs to be consistent, regardless of the patients’ age, race, and coexisting diabetes, obesity, or renal impairment. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, the T/A combination provides superior 24-hour BP-lowering efficacy compared with either treatment administered as monotherapy. Similarly, the T/H SPC treatment provides superior 24-hour BP-lowering efficacy, especially in the last 6 hours relative to other renin–angiotensin system inhibitor-based SPCs. The T/A SPC is associated with a lower incidence of edema than amlodipine monotherapy, and the T/H SPC with a lower incidence of hypokalemia than hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy. Existing evidence supports the use of the T/A SPC for the treatment of hypertensive patients with prediabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome, due to the metabolic neutrality of both component drugs, and the use of the T/H SPC for those patients with edema or in need of volume reduction. PMID:24082785

  8. Antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of aliskiren/amlodipine single- pill combinations in patients with an inadequate response to aliskiren monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Glorioso, Nicola; Thomas, Mathew; Troffa, Chiara; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Patel, Samir; Baek, Inyoung; Zhang, Jack

    2012-11-01

    Many patients with hypertension will require multiple antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) control. This double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of aliskiren/amlodipine single-pill combinations (SPCs) in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension who were non-responsive to aliskiren monotherapy. After a 4-week run-in with aliskiren 300 mg, patients with mean sitting diastolic BP (msDBP) ≥ 90 and < 110 mmHg were randomized to oncedaily aliskiren/ amlodipine 300/10 mg or 300/5 mg, or aliskiren 300 mg for 8 weeks. Aliskiren/amlodipine SPCs provided significantly greater mean reductions in mean sitting systolic BP/msDBP (300/10 mg, 18.0/13.1 mmHg; 300/5 mg, 14.4/10.5 mmHg) than aliskiren 300 mg (6.4/5.8 mmHg) at week 8 endpoint. This represents additional mean reductions of 11.6/7.2 mmHg (300/10 mg) and 8.0/4.7 mmHg (300/5 mg) over aliskiren alone (both p < 0.0001). Significantly more patients achieved BP control ( < 140/90 mmHg) with aliskiren/amlodipine 300/10 mg (65.5%) and 300/5 mg (56.6%) than with aliskiren (31.5% both p < 0.0001). Aliskiren, alone and in combination with amlodipine, was well tolerated, with a slightly higher incidence of adverse events with SPCs (29.0-30.1%) than with monotherapy (22.7%). In conclusion, aliskiren/amlodipine SPCs offer an effective next step for patients who have an inadequate BP response to aliskiren alone. PMID:22303910

  9. Multi-constituent cardiovascular pills (MCCP)--challenges and promises of population-based prophylactic drug therapy for prevention of heart attack.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Michael J; Naghavi, Morteza

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly co-prevalent but poorly identified and treated. The Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education (SHAPE) Task Force from the Association for Eradication of Heart Attack (AEHA) has recently proposed a new strategy that recommends screening for subclinical atherosclerosis and implementing aggressive treatment of "vulnerable patients". The Task Force has also envisioned future developments that may shift mass screening strategies to mass prophylactic therapy. The "Polypill" concept, introduced by Wald and Law suggests a combination of statin, low-dose antihypertensives, aspirin and folic acid, in a single pill, taken prophylactically by high risk population can cut CVD event rates by as much as 80%. In this communication, we review the challenges and promises of such a strategy. "Polypill" is but one of an astronomical number of possible multiconstituent pills (MCCP). Attractive as the MCCP concept is, it lacks evidence from randomized controlled trials, and begs numerous questions about the credibility of the concept, the design and synthesis of such complex pills, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioequivalence, "class" vs. unique properties, interactions, evidence of clinical efficacy and safety, regulatory approval, post-marketing surveillance, prescription vs. over-the-counter use, responsibility for initiating and monitoring therapy, patient education, counterfeiting and importation, reimbursement, advertisement, patent protection, commercial viability, etc. If these issues are favorably addressed, MCCP stand to dramatically change the manner in which CVD is prevented particularly in developing societies. Notwithstanding, assuming low commercial interests, realizing the promises of MCCP will demand serious attention from national public health policymakers. The clinical and regulatory implications of population-based secondary prevention (which rely on a different evidence base

  10. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-01

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge. PMID:27131804

  11. Blood Pressure Control with a Single-Pill Combination of Indapamide Sustained-Release and Amlodipine in Patients with Hypertension: The EFFICIENT Study

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Uday; Hiremath, Jagdish; Namjoshi, Deepak J.; Gujral, Vinod K.; Tripathi, Kamlakar K.; Siraj, Mohammad; Shamanna, Paramesh; Safar, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite antihypertensive treatment, most hypertensive patients still have high blood pressure (BP), notably high systolic blood pressure (SBP). The EFFICIENT study examines the efficacy and acceptability of a single-pill combination of sustained-release (SR) indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), in the management of hypertension. Methods Patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy (BP≥140/90 mm Hg) or were previously untreated with grade 2 or 3 essential hypertension (BP≥160/100 mm Hg) received a single-pill combination tablet containing indapamide SR 1.5 mg and amlodipine 5 mg daily for 45 days, in this multicenter prospective phase 4 study. The primary outcome was mean change in BP from baseline; percentage of patients achieving BP control (BP<140/90 mm Hg) was a secondary endpoint. SBP reduction (ΔSBP) versus diastolic BP reduction (ΔDBP) was evaluated (ΔSBP/ΔDBP) from baseline to day 45. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results Mean baseline BP of 196 patients (mean age 52.3 years) was 160.2/97.9 mm Hg. After 45 days, mean SBP decreased by 28.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 26.4 to 30.6), while diastolic BP decreased by 15.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 14.5 to 16.7). BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 85% patients. ΔSBP/ΔDBP was 1.82 in the overall population. Few patients (n = 3 [2%]) reported side effects, and most (n = 194 [99%]) adhered to treatment. Conclusion In patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy or untreated with grade 2 or 3 hypertension, single-pill combination indapamide SR/amlodipine reduced BP effectively—especially SBP— over 45 days, and was safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry – India CTRI/2010/091/000114 PMID:24714044

  12. [Study on action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis based on techniques of gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Xiang-gang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2015-08-01

    Action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis were discussed based on gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint in this paper. First, gene expression profiles of atherosclerotic carotid artery tissues and histologically normal tissues in human body were collected, and were screened using significance analysis of microarray (SAM) to screen out differential gene expressions; then differential genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG pathway analysis; to avoid some genes with non-outstanding differential expression but biologically importance, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed, and 7 chemical ingredients with higher negative enrichment score were obtained by Cmap method, implying that they could reversely regulate the gene expression profiles of pathological tissues; and last, based on the hypotheses that similar structures have similar activities, 336 ingredients of compound Danshen dripping pills were compared with 7 drug molecules in 2D molecular fingerprints method. The results showed that 147 differential genes including 60 up-regulated genes and 87 down regulated genes were screened out by SAM. And in GO analysis, Biological Process ( BP) is mainly concerned with biological adhesion, response to wounding and inflammatory response; Cellular Component (CC) is mainly concerned with extracellular region, extracellular space and plasma membrane; while Molecular Function (MF) is mainly concerned with antigen binding, metalloendopeptidase activity and peptide binding. KEGG pathway analysis is mainly concerned with JAK-STAT, RIG-I like receptor and PPAR signaling pathway. There were 10 compounds, such as hexadecane, with Tanimoto coefficients greater than 0.85, which implied that they may be the active ingredients (AIs) of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis (CAs). The present method can be applied to the research on material

  13. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and associated factors among HIV infected children in Ethiopia: unannounced home-based pill count versus caregivers’ report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has brought a remarkable reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity both in adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Adherence to ART is the key to the successful treatment of patients as well as containment of drug resistance. Studies based on caregivers’ report have shown that adherence to ART among children is generally good. However, subjective methods such as caregivers’ report are known to overestimate the level of adherence. This study determined the rate of adherence and its predictors using unannounced home-based pill count and compared the result with caregivers’ report in a tertiary referral hospital in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 1, 2011 and January 30, 2012. The study participants were 210 children on ART and their caregivers attending pediatric ART clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa University. Caregivers were interviewed at the ART clinic using a structured questionnaire. Then, unannounced home-based pill count was done 7 days after the interview. Results Caregiver-reported adherence in the past 7 days prior to interview was 93.3%. Estimated adherence using unannounced home-based pill count was found, however, to be 34.8%. On multivariate logistic regression model, children with married [aOR = 7.85 (95% CI: 2.11,29.13)] and widowed/divorced [aOR = 7.14 (95% CI: 2.00,25.46)] caregivers, those who were not aware of their HIV sero-status [aOR = 2.35 (95% CI:1.09, 5.06)], and those with baseline WHO clinical stage III/IV [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.21, 8.40] were more likely to adhere to their ART treatment. On the other hand, children on d4T/3Tc/EFV combination [OR = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.53)] were less likely to adhere to their treatment. Caregivers’ forgetfulness and child refusal to take medication were reported as the major reasons for missing doses. Conclusion The level of adherence based on

  14. Computer program for calculating the resonant frequency, shunt impedance and quality factor of a pill-box cavity in a storage ring. [CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Aguero, V.M.; Ng, K.Y.

    1983-10-01

    Keil and Zotter have analyzed the electromagnetic fields excited by the longitudinal density fluctuations of an unbunched relativistic particle beam drifting in a corrugated vacuum chamber of circular cross section. At higher frequencies, these corrugations become resonant cavities. Zotter has written a computer program known as KN7C to compute the resonant frequencies. However, in the actual use of KN7C, some difficulties are encountered. To surmount these difficulties, the program known as CAVITY was written to analyze this pill-box shaped resonant cavity. Although there are many input variables to this program, only two are essential and need to be specified. They are BD = b/d = the ratio of the circular beampipe radius to that of the pill-box cavity and GD = g/d where g is the length of the cavity. When they are specified, CAVITY will print out the dimensionless normalized fundamental resonant frequency FD, shunt impedance Z and figure of merit Q. From these, the actual resonant frequency, shunt impedance and figure of merit can be deduced. The program is described and a listing is provided.

  15. Effectiveness of Valsartan/Amlodipine Single-pill Combination in Hypertensive Patients With Excess Body Weight: Subanalysis of China Status II.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beihai; Peng, Wenzhong; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Yuxiang; Liu, Cong; Guo, Xiaomei

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a major global health concern and is associated with hypertension. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy. To evaluate this effectiveness and its association with obese categories, we performed a prespecified subanalysis and a post hoc analysis of patients from China status II study. In this subanalysis, 11,289 and 11,182 patients stratified by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), respectively, were included. Significant mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) reductions from baseline were observed at week 8 across all BMI and WC subgroups (P < 0.001). The percentages of patients achieving BP control were 65.2%, 62.8%, and 64.5% (men 64.5% and women 64.4%) in the overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity subgroups, respectively. The positive association between BP control and obese categories could only be found in subgroups stratified by BMI other than WC. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy, and its effectiveness was better associated with BMI than WC. PMID:26248276

  16. Effectiveness of Valsartan/Amlodipine Single-pill Combination in Hypertensive Patients With Excess Body Weight: Subanalysis of China Status II

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beihai; Peng, Wenzhong; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Yuxiang; Liu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Obesity is a major global health concern and is associated with hypertension. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy. To evaluate this effectiveness and its association with obese categories, we performed a prespecified subanalysis and a post hoc analysis of patients from China status II study. In this subanalysis, 11,289 and 11,182 patients stratified by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), respectively, were included. Significant mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) reductions from baseline were observed at week 8 across all BMI and WC subgroups (P < 0.001). The percentages of patients achieving BP control were 65.2%, 62.8%, and 64.5% (men 64.5% and women 64.4%) in the overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity subgroups, respectively. The positive association between BP control and obese categories could only be found in subgroups stratified by BMI other than WC. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy, and its effectiveness was better associated with BMI than WC. PMID:26248276

  17. Birth control pills - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman's ovary from releasing an egg during her menstrual cycle (called ovulation). They do this by changing the ... cause many side effects. These include: Changes in menstrual cycles, no menstrual cycles, extra bleeding Nausea, mood changes, ...

  18. Beyond pills and condoms.

    PubMed

    Steinhart, P

    1991-01-01

    Conditions and changes in Kenya, noted by the author after an absence of 20 years, are discussed. Commentary is provided on the marriage pattern and birth rate, modernization, unemployment, changes in transfers of wealth; the individual waste of natural resources in developed countries is contrasted with Kenya's population. The difficulty of individual action and the constraints on acting on the basis of one's understanding are presented. Kenya's population growth from 11 million in 1969 to 25 million in 1990 is evident in the differences in the road to Kutus. The 7 miles down the slope of Mount Kenya in 1969 were dotted with small farms and stretches of solitude, while in 1990 people were everywhere, hundreds going or coming and working in small farms metered out across the countryside. Kenya was 1 of the 1st African nations to adopt a population policy. The growth rate was very high at 4.1 in the 1980s. The present density is 1/2500 people/sq mile. 50% of the population is 15 years. 40,000 were unemployed in 1976 and 1 million are unemployed at present. 75% of the women now 40 married before the age of 20 years; 22% married before 15 years. Kenyans value children as wealth and old age security. Expected children/family has dropped from 7.7 in 1984 to 6.7 in 1989. Contraceptive use has increased from 7% in 1977 to 27% in 1989. Modernization has begun. Many people, because of population growth do not have access to land. Education is the only hope for the future. Civil unrest may occur. Only 4% of the land is arable. Agriculture must expand to the arid plains. Food production/capita has dropped 30% since 1972. Imports for food and development money means debt to developed nations. Westerners hold the monetary wealth, consume more soil, water, and energy, and contribute more greenhouse gases. The impact on the ecosystem of a US baby is 4 times what it is for a Kenyan baby. The example of waste is given of the van of tourists traveling down the road to Kutus, which uses as much oil on the trip as 1 Kenyan might use in a lifetime. Leadership advice is to redirect resources privately: buy products from developing nations. The feeling of being stuck between 2 worlds was paramount. PMID:12343969

  19. Hounding the pill.

    PubMed

    1979-10-20

    Drug toxicity testing is required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in bitches of beagle dogs for 7 years and in female rhesus monkeys for 10 years at 25-50 times the human dosage. Progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megesterol acetate, chlormadinone acetate, chloroethynl norethisterone and chloroethynyl norgestrel are some compounds which have induced tumors in beagle dogs. However, the endocrinology of the beagles is unlike that of a woman and binding affinity of synthetic progestogens to breast cytoplasmic progesterone receptors of the beagle and women have striking differences. Some progestogen compounds which do not produce neoplasia in dogs because of too low a dose are most potent in women. Both the WHO and the Committee on Safety of Medicines concluded that progestogen-induced breast tumors in beagles are unhelpful in predicting possible breast cancer in women who use oral contraceptives. PMID:318466

  20. "Smart Pills" Promising, Problematic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    An explosion in the variety and availability of cognitive-enhancing drugs, from prescriptions like Ritalin to commercial drinks like NeuroFuel, raises concerns for scientists and educators alike--not just over the potential for abuse, but also over what educators and researchers consider, and how they approach, normal achievement. Evidence is…

  1. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide single-pill combination therapy in hypertensive patients: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hagendorff, Andreas; Kurz, Ira; Müller, Alfons; Klebs, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (A + V + H) single-pill combination therapy in the treatment of hypertensive patients in daily practice. Design and methods This prospective, open-label, observational study, enroled adults for whom their physician considered treatment with the single pill combination as indicated. The observational period per patient was ∼3 months. Results were evaluated using basic descriptive statistical methods. Main outcome Data of 7132 patients were analyzed. At baseline, the mean blood pressure (BP) was 158.8 ± 17.7 mmHg (systolic, sBP) and 91.5 ± 10.7 mmHg (diastolic, dBP). The most common cardiovascular risk factors were positive family history, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. The most commonly used daily doses of A + V + H at study end were 5/160/12.5 mg (30.5%) or 10/160/12.5 mg (33.1%). At the last visit mean BP was 135.0 ± 11.8 mmHg (sBP) and 80.2 ± 7.3 mmHg (dBP). The mean BP reduction at last visit compared with baseline was −23.7 ± 17.5 mmHg (sBP) and −11.3 ± 10.6 mmHg (dBP); 43.5% of the patients reached normalization (BP <140/90 mmHg for non-diabetics or <130/80 mmHg for diabetics) and 71.3% reached therapeutic response (sBP <140 or ≥20 mmHg decrease vs baseline and dBP <90 or ≥10 mmHg decrease vs baseline in non-diabetic patients and sBP <130 mmHg or ≥20 mmHg decrease vs baseline and dBP <80 mmHg or ≥10 mmHg decrease vs baseline in patients with diabetes). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded in 2.3% of the patients, the most frequent being peripheral edema (0.6%) and dizziness (0.2%). Conclusions In daily practice, A + V + H single-pill treatment effectively lowered the average BP in patients with essential hypertension and was well tolerated.

  2. UFLC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic studies of six Saikosaponins in rat plasma after oral administration of Bupleurum Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiufeng; Wang, Xiangyang; Yan, Kaijing; Chu, Yang; Li, Shuming; Li, Wei; Yan, Xueying; Ma, Xiaohui; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-30

    A rapid and sensitive ultra fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six Saikosaponins (SSs) (SSa, SSb1, SSb2, SSd, SSc, SSf) of Bupleurum Dropping Pills (BDP) in rat plasma using chloramphenicol as the internal standard (IS). The SSs were separated using an ACQUITY UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) and detection of these compounds were done by using a Qtrap 5500 mass spectrometer coupled with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) source under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. According to regulatory guidelines, the established method was fully validated and results were showed within acceptable limits. The lower limit of quantifications (LLOQs) of all analytes were 0.2ng/mL. The validated method was successfully applied into a pharmacokinetic study of orally administered BDP in rats. PMID:26970984

  3. A closed-form solution of wake-fields in an elliptical pill-box by using an elliptical coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. S.; Chen, K. W.

    1989-10-01

    It was known from a complete model analysis1,2 that the wake potential in the pill-box cavity is predominantly determined by a few longitudinal modes counting from the fundamental longitudinal mode. An approach to find the longitudinal modes of an elliptical cavity is developed by means of the coordinate transformation method. It is found that the field configuration and eigenfrequencies of the elliptical cavity can be expressed in a closed form in terms of Mathieu functions. Inserting the closed form solution of modes into the previous analytical formula for the wake field, the wake field is expressed too in a closed form solution, which is convenient for numerical calculation. Thus, a numerical method to calculate expediently the wake field is developed, and a model calculation is presented.

  4. A soft X-ray free electron laser (FEL) using a two-beam elliptical pill-box wake-field cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    Stimulated bremsstrahlung in an undulating electric field in the lasing beam direction (electric wiggler) was shown to be possible from the quantum-mechanical viewpoint. Herein, this possibility is scrutinized from the viewpoint of classical electrodynamics. It is found that if stimulated bremsstrahlung in a transverse undulating magnetic field (magnetic wiggler) occurs, stimulated bremsstrahlung in the electric wiggler must also occur. It is further shown that a free electron laser (FEL) using a magnetic wiggler to provide a catalyzer field for stimulated bremsstrahlung cannot serve as a practical FEL operating in the soft X-ray region from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the FEL using a traveling wake field in a two-beam elliptical pill-box cavity is well suited as a source of coherent radiation in the soft X-ray region.

  5. Chemical fingerprinting of Shexiang Baoxin Pill and simultaneous determination of its major constituents by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection and electrospray mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhan, Yong-Cheng

    2006-07-01

    High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattered detection (ELSD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was employed to establish chemical fingerprint of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and to simultaneously determinate its seven major constituents, including cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, cinobufagin, recibufogenin, and ginsenoside Rb1. The analysis was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution, and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing their retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze nine SBP samples and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, stability and accuracy. Both the chemical fingerprints and quantification data were used to evaluate the quality of various SBP products. The proposed method allows obtaining chemical fingerprint and quantification of multi-components in one run, and therefore can be readily utilized as a comprehensive quality control approach for traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:16819233

  6. Investigation on the association between breast cancer and consumption patterns of combined oral contraceptive pills in the women of Isfahan in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nejad, Fahime Seyed Ahmadi; Rajabi, Fariborz Mokarian; Taleghani, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral contraceptive pills are among the most popular contraceptive methods, but the fear of cancer and cardiovascular disease overshadows its continuous use among women. This study aimed to define the association between consumption patterns of combined oral contraceptives among women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This is an analytical case–control study conducted on 175 women with breast cancer, referring to Seyed al Shohada Medical Center and private clinics in Isfahan to be treated and followed up in 2011, as well as 350 healthy women who were identical with the subjects in the study group regarding age and residential location. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity and Cronbach's alpha were employed to confirm validity and scientific reliability of the questionnaire, respectively. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods through SPSS. Results: The findings showed that there was a significant association between history of contraceptive pills’ consumption and incidence of breast cancer (P < 0.001). It was shown that the risk of developing breast cancer is increased by 2.27-fold among those with pills’ consumption compared to those with no history of that. It was also shown that pills’ consumption for 36-72 months increased the risk of breast cancer by 2.18-fold, the age of the first use being less than 20 years increased the risk by 3.28-fold, and time since the last use of less than 25 years increased the risk by 2.63-fold. There was no significant association between duration of use, age of the first and last use, and time since the first and last use in the study and control groups. Conclusion: The results showed that history of pills’ consumption is associated with incidence of breast cancer regardless of the consumption pattern. Use of oral contraceptives pills at any age and for any duration can increase the risk of breast cancer. PMID:23983752

  7. SmartPill® as an objective parameter for determination of severity and duration of postoperative ileus: study protocol of a prospective, two-arm, open-label trial (the PIDuSA study)

    PubMed Central

    Vilz, Tim O; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Lingohr, Philipp; Fimmers, Rolf; Esmann, Anke; Randau, Thomas; Kalff, Jörg C; Coenen, Martin; Wehner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery (AS). Until today, neither a prophylaxis nor an evidence-based therapy exists. This originates from the absence of objective parameters evaluating the severity and duration of POI resulting in clinical trials of modest quality. The SmartPill®, a capsule which frequently measures pH value, temperature and intraluminal pressure after swallowing, offers an elegant option for analysing gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and smooth muscle activity in vivo. As the use in patients in the first months after AS is not covered by the marketing authorisation, we aim to investigate the safety and feasibility of the SmartPill® immediately after surgery. Additionally, we analyse the influence of prokinetics and laxatives as well as standardised physiotherapy on postoperative bowel contractility, as scientific evidence of its effects is still lacking. Methods and analysis The PIDuSA study is a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, open-label trial. The SmartPill® will be applied to 55 patients undergoing AS having a high risk for POI and 10 patients undergoing extra-abdominal surgery rarely developing POI. The primary objective is the safety of the SmartPill® in patients after surgery on the basis of adverse device effects/serious adverse device effects (ADE/SADE). The sample size suggests that events with a probability of 3% could be seen with a certainty of 80% for at least once in the sample. Secondary objective is the analysis of postoperative intestinal activity in the GI tract in both groups. Furthermore, clinical signs of bowel motility disorders will be correlated to the data measured by the SmartPill® to evaluate its significance as an objective parameter for assessing POI severity. Additionally, effects of prokinetics, laxatives and physiotherapy on postoperative peristaltic activity recorded by the SmartPill® will be analysed. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was

  8. In vitro and in vivo preclinical evaluation of a minisphere emulsion-based formulation (SmPill®) of salmon calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Rosa, Mónica; Coulter, Ivan S; Brayden, David J

    2015-11-15

    Salmon calcitonin (sCT, MW 3432Da) is a benchmark molecule for an oral peptide delivery system because it is degraded and has low intestinal epithelial permeability. Four dry emulsion minisphere prototypes (SmPill®) containing sCT were co-formulated with permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10) or coco-glucoside (CG), or with a pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres protected sCT from thermal degradation and the released sCT retained high bioactivity, as determined by cyclic AMP generation in T47D cells. Pre-minisphere emulsions of PEs combined with sCT increased absolute bioavailability (F) compared to native sCT following rat intra-jejunal (i.j.) and intra-colonic (i.c.) loop instillations, an effect that was more pronounced in colon. Minispheres corresponding to ~2000I.U. (~390μg) sCT/kg were instilled by i.j. or i.c. instillations and hypocalcaemia resulted from all prototypes. The absolute F (i.j.) of sCT was 11.0, 4.8, and 1.4% for minispheres containing NaTDC (10μmol/kg), CG (12μmol/kg) or CA (32μmol/kg) respectively. For i.c. instillations, the largest absolute F (22% in each case) was achieved for minispheres containing either C10 (284μmol/kg) or CG (12μmol/kg), whilst the absolute F was 8.2% for minispheres loaded with CA (32μmol/kg). In terms of relative F, the best data were obtained for minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j.), a 4-fold increase over sCT solution, and also for either C10 or CG (i.c.), where there was a 3-fold increase over sCT solution. Histology of instilled intestinal loops indicated that neither the minispheres nor components thereof caused major perturbation. In conclusion, selected SmPill® minisphere formulations may have the potential to be used as oral peptide delivery systems when delivered to jejunum or colon. PMID:26349051

  9. Participant Experiences and Facilitators and Barriers to Pill Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the iPrEx Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Trial in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Koester, Kimberly Ann; Amico, K. Rivet; McMahan, Vanessa; Goicochea, Pedro; Vargas, Lorena; Lubensky, David; Buchbinder, Susan; Grant, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In 2010, the iPrEx study demonstrated efficacy of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in reducing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men. Adherence to study product was critical for PrEP efficacy, and varied considerably, with FTC/TDF detection rates highest in the United States. We conducted a qualitative study to gain insights into the experiences of iPrEx participants in San Francisco (SF) where there was high confirmed adherence, to understand individual and contextual factors influencing study product use in this community. In 2009 and 2011, we conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews in 36 and 16 SF iPrEx participants, respectively. Qualitative analyses indicate that participants joined the study out of altruism. They had a clear understanding of study product use, and pill taking was facilitated by establishing or building on an existing routine. Participants valued healthcare provided by the study and relationships with staff, whom they perceived as nonjudgmental, and found client-centered counseling to be an important part of the PrEP package. This facilitated pill taking and accurate reporting of missed doses. Adherence barriers included changes in routine, side effects/intercurrent illnesses, and stress. Future PrEP adherence interventions should leverage existing routines and establish client-centered relationships/ environments to support pill taking and promote accurate reporting. PMID:24093809

  10. Massive pulmonary embolism associated with Factor V Leiden, prothrombin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations in a young patient on oral contraceptive pills: a case report.

    PubMed

    Charafeddine, Khalil M; Mahfouz, Rami A; Ibrahim, Georges Y; Taher, Ali T; Hoballah, Jamal J; Taha, Assad M

    2010-10-01

    Factor V Leiden (Factor V G1691A), prothrombin gene mutation G20210A, and homozygous C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are known to predispose venous thromboembolism (VTE). We present herein a rare case of a young woman heterozygous for these mutations and taking oral contraceptive pills for less than 2 months, diagnosed to have massive deep venous thrombosis and bilateral pulmonary embolism. The patient was managed for 10 days in the hospital and discharged home on oral anticoagulants. This case suggests that screening for these factors in people with family history of thrombosis and in relatives of patients with these mutations is highly recommended to prevent fatal consequences. In addition, a new guideline for treatment and prophylaxis with anticoagulant for these patients and others who are at risk of developing VTE (American College of Chest Physicians [ACCP] guidelines-Chest 2008) has been published recently. Our recommendation is to promote for the internationally published algorithms through their application, where necessary, to prevent any future thrombotic morbidity or mortality incidents. PMID:19520679

  11. Integrative revision of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus from Madagascar, with the description of seven new species (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Thomas; Le, Daniel Minh-Tu; Loria, Stephanie F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Malagasy giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1902 is revised. Seven new species, S. titanus sp. n., S. vatovavy sp. n., S. lavasoa sp. n., S. andohahela sp. n., S. ivohibe sp. n., S. saintelucei sp. n., and S. andrahomana sp. n. were discovered, in one case with the help of sequence data, in the rainforests of southeastern Madagascar. The species are described using light- and scanning electron microscopy. A key to all 10 species of the genus is presented. All but one (S. andohahela) of the newly discovered species are microendemics each occurring in isolated forest fragments. The mitochondrial COI barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 18 Sphaeromimus specimens, and a dataset containing COI sequences of 28 specimens representing all Sphaeromimus species (except S. vatovavy) was analyzed. All species are genetically monophyletic. Interspecific uncorrected genetic distances were moderate (4–10%) to high (18–25%), whereas intraspecific variation is low (0–3.5%). Sequence data allowed the correct identification of three colour morphs of S. musicus, as well as the identity of a cave specimen, which although aberrant in its morphology and colouration, was genetically identical to the holotype of S. andrahoma. PMID:25009417

  12. Integrative revision of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus from Madagascar, with the description of seven new species (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Le, Daniel Minh-Tu; Loria, Stephanie F

    2014-01-01

    The Malagasy giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1902 is revised. Seven new species, S. titanus sp. n., S. vatovavy sp. n., S. lavasoa sp. n., S. andohahela sp. n., S. ivohibe sp. n., S. saintelucei sp. n., and S. andrahomana sp. n. were discovered, in one case with the help of sequence data, in the rainforests of southeastern Madagascar. The species are described using light- and scanning electron microscopy. A key to all 10 species of the genus is presented. All but one (S. andohahela) of the newly discovered species are microendemics each occurring in isolated forest fragments. The mitochondrial COI barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 18 Sphaeromimus specimens, and a dataset containing COI sequences of 28 specimens representing all Sphaeromimus species (except S. vatovavy) was analyzed. All species are genetically monophyletic. Interspecific uncorrected genetic distances were moderate (4-10%) to high (18-25%), whereas intraspecific variation is low (0-3.5%). Sequence data allowed the correct identification of three colour morphs of S. musicus, as well as the identity of a cave specimen, which although aberrant in its morphology and colouration, was genetically identical to the holotype of S. andrahoma. PMID:25009417

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Components of Zhengtian Pills Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cui-ting; Zhang, Min; Yan, Ping; Liu, Hai-chan; Liu, Xing-yun; Zhan, Ruo-ting

    2016-01-01

    Zhengtian pills (ZTPs) are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which have been commonly used to treat headaches. Volatile components of ZTPs extracted by ethyl acetate with an ultrasonic method were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-two components were identified, accounting for 78.884% of the total components of volatile oil. The three main volatile components including protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). Baseline separation was achieved on an XB-C18 column with linear gradient elution of methanol-0.2% acetic acid aqueous solution. The UHPLC-DAD method provided good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9992), precision (RSD < 3%), accuracy (100.68–102.69%), and robustness. The UHPLC-DAD/GC-MS method was successfully utilized to analyze volatile components, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide, in 13 batches of ZTPs, which is suitable for discrimination and quality assessment of ZTPs. PMID:26904360

  14. Hypertensive nephropathy treatment by heart-protecting musk pill: a study of anti-inflammatory therapy for target organ damage of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dengke; Ling, Shuang; Chen, Gangling; Li, Yajuan; Liu, Jun; Ferid, Murad; Bian, Ka

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the heart-protecting musk pill (HMP) on inflammatory injury of kidney from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Male SHRs aged 4 weeks were divided into SHR model group, HMP low-dosage group (13.5 mg/kg), and HMP high-dosage group (40 mg/kg). Age-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats were used as normal control. All rats were killed at 12 weeks of age. Tail-cuff method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine rat systolic blood pressure and angiotensin II (Ang II) contents, respectively. Renal inflammatory damage was evaluated by the following parameters: protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines, carbonyl protein contents, nitrite concentration, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages in interstitium and glomeruli, kidney pathological changes, and excretion rate of urinary protein. HMP did not prevent the development of hypertension in SHR. However, this Chinese medicinal compound decreased renal Ang II content. Consistent with the change of renal Ang II, all the parameters of renal inflammatory injury were significantly decreased by HMP. This study indicates that HMP is a potent suppressor of renal inflammatory damage in SHR, which may serve as a basis for the advanced preventive and therapeutic investigation of HMP in hypertensive nephropathy. PMID:21475627

  15. Hypertensive nephropathy treatment by heart-protecting musk pill: a study of anti-inflammatory therapy for target organ damage of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dengke; Ling, Shuang; Chen, Gangling; Li, Yajuan; Liu, Jun; Ferid, Murad; Bian, Ka

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the heart-protecting musk pill (HMP) on inflammatory injury of kidney from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Male SHRs aged 4 weeks were divided into SHR model group, HMP low-dosage group (13.5 mg/kg), and HMP high-dosage group (40 mg/kg). Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as normal control. All rats were killed at 12 weeks of age. Tail-cuff method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine rat systolic blood pressure and angiotensin II (Ang II) contents, respectively. Renal inflammatory damage was evaluated by the following parameters: protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines, carbonyl protein contents, nitrite concentration, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages in interstitium and glomeruli, kidney pathological changes, and excretion rate of urinary protein. HMP did not prevent the development of hypertension in SHR. However, this Chinese medicinal compound decreased renal Ang II content. Consistent with the change of renal Ang II, all the parameters of renal inflammatory injury were significantly decreased by HMP. This study indicates that HMP is a potent suppressor of renal inflammatory damage in SHR, which may serve as a basis for the advanced preventive and therapeutic investigation of HMP in hypertensive nephropathy. PMID:21475627

  16. Cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by QiShenYiQi Pill® via ameliorate of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing Rui; Wei, Jing; Wang, Ling Yan; Zhu, Yan; Li, Lan; Olunga, Mary Akinyi; Gao, Xiu Mei; Fan, Guan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of QiShenYiQi Pill® (QSYQ) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through antioxidative stress and mitochondrial protection. Methods and results Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with QSYQ or saline for 7 days and subjected to ischemia (30 minutes occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery) and reperfusion (120 minutes). Cardiac functions were evaluated by echocardiogram and hemodynamics. Myocardial mitochondria were obtained to evaluate changes in mitochondrial structure and function, immediately after 120 minutes reperfusion. Pretreatment with QSYQ protected against I/R-induced myocardial structural injury and improved cardiac hemodynamics, as demonstrated by normalized serum creatine kinase and suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, the impaired myocardial mitochondrial structure and function decreased level of ATP (accompanied by reduction of ATP5D and increase in the expression of cytochrome C). Myocardial fiber rupture, interstitial edema, and infiltrated leukocytes were all significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with QSYQ. Conclusion Pretreatment of QSYQ in Sprague Dawley rats improves ventricular function and energy metabolism and reduces oxidative stress via ameliorating multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions during I/R injury. PMID:26109848

  17. Identification of compounds in an anti-fibrosis Chinese medicine (Fufang Biejia Ruangan Pill) and its absorbed components in rat biofluids and liver by UPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qin; Qiu, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Cong-En; Chen, Long-Hu; Feng, Wu-Wen; Ma, Li-Na; Yan, Dan; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-07-15

    Liver fibrosis represents a major public health problem worldwide. To date, antifibrotic treatment of fibrosis still remains an unconquered area for western medicine. Fufang Biejia Ruangan Pill (FFBJ) is the first anti-fibrosis drug approved by the China State Food and Drug Administration, and has been demonstrated to have a good antifibrotic efficacy in China. However, the chemical constituents of FFBJ and the absorption and distribution of it in vivo remain unclear, which restricts its research on bioactive components identification and mechanisms of action. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/QqQ-MS) was applied to identify compounds in FFBJ and its absorbed components in rat serum, liver and urine samples after intragastric administration of FFBJ. As a result, a total of 32 Chinese material medica components including organic acids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and alkaloids, were identified or tentatively characterized, while the distribution of 10 prototype compounds in rat serum, liver and urine were discovered. The identified constituents in FFBJ and the distribution of prototype compounds in rat serum, liver and urine are help for understanding the material bases of its therapeutic effects. PMID:26724854

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Zishen Yutai Pill, Ameliorates Precocious Endometrial Maturation Induced by Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Improves Uterine Receptivity via Upregulation of HOXA10

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qi; Han, Lu; Li, Xiumei; Cai, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is widely used in assisted reproductive technology (ART), but it often leads to precocious maturation of the endometrium such that it impairs embryonic implantation and limits pregnancy rates. Previous studies have shown the traditional Chinese medicine, the Zishen Yutai pill (ZYP), to be effective in treatment of threatened as well as recurrent miscarriages, and it can improve embryonic implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF treatment. In the present study, the ZYP has been found to ameliorate precocious endometrial maturation in a mouse model of different COH. Molecular evaluations, real-time PCR, relative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry have indicated that the ZYP increased the expression of HOXA10, an important marker of uterine receptivity. Elevation of HOXA10 led to further upregulation of its target gene, integrin β3, and downregulation of EMX2, two additional markers of uterine receptivity. In this way, the ZYP may mitigate COH-induced precocious maturation of the endometrium and improve uterine receptivity by upregulating HOXA10. PMID:25792996

  19. Improving Access to Emergency Contraception Pills through Strengthening Service Delivery and Demand Generation: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence in Low and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Angela; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Westley, Elizabeth; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Festin, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emergency contraception pills (ECP) are among the 13 essential commodities in the framework for action established by the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children. Despite having been on the market for nearly 20 years, a number of barriers still limit women's access to ECP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including limited consumer knowledge and poor availability. This paper reports the results of a review to synthesise the current evidence on service delivery strategies to improve access to ECP. Methods A narrative synthesis methodology was used to examine peer reviewed research literature (2003 to 2013) from diverse methodological traditions to provide critical insights into strategies to improve access from a service delivery perspective. The studies were appraised using established scoring systems and the findings of included papers thematically analysed and patterns mapped across all findings using concept mapping. Findings Ten papers were included in the review. Despite limited research of adequate quality, promising strategies to improve access were identified including: advance provision of ECP; task shifting and sharing; intersectoral collaboration for sexual assault; m-health for information provision; and scale up through national family planning programs. Conclusion There are a number of gaps in the research concerning service delivery and ECP in LMIC. These include a lack of knowledge concerning private/commercial sector contributions to improving access, the needs of vulnerable groups of women, approaches to enhancing intersectoral collaboration, evidence for social marketing models and investment cases for ECP. PMID:25285438

  20. Simultaneous determination of nineteen major components in Qi She Pill by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongliang; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiufen; Du, Simiao; Zhou, Yongquan; Lv, Chunming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Qi She Pill (QSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that has been used in treating cervical spondylosis radiculopathy for many years. In this study, a simple and sensitive method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) on a reverse-phase C18 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of the 19 major components in QSP. We found that the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution was 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The correlation coefficients of all calibration curves were greater than 0.99. Recoveries measured at three concentration levels varied from 95.43% to 102.35%. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.45%. After successfully validating our method, we then applied it to the quantification of 19 components in QSP products to show that this method provides a new standard in quality assessment of TCM prescriptions containing multiple bioactive components. PMID:26579408

  1. Rapid identification of anti-inflammatory compounds from Tongmai Yangxin Pills by liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shan; Huang, Yi; Chen, Zhui; Chen, Yaqi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi

    2015-06-01

    We present an integrated approach to rapidly identify anti-inflammatory compounds of TongmaiYangxin Pills (TMYXP), a botanical drug for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze the chemical composition of TMYXP. Eighty compounds of TMYXP including flavonoids, coumarins, iridoid glycosides, saponins, and lignans, were identified unambiguously or tentatively. After the rapid isolation and bioassay, 18 fractions of TMYXP were obtained and their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We performed chemometric analysis to reveal the correlation between the chemical and pharmacological information of the fractions to facilitate the identification of active compounds. To verify the reliability of the proposed method in discovering active components from a complex mixture, activities of seven compounds, which were positively or negatively related to bioactivity according to calculation, were validated in vitro. Results indicated that six active compounds with high R values exerted certain anti-inflammatory effects in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 53.6-204.1 μM. Our findings suggest that the integrated use of identification based on high-resolution mass spectrometry and chemometric methods could rapidly identify active compounds from complex mixture of natural products. PMID:25943824

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pill by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daxin; Lin, Shan; Xu, Wen; Huang, Mingqing; Chu, Jianfeng; Xiao, Fei; Lin, Jiumao; Peng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Shexiang Tongxin dropping pill (STP) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that consists of total saponins of ginseng, synthetic Calculus bovis, bear gall, Venenum bufonis, borneol and Salvia miltiorrhiza. STP has been widely used in China and Southeast Asia for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, a qualitative analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed for identification of the major constituents in STP. Based on the retention time and MS spectra, 41 components were identified by comparison with reference compounds and literature data. Moreover, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, we quantified 13 of the identified constituents (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rk3, cinobufagin, arenobufagin, bufalin, resibufogenin, tanshinone IIA, taurine, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid). These results suggest that this new approach is applicable for the routine analysis and quality control of STP products and provides fundamental data for further in vivo pharmacokinetical studies. PMID:26473821

  3. Amlodipine/Atorvastatin single-pill therapy for blood pressure and lipid goals in African Americans: influence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Flack, John M; Saunders, Elijah; Victor, Ronald; Watson, Karol; Kursun, Attila; Jamieson, Michael J; Shi, Harry

    2009-10-01

    African Americans with diabetes +/- the metabolic syndrome are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This subanalysis of the Clinical Utility of Caduet in Simultaneously Achieving Blood Pressure and Lipid End Points (CAPABLE) trial studied attainment of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals by 8 flexibly titrated doses (5/10-10/80 mg) of amlodipine/atorvastatin single pill in 494 African Americans with hypertension and dyslipidemia, according to the presence of diabetes +/- the metabolic syndrome. In 169 diabetic patients, the metabolic syndrome was associated with poorer BP goal attainment (38.5% vs 48.5% in diabetic patients without the metabolic syndrome). Among diabetic patients (+/- the metabolic syndrome) 61% to 62% reached LDL-C goal. More than 60% of patients with diabetes uncontrolled for LDL-C were maintained on suboptimal atorvastatin therapy (mean final dose: 29.9 mg vs maximum of 80 mg). Reluctance to intensify therapy to attain accepted targets in high-risk individuals suggests a degree of clinical inertia not explained by objective evidence of dose-dependent intolerance. PMID:19817942

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Components of Zhengtian Pills Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Ting; Zhang, Min; Yan, Ping; Liu, Hai-Chan; Liu, Xing-Yun; Zhan, Ruo-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Zhengtian pills (ZTPs) are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which have been commonly used to treat headaches. Volatile components of ZTPs extracted by ethyl acetate with an ultrasonic method were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-two components were identified, accounting for 78.884% of the total components of volatile oil. The three main volatile components including protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). Baseline separation was achieved on an XB-C18 column with linear gradient elution of methanol-0.2% acetic acid aqueous solution. The UHPLC-DAD method provided good linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.9992), precision (RSD < 3%), accuracy (100.68-102.69%), and robustness. The UHPLC-DAD/GC-MS method was successfully utilized to analyze volatile components, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide, in 13 batches of ZTPs, which is suitable for discrimination and quality assessment of ZTPs. PMID:26904360

  5. Global and Targeted Metabolomics Evidence of the Protective Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine Jinkui Shenqi Pill on Adrenal Insufficiency after Acute Glucocorticoid Withdrawal in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linjing; Zhao, Aihua; Chen, Tianlu; Chen, Wenlian; Liu, Jiajian; Wei, Runmin; Su, Jing; Tang, Xuelan; Liu, Keyi; Zhang, Ran; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Qiu, Mingfeng; Jia, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory therapies, but glucocorticoid withdrawal can result in life-threatening risk of adrenal insufficiency. Chinese patented pharmaceutical product Jinkui Shenqi pill (JKSQ) has potent efficacy on clinical adrenal insufficiency resulting from glucocorticoid withdrawal. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We used an animal model to study JKSQ-induced metabolic changes under adrenal insufficiency and healthy conditions. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with hydrocortisone for 7 days with or without 15 days of JKSQ pretreatment. Sera were collected after 72 h hydrocortisone withdrawal and used for global and free fatty acids (FFAs)-targeted metabolomics analyses using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rats without hydrocortisone treatment were used as controls. JKSQ pretreatment normalized the significant changes of 13 serum metabolites in hydrocortisone-withdrawal rats, involving carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. The most prominent effect of JKSQ was on the changes of FFAs and some [product FFA]/[precursor FFA] ratios, which represent estimated desaturase and elongase activities. The opposite metabolic responses of JKSQ in adrenal insufficiency rats and normal rats highlighted the "Bian Zheng Lun Zhi" (treatment based on ZHENG differentiation) guideline of TCM and suggested that altered fatty acid metabolism was associated with adrenal insufficiency after glucocorticoid withdrawal and the protective effects of JKSQ. PMID:27267777

  6. Simultaneous determination of nineteen major components in Qi She Pill by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongliang; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiufen; Du, Simiao; Zhou, Yongquan; Lv, Chunming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Qi She Pill (QSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that has been used in treating cervical spondylosis radiculopathy for many years. In this study, a simple and sensitive method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) on a reverse-phase C18 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of the 19 major components in QSP. We found that the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution was 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The correlation coefficients of all calibration curves were greater than 0.99. Recoveries measured at three concentration levels varied from 95.43% to 102.35%. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.45%. After successfully validating our method, we then applied it to the quantification of 19 components in QSP products to show that this method provides a new standard in quality assessment of TCM prescriptions containing multiple bioactive components. PMID:26579408

  7. Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Gary M.; Hollands, Wendy; Needs, Paul W.; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R.; Davis, Barry D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Kroon, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oranges are rich sources of flavonoids that are bioactive and may protect against age-related diseases. The absorption of orange flavanones may be affected by factors such as processing and subject anthropometric variables, and the bioactivity of the absorbed phytochemicals depends on how they are metabolised during absorption. In a randomised cross-over study, twenty subjects consumed a single portion of orange fruit (150 g) or juice (300 g) that contained the flavanones narirutin and hesperidin, and an additional 109 subjects across a broad age range (18–80 years) consumed the juice. Flavanone metabolites were measured in regularly collected samples of plasma and urine. After consumption of fruit or juice, flavanone conjugates, but not the aglycones, were detected in plasma and urine. The flavanone conjugates were shown to include the 7- and 4′-O-monoglucuronides of naringenin, the 7- and 3′-O-monoglucuronides of hesperetin, two hesperetin diglucuronides and a hesperetin sulfo-glucuronide, but no aglycones or rutinosides. Analysis of the plasma pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion data on a dose-adjusted basis indicated no difference in absorption or excretion of either flavanone between the fruit and juice matrices. In the extended urinary excretion dataset the individual variation was very large (range 0–59 % urinary yield). There was a small but significant (P<0·05) decrease in the excretion of hesperetin (but not naringenin) with increasing age (P<0·05), but the effects of sex, BMI and contraceptive pill use were shown not to be associated with the variation in flavanone excretion. PMID:18710603

  8. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills Promote Angiogenesis of Ischemic Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Regulating MicroRNA-223-3p Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Guo-Hua; Liu, Ning; Zhu, Jing-Wei; Yao, Jing; Yang, Chun; Ma, Pei-Ze; Song, Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research shows that Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ) can promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis. Studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are the key component of gene regulation networks, which play a vital role in angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms involving miRNA by which TCM promotes ischemic cardiac angiogenesis have not been reported. We found that microRNA-223-3p (mir-223-3p) was the core miRNA of angiogenesis of rats ischemic cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) and inhibited angiogenesis by affecting RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signal pathway in previous study. Based on the results, we observed biological characteristics and optimal dosage for QSYQ intervening in rats ischemic CMECs angiogenesis and concluded that QSYQ low-dose group had the strongest ability to promote angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium. Using miRNA chip and real-time PCR techniques in this study, we identified mir-223-3p as the pivotal miRNA in QSYQ that regulated angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. From real-time PCR and western blot analysis, research showed that gene and protein expression of factors located RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signaling pathway, including HIF-1α, VEGF, MAPK, PI3K, and AKT, were significantly upregulated by QSYQ to regulate angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. This study showed that QSYQ promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis by downregulating mir-223-3p expression in rats ischemic CMECs. PMID:27057198

  9. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T. pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9–2.5% p-distance) to French T. lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7–18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata. PMID:26175612

  10. Liuwei Dihuang Pills Enhance the Effect of Western Medicine in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lan; Wang, Qiuhong; Yi, Yongxin; Wang, Shihan; Qiu, Zonglin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (LDP) to Western medicine for treating diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Studies were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Data until November 2015. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall therapeutic efficacy of hyperglycemia and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Results. A total of 1,275 patients from 18 studies were included. The methodological quality of these included trials was generally low. We found that adding LDP can lower patients' FBG (MD: −0.36 [−0.46, −0.25], P < 0.00001), PBG (MD: −1.10 [−1.35, −0.85], P < 0.00001), and HbA1c (MD: −0.14 [−0.49, 0.21], P = 0.43). There were also improvements in lowering patients' BUN (MD: −0.67 [−0.89, −0.45], P < 0.00001), SCr (MD: −0.96 [−1.53, −0.39], P < 0.00001), 24 h UTP (SMD: −1.26 [−2.38, −0.15], P < 0.00001), UAER (MD: −26.18 [−27.51, −24.85], P < 0.00001), and UmAlb (SMD: −1.72 [−2.67, −0.77], P < 0.00001). Conclusion. There is encouraging evidence that adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetic nephropathy, including hyperglycemia and renal functions. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorous high-quality trials are warranted to substantiate or refute the results. PMID:26997962

  11. Bidirectional adherence changes and associated factors in patients switched from free combinations to equivalent single-pill combinations of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2014-05-01

    There are no reported studies assessing the effects of fixed-dose single-pill combinations (SPCs) of antihypertensive drugs on adherence in real-world patients with hypertension switched from free combinations to the corresponding SPCs. In this retrospective cohort study with a 1-year mirror-image design, a total of 896 patients who had been prescribed with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker and a thiazide-type diuretic within the preceding 12 months of the index (switching) date and the corresponding SPC within 12 months after the index date were included by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database from January 2001 to December 2007. Adherence was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR). For patients switched to SPCs, the MPR increased significantly from 42% in the preindex period to 69% in the postindex period (relative difference, 75%; 95% confidence interval, 58%-100%; P<0.001). However, for switched patients with high adherence (MPR ≥0.8) in the preindex period, the MPR unexpectedly decreased in the postindex period (absolute difference, -13%; 95% confidence interval, -17% to -9%; P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, MPR difference was inversely related to the preindex MPR, the number of other antihypertensive drugs, and congestive heart failure. In summary, despite of the dramatic effect of SPCs on improving adherence, this strategy is not effective or even worse in patients adequately adhering to their free-combined antihypertensive regimens. The inverse association between adherence improvement and number of concurrent antihypertensive drugs suggests early use of SPCs to curtail the nonadherence gap. PMID:24446059

  12. Protocol for ACCESS: a qualitative study exploring barriers and facilitators to accessing the emergency contraceptive pill from community pharmacies in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hussainy, Safeera Yasmeen; Ghosh, Ayesha; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Black, Kirsten Isla; Clifford, Rhonda; Mc Namara, Kevin Peter; Ryan, Kath; Jackson, John Keith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rate of unplanned pregnancy in Australia remains high, which has contributed to Australia having one of the highest abortion rates of developed countries with an estimated 1 in 5 women having an abortion. The emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) offers a safe way of preventing unintended pregnancy after unprotected sex has occurred. While the ECP has been available over-the-counter in Australian pharmacies for over a decade, its use has not significantly increased. This paper presents a protocol for a qualitative study that aims to identify the barriers and facilitators to accessing the ECP from community pharmacies in Australia. Methods and analysis Data will be collected through one-on-one interviews that are semistructured and in-depth. Partnerships have been established with 2 pharmacy groups and 2 women's health organisations to aid with the recruitment of women and pharmacists for data collection purposes. Interview questions explore domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework in order to assess the factors aiding and/or hindering access to ECP from community pharmacies. Data collected will be analysed using deductive content analysis. The expected benefits of this study are that it will help develop evidence-based workforce interventions to strengthen the capacity and performance of community pharmacists as key ECP providers. Ethics and dissemination The findings will be disseminated to the research team and study partners, who will brainstorm ideas for interventions that would address barriers and facilitators to access identified from the interviews. Dissemination will also occur through presentations and peer-reviewed publications and the study participants will receive an executive summary of the findings. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Monash Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:26656987

  13. Aliskiren/amlodipine as a single-pill combination in hypertensive patients: subgroup analysis of elderly patients, with metabolic risk factors or high body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Axthelm, Christoph; Sieder, Christian; Meister, Franziska; Pittrow, David; Kaiser, Edelgard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Blood pressure (BP) reduction in hypertensive patients is more difficult to achieve in the elderly or in the presence of comorbidities. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the single-pill combination (SPC) aliskiren/amlodipine in hypertensive elderly patients, patients with high body mass index (BMI), with at least one metabolic risk factor, and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods In an open-label non-randomized study, patients not adequately controlled by previous treatment with the SPC olmesarten 40/amlodipine 10 (phase 1) were switched to the SPC aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10 (phase 2). The present post-hoc analysis investigated BP reduction in phase 2 in the named subgroups. The EudraCT identifier was 2009-016693-33, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01113047. Results Of the 187 patients not adequately controlled in phase 1 and thus treated with the SPC aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10 in phase 2, 69 were of advanced age (≥65 years), 74 or 89 were overweight or obese (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2, respectively), 91 had metabolic risk factors (without DM) and 41 had DM. At the beginning of phase 2, depending on the subgroup, baseline SBP was 168–169 mmHg and DBP 103–104 mmHg. After 4 weeks of treatment with aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10, SBP/DBP was lowered by −5.1/−4.8 mmHg in the total cohort, by −5.5/−5.1 mmHg in elderly patients, by −6.7/−5.5 in overweight and by −4.2/−4.5 mmHg in obese patients, by −6.4/−4.7 mmHg in patients with metabolic risk factors without DM, and by −3.3/−5.0 mmHg in DM patients. Limitations include low sample size, limited treatment duration and the fact that the post-hoc defined groups were not mutually exclusive. Conclusions In this study reflecting clinical practice, the aliskiren/amlodipine combination achieved effective BP reduction in elderly patients or with metabolic comorbidities, including DM that might be more difficult to treat. This consistent BP lowering

  14. Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Ghimire, Mamata; Shibanuma, Akira; Pant, Madhab Raj; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive people’s clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 HIV-positive people in three districts of Nepal. Clinic attendance was assessed retrospectively for the period of 12 months. To assess the factors associated, an interview survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire from July to August, 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with regular clinic attendance. Results Of 423 HIV-positive people, only 32.6% attended the clinics regularly. They were more likely to attend them regularly when they received high family support (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.29, 6.92), participated in support programs (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.82), and had knowledge on the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 5.99). In contrast, they were less likely to attend them regularly when they commuted more than 60 minutes to the clinics (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.93), when they self-rated their health status as being very good (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.44), good (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.46), and fair (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70). Conclusion HIV-positive individuals are more likely to attend the clinics regularly when they receive high family support, know the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, and participate in support programs. To improve clinic attendance, family support should be incorporated with HIV care programs in resource limited settings

  15. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... left on the bedside table. Zolpidem may make cats wobbly and sleepy, but most pets become very ... very common pain killer found in most households. Cats are extremely sensitive to acetaminophen, but dogs can ...

  16. Identification of the constituents and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of HuanglianShangqing pills by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huiling; Liu, Yang; Mai, Xi; Liao, Yijing; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Bin; Xie, Xin; Du, Qiaoli

    2016-06-01

    An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to detect and identify the chemical constituents and metabolites of HuanglianShangqing pill (HLSQ) in vitro and in vivo. A total of 96 compounds were characterized in HLSQ extracts. In vivo, 45 prototype components and 53 metabolites of HLSQ were detected in rat plasma and tentatively identified, three of which are new. The novel metabolic pathways of rhein and hesperetin were revealed. The bioactive compounds of HLSQ undergo phase I metabolic routes of hydrogenation, hydroxylation, hydrolysis, demethylation and phase II metabolic routes of glucuronide, sulfation, acetylation and methylation. Among these, glucuronide conjugation is the main metabolic pathway of the active compounds of HLSQ in rat plasma. PMID:27031575

  17. Simultaneous quantification of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study of Longhu Rendan pills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianming; Ding, Liqing; Jin, Huajia; Shi, Rong; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jiasheng; Li, Yifei; Zhu, Li; Ma, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive, specific, accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid from Longhu Rendan pills in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed with a Hypersil Gold C18 column using a gradient of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid containing 0.2 mm ammonium acetate as mobile phase. The analytes were quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in selected reaction monitoring mode and switching the electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. The calibration curves of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid were linear over the concentration ranges of 5-2000, 5-2000, 0.5-200, 0.5-200, 0.25-100, 0.25-100, 0.025-10 and 0.50-200 ng mL(-1) , respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions and accuracies were <11.6 and 91.9-108.2%, respectively, for all analytes. Matrix effects for all analytes were between 88.2 and 114.2%. Stability testing showed that all analytes were stable in plasma at 24 °C for 3 h, at 4 °C for 24 h, after three freeze-thaw cycles, and at -80 °C for 15 days. The method was successfully applied to an in vivo study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of multiple nonvolatile compounds following intragastric administration of Longhu Rendan pills to rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26613237

  18. Curse of the ghost pills: the role of oral controlled-release formulations in the passage of empty intact shells in faeces. Two case reports and a literature review relevant to psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Talapan-Manikoth, Pravija; Jenkins, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Orally taken tablets in different formulations continue to have a central role in the treatment of various psychiatric and medical conditions. In order to improve compliance, reduce the frequency of taking medications and minimize the peaks and troughs associated with certain immediate-release formulations, pharmaceutical companies have developed a number of novel methods of delivering oral solid dosage medications in the form of controlled-release (CR) formulations. Some CR formulations have been associated with pharmacobezoars and false-positive findings on certain physical investigations. Though CR drugs are commonly used in psychiatry, clinicians appear to have a limited understanding of how they are released for absorption once ingested. Some have insoluble parts that are excreted in faeces as ‘ghost pills’. Due to lack of awareness of this phenomenon to both patients and the physicians, anxiety has ensued in some patients. Some clinicians have been puzzled or have been dismissive when faced with curious patients wanting to know more after they had observed tablet-like looking structures in faeces. We present two cases from our clinical setting and a few drawn from the World Wide Web to highlight the role of CR medications and their association with the ghost pill phenomenon. The mechanisms involved in drug release relevant to psychiatry medications are also briefly reviewed. The ghost pill phenomenon occurs with certain CR medications. This is a normal and expected outcome related to drug-release mechanisms of some of these products. It is inevitable that some patients will see what looks like tablets or capsules in faeces. Raising awareness of this phenomenon among clinicians would facilitate discussions and information sharing at the initial process of medication prescribing. Awareness among patients and carers would also help to allay anxiety. PMID:25083252

  19. QiShenYiQi Pills, a compound in Chinese medicine, protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through a multi-component and multi-target mode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Quan; Pan, Chun-Shui; Yan, Li; Fan, Jing-Yu; He, Ke; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Chen, Qing-Fang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Chuan-She; He, Bing; Lv, Ai-Ping; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the holistic mechanism for the antihypertrophic effect of a compound in Chinese medicine, QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ) and the contributions of its components to the effect in rats with cardiac hypertrophy (CH). After induction of CH by ascending aortic stenosis, rats were treated with QSYQ, each identified active ingredient (astragaloside IV, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid or notoginsenoside R1) from its 3 major herb components or dalbergia odorifera, either alone or combinations, for 1 month. QSYQ markedly attenuated CH, as evidenced by echocardiography, morphology and biochemistry. Proteomic analysis and western blot showed that the majority of differentially expressed proteins in the heart of QSYQ-treated rats were associated with energy metabolism or oxidative stress. Each ingredient alone or their combinations exhibited similar effects as QSYQ but to a lesser extent and differently with astragaloside IV and notoginsenoside R1 being more effective for enhancing energy metabolism, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid more effective for counteracting oxidative stress while dalbergia odorifera having little effect on the variables evaluated. In conclusion, QSYQ exerts a more potent antihypertrophic effect than any of its ingredients or their combinations, due to the interaction of its active components through a multi-component and multi-target mode. PMID:26136154

  20. QiShenYiQi Pills, a compound in Chinese medicine, protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through a multi-component and multi-target mode

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Quan; Pan, Chun-Shui; Yan, Li; Fan, Jing-Yu; He, Ke; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Chen, Qing-Fang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Chuan-She; He, Bing; Lv, Ai-Ping; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the holistic mechanism for the antihypertrophic effect of a compound in Chinese medicine, QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ) and the contributions of its components to the effect in rats with cardiac hypertrophy (CH). After induction of CH by ascending aortic stenosis, rats were treated with QSYQ, each identified active ingredient (astragaloside IV, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid or notoginsenoside R1) from its 3 major herb components or dalbergia odorifera, either alone or combinations, for 1 month. QSYQ markedly attenuated CH, as evidenced by echocardiography, morphology and biochemistry. Proteomic analysis and western blot showed that the majority of differentially expressed proteins in the heart of QSYQ-treated rats were associated with energy metabolism or oxidative stress. Each ingredient alone or their combinations exhibited similar effects as QSYQ but to a lesser extent and differently with astragaloside IV and notoginsenoside R1 being more effective for enhancing energy metabolism, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid more effective for counteracting oxidative stress while dalbergia odorifera having little effect on the variables evaluated. In conclusion, QSYQ exerts a more potent antihypertrophic effect than any of its ingredients or their combinations, due to the interaction of its active components through a multi-component and multi-target mode. PMID:26136154

  1. Estradiol Valerate Pretreatment in Short Protocol GnRH-Agonist Cycles versus Combined Pretreatment with Oral Contraceptive Pills in Long Protocol GnRH-Agonist Cycles: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lukaszuk, Krzysztof; Liss, Joanna; Kunicki, Michal; Kuczynski, Waldemar; Pastuszek, Ewa; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Plociennik, Lukasz; Zielinski, Krzysztof; Zabielska, Judyta

    2015-01-01

    The strategy of in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures relies on the increasing pregnancy rate and decreasing the risk of premature ovulation and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. They are also designed to avoid weekend oocyte retrievals. Combined oral contraceptive (OC) pills are among the medicines used to accomplish these objectives. Alternatively, estradiol can be used instead of OC to obtain similar results. The aim of our study was to compare the differences in pregnancy rates (PRs), implantation rates, and miscarriage rates between a short agonist protocol with estradiol priming and a long protocol with combined OC. Of the 298 women who participated in this study, 134 achieved clinical pregnancies (45.0%). A higher PR (58.4%, n = 80, compared to 40.3%, n = 54) was achieved in the long protocol after OC pretreatment group. The implantation rate was also higher for this group (37.8% versus 28.0%; P = 0.03). The miscarriage rate was 15.0% (n = 12) for the long protocol after OC pretreatment group and 20.4% (n = 11) for the short agonist group (P = 0.81). The short agonist protocol required a 5.7% lower human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) dosage than the long protocol but surprisingly the number of oocytes retrieved was also smaller. PMID:25922838

  2. Estradiol Valerate Pretreatment in Short Protocol GnRH-Agonist Cycles versus Combined Pretreatment with Oral Contraceptive Pills in Long Protocol GnRH-Agonist Cycles: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kunicki, Michal; Kuczynski, Waldemar; Pastuszek, Ewa; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Plociennik, Lukasz; Zielinski, Krzysztof; Zabielska, Judyta

    2015-01-01

    The strategy of in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures relies on the increasing pregnancy rate and decreasing the risk of premature ovulation and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. They are also designed to avoid weekend oocyte retrievals. Combined oral contraceptive (OC) pills are among the medicines used to accomplish these objectives. Alternatively, estradiol can be used instead of OC to obtain similar results. The aim of our study was to compare the differences in pregnancy rates (PRs), implantation rates, and miscarriage rates between a short agonist protocol with estradiol priming and a long protocol with combined OC. Of the 298 women who participated in this study, 134 achieved clinical pregnancies (45.0%). A higher PR (58.4%, n = 80, compared to 40.3%, n = 54) was achieved in the long protocol after OC pretreatment group. The implantation rate was also higher for this group (37.8% versus 28.0%; P = 0.03). The miscarriage rate was 15.0% (n = 12) for the long protocol after OC pretreatment group and 20.4% (n = 11) for the short agonist group (P = 0.81). The short agonist protocol required a 5.7% lower human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) dosage than the long protocol but surprisingly the number of oocytes retrieved was also smaller. PMID:25922838

  3. Comparative Efficacy and Durability of Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy for Preventing Recurrent Depression: Design of a Double-Blinded, Fluoxetine- and Pill-Placebo–Controlled, Randomized Trial with 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thase, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and associated with disability and chronicity. Although cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective short-term treatment for MDD, a significant proportion of responders subsequently suffer relapses or recurrences. Purpose This design prospectively evaluates: 1) a method to discriminate CT-treated responders at lower versus higher risk for relapse; and 2) the subsequent durability of 8-month continuation phase therapies in randomized higher risk responders followed for an additional 24-months. The primary prediction is: after protocol treatments are stopped, higher risk patients randomly assigned to continuation phase CT (C-CT) will have a lower risk of relapse/recurrence than those randomized to fluoxetine (FLX). Methods Outpatients, aged 18 to 70 years, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of CT provided by 15 experienced therapists from two sites. Responders (i.e., no MDD and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ≤ 12) were stratified into higher and lower risk groups based on stability of remission during the last 6 weeks of CT. The lower risk group entered follow-up for 32 months; the higher risk group was randomized to 8 months of continuation phase therapy with either C-CT or clinical management plus either double-blinded FLX or pill placebo. Following the continuation phase, higher risk patients were followed by blinded evaluators for 24 months. Results The trial began in 2000. Enrollment is complete (N=523). The follow-up continues. Conclusions The trial evaluates the preventive effects and durability of acute and continuation phase treatments in the largest known sample of CT responders collected worldwide. PMID:20451668

  4. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  5. Effects of Single Pill-Based Combination Therapy of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin on Within-Visit Blood Pressure Variability and Parameters of Renal and Vascular Function in Hypertensive Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Ohsawa, Masato; Kobayashi, Ryu; Dejima, Toru; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Maeda, Akinobu; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Both strict blood pressure (BP) control and improvements in BP profile such as BP variability are important for suppression of renal deterioration and cardiovascular complication in hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we examined the beneficial effects of the single pill-based combination therapy of amlodipine and atorvastatin on achievement of the target BP and clinic BP profile, as well as markers of vascular and renal damages in twenty hypertensive CKD patients. The combination therapy with amlodipine and atorvastatin for 16 weeks significantly decreased clinic BP, and achievement of target BP control was attained in an average of 45% after the combination therapy in spite of the presence of no achievement at baseline. In addition, the combination therapy significantly decreased the within-visit BP variability. With respect to the effects on renal damage markers, combination therapy with amlodipine and atorvastatin for 16 weeks significantly decreased albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 1034 ± 1480 versus 733 ± 1218 mg/g-Cr, P < 0.05) without decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Concerning parameters of vascular function, the combination therapy significantly improved both brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and central systolic BP (cSBP) (baPWV, 1903 ± 353 versus 1786 ± 382 cm/s, P < 0.05; cSBP, 148 ± 19 versus 129 ± 23 mmHg, P < 0.01). Collectively, these results suggest that the combination therapy with amlodipine and atorvastatin may exert additional beneficial effects on renal and vascular damages as well as BP profile in addition to BP lowering in hypertension with CKD. PMID:24809050

  6. Effects of single pill-based combination therapy of amlodipine and atorvastatin on within-visit blood pressure variability and parameters of renal and vascular function in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Ohsawa, Masato; Kobayashi, Ryu; Dejima, Toru; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Maeda, Akinobu; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Both strict blood pressure (BP) control and improvements in BP profile such as BP variability are important for suppression of renal deterioration and cardiovascular complication in hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we examined the beneficial effects of the single pill-based combination therapy of amlodipine and atorvastatin on achievement of the target BP and clinic BP profile, as well as markers of vascular and renal damages in twenty hypertensive CKD patients. The combination therapy with amlodipine and atorvastatin for 16 weeks significantly decreased clinic BP, and achievement of target BP control was attained in an average of 45% after the combination therapy in spite of the presence of no achievement at baseline. In addition, the combination therapy significantly decreased the within-visit BP variability. With respect to the effects on renal damage markers, combination therapy with amlodipine and atorvastatin for 16 weeks significantly decreased albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 1034 ± 1480 versus 733 ± 1218 mg/g-Cr, P < 0.05) without decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Concerning parameters of vascular function, the combination therapy significantly improved both brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and central systolic BP (cSBP) (baPWV, 1903 ± 353 versus 1786 ± 382 cm/s, P < 0.05; cSBP, 148 ± 19 versus 129 ± 23 mmHg, P < 0.01). Collectively, these results suggest that the combination therapy with amlodipine and atorvastatin may exert additional beneficial effects on renal and vascular damages as well as BP profile in addition to BP lowering in hypertension with CKD. PMID:24809050

  7. Comparison of a 24-day and a 21-day pill regimen for the novel combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate and 17β-estradiol (NOMAC/E2): a double-blind, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Christin-Maitre, S; Serfaty, D; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Ochsenbein, E; Chassard, D; Thomas, J-L

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND Nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol (NOMAC/E(2)) is a new monophasic oral contraceptive combining NOMAC (2.5 mg), a highly selective progesterone-derived progestogen, with E(2) (1.5 mg), which is structurally identical to endogenous estrogen. The objective of this study was to compare the effects on ovarian activity of two different NOMAC/E(2) regimens. METHODS This was a double-blind, randomized study. Healthy, premenopausal women (aged 18-38 years, previous menstrual cycle length 28 ± 7 days) were randomized by computer-generated code to once-daily NOMAC/E(2) for three consecutive 28-day cycles: either 24 days with a 4-day placebo interval (n = 40) or 21 days with a 7-day placebo interval (n = 37) per cycle. Follicular growth (primary outcome measure), plasma hormone profiles and bleeding patterns were assessed. RESULTS There was no evidence of ovulation during treatment with either NOMAC/E(2) regimen. The largest follicle diameter was significantly smaller in the 24-day group than in the 21-day group [mean (SD) mm in cycle 2: 9.0 (3.0) versus 11.3 (5.3) (P = 0.02); in cycle 3: 9.2 (3.0) versus 11.5 (6.0) (P = 0.04)]. Mean FSH plasma levels were significantly lower in the 24-day versus the 21-day group on Day 24 of cycles 1 and 2. Withdrawal bleeding duration was significantly shorter in the 24-day than in the 21-day group [mean (SD) days after cycle 1: 3.5 (1.3) versus 5.0 (2.6) (P = 0.002); after cycle 2: 3.9 (1.6) versus 4.8 (1.7) (P = 0.03)]. CONCLUSIONS The 24-day NOMAC/E(2) regimen was associated with greater inhibition of follicular growth and shorter duration of withdrawal bleeding than the 21-day regimen, suggesting the shorter pill-free interval results in a greater margin of contraceptive efficacy and tolerability, and fewer withdrawal symptoms. PMID:21421664

  8. Management of post-pill amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Molitch, M E; Reichlin, S

    1979-09-01

    Persistent amenorrhea, an uncommon sequela of oral contraceptive (OC) use, would not be a major problem except for the fact that an estimated 50 million women worldwide use OCs. Following OC use, women often experience some delay in resuming normal menses, but according to most studies, fewer than 1% fail to begin menstruating regularly within 6 months. In about 1/2 of this small percentage of women, failure to resume normal menses within 6 months is caused by an identifiable underlying disorder. The remaining 1/2 are considered to have "postpill amenorrhea," the result of a disruption of the normal hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian feeding mechanism, which may be reversible with appropriate treatment. In evaluating patients with postpill amenorrhea, it is important to rule out premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss, and hyperprolactinemia before arriving at a diagnosis of idiopathic postpill amenorrhea. Prior to 6 months, detailed laboratory evaluation is not indicated, but after 6 months of amenorrhea, the history and physical status should again be carefully evaluated. Any history of weight change, galactorrhea, hirsutism, headaches, or "hot flashes" should be noted. On examination, evidence of hirsutism, virilization, expressible galactorrhea, or ovarian enlargement should be sought. The presence of any of these findings warrants laboratory testing. Pregnancy should always be excluded before further testing. If the patient shows no clinical evidence of premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovaries, anorexia nervosa, or hyperprolactinemia, or if laboratory evaluation fails to confirm clinical suspicions, it is appropriate to wait another 6 months before further evaluation. These disorders may be differentiated from idiopathic postpill amenorrhea by measuring serum levels of gonadotropins, estradiol, testosterone, and prolactin and by sella polytomography. It is important to define whether the treatment objective is resumption of a normal menstrual pattern or restoration of fertility, or both, for therapy will differ depending upon the objective. Ovulation can be induced with clomiphene or bromocriptine in 50-75% of women. Rarely, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin may be needed. If fertility is not an issue, cyclic estrogen and progesterone may be useful to maintain adequate estrogen effects but will obviously continue to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:12279395

  9. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  10. Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... but few people are aware of just how big the problem really is. In its candy-coated ... Figure 7: Sources NSDUH: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.htm NSDUH: http://www.samhsa. ...

  11. The Pill is Mightier Than the Sword.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Mahmood, Aafreen; Graves, Alisha A

    2015-08-01

    One determinant of peace is the role of women in society. Some studies suggest that a young age structure, also known as a "youth bulge" can facilitate conflict. Population growth and age structure are factors amenable to change in a human rights context. We propose that policies which favor voluntary family planning and the education of women can ameliorate the global burden of disease associated with conflict and terrorism. PMID:26340389

  12. The Pill is Mightier Than the Sword

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Malcolm; Mahmood, Aafreen; Graves, Alisha A.

    2015-01-01

    One determinant of peace is the role of women in society. Some studies suggest that a young age structure, also known as a "youth bulge" can facilitate conflict. Population growth and age structure are factors amenable to change in a human rights context. We propose that policies which favor voluntary family planning and the education of women can ameliorate the global burden of disease associated with conflict and terrorism. PMID:26340389

  13. Pharmacogenetics of taste: turning bitter pills sweet?

    PubMed

    Nagtegaal, Mariëlle J; Swen, Jesse J; Hanff, Lidwien M; Schimmel, Kirsten Jm; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Poor palatability of oral drug formulations used for young children negatively influences medication intake, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Some children are more sensitive to bitter tastes than others. Bitter tasting status is currently assessed by phenotyping with 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) as a bitter probe. Recent studies showed that interindividual differences in PROP sensitivity can be largely explained by three SNPs in TAS2R38, encoding a bitter taste receptor. Gustin, involved in the development of taste buds, and the sweet receptor genotype potentially explain remaining parts of PROP sensitivity variability. Other TAS2 receptor bitter receptor genes may also play a role in bitter aversions. Dependent on their genotype, children may have different medication formulation preferences. Taste genetics could improve drug acceptance by enabling better-informed choices on adapting oral formulations to children's taste preferences. This paper presents an overview of recent findings concerning bitter taste genetics and discusses these in the context of pediatric drug formulation. PMID:24329195

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis, the contraceptive pill, and androgens.

    PubMed

    James, W H

    1993-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating that low androgen concentrations are a cause of rheumatoid arthritis. This would explain a number of established features of the epidemiology of the disease. These include: (a) the variation of disease activity with pregnancy; (b) the variation of age at onset by sex; (c) the variation by sex with HLA-B15; (d) the association with bone mineral density; and (e) the differing time trends in incidence rates by sex. It is argued, moreover, that if one makes a plausible assumption--namely, that women who choose oral contraceptives have high androgen concentrations at the time they first make this choice--then an explanation becomes available for the confusion about the relation between rheumatoid arthritis and oral contraception. Grounds are adduced for that assumption. If this line of reasoning is substantially correct it also has implications for the relations between rheumatoid arthritis and smoking and consumption of alcohol. PMID:8323402

  15. Payments, promotion, and the purple pill.

    PubMed

    Ridley, David B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding competition in the US drug market requires knowing how sensitive demand is to prices. The relevant prices for insured consumers are copayments. There are many studies of copayment elasticity in the health literature, but they are of limited applicability for studies of competition. Because of a paucity of data, such studies typically control for neither competitor copayment nor advertising. Whereas previous studies examined copayment sensitivity when copayments for branded drugs move in unison, this study examines copayment sensitivity when copayments diverge. This study uses unique panel data of insurance copayments and utilization for 77 insurance groups, as well as data on advertising. The results indicate that demand can be much more sensitive to copayment than previously recognized. Manufacturers selling drugs with higher copayments than branded competitors can lose substantial market share. Manufacturers can offset the loss of demand by increasing advertising to physicians, but it is costly. PMID:25491652

  16. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal

    PubMed Central

    GIZZO, SALVATORE; ANDRISANI, ALESSANDRA; NOVENTA, MARCO; GANGEMI, MICHELE; NARDELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; AMBROSINI, GUIDO

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by ‘low-gonadotropin-responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline

  17. Take the Red Pill: A New Matrix of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabazon, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Using "The Matrix" film series as an inspiration, aspiration and model, this article integrates horizontal and vertical models of literacy. My goal is to create a new matrix for media literacy, aligning the best of analogue depth models for meaning making with the rapid scrolling, clicking and moving through the read-write web. To…

  18. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system.

    PubMed

    Apathy, I; Deme, S; Feher, I; Akatov, Y A; Reitz, G; Arkhanguelski, V V

    2002-10-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 microGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised. PMID:12440428

  19. The New Pharmacology: More Than Pills and Pantyhose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Florence

    1977-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy is becoming more popular in the professional schools as pharmacists are adapting their roles to hospitals and clinics. Implications of the new programs for pharmacy certification procedures are discussed. (LBH)

  20. Humility pills: building an ethics of cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The use of cognition-enhancing drugs (CEDs) appears to be increasingly common in both academic and workplace settings. But many universities and businesses have not yet engaged with the ethical challenges raised by CED use. This paper considers criticisms of CED use with a particular focus on the Accomplishment Argument: an influential set of claims holding that enhanced work is less dignified, valuable, or authentic, and that cognitive enhancement damages our characters. While the Accomplishment Argument assumes a view of authorship based on individual credit-taking, an impersonal or collaborative view is just as possible. This paper considers the benefits of this view-including humility, a value often claimed by critics of enhancement-and argues that such a view is consistent with open CED use. It proposes an ethics of cognitive enhancement based on toleration, transparency, and humility, and it discusses how institutions and individuals can build a culture of open cognitive enhancement. PMID:24847120

  1. A smart pill for drug delivery with sensing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, R; Accoto, D; Santonico, M; Pennazza, G; Guglielmelli, E

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a novel system for local drug delivery is described. The actuation principle of the micropump used for drug delivery relies on the electrolysis of a water-based solution, which is separated from a drug reservoir by an elastic membrane. The electrolytically produced gases pressurize the electrolytic solution reservoir, causing the deflection of the elastic membrane. Such deflection, in turn, forces the drug out of its reservoir through a nozzle. The proposed system is integrated in a swallowable capsule, equipped with an impedance sensor useful to acquire information on the physiological conditions of the tissue. Such information can be used to control pump activation. PMID:26736521

  2. Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV Reaching people who could benefit from PrEP Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... MMWR Article 1 MMWR Article 2 Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do ...

  4. Sleeping Pills May Spell Trouble for Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trouble for Older Drivers Study found risk of crashes more than doubled for those over 80 who ... may have a higher risk of motor vehicle crashes, a new study suggests. Researchers evaluated the five- ...

  5. Sleeping Pills for Insomnia: Which Ones Work Best?

    MedlinePlus

    ... state settlement of consumer-fraud claims regarding the marketing of the prescription drug Neurontin (gabapentin). ... Build & Buy Car Buying Service Save thousands off MSRP with upfront dealer pricing information and a transparent car buying experience. See your ...

  6. Some Professors Pop Pills for an Intellectual Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Professors know that some of their students pop Ritalin and other stimulants to give themselves a mental edge, but an informal survey suggests that some faculty members are also taking drugs for the express purpose of helping their careers. In an online survey of 1,400 readers published this month, the journal "Nature" found that 20 percent had…

  7. Electronic Health Record Use a Bitter Pill for Many Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Meigs, Stephen L.; Solomon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) adoption among office-based physician practices in the United States has increased significantly in the past decade. However, the challenges of using EHRs have resulted in growing dissatisfaction with the systems among many of these physicians. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to increase understanding of physician perceptions regarding the value of using EHR technology. Important findings included the belief among physicians that EHR systems need to be more user-friendly and adaptable to individual clinic workflow preferences, physician beliefs that lack of interoperability among EHRs is a major barrier to meaningful use of the systems, and physician beliefs that EHR use does not improve the quality of care provided to patients. These findings suggest that although government initiatives to encourage EHR adoption among office-based physician practices have produced positive results, additional support may be required in the future to maintain this momentum. PMID:26903782

  8. Electronic Health Record Use a Bitter Pill for Many Physicians.

    PubMed

    Meigs, Stephen L; Solomon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) adoption among office-based physician practices in the United States has increased significantly in the past decade. However, the challenges of using EHRs have resulted in growing dissatisfaction with the systems among many of these physicians. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to increase understanding of physician perceptions regarding the value of using EHR technology. Important findings included the belief among physicians that EHR systems need to be more user-friendly and adaptable to individual clinic workflow preferences, physician beliefs that lack of interoperability among EHRs is a major barrier to meaningful use of the systems, and physician beliefs that EHR use does not improve the quality of care provided to patients. These findings suggest that although government initiatives to encourage EHR adoption among office-based physician practices have produced positive results, additional support may be required in the future to maintain this momentum. PMID:26903782

  9. Resveratrol – pills to replace a healthy diet?

    PubMed Central

    Chachay, Veronique S; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Hickman, Ingrid J; Ferguson, Maree; Prins, Johannes B; Martin, Jennifer H

    2011-01-01

    Nutrapharmacology, or the use of bioactive food compounds at pharmacological doses is emerging as a therapeutic approach to target the complex metabolic dysregulations in ageing and obesity-related chronic disease. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in the skin of grapes, and other edible plants and related food products, has received extensive attention through the link with the French paradox, and later with its chemopreventive activity demonstrated in vitro and in animal cancer models. A plethora of laboratory investigations has provided evidence for the multi-faceted properties of resveratrol and suggests that resveratrol may target ageing and obesity-related chronic disease by regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. A number of obstacles stand in the path to clinical usage however, not least the lack of clinical evidence to date, and the myriad of doses and formulations available. Further, data on the effects of resveratrol consumption in a capsule vs. food form is conflicting, and there are uncertain effects of long term dosing. The review will summarize the human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic published data, and the topics for research if resveratrol is to become a multi-target therapeutic agent addressing chronic disease. PMID:21410504

  10. Exercise and "the pill": putting a rumor to rest.

    PubMed

    Schelkun, P H

    1991-03-01

    Every once in a while, female athletes hear the rumor that oral contraceptives (OCs) keep them from performing their best. Yet, studies that have tried to evaluate the effects of OCs on physically active women have not been conclusive. This rumor probably started with the initial, higher-dose formulations instead of with the current biphasic or triphasic OCs. Side effects of the higher-dose OCs included weight gain, nausea, fatigue, headaches, and increased risks of hypertension, thromboembolism, and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Current OCs minimize these side effects and the risk of complications. In fact, the aerobic exercise female athletes undergo most likely neutralizes the negative effects of OCs on coagulation and lipid metabolism. Further, OCs may even improve athletic performance because they can decrease bleeding, the risk of iron deficiency, and frequency of cramps. Moreover, athletes can use OCs to orchestrate their menstrual cycles around competitive meets. Some studies with small sample sizes show that athletes on OCs experience a slight reduction in functional aerobic capacity and endurance capability. A Swedish study of female soccer players reported that OC users suffer fewer traumatic injuries than nonusers. It is difficult to attribute this to OCs, because there is considerable psychological control over sports performance. A sports physician in Hawaii is aware of rumors that OCs induce sluggishness or fatigue during certain days of the month, but he does not know a female athlete who believes this. The head trainer of the US Olympic Committee says that many female Olympic athletes use OCs. Strenuous exercise, considerable weight loss, and possibly other stress factors induce athletic amenorrhea, especially in adolescent females. In many cases, OCs can treat it. They are especially needed to minimize the risk of reduced bone density and musculoskeletal injury. PMID:12286895

  11. Sleep complaints: Whenever possible, avoid the use of sleeping pills.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    (1) Most sleep complaints involve difficulties in getting to sleep or staying asleep, or not feeling refreshed on awakening. Misconceptions and worrying over the lack of sleep and its consequences can contribute to reinforcing these disorders; (2) How can patients who complain of poor-quality sleep be helped, without resorting to treatments that can have adverse effects? To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature based on the standard Prescrire procedure; (3) One effective approach is to explain the basic physiology of sleep, to discuss misconceptions, and to adopt a strategy of "stimulus control". This method has a similar efficacy to prescribing a benzodiazepine. and the effect is longer lasting; (4) Moderate, regular physical exercise, especially in the morning, seems to help some patients, but the evidence is weak; (5) Some clinical trials of phytotherapy have shown a positive risk-benefit balance of weak aqueous or hydroalcoholic valerian extracts. Efficacy is limited, however; (6) A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials showed that benzodiazepines and related drugs increase the duration of sleep and help patients to fall asleep sooner. However, none of these trials provides comparative data spanning periods of more than two weeks. Efficacy is uncertain in the longer term, as patients quickly develop a tolerance to the hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines; (7) The adverse effects of benzodiazepines include frequent memory disorders, daytime drowsiness, falls, fractures and road accidents, and a withdrawal syndrome after treatment cessation. Related drugs such as zolpidem and zopiclone provoke similar adverse effects; (8) Sedative antihistamines have not been as well-evaluated as benzodiazepines in this setting. Small comparative trials of doxylamine and diphenhydramine showed no major difference in efficacy versus benzodiazepines and related drugs. The main adverse effects of sedative antihistamines are daytime drowsiness and altered vigilance, and atropinic effects; (9) Case-control studies showed a statistical link between benzodiazepine use in early pregnancy and birth defects such as cleft lip. In contrast, data on the use of doxylamine during pregnancy are reassuring; (10) Other sedative psychotropics have not been adequately tested in this setting or have been shown to have a negative risk-benefit balance; (11) In practice, patients who complain of poor-quality sleep should be given appropriate information on the mechanisms of normal sleep and related misconceptions, on the best methods for getting to sleep, and on the dangers of sedative psychotropics (dependence, withdrawal syndrome). When prescribing or dispensing a benzodiazepine to a woman of child-bearing age, the risk of birth defects, although not clearly demonstrated, must be mentioned. PMID:19536941

  12. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause heavy bleeding and menstrual pain, such as fibroids and endometriosis . • Used continuously, they can reduce the ... Estrogen: A female hormone produced in the ovaries. Fibroids: Benign growths that form in the muscle of ...

  13. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders —Possible decrease in bleeding associated with uterine fibroids What are possible risks of the injection? Bone ... Estrogen: A female hormone produced in the ovaries. Fibroids: Benign growths that form in the muscle of ...

  14. Pills for the Poor: John Wesley's Primitive Physick

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Samuel J.

    1978-01-01

    While John Wesley's Primitive Physick (1747) cannot be termed a classic of British medical literature, it must certainly be identified as one of the most popular volumes published in England during the eighteenth century. Although the work came under attack from contemporary surgeons, physicians, and apothecaries, who maintained that its remedies were founded upon ignorance, Wesley probably knew as much as most members of the medical profession; in fact, on no less than twenty instances throughout the volume, he paraphrases or cites directly from prominent physicians and theorists—such figures as Sydenham, Boerhaave, Cheyne, Mead, and Huxham. However, despite its obvious emphasis upon practical remedies, the underlying focus of Primitive Physick is upon the soul of man. Wesley had consulted some sources, common sense, and his own experience, tempering those with the general principle of “doing good to all men,” particularly “those who desire to live according to the gospel....” Thus, the Methodist patriarch's own formula for life had as much to do with the spread of Primitive Physick throughout eighteenth-century Britain and America as did all of the remedies and suggestions imprinted upon its pages. PMID:354225

  15. Osteoarthritis: No Pills Yet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... colleagues are studying stem cells in specially bred mice to determine whether there is a correlation between ... genes, for cartilage repair and osteoarthritis in these mice, and target these genes in the development of ...

  16. Pulmonary endarterectomy: the lancet first, tears for pills.

    PubMed

    Morsolini, M; Boffini, M; Paciocco, G; Corsico, A G; Solidoro, P

    2014-11-14

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease due to the incomplete resolution of pulmonary emboli, leading to right heart failure, with a poor survival. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the operation of choice for CTEPH. As there are no well-defined criteria to discriminate surgically accessible from inaccessible obstructive lesions, the operability assessment relies on the surgeon's experience. The recommended algorithms to perform a correct diagnosis of CTEPH still suggest the lung ventilation/perfusion scan, despite advances in computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging. Selective pulmonary angiography is the gold standard to assess operability in CTEPH. Medical therapy should not be considered an alternative to PEA, as it should be reserved to patients with either peripheral disease, deemed inoperable by an experienced PEA surgeon, or persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension after PEA. Lung transplantation, when indicated, still represents a viable option for patients with either inoperable CTEPH or CTEPH with concomitant severe parenchymal lung disease that contraindicates PEA. The outcome of operable CTEPH is still best predicted after surgery. Remarkably, the recovery of exercise capacity is not as immediate as hemodynamic improvement, underlining the importance of early identification of surgical candidates before physical deconditioning. PMID:25396687

  17. Viagra: the little blue pill with big repercussions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Zoë L; Robleda-Gomez, Sofia; Pachana, Nancy A

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects millions of men, and their partners, worldwide (Fisher, Meryn, et al. 2005). Viagra, widely used to treat ED, impacts on both individuals and interpersonal relationships yet social and psychological aspects of treatment are absent from the majority of research on the drug. The advent of Viagra has seen diminishing sexual capacities once linked with normal ageing now viewed as dysfunctional, with possible alternative psychological factors largely ignored. Research reveals a lack of discussion relating to the key users of Viagra (older men), with partners largely absent from the consultation process. We identify gaps in the extant literature on Viagra, including the social, psychological and emotional impact on sexual relationships and the experiences of older men and women. PMID:21767227

  18. The Red Pill: Social Studies, Media Texts, and Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Trenia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of media texts in contemporary high school social studies classrooms. Much of the current research regarding media education in social studies classes has focused on history classes and has centered on small idealized samples of both teachers and students. This study, based on the observations conducted in eight…

  19. Adolescents at risk: pain pills to heroin: part I.

    PubMed

    Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

    2014-12-01

    Prescription pain medication has proliferated in the United States in the past 10 years, and opioid agents are the second most commonly abused substance in the United States. The opioid class comprises various prescription medications, including hydrocodone, as well as illicit substances, such as opium and heroin. The current article offers an example of one adolescent's history that began as weekend use of prescription opioid agents but expanded to daily use and physical dependence. Currently, a trend exists in which adolescents and young adults are moving from prescription opioid medication to heroin use due to increasing restrictions on prescription opioid agents. Nursing implications and web-based resources for teaching are also presented. PMID:25453507

  20. Astronomical Pills: One-shot questions about the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallotti, F.; Romaniello, S.; Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In the last two years, the Public Outreach & Education office (POE) of the INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Milano, Italy) has carried on an extensive survey (over 1300 tests) on the instinctive ideas that junior and secondary school students (aged 13-19) use when facing astronomical concepts. Students were asked to answer nine closed-answer questions and an open-answer one. They were only allowed a few seconds to make their choices. Our goal was to take a first step into the exploration of the naive view of the Universe developed by students in the different age ranges. In particular we explored the evolution (if any) of some misconceptions with respect to age and other educational factors. In this talk we present a critical review of our work, highlighting the following points: "lessons learned", "what works and what doesn't" and "what can be learned" from our personal experience.

  1. Resveratrol--pills to replace a healthy diet?

    PubMed

    Chachay, Veronique S; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Hickman, Ingrid J; Ferguson, Maree; Prins, Johannes B; Martin, Jennifer H

    2011-07-01

    Nutrapharmacology, or the use of bioactive food compounds at pharmacological doses is emerging as a therapeutic approach to target the complex metabolic dysregulations in ageing and obesity-related chronic disease. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in the skin of grapes, and other edible plants and related food products, has received extensive attention through the link with the French paradox, and later with its chemopreventive activity demonstrated in vitro and in animal cancer models. A plethora of laboratory investigations has provided evidence for the multi-faceted properties of resveratrol and suggests that resveratrol may target ageing and obesity-related chronic disease by regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. A number of obstacles stand in the path to clinical usage however, not least the lack of clinical evidence to date, and the myriad of doses and formulations available. Further, data on the effects of resveratrol consumption in a capsule vs. food form is conflicting, and there are uncertain effects of long term dosing. The review will summarize the human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic published data, and the topics for research if resveratrol is to become a multi-target therapeutic agent addressing chronic disease. PMID:21410504

  2. Sacral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus infection includes the following oral antiviral medications: Acyclovir pills Valacyclovir pills Famciclovir pills These medications are ... virus infection includes the same oral antiviral medications: Acyclovir pills Valacyclovir pills Famciclovir pills People who experience ...

  3. 'A pill for every ill': explaining the expansion in medicine use.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the major factors underpinning the expansion in medicine use over recent decades, using England as an example. It begins by constructing a 'progressive' model of the expansion and considers its limitations; it then uses a framework of countervailing powers to examine the contribution of key actors in the field. It examines the commercial orientation of the pharmaceutical industry and the strategies companies deploy to generate demand for their products. It explores the part played by doctors as researchers and gatekeepers to medicines, considering how features of medical knowledge and practice contribute to, rather than curtail, the expansion. It considers the role of the public as consumers of medicines, and the role of governments and insurance companies in both facilitating and controlling medicine use. PMID:20096496

  4. Designing a Flashcard with Knowledge Pills for Learning to Solve Chemistry Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the…

  5. [The "pill" and antibiotics: examples of drug interactions of metabolic origin].

    PubMed

    Imbs, J L; Welsch, M

    1982-01-01

    The action and effectiveness of most estroprogestational contraceptive agents can be impaired by interference with administration of certain antibiotics which can modify the hepatic estrogen metabolism. Such antibiotics are: 1) rifampicin, which can inactivate the action of ethinyl estradiol; spotting can be present; 2) ampicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxypyridazine, and penicillin; these agents modify the intestinal bacterial flora, thus reducing the effectiveness of contraception; and 3) troleandomycin, which increases hepatic risk. PMID:12311532

  6. The bitter pill: clinical drugs that activate the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14.

    PubMed

    Levit, Anat; Nowak, Stefanie; Peters, Maximilian; Wiener, Ayana; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2014-03-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) mediate aversive response to toxic food, which is often bitter. These G-protein-coupled receptors are also expressed in extraoral tissues, and emerge as novel targets for therapeutic indications such as asthma and infection. Our goal was to identify ligands of the broadly tuned TAS2R14 among clinical drugs. Molecular properties of known human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14 agonists were incorporated into pharmacophore- and shape-based models and used to computationally predict additional ligands. Predictions were tested by calcium imaging of TAS2R14-transfected HEK293 cells. In vitro testing of the virtual screening predictions resulted in 30-80% success rates, and 15 clinical drugs were found to activate the TAS2R14. hERG potassium channel, which is predominantly expressed in the heart, emerged as a common off-target of bitter drugs. Despite immense chemical diversity of known TAS2R14 ligands, novel ligands and previously unknown polypharmacology of drugs were unraveled by in vitro screening of computational predictions. This enables rational repurposing of traditional and standard drugs for bitter taste signaling modulation for therapeutic indications. PMID:24285091

  7. The pill not taken: revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; Lounsbery, Monica A F

    2014-09-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to promote and provide physical activity. They have strongly recommended PE because: (a) It is part of the formalized school curriculum and an essential access point to provide and promote physical activity for nearly all children, and (b) it is the only venue where the least active children experience physical activity at higher intensities. Within the current marginalized status of PE, public health is an ally. Hence, we took a broad public health position, indicated that teacher effectiveness is tied closely to PE program effectiveness, identified physical activity and its assessment as important parts of PE, offered a vision of teacher effectiveness that goes beyond the PE lesson to include components of the comprehensive school physical activity model, and emphasized the need for the collection of data to support PE and physical activity programs. We have read the written reviews and listened to dialogue about our article. In this follow-up article, we address the major comments using 4 themes: prioritizing public health over other PE emphases, PE having a muddled mission, concerns about physical activity, and extending the roles and skills of physical educators. PMID:25141081

  8. Beware the yellow slimming pill: fatal 2,4-dinitrophenol overdose.

    PubMed

    Holborow, Alexander; Purnell, Richard M; Wong, Jenny Frederina

    2016-01-01

    An industrial chemical, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), has found use as a weight loss drug. It is extremely toxic in overdose and has a narrow therapeutic window with significant interindividual variability in metabolism. The rise in internet-based sales and distribution of this drug has seen an increased incidence of both accidental and intentional overdose presenting to emergency departments across the UK. No antidote currently exists and overdose is often fatal despite management based on current recommendations. We report a case of intentional overdose of DNP in a young man and discuss the current treatment guidelines. The case highlights the need for an increased awareness among frontline medical staff of the effects of DNP poisoning and questions the need for a more aggressive approach in the management of acute toxicity. PMID:27045052

  9. Connecting pills and people: an ethnography of the pharmaceutical nexus in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Jens

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the impact of intensive competition within the pharmaceutical industry and among private providers on health care in an Indian city. In-depth interviewing and clinical observation were used over a period of 18 months. Private practitioners and chemists who provided regular services to inhabitants of a poor neighborhood in central Bhubaneswar were included. Fierce competition in private health in Odisha, India, reduced quality of care for the poor. The pharmaceutical industry exploited weak links in the health system to push drugs aggressively, including through illegal channels. The private health market is organized in small "network molecules" that maximize profit at the cost of health. The large private share of health care in India and stiff competition are detrimental for primary care in urban India. Free government services are urgently needed and a planned health insurance scheme should be linked to quality control measures. PMID:22905436

  10. [The end of an era. Fourteen radio sketches for the Pink Pills].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Those sketches, restaured by the French "Institut national de l'audiovisuel", are transcribed and analyzed for the first time. They was probably broadcasted during the summer of 1939 by the private station Radio Gard Nîmes. PMID:26827549

  11. The nuts and bolts of pills and portions: the functions of a drug safety working group.

    PubMed

    Nath, Noleen S; Jones, Ellen H; Stride, Peter; Premaratne, Manuja; Thaker, Darshit; Lim, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    Hospitalised patients commonly experience adverse drug events (ADEs) and medication errors. Runciman reported that ADEs in hospitals account for 20% of reported adverse events and contribute to 27% of deaths where death followed an adverse event. Hughes recommends multidisciplinary hospital drug committees to assess performance and raise standards. The new Code of Conduct of the Medical Board of Australia recommends participation in systems for surveillance and monitoring of adverse events, and to improve patient safety. We describe the functions and role of a Drug Safety Working Group (DSWG) in a suburban hospital, which aims to audit and promote a culture of prescribing and medication administration that is prudent and cautious to minimise the risk of harm to patients. We believe that regular prescription monitoring and feedback to Resident Medical Officers (RMOs) improves medication management in our hospital. PMID:22126939

  12. Swallowing a bitter pill-oral arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Torka, Pallawi; Al Ustwani, Omar; Wetzler, Meir; Wang, Eunice S; Griffiths, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Parenteral arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been firmly established as a standard therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Despite widespread use of oral arsenicals in medicine historically, they had disappeared from modern pharmacopeia until oral ATO was redeveloped in Hong Kong in 2000. Since then, over 200 patients with leukemia (predominantly APL) have been treated with oral ATO in Hong Kong and China. Oral arsenic trioxide and other formulations of arsenic appear to have a clinical efficacy comparable to that of IV formulations. These drugs given orally also appear to have a slightly better safety profile, lower operational costs and improved convenience for patients. The clinical experience with oral ATO has previously been reported piecemeal as case series, pilot studies or subgroup analyses rather than in a comprehensive cohort. In this report we attempt to synthesize the published English language literature on oral arsenicals and present the argument for further development of these compounds. Systematic study of this drug with well-designed randomized multi-center clinical trials is needed to accelerate its development and incorporation into clinical practice. PMID:26709030

  13. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among “shantytown” youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an “anti-biologizing” explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven “biopsychiatrization” so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to “resist” pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  14. Wake potential in a semi-elliptic pill-box cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. S.; Chen, K. W.

    1989-10-01

    In this article we compared the wake potential in a cavity of semi-elliptic cross section and elliptic cross section. The semi-elliptic cavity is considered to have an advantage that we can experimentally simulate an elliptic cavity with one beam line. It is found that we can produce considerably strong accelerating fields inside this cavity. We calculate the resonant modes of this cavity using previous analytical mode analysis1. Also the wake field inside this cavity is derived analytically and numerical results are presented to determine the usefulness of this cavity.

  15. Free-electron lasing in the wake field of an elliptical pill-box cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.

    1992-04-01

    It is shown using the photon concept that free-electron lasing (or net stimulated bremsstrahlung) is unrelated to the electron phase with respect to the laser wave, while the net acceleration (or net two-photon absorption) in an RF acceleration cavity depends on the electron phase with respect to the RF wave. The gain formula for the free-electron laser using a magnetic wiggler (MFEL) derived using the recently developed quantum-augmented classical theory in which the electron phase is ignored is in excellent agreement with that obtained quantum-mechanically. It is found by means of this theory that if an electric wiggler is added to a MFEL, the synchronization between the transverse velocity and the laser wave, which is required for coherence of the laser light, is not affected, while the laser gain is enhanced owing to the increase in the amplitude of the energy modulation by the electric wiggler. As a configuration of this turbo-MFEL, a two-beam elliptical wake-field cavity is proposed. An electron beam injected in the antiparallel direction along the lasing-beam path in this cavity lases through transverse wiggling by the transverse wake field and energy modulation by the longitudinal wake produced by relativistic drivingbeam bunches. This laser (WFEL) becomes of greater advantage compared with the MFEL as the laser wavelength is made shorter. It is also shown that the amplification of the WFEL is much greater than that of the present MFEL if we can produce a wake field whose longitudinal component has field strength greater than 1 MV m-1.

  16. Finding Ponce de Leon’s Pill: Challenges in Screening for Anti-Aging Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Surinder; Lombard, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the progressive accumulation of degenerative changes, culminating in impaired function and increased probability of death. It is the major risk factor for many human pathologies – including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – and consequently exerts an enormous social and economic toll. The major goal of aging research is to develop interventions that can delay the onset of multiple age-related diseases and prolong healthy lifespan (healthspan). The observation that enhanced longevity and health can be achieved in model organisms by dietary restriction or simple genetic manipulations has prompted the hunt for chemical compounds that can increase lifespan. Most of the pathways that modulate the rate of aging in mammals have homologs in yeast, flies, and worms, suggesting that initial screening to identify such pharmacological interventions may be possible using invertebrate models. In recent years, several compounds have been identified that can extend lifespan in invertebrates, and even in rodents. Here, we summarize the strategies employed, and the progress made, in identifying compounds capable of extending lifespan in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mice and discuss the formidable challenges in translating this work to human therapies. PMID:27081480

  17. Novel Formulation of Levodopa May Ease Parkinson's Symptoms with Fewer Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... as optimized doses of levodopa. Levodopa remains the gold-standard drug used to treat the motor symptoms ... Does It Mean? Levodopa treatment is still the gold-standard treatment for PD. However, over time, people ...

  18. Sugaring the Pill: Assessing Rhetorical Strategies Designed to Minimize Defensive Reactions to Group Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsey, Matthew J.; Robson, Erin; Smith, Joanne; Esposo, Sarah; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2008-01-01

    People are considerably more defensive in the face of group criticism when the criticism comes from an out-group rather than an in-group member (the intergroup sensitivity effect). We tested three strategies that out-group critics can use to reduce this heightened defensiveness. In all studies, Australians received criticism of their country…

  19. Contraceptive pills and thrombosis: effects of the French crisis on prescriptions and consequences for medicine agencies.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, J; Thomassin, C; Zureik, M

    2014-09-01

    The higher risk of venous thromboembolism with 3rd and 4th- generations combined oral contraceptives compared to 2nd generation triggered a media crisis in France. Exposure to 3rd or 4th-generation combined oral contraceptives led to an annual excess of around 100 premature deaths in Europe. In the absence of any demonstrated additional benefit of these combined oral contraceptives, measures were taken to decrease exposure of women to this illegitimate excess of risk. As a consequence, this crisis saw a 45% decrease in the prescription of 3rd and 4th-generations combined oral contraceptives, without adverse consequences. PMID:25041638

  20. Windmills and pill mills: can PDMPs tilt the prescription drug epidemic?

    PubMed

    Gugelmann, Hallam; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis

    2012-12-01

    Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are state-based registries of prescriptions for specific controlled substances. This overview will describe the history and funding of these databases, address those characteristics thought to be of greatest utility for PDMPs and review current literature regarding PDMP effectiveness and their potential limitations. Although more extensive research on PDMP outcomes is needed, these databases are an essential component in ongoing efforts to establish safe and compassionate prescription opioid stewardship. PMID:23180357

  1. Systems, not pills: The options market for antibiotics seeks to rejuvenate the antibiotic pipeline.

    PubMed

    Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing recognition of the increasing growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria and a relative decline in the production of novel antibacterial therapies. The combination of these two forces poses a potentially grave threat to global health, in both developed and developing countries. Current market forces do not provide appropriate incentives to stimulate new antibiotic development, thus we propose a new incentive mechanism: the Options Market for Antibiotics. This mechanism, modelled on the principle of financial call options, allows payers to buy the right, in early stages of development, to purchase antibiotics at a discounted price if and when they ever make it to market approval. This paper demonstrates the effect of such a model on the expected Net Present Value of a typical antibacterial project. As part of an integrated strategy to confront the impending antibiotic crisis, the Options Market for Antibiotics may effectively stimulate corporate and public investment into antibiotic research and development. PMID:26808335

  2. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  3. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity. PMID:12506982

  4. [Past, present and future of green tea: from pleasant beverage to drug in pills?].

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Lippi, Donatella; Conti, Andrea A

    2007-06-01

    During the 17th century, new drinks entered the European market: wine and beer, which were largely widespread among the different European countries, were joined by coffee and tea; their consumption at was first limited to the higher classes, but they soon became popular at all levels of society. Even if their therapeutic effects were strongly stressed from different points of view, at first they encountered a certain resistance. Tea, in particular, represented a sort of compromise between a pleasant habit, bound to economic and social reasons, and a therapeutic scope. Green tea is unfermented tea. In Japan the most frequently used method of production is steaming, that deactivates the oxidase in tea leaves, determining the retention of a brilliant green colour. Its use has been proposed in a number of clinical conditions and pathologies, even if its putative therapeutic properties must be further assessed in rigorously designed and conducted clinical trials. Aim of this paper is to call needed attention to the potential role of green tea extracts in prevention and in therapy in relation to the scientific methodology of clinical research. PMID:17580528

  5. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  6. Aggregation: An anti-aggravation pill for new-millennium consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, L.K.; Stevenson, D.

    1999-07-01

    A diverse array of providers is positioning aggregation as a no-headaches energy solution for residential and small commercial customers. Tied into millennial lifestyle concerns, aggregation can be an effective means of reaching customers for whom energy is not a major priority. From the seller's perspective, the opportunity to obtain meaningful market share in a single deal is appealing, especially at the threshold of a new market. These benefits translate into more favorable pricing and terms than otherwise available, including the availability of innovative energy efficiency and management services. Additionally, if the group maintains its presence and reputation in the market, members may find significant additional value when it is time to renew supply arrangements. Finally, a successful electric aggregation group can, over time, add new services to its product line, such as fuel oil, natural gas, telephone, cable, or Internet services, to increase benefits to members.

  7. The Pill Not Taken: Revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to…

  8. Exercise is medicine for patients with major depressive disorders: but only if the "pill" is taken!

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorders (MDDs) are a widespread and burdensome mental illness associated with a high comorbidity with other conditions and a significantly reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Therefore, targeted actions are needed to improve physical health in people with MDDs, in addition to ongoing efforts to enhance psychological well-being. Meanwhile, the positive effects of exercise training on the treatment of MDDs are well documented, while compelling evidence exists that exercise interventions can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in clinically meaningful ways. On the flipside, the long-term effects of exercise therapy are still not well documented, and recent studies suggest that initial improvements in MDDs dissipate if regular exercise participation is discontinued after the end of interventions. A recent survey among Swiss psychiatric hospitals further shows that all institutions provide some form of physical activity and exercise program. However, only a limited number of patients participate in these programs, mainly because participation is voluntary and no particular efforts are undertaken to engage patients with the lowest physical activity levels. We argue that more systematic efforts are needed to fully exploit the potential of physical activity and exercise programs in psychiatric care. We also emphasize that initiating and maintaining regular physical activity among psychiatric patients is a major challenge because specific dysfunctional cognitive-emotional processes might interfere with their capacity to self-regulate health-related behaviors. Specifically, we claim that behavioral skill training should be used to support patients with MDDs in overcoming barriers to initiating and maintaining physical activity. Moreover, we suggest that the assessment of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness should become routine in psychiatric practice. PMID:27540294

  9. Indonesia village programs stress pill continuation while medical clinics start women on method use.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    The emphasis of Indonesia's experiment with village distribution of contraceptives, begun in 1974, is on maintenance rather than initiation of oral contraceptive use. As part of the experiment, it was decided to make resupplies available without charge outside the clinics on Java and Bali experimentally. The effort operated on the principles of avoiding standardization and focusing on resupply. In the province of West Java, resupply depots were established in the homes of acceptors whoowere also known village leaders. Each month the depot holders received a resupply, had their record-keeping reviewed, and were advised on how to deal with complaints. Presently, there are about 1600 village distribution centers with each of these units serving several subunits of a village. Effective village distribution efforts have also been established in Central Java and East Java. A unique feature of the East Java program is a lottery created to sustain the interest of those already in the program as well as to attract new acceptors. The Bali program is different from those of East Java in that most acceptors are IUD users. In this program emphasis is on recruiting new acceptors and maintaining those already in the program, and motivational effort is directed to the male. Village distribution effort data in Indonesia suggest that as the number of village distribution outlets increases, the proportion of married women of reproductive age who use contraception also increases. In addition to the government supported family planning program, there is now a combined effort supported by the Indonesian government and Aid to International Development to achieve acceptance of the condom and increased involvement of men in family planning. PMID:12277532

  10. Wish-fulfilling jewel pills: Tibetan medicines from exclusivity to ubiquity.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Calum

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent growth of social science literature concerning the traditional medicine industry in Asia, insights into the contemporary dynamics of so-called 'classical formulae' remain relatively scant, as do studies of small-scale, less capitally intensive and technologically advanced modes of production. This paper seeks to address these gaps by considering a single Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan medicine) formula known as Samphel Norbu, or 'wish-fulfilling jewel', which appears in numerous texts and is today among the most popular Tibetan medicines in the world. Drawing primarily upon long-term fieldwork in Himalayan India, the paper follows Samphel Norbu's rise from exclusivity to popularity and examines the ways it has been transformed in the process, both materially and in its economic, social and clinical significance. The paper shows how Samphel Norbu acts as a marker of inequality between different groups of healers, and examines the role the medicine played in the development of commercial pharmacy and the proliferation of complex medicines. Tracing out wide variations in the medicine's formulation, composition, mode of production and pattern of circulation places the issue of multiplicity at the centre of analysis, and leads to a questioning of the assumptions that underpin the category 'classical formula'. The paper reflects upon the repositioning of such formulae within emergent configurations of knowledge, power, industry and market, and on their transformations and transformative effects both over time and in the present moment. PMID:25633307

  11. [Bitter and gilded pills: psychiatry in the light (or shadow) of the pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Vandereycken, W

    2006-01-01

    Psychotropic medication has brought about far-reaching changes in psychiatry: in its nature and practice, its image of man and its public image. Never before have so many psychotropic drugs been prescribed for young people. 'Difficult' children are now referred to as ADHD children and moody youngsters are given antidepressants. In adult psychiatry treatment is being dictated more and more by protocols and guidelines: very often medication is the treatment of choice. The reasons for this are largely economic. Increasingly 'research' is being sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. Published research results are often skewed so as to favour the sponsor. Some scientific journals owe their survival to drug advertisements. Even some patient organisations are supported by the pharmaceutical industry. How will psychiatry and mental health care be able to escape from this 'straightjacket' in the future? The purpose of this polemical essay is to draw the attention of health care professionals and researchers to this rather worrying development. PMID:16958195

  12. Pigs, Pirates, and Pills: Using Film to Teach the Social Context of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.; Bejoian, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    With the overwhelming negative connotations of disability, how can people ever see disability as a natural part of human diversity, merely another bodily attribute, and one that people can frame in positive terms? In brief, how can people view disability as simply another way of being? In this article, the authors begin to address these questions…

  13. Thrills, spills and pills: Bond, Benzedrine and the pharmacology of peace.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sam

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the conjunction of pharmacological science and espionage fiction of the post-war era. This paper argues that, during the 1950s, the relatively new science of pharmacology propounded the possibility that illness and human deficiency could be treated in a way that better reflected the post-war zeitgeist. The use of pharmacological medicine, perceived as cleaner and quicker than more 'bodily' forms of treatment, represented progress in contemporary medical science. It is argued that this philosophy extended to more overt means of pharmacological application, directly related to the geopolitical concerns of the 'Cold War'. A growing form of popular literature in this period was the espionage novel. This paper argues that the benefits proffered by pharmacology were incorporated into the fabric of espionage fiction, specifically the James Bond novels of Ian Fleming. Here, it is demonstrated how Fleming used pharmacological knowledge of Benzedrine throughout his novels. His works illustrate a belief that the augmentation of the spy's natural ability with pharmacological science would award decisive advantage in the Cold War conflict played out in spy fiction. However, the relationship between public use of Benzedrine and awareness of its side effects changed during the period of Fleming's publications, moving from a position of casual availability to one of controlled prescription. It is argued that the recognition of the dangers associated with the drug were over-ruled in favour of the benefits its use presented to the state. The continued use of the drug by Bond illustrates how the concerns of the nation are given priority over the health, and life, of the individual. PMID:21393270

  14. Therapeutic Challenges in Diabetes Prevention: We Have Not Found the "Exercise Pill".

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Florez, J C

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes has become an enormous public health burden, making diabetes prevention a pressing issue. While lifestyle modification is the most effective preventive strategy, it is resource-intensive and not universally sustainable. We review the evidence on pharmacological options for diabetes prevention, in search of a medication that is efficacious, easy to adhere to, well tolerated, and cost-effective. With the exception of metformin, most other drugs have either limited efficacy or costly side effects. PMID:25974616

  15. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among "shantytown" youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an "anti-biologizing" explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven "biopsychiatrization" so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to "resist" pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  16. The emergency contraceptive pill: a survey of knowledge and attitudes among students at Princeton University.

    PubMed

    Harper, C C; Ellertson, C E

    1995-11-01

    A random survey was conducted using the campus voice mail system among 550 students of Princeton University to determine their knowledge of and attitudes about postcoital contraception (which has been available at the university health center for more than 15 years). The survey elicited a response rate of 82% and included demographic information in the data collected. The results showed that 95% (98% of the undergraduates) of the sample knew about emergency oral contraception (EOC), but 52% of the respondents could not distinguish EOC from RU-486, only 38% knew that the correct time of use was within 72 hours, only 26% knew that EOC was a regimen which used a large dose of combined oral contraceptives, and 25% knew that the effectiveness of EOC is 75%. 54% of the students believed that EOC is associated with unpleasant side effects, and 7% thought there would be serious side effects (this attitude was significantly related to nonendorsement). Only 12% of the students correctly identified the fertile period in the menstrual cycle and understood the timing factors associated with EOC. 80% of the students approved of EOC, and 91% approved in cases of rape. Those who identified themselves as Democrats were significantly more likely to approve, and those who were highly religious were significantly less likely. Ethical concerns were cited by 32% of the respondents, and 57% had health concerns. 84% felt that EOC was readily accessible, but only 43% knew it was available throughout the week. 30% of the students had experience with a situation in which more information about EOC would have been helpful. Regression analysis of these findings revealed that approval was higher among students who knew the ingredients and side effects of EOC, knew of a situation where it would have been helpful, were not religious, and/or were Democrats. Ethical concerns were associated with health concerns, strong religious feeling, Republican affiliation, and a lack of knowledge about ingredients. PMID:7503182

  17. Sugaring the pill: ethics and uncertainties in the use of sucrose for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic J C; Savulescu, Julian; Slater, Rebeccah

    2012-07-01

    Sucrose is widely used for the management of procedural pain in newborn infants, including capillary blood sampling, venepuncture, and vascular cannulation. Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that sweet-tasting solutions reduce behavioral responses to acute painful stimuli. It has been claimed that sucrose should be a standard of care in neonatal units and that further placebo-controlled trials of sucrose are unnecessary and unethical. However, recently published data cast doubt on the analgesic properties of sucrose. We review this new evidence and analyze the philosophical and ethical questions that it raises, including the "problem of other minds." Sugar may be better understood not as an analgesic, removing or relieving pain, but as a compensating pleasure. There is a need for further research on the mechanism of sucrose's effect on pain behavior and on the long-term effects of sucrose treatment. Such trials will require comparison with placebo or with other interventions. Given uncertainty about the benefit of sucrose, it may be wise to use alternative analgesics or nonpharmacological interventions where these are available and appropriate. Sucrose may not be the answer to procedural pain in newborns. PMID:22751876

  18. Sugaring the pill. Ethics and uncertainties in the use of sucrose for newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Dominic JC; Savulescu, Julian; Slater, Rebeccah

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is widely used for the management of procedural pain in newborn infants, including capillary blood sampling, venepuncture and vascular cannulation. Multiple randomised controlled trials have demonstrated that sweet-tasting solutions reduce behavioural responses to acute painful stimuli. It has been claimed that sucrose should be a standard of care in neonatal units, and that further placebo-controlled trials of sucrose are unnecessary and unethical. However, recently published neuroscientific studies cast doubt on the analgesic properties of sucrose. We review this new evidence and analyse the philosophical and ethical questions that it raises, including the “problem of other minds”. Sugar may be better understood not as an analgesic, removing or relieving pain, but as a compensating pleasure. There is a need for further research on the mechanism of sucrose’s effect on pain behaviour and on the long-term effects of sucrose treatment. Such trials will require comparison with placebo or with other interventions. Given uncertainty about the benefit of sucrose it may be wise to use alternative analgesics or non-pharmacological interventions where these are available and appropriate. Sucrose may not be the answer to procedural pain in newborns. PMID:22751876

  19. When promoting pills is easier than pushing the ABC: a case study from Kavango, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Busher, Joel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges faced by AIDS service organisations seeking to engage with traditional leaders and community elders in Kavango, north-east Namibia, has been the popular view that the messages of the fight against HIV/AIDS contradict local cultural values. However, there are indications that this has been changing. Staff and volunteers working with AIDS service organisations reported that growing numbers of traditional leaders were becoming involved in HIV/AIDS programmes, in particular supporting efforts to promote HIV testing and encourage more people to take up antiretroviral therapy (ART), which has been available in state hospitals in the region since 2005. This paper explores one of the factors that appear to be facilitating this broadening of participation in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The case is made that increasing familiarity with and confidence in ART has contributed to the emergence of an alternative set of signs around HIV/AIDS that is more culturally permissive and is not so conducive to social representations of a moral disjuncture between HIV/AIDS programmes and Kavango culture. This has created opportunities for traditional leaders and elders to more easily resolve the tensions between the recognised need to respond to "this disease of today", and whilst still performing their role as guardians of local culture. This paper is based on ethnographic research conducted in Kavango over a period of 18 months during 2007-2008. PMID:20680858

  20. Effects of oral contraceptive pill use on vaginal flora and vaginal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Eschenbach, D A; Patton, D L; Meier, A; Thwin, S S; Aura, J; Stapleton, A; Hooton, T M

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on vaginal discharge, epithelium, and flora. Thirty women who planned to use OC for contraception were evaluated before and 2 months after the start of OC use. At both visits, genital symptoms and exposures were assessed by questionnaire; vaginal signs were assessed by speculum examination and colposcopy; vaginal microflora was evaluated by quantitative culture; and a vaginal biopsy was obtained for histopathologic evaluation. Variables were compared between the initial visit and after 2 months of OC use. It was found that OC use did not change the gross, colposcopic, or histologic appearance of the vaginal epithelium or characteristics of vaginal or cervical discharge. Vaginal flora essentially remained unchanged after 2 months of OC use, except that a small decrease occurred in the number of subjects with > or =10(5) colony forming units/mL of H(2)O(2) producing Lactobacillus from 16 at baseline to 9 (p = 0.04) and in the total number of subjects with Ureaplasma urealyticum from 17 at baseline to 10 of 29 (p = 0.04). The results indicate minimal effect of OC use on the vaginal epithelium and vaginal and cervical discharge, and a small effect on vaginal flora. PMID:11124356

  1. Can a pill prevent HIV? Negotiating the biomedicalisation of HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    This article examines how biomedicalisation is encountered, responded to and negotiated within and in relation to new biomedical forms of HIV prevention. We draw on exploratory focus group discussions on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) to examine how the processes of biomedicalisation are affected by and affect the diverse experiences of communities who have been epidemiologically framed as 'vulnerable' to HIV and towards whom PrEP and TasP will most likely be targeted. We found that participants were largely critical of the perceived commodification of HIV prevention as seen through PrEP, although this was in tension with the construction of being medical consumers by potential PrEP candidates. We also found how deeply entrenched forms of HIV stigma and homophobia can shape and obfuscate the consumption and management of HIV-related knowledge. Finally, we found that rather than seeing TasP or PrEP as 'liberating' through reduced levels of infectiousness or risk of transmission, social and legal requirements of responsibility in relation to HIV risk reinforced unequal forms of biomedical self-governance. Overall, we found that the stratifying processes of biomedicalisation will have significant implications in how TasP, PrEP and HIV prevention more generally are negotiated. PMID:26498141

  2. A hard pill to swallow: a qualitative study of women's experiences of adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Alison; Dryden, Ruth; McCowan, Colin; Radley, Andrew; Parsons, Mark; Thompson, Alastair M; Wells, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore women's experiences of taking adjuvant endocrine therapy as a treatment for breast cancer and how their beliefs about the purpose of the medication, side effects experienced and interactions with health professionals might influence adherence. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, one-to-one interviews. Setting 2 hospitals from a single health board in Scotland. Participants 30 women who had been prescribed tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole) and had been taking this medication for 1–5 years. Results Women clearly wished to take their adjuvant endocrine therapy medication as prescribed, believing that it offered them protection against breast cancer recurrence. However, some women missed tablets and did not recognise that this could reduce the efficacy of the treatment. Women did not perceive that healthcare professionals were routinely or systematically monitoring their adherence. Side effects were common and impacted greatly on the women’s quality of life but did not always cause women to stop taking their medication, or to seek advice about reducing the side effects they experienced. Few were offered the opportunity to discuss the impact of side effects or the potential options available. Conclusions Although most women in this study took adjuvant endocrine therapy as prescribed, many endured a range of side effects, often without seeking help. Advice, support and monitoring for adherence are not routinely offered in conventional follow-up settings. Women deserve more opportunity to discuss the pros, cons and impact of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. New service models are needed to support adherence, enhance quality of life and ultimately improve survival. These should ideally be community based, in order to promote self-management in the longer term. PMID:24928595

  3. Effect of the oral contraceptive pill on protein S and antithrombin-III levels in Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Wong, K K; Ng, S C; Koong, P L

    Studies focusing on the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) usage and occurrence of thromboembolism have been conducted for over 3 decades. Those studies centered on the effects OC use has on blood proteins and on measurable physiological changes that occurred in women with venous thrombosis. This article reports the findings of a study that investigated the effects of OC use on the levels of the anticoagulants antithrombin-III (AT-III), protein C (PC), and protein S (PS) in a group of Asian women. Previous studies had mostly been based on Caucasian women. Of the 21 women studied, 16 were Malaysian, 3 were Chinese, and 2 were Indian. Low-dose OCs containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg of either desogestrel or levonorgestrel were used. Blood was tested before OC use and 3 and 6 months after starting OC use. Levels of AT-III and PS were measured using the Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis technique. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student's t-test and an analysis of variance test. No statistically significant differences were found for the mean levels of AT-III and total PS when comparing the pre-OC with the 3- and 6-month post-OC values. Earlier studies based mostly on Caucasian women have reported lower levels of both total PS and free PS in OC users. PMID:12288974

  4. Huge right-handed current effects in B->K*(K pi)l+l- in supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lunghi, E.; Matias, J.; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-12-01

    Transverse asymmetries in the decay B {yields} K*(K{pi}){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} are an extremely sensitive probe of right-handed flavor-changing neutral currents. They show how to include the contribution from the chiral partner of the electromagnetic operator on the transverse asymmetries at NLO in QCD factorization. They then consider supersymmetric models with non-minimal flavor violation in the down-squark sector. They include all the relevant experimental constraints and present a numerical formula for B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} that takes into account the most recent NNLO calculations. they show that the flavor-changing parameters of these models are poorly constrained by present data and allow for large effects on the transverse asymmetries that they consider.

  5. Pediatric fatality from gun bluing solution: the need for a chemical equivalent of the one-pill-can-kill list.

    PubMed

    Chomchai, Chulathida; Sirisamut, Thanakorn; Silpasupagornwong, Uraiwan

    2012-06-01

    Gun bluing solution is commonly used to polish guns and prevent rusting. The authors report a case of a 2-year-old boy who inadvertently ingested approximately 15 ml of his father's Fox Gun Blue solution. The patient subsequently developed acidosis, hypotension, and coma. He died within four hours after ingestion. His plasma selenium level was 857 ng/ml. A brief review of other reported ingestion of gun bluing liquid in both adults and children is also included. PMID:22774628

  6. Pills or Push-Ups? Effectiveness and Public Perception of Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Caviola, Lucius; Faber, Nadira S.

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consistently dependent on individual and situational factors as well as the cognitive domain in question. Although meta-analyses allowing a quantitative comparison of effectiveness across techniques are lacking to date, we can conclude that PCE is not more effective than NPCE. We discuss the physiological reasons for this limited effectiveness. We then propose that even though their actual effectiveness seems similar, in the general public PCE is perceived as fundamentally different from NPCE, in terms of effectiveness, but also in terms of acceptability. We illustrate the potential consequences such a misperception of PCE can have. PMID:26696922

  7. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    PubMed

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia. PMID:26290123

  8. Bomb or Boon: Linking Population, People and Power in Fragile Regions: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Raymond

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between population structure and violent conflict is complex and heavily dependent on the behavior of other variables like governance, economic prospects, and urbanization. While addressing rapid population growth might be a necessary condition for peace, it is by no means sufficient. Concomitant steps must also be taken to foster inclusivity, guarantee broader rights for all, particularly women, rebuild social contracts and ensure that all citizens have equal access to economic opportunity. Measures to control family size could reduce dependency and create greater socio-economic opportunities for women and youth, By so doing, the "youth bulge" phenomenon could be a boon for rapidly growing developing countries. PMID:26927397

  9. Women with anorexia nervosa should not be treated with estrogen or birth control pills in a bone-sparing effect.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ingrid; Crisby, Milita; Engström, Anne-May; Hölcke, Mats; Fored, Monika; Jakobsson Kruse, Pia; Of Sandberg, Ann-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Eating disorders are prevalent, serious conditions that affect mainly young women. An early and enduring sign of anorexia is amenorrhea. There is no evidence for benefits of hormone therapy in patients with anorexia; however, hormone medication and oral contraceptives are frequently prescribed for young women with anorexia as a prevention against and treatment for low bone mineral density. The use of estrogens may create a false picture indicating that the skeleton is being protected against osteoporosis. Thus the motivation to regain weight, and adhere to treatment of the eating disorder in itself, may be reduced. The most important intervention is to restore the menstrual periods through increased nutrition. Hormone and oral contraceptive therapy should not be prescribed for young women with amenorrhea and concurrent eating disorders. PMID:23682675

  10. Are prescription stimulants "smart pills"? The epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience of prescription stimulant use by normal healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  11. Treating Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer): from surgery to antibiotics, is the pill mightier than the knife?

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Paul J; Nuermberger, Eric L; Almeida, Deepak V; Grosset, Jacques H

    2011-01-01

    Until 2004, the skin disease known as Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, could only be treated by surgery and skin grafting. Although this worked reasonably well on early lesions typically found in patients in Australia, the strategy was usually impractical on large lesions resulting from diagnostic delay in patients in rural West Africa. Based on promising preclinical studies, treatment trials in West Africa have shown that a combination of rifampin and streptomycin administered daily for 8 weeks can kill M. ulcerans bacilli, arrest the disease, and promote healing without relapse or reduce the extent of surgical excision. Improved treatment options are the focus of research that has increased tremendously since the WHO began its Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative in 1998. PMID:22004037

  12. Comparing the satisfaction and efficacy of Cyclofem and contraceptive pills among females in Northern Iran: A randomized controlled trial study

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Bita; Kiapoor, Azade; Firoozbakht, Mozhgan; Kazeminavaei, Fatemeh; Taghlili, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are the most effective method for birth control, though they may have some default or complications. This research aimed to comparison of the efficacy and satisfaction of Cyclofem with oral contraceptives (OCs) among females. A descriptive-comparative method was conducted on 80 women who were selected through cluster sampling during November 2011-December 2012. The selected subjects start using OCs or Cyclofem for the 1st time in their life. They evaluated in 2 times frames, at the beginning of the study and then 3 and 6 months after the contraceptive precautions. The data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analysed using parametric and nonparametric test in SPSS 16 software. The reasons for discontinuation of the methods were varied, in which 50% of the sample group were Cyclofem users who discontinued because of menstrual changes and the desire to use other methods, and 50% were the OC users whose reason was medical problems, and absent-mindedness was the last reason for 35.7% of the cases. The efficacy of the both (OCs and Cyclofem) was high and only one unwanted pregnancy occurred at the end of the 6th month among OC users. There was no significant difference in term of satisfaction of two groups at the end of 3-6 months (PV = 0.433). The results indicated that Cyclofem can be well used by those women who desire for an easy and effective method which is not disturbing the sexual activity and does not also need to be used daily, but the users should be consulted before using the method. PMID:25364692

  13. A Pill for the Ill? Patients’ Reports of Their Experience of the Medical Encounter in the Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Svensson, Tommy; Meeuwisse, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Starting in the 1960s, a broad-based patients’ rights movement began to question doctors’ paternalism and to demand disclosure of medical information, informed consent, and active participation by the individual in personal health care. According to scholars, these changes contributed to downplay the biomedical approach in favor of a more patient-oriented perspective. The Swedish non-profit organization Consumer Association for Medicines and Health (KILEN) has offered the possibility for consumers to report their perceptions and experiences from their use of medicines in order to strengthen consumer rights within the health care sector. Methodology In this paper, qualitative content analysis was used to analyze 181 KILEN consumer reports of adverse events from antidepressant medications in order to explore patients’ views of mental ill health symptoms and the doctor-patient interaction. Principal Findings Overall, the KILEN stories contained negative experiences of the patients’ medical encounters. Some reports indicated intense emotional outrage and strong feelings of abuse by the health care system. Many reports suggested that doctors and patients had very different accounts of the nature of the problems for which the patient was seeking help. Although patients sought help for problems like tiredness and sleeplessness (often with a personal crisis of some sort as a described cause), the treating doctor in most cases was exceptionally quick in both diagnosing depression and prescribing antidepressant treatment. When patients felt they were not being listened to, trust in the doctor was compromised. This was evident in the cases when the doctor tried to convince them to take part in medical treatment, sometimes by threatening to withdraw their sick-listing. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the dynamics happening in the medical encounter may still be highly affected by a medical dominance, instead of a patient-oriented perspective. This may contribute to a questionable medicalization and/or pharmaceuticalization of depression. PMID:23823902

  14. Sending Learning Pills to Mobile Devices in Class to Enhance Student Performance and Motivation in Network Services Configuration Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Organero, M.; Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching electrical and computer software engineers how to configure network services normally requires the detailed presentation of many configuration commands and their numerous parameters. Students tend to find it difficult to maintain acceptable levels of motivation. In many cases, this results in their not attending classes and not dedicating…

  15. Women's Education and World Peace: A Feminist Dream Comes True Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    Pillai, Vijayan K; Wang, Ya-Chien

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Potts et al provides a critical view on their thesis that increasing the level of education among women is likely to reduce terrorism. Presence of a strong family planning program enables women to control family size resulting in women's public participation more likely and facilitating the emergence of small birth cohorts who are less likely to become unemployed. In spite of the several theoretical insights their paper offers, they have not adequately described the multiple social and economic linkages that may exist between fertility rates and lowering frequency of wars, terrorism, etc. PMID:26927396

  16. 'The problem here is that they want to solve everything with pills': medication use and identity among Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wallis E; Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-07-01

    Taking medications are complex symbolic acts, infused with diverse meanings regarding body and identity. This article focuses on the meanings of medications for older Puerto Ricans living on the United States mainland, a population experiencing stark health disparities. We aim to gain an understanding of the way multiple cultural and personal meanings of medications are related to and integrated in identity, and to understand how they are situated within Puerto Rican culture, history and circumstance on the US mainland. Data is drawn from thirty qualitative interviews, transcribed and translated, with older Puerto Ricans living on mainland United States. Thematic Analysis indicated four prevalent themes: embodiment of medication use; medications redefining self through the fabric of daily life; healthcare experience defined through medication; and medicine dividing the island and the mainland. While identity is impacted by experience of chronic illness, the experience of medication prescription and consumption is further related to the construction of the sense of self in distinct ways. For these individuals, medication use captures the dilemma of immigration. While cultural belonging and well-being remains on the island of Puerto Rico, the mainland hosts both easier access to and excess reliance on medication. PMID:25720591

  17. Impact of pilling and long-term topsoil storage on the potential soil microbial activity in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptobiotic soil crusts in arid regions contribute to ecosystem stability through increased water infiltration, soil aggregate stability, and nutrient cycling between the soil community and vascular plants. Natural gas mining involves removal of the topsoil, including surface crust, and storage of ...

  18. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  19. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors’ involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes. PMID:25175291

  20. Symptom severity, self-reported adherence, and electronic pill monitoring in poorly adherent patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Levin, Jennifer; Sams, Johnny; Cassidy, Kristin A; Akagi, Kouri; Aebi, Michelle E; Ramirez, Luis F; Safren, Steven A; Tatsuoka, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This analysis of screening and baseline data from an ongoing trial examined self-report versus automated adherence monitoring and assessed the relationship between bipolar disorder (BD) symptoms and adherence in 104 poorly adherent individuals. Methods Adherence was measured with the Tablets Routine Questionnaire (TRQ) and the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Symptoms were measured with the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Results Mean age of the sample was 46.3 years [standard deviation (SD) = 9.41], with 72% (n = 75) women and 71% (n = 74) African American subjects. Adherence improved from screening to baseline with a mean missed drug proportion measured by TRQ of 61.43% (SD = 26.48) versus baseline mean of 46.61% (SD = 30.55). Mean proportion of missed medication using MEMS at baseline was 66.43% (SD = 30.40). Correlation between TRQ and MEMS was 0.47. Correlation between a single index drug and all BD medications was 0.95. Symptoms were generally positively correlated with TRQ (worse adherence = more severe symptoms), but in most instances was only at a trend level (p > 0.05) with the exception of correlation between baseline TRQ and MADRS and BPRS, which were positive (r = 0.20 and r = 0.21, respectively) and significant (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions In patients with BD, monitoring increased adherence by 15%. MEMS identified 20% more non-adherence than self-report. Using a standard procedure to identify a single index drug for adherence monitoring may be one way to assess global adherence in patients with BD receiving polypharmacy treatment. Greater BD symptom severity may be a clinical indicator to assess for adherence problems. PMID:26529124

  1. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  2. Steps towards a phylogeny of the pill millipedes: non-monophyly of the family Protoglomeridae, with an integrative redescription of Eupeyerimhoffia archimedis (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    PubMed Central

    Oeyen, Jan Philip; Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Eupeyerimhoffia archimedis (Strasser, 1965) is redescribed based on several specimens collected at a number of sites close to the type locality on Sicily, Italy. Scanning electron microscopy is used to illustrate several unusual morphological characters for a member of the Glomerida for the first time. A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene (668bp) is sequenced for the first time in Eupeyerimhoffia to provide a species-specific barcode and to gain first insights into the genetic distances between the genera in the widespread family Protoglomeridae. The novel sequences are compared to representatives of all other genera of the family: Protoglomeris vasconica (Brölemann, 1897) from northern Spain, the dwarfed Glomerellina laurae Silvestri, 1908 from Italy and Glomeroides primus (Silvestri, 1929) from western North America. The addition of COI sequences from the two other families of the Glomerida renders the family Protoglomeridae paraphyletic with Glomeroides primus being more closely related to Glomeridella minima (Latzel, 1884) than to the other genera in the family. The large genetic distances (13.2–16.8%) between Eupeyerimhoffia and the other genera in the order, as well as its unusual morphological characters, including unique morphological adaptations to roll into a ball, are probably an indication of the old age of the group. PMID:26257534

  3. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Chinese patent medicine Naosaitong pill.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Zhengyi; Wang, Yingping; Yao, Chunlin; Bai, Xueyuan; Bian, Shuai; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-15

    Ginsenosides in plant samples have been extensively studied because protopanaxadiol saponins are ubiquitous in Chinese patent medicines, in which they can be used in promoting human health as the main active ingredients. A method for rapid determination of two ginsenosides (Rg1 and Re) in Naosaitong (NST) samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is studied to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in this work. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. A total of 93 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re. The calibration models for Rg1 and Re had high values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) (0.9766 and 0.9764) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0136 and 0.0104), and the values of the standard error of prediction set (SEP) are 0.00764 and 0.0103, which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. The overall results show that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of ginsenosides in Ginseng byproducts for pharmaceuticals that develop high-quality Chinese patent medicines. PMID:25561297

  4. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action. PMID:25801883

  5. A Double Blind, Randomized, Neoadjuvant Study of the Tissue effects of POMx Pills in Men with Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Carducci, Michael; Kroeger, Nils; Partin, Alan; Rao, Jian-yu; Jin, Yusheng; Kerkoutian, Susan; Wu, Hong; Li, Yunfeng; Creel, Patricia; Mundy, Kelly; Gurganus, Robin; Fedor, Helen; King, Serina A.; Zhang, Yanjun; Heber, David; Pantuck, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates slow prostate cancer xenograft growth and prolong PSA doubling times in single-arm human studies. Pomegranates’ effects on human prostate tissue are understudied. We hypothesized orally administered pomegranate extract (POMx; PomWonderful, Los Angeles, CA) would lower tissue 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. 70 men were randomized to 2 tablets POMx or placebo daily up to 4 weeks prior to radical prostatectomy. Tissue was analyzed for intra-prostatic Urolithin A, a pomegranate metabolite, benign and malignant 8-OHdG, and cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, and Ki67. Primary end-point was differences in 8-OHdG powered to detect 30% reduction. POMx was associated with 16% lower benign tissue 8-OHdG (p=0.095), which was not statistically significant. POMx was well-tolerated with no treatment-related withdrawals. There were no differences in baseline clinicopathological features between arms. Urolithin A was detected in 21/33 patient in the POMx group vs. 12/35 in the placebo group (p=0.031). Cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, Ki67, and serum PSA changes were similar between arms. POMx prior to surgery results in pomegranate metabolite accumulation in prostate tissues. Our primary end-point in this modest-sized short-term trial was negative. Future larger longer studies are needed to more definitely test whether POMx reduces prostate oxidative stress as well as further animal testing to better understand the multiple mechanisms through which POMx may alter prostate cancer biology. PMID:23985577

  6. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor’s potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ~2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. PMID:27208775

  7. A novel male contraceptive pill-patch combination: oral desogestrel and transdermal testosterone in the suppression of spermatogenesis in normal men.

    PubMed

    Hair, W M; Kitteridge, K; O'Connor, D B; Wu, F C

    2001-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of transdermal T and oral desogestrel on the reproductive axis of healthy men. Twenty-three men were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups and received a daily transdermal T patch plus oral desogestrel at a dose of 75, 150, or 300 microg/d for 24 wk. Baseline blood and semen samples were obtained and then every 4 wk thereafter for 32 wk. The outcome measures were sperm density and plasma levels of FSH, LH, total and free T. The results show a dose-dependent suppression of spermatogenesis and gonadotropins. Seven of the 17 subjects became azoospermic. Desogestrel (300 microg daily) in combination with 5 mg daily transdermal T was the most effective (57% azoospermic), whereas a dose of 75 microg was ineffective (0% azoospermic). Total and free plasma T were reduced by approximately 30%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly reduced. No serious side-effects were encountered. We conclude that daily self-administered desogestrel with transdermal T is capable of suppressing the male reproductive axis, although the efficacy was less marked and less consistent than injectable regimens. The lower efficacy is likely to be due to failure of the transdermal T system to maintain circulating T levels consistently in the required range. PMID:11701677

  8. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A; Pandol, Stephen J; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor's potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ∼2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. PMID:27208775

  9. Methemoglobinemia due to ingestion of at most three pills of pyridium in a 2-year-old: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Gold, Nina A; Bithoney, William G

    2003-08-01

    Pyridium (phenazopyridine HCl) is a commonly prescribed medication in the treatment of urinary tract infections and is known to cause methemoglobinemia in excessive doses. We report the case of a 2-year-old child who ingested a maximum of three 200-mg tablets (approximately 50 mg/kg) of pyridium and yet developed cyanosis and methemoglobinemia (29.1%), resulting in methylene blue therapy. We urge physicians to consider a period of observation (4-6 h) or to obtain methemoglobin levels in children who ingest even a small number of pyridium tablets because this can represent a toxic dose in a small child. PMID:12901999

  10. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Chinese patent medicine Naosaitong pill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Zhengyi; Wang, Yingping; Yao, Chunlin; Bai, Xueyuan; Bian, Shuai; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Ginsenosides in plant samples have been extensively studied because protopanaxadiol saponins are ubiquitous in Chinese patent medicines, in which they can be used in promoting human health as the main active ingredients. A method for rapid determination of two ginsenosides (Rg1 and Re) in Naosaitong (NST) samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is studied to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in this work. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. A total of 93 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re. The calibration models for Rg1 and Re had high values of the coefficient of determination (R2) (0.9766 and 0.9764) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0136 and 0.0104), and the values of the standard error of prediction set (SEP) are 0.00764 and 0.0103, which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. The overall results show that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of ginsenosides in Ginseng byproducts for pharmaceuticals that develop high-quality Chinese patent medicines.

  11. Progestin-Only Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... of pregnancy is almost the same as the risk with regular birth control pills. With progestin-only pills, it’s very important ... pills at the same time every day, your risk of pregnancy increases. Remember that both kinds of birth control pills are better at preventing pregnancy than condoms ...

  12. Homemade Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  13. HealthLines

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink coffee a new study suggests. Researchers compared caffeine (the stimulant in coffee, tea, soda, and energy ... took a nap, another took a pill with caffeine, and the third took a dummy pill with ...

  14. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying ...

  15. Bosentan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested for pregnancy every month during your treatment. Hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, shots, implants, and ... Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and simvastatin (Zocor); hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills patches, rings, shots, implants, and ...

  16. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  17. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor. The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  18. MedlinePlus: Vaginal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... before puberty or after menopause. Causes can include Uterine fibroids or polyps Hormone problems Hormone pills, such as birth control pills and menopausal hormone therapy Cancer of the cervix , ovaries , uterus or vagina ...

  19. How Medicare Prescription Drug Plans & Medicare Advantage Plans with Prescription Drug Coverage (MA-PDs) Use Pharmacies,...

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug. Example of step therapy Step 1 —Dr. Smith wants to prescribe a new sleeping pill to ... sleeping pill available. Some of the drugs Dr. Smith considers prescribing are brand-name only prescription drugs. ...

  20. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... potential for side effects than steroid pills or syrups. There have been concerns regarding the possibility of ... treatment. Learn about oral steroids (steroid pills and syrups), and more about steroid side effects. What are ...

  1. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose-inhalers ( inhaled steroids ), oral forms (pills or syrups) , injections (shots) and intravenous (IV) solutions. Healthcare providers ... slowly decreased. Inhaled steroids and steroid pills and syrups are often prescribed for people with a chronic ...

  2. Kerion

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks of treatment with oral antifungal pills or syrup, including: Griseofulvin Terbinafine Itraconazole Fluconazole Ketoconazole Often, the ... may recommend starting oral corticosteroids (cortisone pills or syrup). Steroids are strong medications that can quickly reduce ...

  3. Painkiller (Oxy, Vike) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... these pills just like they sell heroin or cocaine. Some people borrow or steal these pills from ...

  4. Why do inadvertent pregnancies occur in oral contraceptive users? Effectiveness of oral contraceptive regimens and interfering factors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, I S; Jansen, R P

    1983-06-01

    Inadvertent pregnancies in combined pill users are not uncommon, and are usually due to errors of tablet taking. However, many factors may contribute to 'pill failure'. In this review the endocrine pharmacology of pill use and the changes reported with missed pills have been considered in detail. The influences of other factors including drug interactions have been reviewed and a series of recommendations made for reducing the risk of pregnancy in each of these circumstances. PMID:6413129

  5. Theophylline

    MedlinePlus

    ... allopurinol (Zyloprim), azithromycin (Zithromax), carbamazepine (Tegretol), cimetidine (Tagamet), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), clarithromycin (Biaxin), diuretics ('water pills'), erythromycin, lithium ( ...

  6. Aminophylline

    MedlinePlus

    ... allopurinol (Zyloprim), azithromycin (Zithromax) carbamazepine (Tegretol), cimetidine (Tagamet), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), clarithromycin (Biaxin), diuretics ('water pills'), erythromycin, lithium ( ...

  7. Repaglinide

    MedlinePlus

    ... acetophenazine (Tindal), aspirin, blood pressure medicines, carbamazepine (Tegretol), chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), corticosteroids, diuretics ('water pills'), drugs ...

  8. Statins as Targeted "Magical Pills" for the Conservative Treatment of Endometriosis: May Potential Adverse Effects on Female Fertility Represent the "Dark Side of the Same Coin"? A Systematic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze all the available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the efficacy of statin therapy in the treatment of endometriosis, evaluating the potential efficacy, side effects, and contraindications of their administration in humans. We focused on defining the potential benefits that the administration of statins may have on patients affected by endometriosis and the possible adverse effects of such a therapy on ovarian function and fertility profile. According to our article selection criteria, we included in the review in vitro and in vivo studies performed on human or animal models. The systematic review of literature identified 24 eligible articles, 12 of which reported evidence regarding the effects of statins on endometrial/endometriotic cells and 12 regarding their effects on ovarian function and fertility. All articles seem to emphasize the utility of statin administration in the treatment of endometriosis due to their anti-proliferative/proapoptotic effects, their ability to reduce cell viability and migration, and the inhibition of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. Regarding the potential adverse effects on gonadal activities, steroidogenesis and fertility function, no conclusive data were collected in human models (excluding women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome in which significant decline of androgen levels was reported after statin treatment), while contrasting results were reported by studies conducted in in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Despite evidence supporting statins as the potential therapeutic agent for a targeted conservative treatment of endometriosis, the uncertainties regarding their impact on gonadal function may not define them as an appropriate therapy for all young fertile women. PMID:25929256

  9. Modeling the photocatalytic mineralization in water of commercial formulation of estrogens 17-β estradiol (E2) and nomegestrol acetate in contraceptive pills in a solar powered compound parabolic collector.

    PubMed

    Colina-Márquez, José; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors in water are contaminants of emerging concern due to the potential risks they pose to the environment and to the aquatic ecosystems. In this study, a solar photocatalytic treatment process in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) was used to remove commercial estradiol formulations (17-β estradiol and nomegestrol acetate) from water. Photolysis alone degraded up to 50% of estradiol and removed 11% of the total organic carbon (TOC). In contrast, solar photocatalysis degraded up to 57% of estrogens and the TOC removal was 31%, with 0.6 g/L of catalyst load (TiO2 Aeroxide P-25) and 213.6 ppm of TOC as initial concentration of the commercial estradiols formulation. The adsorption of estrogens over the catalyst was insignificant and was modeled by the Langmuir isotherm. The TOC removal via photocatalysis in the photoreactor was modeled considering the reactor fluid-dynamics, the radiation field, the estrogens mass balance, and a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law, that was expressed in terms of the rate of photon adsorption. The optimum removal of the estrogens and TOC was achieved at a catalyst concentration of 0.4 g/L in 29 mm diameter tubular CPC reactors which approached the optimum catalyst concentration and optical thickness determined from the modeling of the absorption of solar radiation in the CPC, by the six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM). PMID:26205059

  10. “If I know I am on the pill and I get pregnant, it’s an act of God”: women’s views on fatalism, agency and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel K.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Blades, Nakeisha M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fatalism is the idea that outside forces have control over events. Pregnancy and pregnancy prevention play a prominent role in many women’s lives, and we sought to understand if and how fatalism informed their thinking about these issues. Study design We conducted in-depth interviews with 52 unmarried women between the ages of 18 and 30. We used NVivo to analyze the transcripts. The current analysis focuses on the ways that women discussed fatalism and pregnancy both in response to a direct question and as it came up spontaneously. Results The majority of respondents expressed a mix of fatalistic and non-fatalistic views about pregnancy. Many related that “fate,” “destiny” and/or God play a role in pregnancy, but most also asserted that pregnancy risk could be substantially reduced, most commonly by using contraception. Fatalism sometimes served a positive function, for example as a mechanism to deal with an unintended pregnancy. Having a fatalistic outlook did not preclude contraceptive use. Rather, some women using highly effective methods related that if they were to become pregnant, they would interpret it as a sign that the pregnancy was “meant to happen.” Finally some women related that there was no guarantee a woman could get pregnant when she wanted to, suggesting that some degree of fatalism may be inevitable when it comes to pregnancy. Conclusions Fatalism and agency should not be viewed as opposing outlooks when it comes to pregnancy and pregnancy prevention; having fatalistic views about pregnancy does not preclude contraceptive use. Implications Given that women do not have total control over attainment of a wanted pregnancy or even prevention of pregnancy, some amount of fatalism about fertility is a logical and pragmatic response. Both research and clinical practice need to recognize that fatalism and contraceptive use are often not in conflict. PMID:26872719

  11. "If I have nothing to eat, I get angry and push the pills bottle away from me": A qualitative study of patient determinants of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Feldman, Mitchell D; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Wouters, Edwin; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The global response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and has contributed to decreased HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Patient adherence to ART is crucial to the success of HIV/AIDS treatment. However, little is known about the determinants of adherence to ART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This qualitative study used in-depth semi-structured patient interviews, a purposive sampling strategy and thematic analysis scheme to identify barriers and facilitators of adherence to ART in the DRC. We recruited three categories of participants from the Centre Hospitalier Monkole and the NGO ACS/Amo-Congo including participants on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment (n = 19), on ARV re-treatment (n = 13) and lost to follow-up (n = 6). Among 38 participants interviewed, 24 were female and the median age was 41 years. Food insecurity as a barrier to adherence emerged as a dominant theme across the three categories of participants. Other barriers included financial constraints, forgetfulness and fear of disclosure/stigma. Religious beliefs were both a barrier and a facilitator to ART adherence. We found that food insecurity was a common and an important barrier to ART adherence among patients in the DRC. Our findings suggest that food insecurity should be appropriately addressed and incorporated into ARV treatment programs to ensure patient adherence and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in the region. PMID:23383757

  12. Prioritizing HIV Comparative Effectiveness Trials based on Value of Information: Generic vs. Brand-Name ART in the US

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Pamela P.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Li, X. Cynthia; Hughes, Michael D.; Paltiel, A. David; Hou, Taige; Parker, Robert A.; Gaynes, Melanie R.; Sax, Paul E.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Value of Information (VOI) analysis examines whether to acquire information before making a decision. We introduced VOI to the HIV audience, using the example of generic antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the US. Methods and Findings We used a mathematical model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to generate probability distributions of survival (in quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) and cost for three potential first-line ART regimens: 3-pill generic, 2-pill generic, and 1-pill branded. These served as input for a comparison of two hypothetical two-arm trials: 3-pill generic vs. 1-pill branded; and 2-pill generic vs.1-pill branded. We modeled pre-trial uncertainty by defining probability distributions around key inputs, including 24-week HIV-RNA suppression and subsequent ART failure. We assumed that, without a trial, patients received the 1-pill branded strategy. Post-trial, we assumed that patients received the most cost-effective strategy. For both trials, we quantified the probability of changing to a generic-based regimen upon trial completion and the expected VOI in terms of improved health outcomes and costs. Assuming a willingness to pay threshold of $100,000/QALY, the 3-pill trial led to more treatment changes (84%) than the 2-pill trial (78%). Estimated VOI was $48,000 (3-pill trial) and $35,700 (2-pill trial) per future patient initiating ART. Conclusions A 3-pill trial of generic ART is more likely to lead to post-trial treatment changes and to provide more value than a 2-pill trial if policy decisions are based on cost-effectiveness. Value of Information analysis can identify trials likely to confer the greatest impact and value for HIV care. PMID:26651525

  13. Thermally Insulating, Kinematic Tensioned-Fiber Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.

    2004-01-01

    A salt pill and some parts of a thermally insulating, kinematic suspension system that holds the salt pill rigidly in an adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is presented. "Salt pill" in this context denotes a unit comprising a cylindrical container, a matrix of gold wires in the container, and a cylinder of ferric ammonium alum (a paramagnetic salt) that has been deposited on the wires. The structural members used in this system for both thermal insulation and positioning are aromatic polyamide fibers (Kevlar(R) or equivalent) under tension. This suspension system is designed to satisfy several special requirements to ensure the proper operation of the ADR. These requirements are to (1) maintain the salt pill at a specified position within the cylindrical bore of an electromagnet; (2) prevent vibrations, which would cause dissipation of heat in the salt pill; and (3) minimize the conduction of heat from the electromagnet bore and other neighboring objects to the salt pill; all while (4) protecting the salt pill (which is fragile) against all tensile and bending loads other than those attributable to its own weight. In addition, the system is required to consist of two subsystems -- one for the top end and one for the bottom end of the salt pill -- that can be assembled and tensioned separately from each other and from the salt pill, then later attached to the salt pill.

  14. [Oral contraceptives: knowledge and compliance].

    PubMed

    Koch, T; Marslew, U; Nielsen, M R

    1993-11-01

    One hundred and twenty (120) women, taking contraceptive pills, underwent a structured interview with a view elucidating their knowledge of the physiology of menstruation, the action and side effects of contraceptive pills and their compliance in the taking of contraceptive pills. The most important sources of information were the medical letters in magazines and the women's own doctors, while the teaching in the Folkeskole (primary and lower secondary school) had not had any major influence on the level of information. Well over one third of the interviewed women knew the most important action mechanism of the contraceptive pill, and half of the women could give a satisfactory explanation of the physiology of menstruation. Twenty-four percent (24%) thought that pregnancy could not occur until 1-2 months after the woman had ceased taking the pill. There was high compliance among the women i.e. that their behavior was correct when they had forgotten to take one or two contraceptive pills, when bleeding was irregular, and when beginning on a new package of pills. Eighty-three percent (83%) had experienced side effects that could be related to contraceptive pills. The investigation shows that there is a need for more efficient information about the effects of the Pill and about the physiology of menstruation. PMID:8236575

  15. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... pills, uppers; black beauty (when combined with amphetamine) Methamphetamine (crystal solid form): base, crystal, d-meth, fast, glass, ice, meth, speed, whiz, pure, wax Methamphetamine (liquid ...

  16. Colestipol

    MedlinePlus

    ... water pills'), iron, loperamide (Imodium), mycophenolate (Cellcept), oral diabetes medications, phenobarbital, phenylbutazone, propranolol (Inderal), thyroid medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ...

  17. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    MedlinePlus

    ... corticosteroids such as prednisone; medications for arthritis, gout, diabetes, or pain; methotrexate; sedatives; sleeping pills; tranquilizers; and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ...

  18. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  19. Laryngoceles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  20. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  1. Cutis Laxa

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  2. Cervical Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  3. Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  4. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  5. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  6. Osteochondrodysplasias

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  7. Eosinophilic Fasciitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  8. Ileus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  9. Rib Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  10. Overview of the Spleen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  11. Paracoccidioidomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  12. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  13. Urethritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  14. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  15. Cervical Myomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  16. Anal and Rectal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  17. Polyps of the Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  18. Lymphatic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  19. Dacryocystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  20. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid measurements include: Alcohol Aminosalicylic acid Birth control pills Estrogens Tetracyclines Ampicillin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin Methotrexate Penicillin Aminopterin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Drugs to treat malaria

  1. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News Cancer Caregivers Face Difficult Demands Health Tip: Why Floss? ...

  2. Congestive Hepatomegaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News Cancer Caregivers Face Difficult Demands Child Health Improves When ...

  3. 27 CFR 21.33 - Formula No. 2-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... processing (including manufacture of pills). 351.Processing dyes and intermediates. 352.Processing perfume... ethyl esters. 524.Sodium ethylate, anhydrous. 530.Ethylamines. 540.Dyes and intermediates....

  4. Bacteremia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  5. Necrotizing Skin Infections

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  6. White Blood Cell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

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  7. Inflammation of the Orbit

    MedlinePlus

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  8. Perichondritis

    MedlinePlus

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  9. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

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  10. Endophthalmitis

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  11. Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

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  12. Ear Tumors

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  13. Ear Injury

    MedlinePlus

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  14. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    MedlinePlus

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  15. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

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  16. Introduction to Symptoms of Eye Disorders

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  17. Internal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Oxazepam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lanoxin); levodopa (Larodopa, Sinemet); medication for depression, seizures, Parkinson's disease, pain, asthma, colds, or allergies; muscle relaxants; oral contraceptives; phenytoin (Dilantin); probenecid (Benemid); rifampin (Rifadine); sedatives; sleeping pills; ...

  19. [Improving oral contraception compliance. The "ringing card": memory aid or new ritual?].

    PubMed

    Lachowsky, M; Levy-Toledano, R

    2000-04-01

    Forgetting to take pills is frequent and induces an avoidable risk of unwanted pregnancy. The integration of the daily use of the pill into a ritual allows to improve compliance. Nine hundred and seventy-five women were retrospectively asked by 180 gynecologists about missed pills in the last three and six months. More than nine out of ten women declare having forgotten at least one pill in the last six months. In 39% of the cases the pill was missed during the first week of 'cycle' in which the risk of pregnancy is theoretically increased. In this survey, 485 women used the compliance card for an average time of 3.5 months. The compliance card is a device that reminds the user to take the pill daily. It is the size of a credit card and can be programmed to ring daily at the same time 21 days out of 28. The efficacy of this device is attested by the great number of women who think that it allowed them avoid forgetting at least one pill in the last three months. Regardless of the age of the women, 91% of the users of the compliance card acknowledged that it allowed them to decrease the number of missed pills. Eighty-four percent think avoided forgetting at least one pill in the last three months, 34% between two and three pills and 17% more than three pills. In practice, 41% of the compliance card users didn't have any failure in taking the pill in the last three months versus 19% among nonusers (P = 0.001). Although women aware of their poor compliance more often think that they benefit from the compliance card, 83% of women who declare themselves as compliant share this opinion. The number of avoided missed pills by the compliance card is greater among women who often fail to take their pill. The mean number of missed pill during the three months preceding the use of the compliance card was 1.6 +/- 1.7 versus 0.9 +/- 1.3 during the three months of use. Among users of the compliance card, 98% think that it is easy to use and 97% like the way it works. The

  20. The Menstrual Cycle and Response to Erotic Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle and sexual arousability. Women (N=133) participated in an experiment that induced sexual arousal by means of an erotic story. Independent factors were use of contraceptive pills versus no contraceptive pills and phase of the menstrual cycle. (Author)

  1. Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing pill-shaped biotelemeters for measuring physiological parameters during space flight life sciences experiments using rodents aboard the ISS Gravitational Biology Facility, with the additional capability for monitoring the health of astronauts in the Human Research Facility. The first "pill transmitter" is capable of measuring pressure and temperature for up to 10 months. The NASA objective is to utilize these devices. The pill-transmitters can also be used by non-NASA users for medical applications. One application is fetal surgery. The 44pill" is small enough to be endoscopically placed into the womb through a tube used during surgeries to correct fetal defects before birth. After surgery, the pill-transmitter will continue to monitor body temperature, pressure and other vital signs in the womb, radioing results to physicians. It will help them to detect preterm-labor, a serious problem after fetal surgery. The pill is about one-third-of-an-inch across and one-and-one-third-inches long. Future pill-versions will include pH, heartrate, and ECG. A pH-pill prototype is currently being tested. Sensors 2000! has also designed and built a 2-channel biotelemetry receiver and has developed data acquisition software to display and record the measured physiological parameters. A DSP-base hand-held receiver (trisponder) is currently under development.

  2. Searching for Ideal Contraceptives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djerassi, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem of adolescent pregnancy and focuses on improving contraception as a practical solution. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods (the condom, the pill, and the contraceptive sponge). Predicts that the development of a fundamentally new contraceptive, such as a monthly menses-inducer pill, will not occur…

  3. Oral contraceptive use in women changes preferences for male facial masculinity and is associated with partner facial masculinity.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Petrie, Marion; Jones, Benedict C; Roberts, S Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of women use hormonal contraception and it has been suggested that such use may alter mate preferences. To examine the impact of oral contraceptive (pill) use on preferences, we tested for within-subject changes in preferences for masculine faces in women initiating pill use. Between two sessions, initiation of pill use significantly decreased women's preferences for male facial masculinity but did not influence preferences for same-sex faces. To test whether altered preference during pill use influences actual partner choice, we examined facial characteristics in 170 age-matched male partners of women who reported having either been using or not using the pill when the partnership was formed. Both facial measurements and perceptual judgements demonstrated that partners of women who used the pill during mate choice have less masculine faces than partners of women who did not use hormonal contraception at this time. Our data (A) provide the first experimental evidence that initiation of pill use in women causes changes in facial preferences and (B) documents downstream effects of these changes on real-life partner selection. Given that hormonal contraceptive use is widespread, effects of pill use on the processes of partner formation have important implications for relationship stability and may have other biologically relevant consequences. PMID:23528282

  4. A less stressful alternative to oral gavage for pharmacological and toxicological studies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mary K.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walsh, Mary T.; Wolf, Valerie; Trujillo, Alishia; Duke, Melissa Skelton; Palme, Rupert; Felton, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Oral gavage dosing can induce stress and potentially confound experimental measurements, particularly when blood pressure and heart rate are endpoints of interest. Thus, we developed a pill formulation that mice would voluntarily consume and tested the hypothesis that pill dosing would be significantly less stressful than oral gavage. C57Bl/6 male mice were singly housed and on four consecutive days were exposed to an individual walking into the room (week 1, control), a pill being placed into the cage (week 2), and a dose of water via oral gavage (week 3). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by radiotelemetry continuously for 5 hr after treatment, and feces collected 6–10 hr after treatment for analysis of corticosterone metabolites. Both pill and gavage dosing significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first hour, compared to control. However, the increase in MAP was significantly greater after gavage and remained elevated up to 5 hr, while MAP returned to normal within 2 hr after a pill. Neither pill nor gavage dosing significantly increased heart rate during the first hour, compared to control; however, pill dosing significantly reduced heart rate while gavage significantly increased heart rate 2–5 hr post dosing. MAP and heart rate did not differ 24 hr after dosing. Lastly, only gavage dosing significantly increased fecal corticosterone metabolites, indicating a systemic stress response via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These data demonstrated that this pill dosing method of mice is significantly less stressful than oral gavage. PMID:22326784

  5. Weck Ed. Weck Educational Development Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer; And Others

    This document includes a final performance report and evaluation report from the Weck Ed program, through which job-linked adult basic education and General Educational Development (GED) test preparation courses that were jointly developed by the company Pilling Weck and Durham Technical Community College were offered to Pilling Weck employees on…

  6. A Longitudinal Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Contraception for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Tymchyshyn, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Assessed changes in contraceptive knowledge of 58 white female undergraduate students following computer-assisted instruction program on contraception. At six-month follow-up, students evidenced knowledge gains on duration of pill use, rationale for triphasics and biphasics, appropriate contingencies for missing two days of pill, danger signs…

  7. EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE ON REPRODUCTION IN AN ESTUARINE FISH TAUTOGLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural estrogen levels in women are routinely supplemented by potent pharmaceutical estrogens through use of birth control pills and hormone therapy. Excess estrogen is excreted by these women. Currently, about seventeen percent of women in the US use birth control pills and som...

  8. TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN KARST TERRANES: OUTLINE AND SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical spills that reach an aquifer in karst terranes do not behave like those in granular or highly fractured aquifers. pills reaching diffuse-flow aquifers display relatively slow transport, are radially dispersive, and can be tracked through the use of monitoring wells. pill...

  9. Placebo Effect upon Complex Reaction Time When Hypnotic Suggestibility is Controlled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Veronica L.

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a placebo (sugar pill) accompanied by suggestions that the pill would either (1) improve performance as a stimulant or (2) cause a deterioration in performance as a depressant when the performance in question was the subjects' complex reaction time to a light stimulus. The Harvard Group Scale of…

  10. Early Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Oral Contraceptive Cost Sharing, Discontinuation, And Nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Lydia E; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    The oral contraceptive pill is the contraceptive method most commonly used by US women, but inconsistent use of the pill is a contributor to high rates of unintended pregnancy. The relationship between consumer cost sharing and consistent use of the pill is not well understood, and the impact of the elimination of cost sharing for oral contraceptive pills in a mandate in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is not yet known. We analyzed insurance claims for 635,075 women with employer-sponsored insurance who were initiating use of the pill, to examine rates of discontinuation and nonadherence, their relationship with cost sharing, and trends before and during the first year after implementation of the ACA mandate. We found that cost sharing for oral contraceptives decreased markedly following implementation, more significantly for generic than for brand-name versions. Higher copays were associated with greater discontinuation of and nonadherence to generic pills than was the case with zero copayments. Discontinuation of the use of generic or brand-name pills decreased slightly but significantly following ACA implementation, as did nonadherence to brand-name pills. Our findings suggest a modest early impact of the ACA on improving consistent use of oral contraceptives among women initiating their use. PMID:27605641

  11. Emergency contraception: a second chance at preventing adolescent unintended pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A

    1997-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy challenges the United States and Europe. For most sexually active adolescents, pregnancy is unintended. Emergency contraception, also called the "morning-after treatment" or postcoital contraception is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. In February 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of certain oral contraceptive pills for emergency contraception. There are currently six brands of pills marketed in the United States that can be prescribed to, conform to the FDA-approved regimen. When emergency contraceptive pills are initiated within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, they reduce the risk of pregnancy by 75%. Contraindications are the same as those used for ongoing contraceptive pills. The most common side effects are nausea, vomiting, menstrual disturbances, breast tenderness, abdominal cramping, dizziness, headache, and mood changes. Routinely counseling all adolescents about emergency contraceptive pills and increasing access to them can give adolescents a second chance at preventing pregnancy. PMID:9300185

  12. Biotelemeters for Space Flights and Fetal Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, Carsten W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Hines, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Pill-shaped biotelemeters originally designed for space flight applications will soon be used for monitoring the health of a fetus during and after in-utero fetal surgery. The authors developed a family of biotelemeters that are not only small enough for rodent studies on board the space shuttle or international space station, but also fit through a 10 mm trocar, a plastic tube that is used in endoscopic fetal surgery to obtain minimally invasive access to the fetus. The first 'pill' measures pressure and temperature, and is currently undergoing long-term leakage and biocompatibility tests. A second pill under development measures pH and temperature. A prototype of the 'pH-pill' has been built and successfully tested and is presently being miniaturized into the same dimensions as the 'pressure pill'. Additional pills measuring heart rate, ECG, other ions such as calcium and potassium, and eventually glucose and blood gases, will follow. All pills are designed for ultra-low power consumption yielding lifetimes of up to 10 months in order to meet the requirements of fetal monitoring, but also to provide the capability of long-term space station experiments. Each pill transmits its pulse-interval-modulated signal on a unique carrier frequency in the frequency range of 174-216MHz. A custom-designed multi-channel receiver demodulates and decodes each pill signal and sends the data to a LabVIEW program that performs real-time data analysis and display. A patent for the pill family and its data analysis system is pending.

  13. A less stressful alternative to oral gavage for pharmacological and toxicological studies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mary K.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walsh, Mary T.; Wolf, Valerie; Trujillo, Alisha; Duke, Melissa Skelton; Palme, Rupert

    2012-04-01

    Oral gavage dosing can induce stress and potentially confound experimental measurements, particularly when blood pressure and heart rate are endpoints of interest. Thus, we developed a pill formulation that mice would voluntarily consume and tested the hypothesis that pill dosing would be significantly less stressful than oral gavage. C57Bl/6 male mice were singly housed and on four consecutive days were exposed to an individual walking into the room (week 1, control), a pill being placed into the cage (week 2), and a dose of water via oral gavage (week 3). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by radiotelemetry continuously for 5 h after treatment, and feces collected 6–10 h after treatment for analysis of corticosterone metabolites. Both pill and gavage dosing significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first hour, compared to control. However, the increase in MAP was significantly greater after gavage and remained elevated up to 5 h, while MAP returned to normal within 2 h after a pill. Neither pill nor gavage dosing significantly increased heart rate during the first hour, compared to control; however, pill dosing significantly reduced heart rate while gavage significantly increased heart rate 2–5 h post dosing. MAP and heart rate did not differ 24 h after dosing. Lastly, only gavage dosing significantly increased fecal corticosterone metabolites, indicating a systemic stress response via activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. These data demonstrated that this pill dosing method of mice is significantly less stressful than oral gavage. -- Highlights: ► Developed a novel oral dosing method using a pill that mice will readily consume. ► Assessed stress by blood pressure, heart rate, and fecal corticosterone metabolites. ► Demonstrated that pill dosing is significantly less stressful than oral gavage.

  14. Research on structural design and test technologies for a three-chamber launching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Wu; Qiushi, Yan; Ling, Xiao; Tieshuan, Zhuang; Chengyu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A three-chamber launching device with improved acceleration is proposed and developed. As indicated by the damage generated during the pill and engineering protection tests, the proposed device is applicable as a high-speed launching platform for pills of different shapes and quality levels. Specifically, it can be used to investigate kinetic energy weapons and their highly destructive effects due to the resulting large bomb fragments. In the horizontal direction of the barrel, two auxiliary chambers are set at a certain distance from the main chamber. When the pill reaches the mouth of the auxiliary chambers, the charges in the auxiliary chambers are ignited by the high-temperature, high-pressure combustible gas trailing the pill. The combustible gas in the auxiliary chambers can resist the rear pressure of the pill and thus maintain the high pressure of the pill base. In this way, the required secondary acceleration of the pill is met. The proposed device features the advantage of launching a pill with high initial velocity under low bore pressure. Key techniques are proposed in the design of the device to address the problems related to the angle between the main chamber axis and the ancillary chamber axis, the overall design of a three-chamber barrel, the structural design of auxiliary propellant charge, the high-pressure combustible gas sealing technology, and the sabot and belt design. Results from the launching test verify the reasonable design of this device and its reliable structural sealing. Additionally, the stiffness and the strength of the barrel meet design requirements. Compared with the single-chamber launching device with the same caliber, the proposed device increases the average launching velocity by approximately 15% and the amount of muzzle kinetic energy by approximately 35%. Therefore, this equipment is capable of carrying out small-caliber, high-speed pill firing tests.

  15. Research on structural design and test technologies for a three-chamber launching device.

    PubMed

    Jun, Wu; Qiushi, Yan; Ling, Xiao; Tieshuan, Zhuang; Chengyu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A three-chamber launching device with improved acceleration is proposed and developed. As indicated by the damage generated during the pill and engineering protection tests, the proposed device is applicable as a high-speed launching platform for pills of different shapes and quality levels. Specifically, it can be used to investigate kinetic energy weapons and their highly destructive effects due to the resulting large bomb fragments. In the horizontal direction of the barrel, two auxiliary chambers are set at a certain distance from the main chamber. When the pill reaches the mouth of the auxiliary chambers, the charges in the auxiliary chambers are ignited by the high-temperature, high-pressure combustible gas trailing the pill. The combustible gas in the auxiliary chambers can resist the rear pressure of the pill and thus maintain the high pressure of the pill base. In this way, the required secondary acceleration of the pill is met. The proposed device features the advantage of launching a pill with high initial velocity under low bore pressure. Key techniques are proposed in the design of the device to address the problems related to the angle between the main chamber axis and the ancillary chamber axis, the overall design of a three-chamber barrel, the structural design of auxiliary propellant charge, the high-pressure combustible gas sealing technology, and the sabot and belt design. Results from the launching test verify the reasonable design of this device and its reliable structural sealing. Additionally, the stiffness and the strength of the barrel meet design requirements. Compared with the single-chamber launching device with the same caliber, the proposed device increases the average launching velocity by approximately 15% and the amount of muzzle kinetic energy by approximately 35%. Therefore, this equipment is capable of carrying out small-caliber, high-speed pill firing tests. PMID:27475595

  16. Emergency Contraception: Do Your Patients Have a Plan B?

    PubMed

    Bullock, Holly; Salcedo, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Emergency contraception is used after unprotected sex, inadequately protected sex, or sexual assault to reduce the risk of pregnancy. Of emergency contraceptive methods available in the United States, the copper intrauterine device has the highest efficacy, followed by ulipristal acetate, levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive pills, and the Yuzpe method. However, access to the most effective methods is limited. Although advanced prescription of emergency contraceptive pills and counseling on emergency contraception to all reproductive-aged women is recommended, women should be advised to contact their health care providers after taking emergency contraceptive pills to discuss possible copper intrauterine device placement and other follow-up. PMID:26598310

  17. The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Martha J; Hershbein, Brad; Miller, Amalia R

    2012-07-01

    Decades of research on the US gender gap in wages describes its correlates, but little is known about why women changed their career paths in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper explores the role of "the Pill" in altering women's human capital investments and its ultimate implications for life-cycle wages. Using state-by-birth-cohort variation in legal access, we show that younger access to the Pill conferred an 8 percent hourly wage premium by age 50. Our estimates imply that the Pill can account for 10 percent of the convergence of the gender gap in the 1980s and 30 percent in the 1990s. PMID:23785566

  18. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... GGT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme GGT in the blood. ... tell you to stop taking medicines that can affect the test. Drugs ... can decrease GGT level include: Birth control pills Clofibrate

  19. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  20. Living with heart disease and angina

    MedlinePlus

    ... grains. Choose lean proteins, such as skinless chicken, fish, and beans. Eat non-fat or low-fat ... high cholesterol levels. These may include: ACE inhibitors Beta-blockers Calcium channel blockers Diuretics (water pills) Statins ...