Science.gov

Sample records for region eu members

  1. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries. PMID:27277421

  2. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  3. Geographic Data as Personal Data in Four EU Member States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, A. J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the application of data protection legislation to geographic data. The variety was found among the different EU Member States, the different stakeholders and the different types of geographic data. In the Netherlands, the Data Protection Authority (DPA) states that panoramic images of streets are considered personal data. While Dutch case law judges that the data protection legislation does not apply if certain features are blurred and no link to an address is provided. The topographic datasets studied in the case studies do not contain personal data, according to the Dutch DPA, while the German DPA and the Belgian DPA judge that topographic maps of a large scale can contain personal data, and impose conditions on the processing of topographic maps. The UK DPA does consider this data outside of the scope of legal definition of personal data. The patchwork of differences in data protection legislation can be harmonised by using a traffic light model. This model focuses on the context in which the processing of the data takes place and has four categories of data: (1) sensitive personal data, (2) personal data, (3), data that can possibly lead to identification, and (4) non-personal data. For some geographic data, for example factual data that does not reveal sensitive information about a person, can be categorised in the third category giving room to opening up data under the INSPIRE Directive.

  4. Support Systems for Poor Readers: Empirical Data from Six EU Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Blomert, Leo; Bertrand, Daisy; Faisca, Luis; Puolakanaho, Anne; Saine, Nina L.; Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Vaessen, Anniek; Csepe, Valeria; Lyytinen, Heikki; Reis, Alexandra; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed and compared support systems for poor readers in six member states of the European Union (EU). The goal was to identify features of effective support systems. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among mainstream teachers (n = 4,210) and remedial teachers (n = 2,395). Results indicate that the six support systems…

  5. Effects of Selected American Regional Dialects Upon Regional Audience Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Anthony; Rudd, Mary Jo

    1977-01-01

    Investigates speech norms in the United States by determining the effects of three American regional dialects on the attitudes towards speakers held by audience members from the same three regions. Includes selected dialects represented by General American, Appalachian, and Bostonian dialects. (MH)

  6. A Farm Transmission Model for Salmonella in Pigs, Applicable to E.U. Member States.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin R L; Kelly, Louise; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    The burden of Salmonella entering pig slaughterhouses across the European Union is considered a primary food safety concern. To assist E.U. member states with the development of national control plans, we have developed a farm transmission model applicable to all member states. It is an individual-based stochastic susceptible-infected model that takes into account four different sources of infection of pigs (sows, feed, external contaminants such as rodents, and new stock) and various management practices linked to Salmonella transmission/protection (housing, flooring, feed, all-in-all-out production). A novel development within the model is the assessment of dynamic shedding rates. The results of the model, parameterized for two case study member states (one high and one low prevalence) suggest that breeding herd prevalence is a strong indicator of slaughter pig prevalence. Until a member state's' breeding herd prevalence is brought below 10%, the sow will be the dominant source of infection to pigs raised for meat production; below this level of breeding herd prevalence, feed becomes the dominant force of infection. PMID:25715888

  7. An analysis of European shale gas policies: Why EU member states are pursuing divergent 'fracking' strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Ben

    The recent progression in hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' has enabled energy companies to extract once-considered, inaccessible hydrocarbons. The United States has been at the forefront of this controversial industry, revolutionizing the energy market by becoming the world's largest oil and natural gas producer as a result of its vast shale deposits. Shale oil and gas deposits are not unique to North America, however. EU member states are faced with the dilemma of whether to permit fracking domestically or suspend operations. The United Kingdom and Romania have issued concessions for exploring their reserves, while France and Bulgaria have halted all drilling efforts, citing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates why these four European countries pursued divergent fracking policies, arguing that energy security and Russian-relations are more relevant and powerful explanatory factors than a country's commitment to protecting the environment.

  8. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  9. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  10. Apprenticeship in the EU Member States. A Comparison. CEDEFOP Document. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Cheallaigh, Martina

    A study compared a number of features of apprenticeships in the 12 Member States of the European Union. The study showed that the apprentice contract or indenture has become an integral part of apprenticeship in all Member States. Admissions requirements for access to apprenticeshp, in general, are not high. Although it was an option open to those…

  11. Birds of a Feather - Developments towards shared, regional geological disposal in the EU?

    SciTech Connect

    Codee, H.D.K.; Verhoef, E.V.; McCombie, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    Geological disposal is an essential component of the long-term management of spent fuel, high level and other long-lived radioactive waste. In the EU, all 25 member states generate radioactive waste. Of course, there are large differences in type and quantity between the member states, but all of them need a long-term solution. Even a country with only lightning rods with radium will need a long-term solution for the disposal. The 1600 year half-life of radium does not fit in a solution with a span of control of just a few hundred years. Implementation of a suitable deep repository may, however, be difficult or impossible for countries with small volumes of waste, because of the high costs involved. Will economy of scale force these birds of a feather to wait to flock together and share a repository? Implementing a small repository and operating it for very long times is very costly. There are past and current examples of countries being prepared to accept radioactive waste from others if a better environmental solution is thus achieved and if the arrangements are fair for all parties involved. The need for supranational surveillance also points to shared solutions. Although the European Parliament and the Commission have both supported the concept of shared regional repositories in Europe, (national) political and societal constraints have hampered the realization of such facilities up to now. The first step in this staged process was the EC funded project, SAPIERR I. The project (2003 to 2005) studied the feasibility of shared regional storage facilities and geological repositories, for use by European countries. It showed that, if shared regional repositories are to be implemented even some decades ahead, efforts must already be increased now. The next step in the process is to develop a practical implementation strategy and organizational structures to work on shared EU radioactive waste storage and disposal activities. This is addressed in the EC funded

  12. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  13. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation? Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO2, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO2 mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  14. Measuring performance in off-patent drug markets: a methodological framework and empirical evidence from twelve EU Member States.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies post-patent expiry or after loss of exclusivity in non-tendering settings, comprising five indicators (generic availability, time delay to and speed of generic entry, number of generic competitors, price developments, and generic volume share evolution) and proposes a series of metrics to evaluate performance. The paper subsequently tests this framework across twelve EU Member States (MS) by using IMS data on 101 patent expired molecules over the 1998-2010 period. Results indicate that significant variation exists in generic market entry, price competition and generic penetration across the study countries. Size of a geographical market is not a predictor of generic market entry intensity or price decline. Regardless of geographic or product market size, many off patent molecules lack generic competitors two years after loss of exclusivity. The ranges in each of the five proposed indicators suggest, first, that there are numerous factors--including institutional ones--contributing to the success of generic entry, price decline and market penetration and, second, MS should seek a combination of supply and demand-side policies in order to maximise cost-savings from generics. Overall, there seems to be considerable potential for faster generic entry, uptake and greater generic competition, particularly for molecules at the lower end of the market. PMID:25201433

  15. 'CATT' A project on Co-operation and Technology Transfer on Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management for EU Member States with Small Nuclear Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieson, J.; Lindberg, C.

    2006-07-01

    Many of the European Union's (EU) 25 countries have considerable inventories of long-lived radioactive waste that will remain potentially hazardous for many thousands of years. Of these, several have advanced concepts and programmes for the treatment and disposal (and other long - term management options) for spent fuel and long-lived radioactive waste. Collectively, these Member States have spent the equivalent of many billions of euros in developing such concepts and some have further developed the concepts into proposed operational facilities. Member States with small nuclear programmes, face the expensive and daunting prospect o f developing their own concepts for dealing with their spent fuel and high level waste. One answer would be to seek solutions which could take advantage of the investment costs in the technology and underpinning science already incurred in the more established programmes. Thus technology transfer between Member States in areas of high level waste and spent fuel encapsulation, repository development etc. would allow the establishment of disposal facilities within any Member State for it to deal with its own wastes. The national waste management organisations of the UK (Mirex), Sweden (SKB), German y (DBE), Lithuania (RATA), Bulgaria (DPRAO) and Slovenia (ARAO), together with JRC of the Netherlands, are to undertake a project under the auspices of the EU's 6. R and D Framework Programme (FP6). The 18 month project will examine the technical, intellectual property, legal, financial and societal implications of the idea. It goes by the acronym 'CATT' - 'Cooperation and technology transfer on long term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes'. This paper describes the CATT project which will look at technology transfer methodologies by which Member States could co-operate. It covers the potential issues which may arise and ho w these may be addressed. (authors)

  16. Assessing the Effectiveness of On-Farm and Abattoir Interventions in Reducing Pig Meat-Borne Salmonellosis within E.U. Member States.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin L; Swart, Arno N; Kelly, Louise; Hald, Tine; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    As part of the evidence base for the development of national control plans for Salmonella spp. in pigs for E.U. Member States, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment was funded to support the scientific opinion required by the EC from the European Food Safety Authority. The main aim of the risk assessment was to assess the effectiveness of interventions implemented on-farm and at the abattoir in reducing human cases of pig meat-borne salmonellosis, and how the effects of these interventions may vary across E.U. Member States. Two case study Member States have been chosen to assess the effect of the interventions investigated. Reducing both breeding herd and slaughter pig prevalence were effective in achieving reductions in the number of expected human illnesses in both case study Member States. However, there is scarce evidence to suggest which specific on-farm interventions could achieve consistent reductions in either breeding herd or slaughter pig prevalence. Hypothetical reductions in feed contamination rates were important in reducing slaughter pig prevalence for the case study Member State where prevalence of infection was already low, but not for the high-prevalence case study. The most significant reductions were achieved by a 1- or 2-log decrease of Salmonella contamination of the carcass post-evisceration; a 1-log decrease in average contamination produced a 90% reduction in human illness. The intervention analyses suggest that abattoir intervention may be the most effective way to reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. However, a combined farm/abattoir approach would likely have cumulative benefits. On-farm intervention is probably most effective at the breeding-herd level for high-prevalence Member States; once infection in the breeding herd has been reduced to a low enough level, then feed and biosecurity measures would become increasingly more effective. PMID:27002673

  17. An Approach to Cluster EU Member States into Groups According to Pathways of Salmonella in the Farm-to-Consumption Chain for Pork Products.

    PubMed

    Vigre, Håkan; Domingues, Ana Rita Coutinho Calado; Pedersen, Ulrik Bo; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the project as the cluster analysis was to in part to develop a generic structured quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model of human salmonellosis due to pork consumption in EU member states (MSs), and the objective of the cluster analysis was to group the EU MSs according to the relative contribution of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain of pork products. In the development of the model, by selecting a case study MS from each cluster the model was developed to represent different aspects of pig production, pork production, and consumption of pork products across EU states. The objective of the cluster analysis was to aggregate MSs into groups of countries with similar importance of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain using available, and where possible, universal register data related to the pork production and consumption in each country. Based on MS-specific information about distribution of (i) small and large farms, (ii) small and large slaughterhouses, (iii) amount of pork meat consumed, and (iv) amount of sausages consumed we used nonhierarchical and hierarchical cluster analysis to group the MSs. The cluster solutions were validated internally using statistic measures and externally by comparing the clustered MSs with an estimated human incidence of salmonellosis due to pork products in the MSs. Finally, each cluster was characterized qualitatively using the centroids of the clusters. PMID:26856391

  18. Status and Developments of eLearning in the EU10 Member States: The Cases of Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Mutka, Kirsti; Gaspar, Pal; Kismihok, Gabor; Suurna, Margit; Vehovar, Vasja

    2010-01-01

    This article summarises research carried out between 2006 and 2008 by IPTS (Institution for Prospective Technological Studies) in collaboration with a consortium of experts from 10 member states, led by ICEGEC. The project gathered information on eLearning developments to assess drivers and barriers and to suggest implications for policy and…

  19. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain...

  20. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain...

  1. Fasting regimens for regional ophthalmic anaesthesia. A survey of members of the British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society.

    PubMed

    Steeds, C; Mather, S J

    2001-07-01

    Members of the British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society were surveyed using a postal questionnaire. The response rate was 72.3%. Respondents were asked about starvation before regional anaesthesia for cataract surgery, the use of sedation in these patients, monitoring and if oxygen supplementation was given. The results show that most patients are not starved before this type of regional anaesthesia, and that the majority of patients receive no supplementary sedation or intravenous analgesia. Over 70% of patients received oxygen supplementation. PMID:11437763

  2. Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region. PMID:20553110

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, Ana Laura; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-05-10

    The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically

  4. Size dependence of luminescent properties for hexagonal YBO3:Eu nanocrystals in the vacuum ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zheng-Gui; Sun, Ling-Dong; Liao, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Cheng; Yan, Chun-Hua; Tao, Ye; Hou, Xue-Ying; Ju, Xin

    2003-06-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra of the nanosized YBO3:Eu crystals, which have already been prepared by a more facile sol-gel pyrolysis process at a relatively low annealing temperature in our previous work, were investigated and compared to the bulk synthesized by conventional solid-state reactions. In the emission spectra, the size dependence of color purity in YBO3:Eu under VUV irradiation is in good agreement with our previous results obtained under ultraviolet excitation, and a relatively better color purity could be obtained in the YBO3:Eu phosphors with a smaller particle size. Moreover, the VUV excitation spectra of nanocrystals are also distinctly different from those of the bulk and submicrosized samples. The size dependence of the Eu-O charge transfer process, the B3O99- ion absorption, and the Y-O excitonic transition, as well as the quenching concentration, were reported and discussed.

  5. Analysis of the regions flanking the human insulin gene and sequence of an Alu family member.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, G I; Pictet, R; Rutter, W J

    1980-01-01

    The regions around the human insulin gene have been studied by heteroduplex, hybridization and sequence analysis. These studies indicated that there is a region of heterogeneous length located approximately 700 bp before the 5' end of the gene; and that the 19 kb of cloned DNA which includes the 1430 bp insulin gene as well as 5650 bp before and 11,500 bp after the gene is single copy sequence except for 500 bp located 6000 bp from the 3' end of the gene. This 500 bp segment contains a member of the Alu family of dispersed middle repetitive sequences as well as another less highly repeated homopolymeric segment. The sequence of this region was determined. This Alu repeat is bordered by 19 bp direct repeats and also contains an 83 bp sequence which is present twice. The regions flanking the human and rat I insulin genes were compared by heteroduplex analysis to localize homologous sequences in the flanking regions which could be involved in the regulation of insulin biosynthesis. The homology between the two genes is restricted to the region encoding preproinsulin and a short region of approximately 60 bp flanking the 5' side of the genes. Images PMID:6253909

  6. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-09-20

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M {approx} 4-7 M{sub Jup}). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M{sub sun}) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  7. Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke

    2010-02-01

    In 2007, European leaders agreed to source 20% of their energy needs from renewable energy; since that time, offshore wind farms have been receiving attention in the European Union (EU). In 2008, the European Community submitted a proposal to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in order to combat marine noise pollution. In consideration of these facts, the present paper aims to deduce a preliminary hypothesis and its formulation for the effect of offshore wind farm noise on fish. The following general picture is drawn: the short-term potential impact during pre-construction; the short-term intensive impact during construction; and the physiological and/or masking effects that may occur over a long period while the wind farm is in operation. The EU's proposal to UNEP includes noise databases that list the origins of man-made sounds; it is advisable that offshore wind farms should be listed in the noise databases in order to promote rational environment management. PMID:19857880

  8. The Professional Reading Habits of Senior Housing Officers at ACUHO-I Member Institutions in the Great Lakes Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the professional reading habits of Senior Housing Officers (SHOs) at ACUHO-I member institutions in the Great Lakes region, which encompasses the states of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. The findings were based on data from the survey responses of SHOs at 71 colleges and universities across the Great Lakes region of the…

  9. The implementation of the new EU water directives on different scales - two examples from the region of Trier (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellweiler, I.; Meyer, B.

    2009-04-01

    The EU water directives in Germany are being implemented and are at the moment in the process of being transformed into concrete measures. These measures mainly concern land use management and, if necessary, actions on site. For the implementation of on-site measures as well as for land use management, the field of observation and its scale lead to various challenges. The number of stakeholders and the im-pact of the EU water directives depend on the size of the catchment. The scale of the impact range from single inhabitants to local or federal planning communities and can even impact cultural heritage management. The conflict potential increases as more interests are included in the decision making process, therefore different adaptation strategies are necessary. Issues, especially those involving the divergence between individual and public interests, nature con-servation, flood prevention and economic concerns demand creative solutions. The two examples located in the region of Trier (Germany) show conflicts during the imple-mentation of the EU water directives on different scales. The Mosel, a first order river, passes through three countries on the way to the Rhine. The river gives a natural boundary to the settlement areas and forms the shape of the city of Trier. Regarding the EU Flood Water Di-rective, flood hazard and risk maps should be developed for all catchments. This can lead to conflicts between settlement developments and flood protection, as well as to loss of the eco-nomic value of private estates. A case study in Trier will be presented, where a building site as shown on the land development plan is an area prone to flooding. Up till now this area is still zoned for building and not as a flood area. Accordingly, local and spatial planning need to go hand in hand with water management. The Olewiger Bach is a small creek (3rd order), which is strongly affected by urban rain water discharge. Primarily, the removal of fixed elements within the brook

  10. Transcarpathia - Ukrainian border region at the edge of the EU. Internal and external representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.

    2013-11-01

    Starting from 1918, multiethnic Transcarpathia changed after centuries of being an integrated part of Hungary frequently its political affiliation and is since 2004 a Ukrainian border region to the European Union. Three of the four European Union neighbour countries belong since 21.12.2007 to the Schengen zone (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary), only the southern neighbour Romania is for the time being not yet a Schengen country. After a phase of relatively open borders and relatively intensive neighbourhood relations in the first transformation years, by the Schengen regime the situation for Transcarpathia changed again. The current situation, possibly still to be intensified by the Schengen entry of Romania, is likely to persist for some time. What does this mean for Transcarpathia as well as for the wider region in the northeast of the Pannonian basin? Which factors are determining the development in Transcarpathia? Which position maintains Transcarpathia within the Ukraine, how does it look at Kiev and how is it looked at by Kiev and the cis-Carpathian areas of the Ukraine? The paper deals under these aspects with economic development in Transcarpathia, the interest of foreign investors in the region, its role in the continental transportation network, the identity of the Slavonic population majority and regionalism, also with the position of the large Hungarian minority in the region and its relation to the motherland. The paper is based on a larger research project completed and published already in 2004 (Peter Jordan, Mladen Klemenčić: Transcarpathia - Bridgehead or Periphery?), but adopts also the results of a later diploma work of a student of the author (Berenike Ecker) as well as results of more recent research by the author himself. It is found that shaping by Hungarian history, borderland location and multiethnic structure can be defined as the essential components of Transcarpathian identity. Its economic potentials and perspectives rest mainly in richness

  11. The Impact of Vocational Education on Poverty Reduction, Quality Assurance and Mobility on Regional Labour Markets--Selected EU-Funded Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenborn, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Vocational education can serve to promote social stability and sustainable economic and social development. The European Union (EU) strategically employs a range of vocational educational schemes to attain these overriding goals. Topical points of focus are selected in line with requirements in the individual partner countries or regions. However,…

  12. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region: a sub-analysis of the WHO 2013 global hepatitis policy survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address it varies greatly. In 2013, the World Health Organization conducted a survey assessing national viral hepatitis efforts of 194 national governments. Here, we present a sub-analysis of this global survey focusing on questions relating to people who inject drugs in the WHO European Region. Methods The initial survey included 43 questions covering awareness, data, prevention, and screening and treatment. It was sent in five languages to identified national focal points. This sub-analysis included 11 questions and 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. Descriptive analyses of national activities are presented. As a secondary outcome bivariate analyses of differences between Member States of the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) compared to those not in said grouping are presented. Results Forty-four of the 53 Member States responded to the survey (response rate of 83%). More than three-quarters reported offering publicly-funded treatment for HBV or HCV (82% and 80%, respectively), with a significantly higher proportion of EU/EFTA Member States (P=0.004 and P=0.010, respectively). Half of Member States (53%) reported the existence of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. Conclusions Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the

  13. Internationalization, Regionalization, and Soft Power: China's Relations with ASEAN Member Countries in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, there has been a resurgence of regionalism in world politics. Prospects for new alliances are opened up often on a regional basis. In East and Southeast Asia, regionalization is becoming evident in higher education, with both awareness and signs of a rising ASEAN+3 higher education community. The quest for regional influence…

  14. Governance and evaluation: the case of EU regional policy horizontal priorities.

    PubMed

    Gore, Tony; Wells, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This paper argues that the framing of many programme evaluations tends to eschew any rigorous exploration of the governance aspects of programme design and implementation. This is illustrated by an examination of the method-based approach endorsed by the European Commission for the evaluation of its regional policy programmes. In line with previous work, this found that such evaluations, particularly those using management-based approaches, underplay the role of social and political agency in programme framing and implementation, and therefore in explaining outcomes. Acknowledging such factors is especially important in evaluating cross-cutting themes such as equal opportunities, environmental sustainability and social inclusion. Known as horizontal priorities in European Union policies, such issues at their heart reflect unease with the traditional functional organisation of the modern state, which while providing organisational efficiency gains for planning, is not able to cater for complex and multiple social realities in a postmodern world. Using evidence from South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, and in particular the Mid Term Evaluation of the 2000-2006 European Union Structural Funds Programme, the paper argues that a robust evaluation of such horizontal priorities has to incorporate the full range of governance factors. This is because their framing, implementation and possible achievements are contingent on, and shaped by, the mobilisation of social and political actors. PMID:19081136

  15. Botanical species being used for manufacturing plant food supplements (PFS) and related products in the EU member states and selected third countries.

    PubMed

    Franz, Chlodwig; Chizzola, Remigius; Novak, Johannes; Sponza, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    A great wealth of plants and plant derived preparations are used in the intention to supplement the basic nutrition in order to sustain and promote health. They may be used directly or consumed as manufactured plant food supplements (PFS) in dosed form. The use of these plants may already have a long tradition as fruit, vegetable or (folk) medicinal plants. Due to globalisation, more and more plants originating from all over the world are now offered and marketed in European countries, including species from China, South Africa and the American continent. For reasons of security, EU wide lists of plants accepted or prohibited to be used in food supplements are in elaboration. A crucial point is the correct identification of the plant material. The identity can be assessed by morphological, chemical and DNA specific methods. The active substances usable in PFS are secondary plant products that are often characteristic for certain plant groups (taxa), species or plant parts. They comprise not only polyphenols, essential oils, carotenoids and phytosterols, but also glucosinolates or saponins. The quality of the plant material used for PFS depends on a variety of factors, including the natural phytochemical, intraspecific variation with the occurrence of chemotypes, the ontogenetic variation, the considered plant parts and environmental influences during plant growth. In the production of the raw materials for PFS international standards (good agricultural practice, fair trade) should be applied. PMID:21964665

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Population in Northwestern Russia: An Update from Russian-EU/Latvian Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Mokrousov, Igor; Vyazovaya, Anna; Otten, Tatiana; Zhuravlev, Viacheslav; Pavlova, Elena; Tarashkevich, Larisa; Krishevich, Valery; Vishnevsky, Boris; Narvskaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Pskov region in northwestern Russia. PMID:22844457

  17. NEW MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS COMPLEX AND AGES OF ITS SUB-REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, B.; Bessell, M. S.

    2012-07-15

    We have spectroscopically identified {approx}100 G-, K-, and M-type members of the Scorpius-Centaurus complex. To deduce the age of these young stars we compare their Li {lambda}6708 absorption line strengths against those of stars in the TW Hydrae association and {beta} Pictoris moving group. These line strengths indicate that Sco-Cen stars are younger than {beta} Pic stars whose ages of {approx}12 Myr have previously been derived from a kinematic traceback analysis. Our derived age, {approx}10 Myr, for stars in the Lower Centaurus Crux and Upper Centaurus Lupus subgroups of ScoCen is younger than previously published ages based on the moving cluster method and upper main-sequence fitting. The discrepant ages are likely due to an incorrect (or lack of) cross-calibration between model-dependent and model-independent age-dating methods.

  18. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  19. Distinct Wnt members regulate the hierarchical morphogenesis of skin regions (spinal tract) and individual feathers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsing; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Lin, Chih-Min; Burrus, Laura W; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall

    2004-02-01

    Skin morphogenesis occurs in successive stages. First, the skin forms distinct regions (macropatterning). Then skin appendages with particular shapes and sizes form within each region (micropatterning). Ectopic DKK expression inhibited dermis formation in feather tracts and individual buds, implying the importance of Wnts, and prompted the assessment of individual Wnt functions at different morphogenetic levels using the feather model. Wnt 1, 3a, 5a and 11 initially were expressed moderately throughout the feather tract then were up-regulated in restricted regions following two modes: Wnt 1 and 3a became restricted to the placodal epithelium, then to the elongated distal bud epidermis; Wnt 5a and 11 intensified in the inter-tract region and interprimordia epidermis or dermis, respectively, then appeared in the elongated distal bud dermis. Their role in feather tract formation was determined using RCAS mediated misexpression in ovo at E2/E3. Their function in periodic feather patterning was examined by misexpression in vitro using reconstituted E7 skin explant cultures. Wnt 1 reduced spinal tract size, but enhanced feather primordia size. Wnt 3a increased dermal thickness, expanded the spinal tract size, reduced interbud domain spacing, and produced non-tapering "giant buds". Wnt 11 and dominant negative Wnt 1 enhanced interbud spacing, and generated thinner buds. In cultured dermal fibroblasts, Wnt 1 and 3a stimulated cell proliferation and activated the canonical beta-catenin pathway. Wnt 11 inhibited proliferation but stimulated migration. Wnt 5a and 11 triggered the JNK pathway. Thus distinctive Wnts have positive and negative roles in forming the dermis, tracts, interbud spacing and the growth and shaping of individual buds. PMID:15037317

  20. Project work across borders in the arctic Barents region: practical challenges for project members.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Ingrid; Anderssen, Norman; Lvova, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this article was to explore cross-border project cooperation in applied settings in health education as this emerges in the Barents region. Specifically, we wanted to identify the practical challenges for those who participate in the work. This is of direct and indirect relevance to nursing education due to the rapidly increasing student exchange rates, the teachers' increased impetus to take part in international collaboration, and the increased emphasis within nursing education to be culture sensitive and ethnically fair. The considerable differences between countries in the Barents region present clear challenges. Knowledge based on experience from everyday cross-cultural and multinational project work has not been communicated extensively, and each project will have to acquire its own knowledge. Based on participation in various cross-national collaboration projects, we organize the identified practical challenges into five interrelated, everyday challenges: (1) cultural differences: obvious and overlooked, (2) the continuous challenge of language, (3) organizational variations, (4) possibilities and obstacles related to technology, and (5) the important minutiae of project logistics. These exist in all stages of a project. In project applications, these challenges and corresponding realistic consequences for funding are vital. Nursing students and their teachers should be aware that practical cross-national project work poses important challenges that nevertheless might be overcome. PMID:18355948

  1. Members of the bHLH-PAS family regulate Shh transcription in forebrain regions of the mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Epstein, D J; Martinu, L; Michaud, J L; Losos, K M; Fan, C; Joyner, A L

    2000-11-01

    The secreted protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) is required to establish patterns of cellular growth and differentiation within ventral regions of the developing CNS. The expression of Shh in the two tissue sources responsible for this activity, the axial mesoderm and the ventral midline of the neural tube, is regulated along the anteroposterior neuraxis. Separate cis-acting regulatory sequences have been identified which direct Shh expression to distinct regions of the neural tube, supporting the view that multiple genes are involved in activating Shh transcription along the length of the CNS. We show here that the activity of one Shh enhancer, which directs reporter expression to portions of the ventral midbrain and diencephalon, overlaps both temporally and spatially with the expression of Sim2. Sim2 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH-PAS) PAS domain containing transcriptional regulator whose Drosophila homolog, single-minded, is a master regulator of ventral midline development. Both vertebrate and invertebrate Sim family members were found sufficient for the activation of the Shh reporter as well as endogenous Shh mRNA. Although Shh expression is maintained in Sim2(-)(/)(-) embryos, it was determined to be absent from the rostral midbrain and caudal diencephalon of embryos carrying a dominant-negative transgene that disrupts the function of bHLH-PAS proteins. Together, these results suggest that bHLH-PAS family members are required for the regulation of Shh transcription within aspects of the ventral midbrain and diencephalon. PMID:11023872

  2. Phosphorus budget in the water-agro-food system at nested scales in two contrasted regions of the world (ASEAN-8 and EU-27)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Romero, Estela; Grizzetti, Bruna; Némery, Julien; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Pistocchi, Chiara; Aissa-Grouz, Najla; Luu, Thi Nguyet Minh; Vilmin, Lauriane; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays a strategic role in agricultural production as well as in the occurrence of freshwater and marine eutrophication episodes throughout the world. Moreover, the scarcity and uneven distribution of minable P resources is raising concerns about the sustainability of long-term exploitation. In this paper we analyze the P cycle in anthropic systems with an original multiscale approach (world region, country, and large basin scales) in two contrasting world regions representative of different trajectories in socioeconomic development for the 1961-2009 period: Europe (EU-27)/France and the Seine River Basin, and Asia (ASEAN-8)/Vietnam and the Red River Basin. Our approach highlights different trends in the agricultural and food production systems of the two regions. Whereas crop production increased until the 1980s in Europe and France and has stabilized thereafter, in ASEAN-8 and Vietnam it began to increase in the 1980s and it is still rising today. These trends are related to the increasing use of fertilizers, although in European countries the amount of fertilizers sharply decreased after the 1980s. On average, the total P delivered from rivers to the sea is 3 times higher for ASEAN-8 (300 kg P km-2 yr-1) than for EU-27 countries (100 kg P km-2 yr-1) and is twice as high in the Red River (200 kg P km-2 yr-1) than in the Seine River (110 kg P km-2 yr-1), with agricultural losses to water in ASEAN-8 3 times higher than in EU-27. Based on the P flux budgets, this study discusses early warnings and management options according to the particularities of the two world regions, newly integrating the perspective of surface water quality with agricultural issues (fertilizers, crop production, and surplus), food/feed exchanges, and diet, defining the so-called water-agro-food system.

  3. Colorectal cancer screening in countries of European Council outside of the EU-28

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emma; D’Aloisio, Francesco; Angeletti, Paolo Matteo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide an update on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes in non-European Union (EU)-28 Council of Europe member states as of December 2015. METHODS: The mission of the Council of Europe is to protect and promote human rights in its 47 member countries. Its 19 non-EU member states are Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Georgia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Republic of Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Norway, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Switzerland, FYR of Macedonia, Turkey, and Ukraine (EU-19). The main data source were GLOBOCAN, IARC, WHO, EUCAN, NORDCAN, ENCR, volume X of the CI5, the ministerial and Public Health Agency websites of the individual countries, PubMed, EMBASE, registries of some websites and the www.cochranelibrary.com, Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, Research gate, Google and data extracted from screening programme results. RESULTS: Our results show that epidemiological data quality varies broadly between EU-28 and EU-19 countries. In terms of incidence, only 30% of EU-19 countries rank high in data quality as opposed to 86% of EU-28 states. The same applies to mortality data, since 52% of EU-19 countries as against all EU-28 countries are found in the high ranks. Assessment of the method of collection of incidence data showed that only 32% of EU-19 countries are found in the top three quality classes as against 89% of EU-28 countries. For the mortality data, 63% of EU-19 countries are found in the highest ranks as opposed to all EU-28 member states. Interestingly, comparison of neighbouring countries offering regional screening shows, for instance, that incidence and mortality rates are respectively 38.9 and 13.0 in Norway and 29.2 and 10.9 in Sweden, whereas in Finland, where a national organised programme is available, they are respectively 23.5 and 9.3. CONCLUSION: Cancer screening should be viewed as a key health care tool, also because investing in

  4. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    PubMed

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now? PMID:27353905

  5. Regional analysis of rhythmic bedding in the Fort Hays limestone member, Niobrara Formation (Upper Cretaceous), US western interior

    SciTech Connect

    Laferriere, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a regional stratigraphic investigation of the rhythmically bedded Fort Hays limestone member of Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico indicate at least two levels of cyclicity. Regional development of these cycles strongly supports the hypothesis that they are climatic in origin. Departures from simple cyclical patterns resulted from sedimentary effects of Late Cretaceous orogenic activity, erosional events associated with eustatic sea level changes, diagenetic modification, and possibly from interference between orbital parameters having different periodicities. The vulnerability of Milankovitch-type cyclicity to overprinting by tectono-sedimentologic effects makes units such as the Fort Hays useful as indicators of subtle tectonic activity. Regional thickness changes in groups of shale-limestone couplets were identified, correlated, and mapped in the subsurface using geophysical well log information in order to locate subtle structural elements that influenced Fort Hays sedimentation. In the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado and western Kansas, thinning of the section between Fort Hays marker horizons occurs dominantly along northeastwardly trending belts that resulted apparently from Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental Arch. Isotopic and petrographic analyses were conducted on pelagic (carbonate matrix) and benthic (inoceramid bivalve) constituents of selected shale/limestone couplets. These data suggest that there was little difference in temperature or salinity between times of terrigenous detrital input and times of nearly pure carbonate deposition. Isotopic information from matrix samples suggests a westward decrease in salinity of surface water in the Western Interior Sea. Isotopic data from largely unaltered inoceramid bivalves indicate bottom-water conditions of near-normal marine salinity.

  6. Regionale Meeresschutzkooperation und die EU-Gratwanderung der Helsinki-Kommission imOsterweiterungsprozess der EU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, Heike

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to describe the role of regional marine protection cooperation in the context of international cooperation. My intention is to provide evidence that regional forms of cooperation are an indispensable instrument, in particular against the backdrop of the EU enlargement to the east. Signed at times when the iron curtain still existed, the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Convention was the basis of a first reluctant cooperation between Western and Eastem states bordering on the Baltic Sea. As a result of the fall of the iron curtain and of the accession of Finland and Sweden to the European Union there was a shift in the political structure of the Baltic Sea cooperation. 4 EU member states are represented in the Helsinki Commission. As there is a total of 10 Parties (one of them the Commission of the European Communities) this means that EU countries currently already make up 50% of the Commission. The regulatory instruments of the Helsinki Commission (legally non-binding, yet politically appellative recommendations) and of the EU (directives, regulations etc. which are binding by international law) make it clear that there are serious differences. From the point of view of regional marine protection cooperation, the EC Commission’s involvement in issues of regional marine protection has been linked to both advantages and disadvantages. The pressure created by the EC’s involvement in certain issues can be considered an advantage, since it requires that certain issues are continually addressed in the framework of regional marine protection cooperation. For example, in the wake of the adoption of the nitrates directive special rules were established in the framework of the Helsinki Commission. However, the exclusive competence for individual areas (e.g. fisheries) claimed by the EC Commission sometimes has negative effects. Those member states of the Helsinki Commission which are also EU member states may formally only accept rules

  7. Biosimilar regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Kurki, Pekka; Ekman, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    In the EU, the EMA has been working with biosimilars since 1998. This experience is crystallized in the extensive set of guidelines, which range from basic principles to details of clinical trials. While the guidance may appear complicated, it has enabled the development of biosimilars, of which 21 have managed to get marketing authorization. Currently marketed biosimilars in the EU have a good track record in safety and traceability. No biosimilars have been withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The most controversial issues with biosimilars are immunogenicity and extrapolation of therapeutic indications. The available data for these topics do not raise concerns among EU regulators. Interchangeability and substitution are regulated by individual EU member states. PMID:26294076

  8. Chemical monitoring of river water bodies in an EU outermost region: examples from the Azores archipelago (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cruz, José Virgílio; Pacheco, Dina; Coutinho, Rui; Cymbron, Raquel; Mendes, Sandra; Antunes, Paulo; Fontiela, João; Freire, Pedro

    2010-12-01

    Chemical monitoring of water quality on a total of 16 rivers in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), since 2003, made it possible to identify the major pressures and spatial geochemical variations along main course of the rivers. River water pollution is to a large extent associated to point sources, namely domestic wastewater discharges, especially in urban areas, and diffuse sources, associated with pasture land, and explain the high values on BOD(5) and nutrients (P and N). Heavy metals and metalloids, as well as hydrocarbons and pesticides, are generally under the detection limits of the analytical methods. Generally, river water reflects pollution loads according to a simple model, derived from land use in the watershed: in the upper part conditions are pristine, in the intermediate portion of the basin pasture land dominates and near the coast urban discharges are increasingly important. Results stress the role that an approach based on the watershed scale, coupled with land use management measures, are crucial to water management procedures and a successful WFD implementation in small river basin districts like the Azores. The paper also shows the need for full compliance regarding EU directives on urban wastewater and nitrate pollution due to agriculture. PMID:21076769

  9. Evaluation of seismic hazard in Marmara region based on the new datasets developed in the EU-MARSITE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesetyan, Karin; Akinci, Aybige; Betül Demircioglu, Mine

    2016-04-01

    Several studies with various degrees of sophistication have been conducted for the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard in the Marmara Region (e.g. Atakan et al., 2002; Erdik et al., 2004; Kalkan et al., 2008; Gülerce and Ocak, 2013),. The common point of these studies was that they have all addressed the hazard in the region in terms of both time-independent probabilistic (simple Poissonian) and time-dependent probabilistic (renewal) models. This tendency was governed by the following considerations: 1) the region has experienced a considerable number of large magnitude events in the history, which have also shown some periodicity; 2) the existing seismic gap and the post-1999 earthquake stress transfer at the western portion of the 1000km-long NAFZ indicates a high probability of having a M>7 event in the near future close to the city of Istanbul; 3)the seismic history of the region was well documented and studied and there have been, especially in the aftermath of the 1999 Kocaeli and Düzce events, several geological investigations both on-shore and off-shore aiming to obtain a regional fault model as complete as possible, which were reflected in the fault segmentation models of the PSHA studies. Task 5.5. of the MARSITE Project aimed at a reassessment of the probabilistic seismic hazard of the Marmara region in the light of the new datasets compiled in the project. The improvement of the knowledge on the seismotectonic regime of the Marmara region paved the path for the development of alternative source models for the improvement of the existing probabilistic seismic hazard maps. In this connection, the most recent findings and outputs of different work packages of the project, in terms of seismicity, fault segmentation and slip rate data are utilized. A revised fault segementation model and associated Poisson and renewal recurrence models as well as recently emerged global and regional ground motion prediction equations are used to assessed the seismic

  10. What’s in a word? The framing of health at the regional level: ASEAN, EU, SADC and UNASUR

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Ana B; Rollet, Vincent; Kingah, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the European Union, the Southern African Development Community and the Union of South American Nations have increasingly been involved in health diplomacy in the past decade, yet little is known about how they frame health as a foreign policy issue and how this has an impact on their prioritisation of policies. For this, we conducted a review of existing grey and peer-reviewed literature that address regional integration and health, as well as a documentary review according to security, development, trade, human rights, moral/ethical reasonings and global public goods frames identified in the literature. The policy frames identified responded to the challenges these regions currently face. The Association of Southeast Asian Nation’s struggle with re-emerging diseases has led to favouring a securitisation approach to health, the European Union approaches health as a cross-cutting policy issue, the Southern African Development Community presents health as a driver for development, and while the Union of South American Nations emphasises health as a human right and addresses the social determinants of health as an ethical imperative. Overall, these policy frames were useful in analysing the framing of health in foreign policy at the regional level. However, within our analysis, we identified a new frame that approaches health as an intersectoral issue. The impact of regional organisations’ forward will depend on their ability to harness their convening power and speak in a coherent voice on health matters. PMID:26635496

  11. Dimensions of Well-Being in EU Regions: Do GDP and Unemployment Tell Us All We Need to Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kitty

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and GDP are widely used as proxies for a broader concept of well-being in the European Union, especially at regional level. This paper asks whether such an approach is reasonable. Using data from a range of sources, it examines the association between unemployment, GDP and a number of alternative well-being indicators in five…

  12. Conodont biostratigraphy of a more complete Reef Trail Member section near the type section, latest Guadalupian Series type region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Lambert, L.L.; Bell, G.L., Jr.; Fronimos, J.A.; Yisa, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    The original type section of the Reef Trail Member (uppermost part of the Bell Canyon Formation) is called the Park Boundary Section, and is less than satisfactory in several aspects. We propose a new reference section designated Reef Trail Reference section 1 (RTR1) on the same hill as the original type section. Section RTR1 compensates for some of the Park Boundary Section’s shortcomings, including better exposure of a single measured section with only minor offset. The conodont biostratigraphy of section RTR1 is presented that, when combined with a better set of described correlation intervals, allows for improved correlation to recently discovered, complete, basinal sections in the Patterson Hills. In comparison with the South Boundary basin section, both the Park Boundary and RTR1 sections are missing approximately the upper third of the Reef Trail Member. Transitional conodonts from the basin demonstrate that Jinogondolella crofti evolved directly from J. altudaensis. We formally elevate Clarkina postbitteri hongshuiensis to C. hongshuiensis.

  13. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  14. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Jackson, Robert A.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  15. Use of conserved genomic regions and degenerate primers in a PCR-based assay for the detection of members of the genus Caulimovirus.

    PubMed

    Pappu, H R; Druffel, K L

    2009-04-01

    The genus Caulimovirus consists of several distinct virus species with a double-stranded DNA genome that infect diverse plant species. A comparative analysis of the sequences of known Caulimovirus species revealed two regions that are conserved in all Caulimovirus species with the exception of Strawberry vein banding virus. Degenerate primers based on these two regions were designed and tested in a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for broad spectrum detection of members of this genus. Cauliflower mosaic virus, Figwort mosaic virus and three distinct caulimoviruses associated with dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) were used to show the utility of this test in detecting diverse caulimoviruses. The primer pair gave an amplicon of expected size (840bp). Amplicons from each virus were cloned and sequenced to verify their identity. The primer pair and the PCR assay provide approach for the broad spectrum detection of several members of the genus Caulimovirus. PMID:19100290

  16. Early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents, northern Midcontinent region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, J.R.; Leventhal, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    A process of early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides has altered the chemical composition of the Middle Pennsylvanian Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents in the northern Midcontinent region. This process was identified by comparison of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval hydrogen indices, organic carbon ??13C and element compositions of core and surface mine samples of the Excello Shale Member with analyses of three other underlying and overlying organic-matter-rich marine shales (offshore shale lithofacies) from southern Iowa, northern Missouri, eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The end product of the partial oxidation process is shale with relatively low contents of hydrogen-poor, C13-enriched organic matter, lower contents of sulfur and sulfide-forming elements, and relatively unchanged contents of phosphorus and many trace elements (e.g. Cr, Ni, and V). However, because of lower organic carbon contents, element/organic carbon ratios are greatly increased. The partial oxidation process apparently took place during subaerial exposure of the overlying marine carbonate member (Blackjack Creek Member of the Fort Scott Limestone) following a marine regression when meteoric waters percolated down to the level of the Excello muds allowing oxidation of organic matter and sulfides. This hypothesis is supported by earlier workers, who have identified meteoric carbonate cements within, and soil horizons at the top of the Blackjack Creek Member. The period of oxidation is constrained in that organic matter and sulfides in the Little Osage Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents (immediately overlying the Blackjack Creek Member) appear unaltered. Similar alteration of other shales in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian sections may be local to regional in extent and would depend on the extent and duration of the marine regression and be influenced by local variations in permeability and topography

  17. Germ line and embryonic expression of Fex, a member of the Drosophila F-element retrotransposon family, is mediated by an internal cis-regulatory control region.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, B; Fellert, S; Taubert, H; Hoch, M

    1996-01-01

    The F elements of Drosophila melanogaster belong to the superfamily of long interspersed nucleotide element retrotransposons. To date, F-element transcription has not been detected in flies. Here we describe the isolation of a member of the F-element family, termed Fex, which is transcribed in specific cells of the female and male germ lines and in various tissues during embryogenesis of D. melanogaster. Sequence analysis revealed that this element contains two complete open reading frames coding for a putative nucleic acid-binding protein and a putative reverse transcriptase. Functional analysis of the 5' region, using germ line transformation of Fex-lacZ reporter gene constructs, demonstrates that major aspects of tissue-specific Fex expression are controlled by internal cis-acting elements that lie in the putative coding region of open reading frame 1. These sequences mediate dynamic gene expression in eight expression domains during embryonic and germ line development. The capacity of the cis-regulatory region of the Fex element to mediate such complex expression patterns is unique among members of the long interspersed nucleotide element superfamily of retrotransposons and is reminiscent of regulatory regions of developmental control genes. PMID:8649411

  18. Added value and signal-to-noise in an eight-member ensemble of the KNMI regional climate model RACMO2 at 12 km resolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenderink, Geert; van Meijgaard, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Projections of future climate derived from multi-model ensembles with regional climate models, like those in CORDEX, often show large changes at regional (10-500 km) scales, in particular for precipitation. However, the inter-model differences in such ensembles are often of the same size. It is therefore not clear which part of the regional/local information from these regional climate model integrations can be trusted, and for users of climate information this is an undesirable situation. Thus, it is important to determine the cause of the inter-model differences within these multi-model ensembles. In general, three main causes can be distinguished: i) differences in future emissions (uncertainty in the forcing), ii) differences in modeling the response to this forcing (uncertainty in the climate models), and iii) differences due to natural variations not related to the forcing (natural variability). In multi-model ensembles, such as those in CORDEX, where different regional models are driven by different global climate models with different emission scenarios it is difficult to unravel the cause of differences in the projected changes. Here, we therefore investigated an eight-member ensemble with the regional climate model RACMO2 driven by one global climate model (EC-EARTH) using one emission scenario (RCP8.5). In this ensemble inter-model differences are solely attributed to natural variations. We determined the size of these natural variations compared to the forced climate change signal (defined as the average response over all ensemble members). In particular, we investigated whether the forced climate change signal contains persistent small scale features that would not be captured in the GCMs output ("added value"). Within a perfect model approach we also investigated whether these small scale structures can be reliably estimated from a limited number of model simulations.

  19. Recent, extensive, and preferential insertion of members of the miniature inverted-repeat transposable element family Heartbreaker into genic regions of maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Arbuckle, John; Wessler, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    A 314-bp DNA element called Heartbreaker-hm1 (Hbr-hm1) was previously identified in the 3′ untranslated region of a mutant allele of the maize disease resistance gene HM1. This element has structural features of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and is a member of a large family of approximately 4,000 copies in the maize genome. Unlike previously described MITEs, most members of the Hbr family display over 90% sequence identity. This, coupled with the insertion of an Hbr element into an allele of the HM1 gene, suggested that this family might have spread recently throughout the genome. Consistent with this view is the finding that Hbr insertion sites are remarkably polymorphic. Ten of ten loci containing Hbr elements were found to be polymorphic for the presence or absence of Hbr among a collection of maize inbred lines and teosinte strains. Despite the fact that over 80% of the maize genome contain moderate to highly repetitive DNA, we find that randomly chosen Hbr elements are predominantly in single or low copy regions. Furthermore, when used to query both the public and private databases of plant genes, over 50% of the sequences flanking these Hbr elements resulted in significant “hits.” Taken together, these data indicate that the presence or absence of Hbr elements is a significant contributory factor to the high level of polymorphism associated with maize genic regions. PMID:10655501

  20. Synthesis and tunable luminescent properties of Eu-doped Ca2NaSiO4F - Coexistence of the Eu2+ and Eu3+ centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mubiao; Li, Dongyu; Zhu, Guoxian; Pan, Rongkai; Fu, Xionghui

    Novel phosphors Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu were synthesized successfully by the conventional solid-state method in CO atmosphere, and their spectroscopic properties in UV-vis region were investigated. The photoluminescence properties show that Eu3+ ions were partially reduced to Eu2+ in Ca2NaSiO4F. As a result of radiation and re-absorption energy transfer from Eu2+ to Eu3+, both Eu2+ bluish-green emission at around 520 nm and Eu3+ red emission are observed in the emission spectra under the n-UV light excitation. Furthermore, the ratio between Eu2+ and Eu3+ emissions varies with increasing content of overall Eu. Because relative intensity of the red component from Eu3+ became systematically stronger, white light emission can be realized by combining the emission of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in a single host lattice under n-UV light excitation. These results indicate that the Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu phosphors have potential applications as a n-UV convertible phosphor for light-emitting diodes.

  1. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  2. 5' control regions of the apolipoprotein(a) gene and members of the related plasminogen gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Wade, D P; Clarke, J G; Lindahl, G E; Liu, A C; Zysow, B R; Meer, K; Schwartz, K; Lawn, R M

    1993-01-01

    Elevated blood levels of apolipoprotein(a), the component of lipoprotein(a) that distinguishes it from low density lipoprotein, are a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. The apolipoprotein(a) gene is highly similar to the plasminogen gene and to at least four other genes or pseudogenes. The 5' untranslated and flanking sequences of these six genes contain extensive regions of near identity and share sequence elements involved in the initiation of transcription and translation. About 1000 base pairs of flanking DNA of each gene are sufficient to promote transcription in cultured hepatocytes. The apolipoprotein(a) gene promoter contains functional interleukin 6-responsive elements, consistent with the reported acute-phase response of apolipoprotein(a). Flanking genomic fragments of the apoliprotein(a) gene from two individuals with vastly different plasma apolipoprotein(a) concentrations have sequence differences that are reflected in differences in the rate of in vitro transcription. Images PMID:7679504

  3. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443205

  4. Crystal chemistry and phase equilibria of the CaO-½Eu2O3-CoOz system at 885 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Laws, W.; Kaduk, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The CaO-½Eu2O3-CoOz system prepared at 885 °C in air consists of two calcium cobaltate compounds, namely, the 2D thermoelectric oxide solid solution, (Ca3-xEux)Co4O9-z (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) which has a misfit layered structure, and the 1D Ca3Co2O6 compound which consists of chains of alternating CoO6 trigonal prisms and CoO6 octahedra. Ca3Co2O6 was found to be a point compound without the substitution of Eu on the Ca site when prepared at 885 °C. A solid solution region of distorted perovskite, (Eu1-xCax)CoO3-z (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.22, space group Pnma) was established. The (Eu0.91(1)Ca0.09(1))CoO3-z perovskite member has a distorted structure with tilt angles θ (17.37°), ϕ (8.20°), and ω (19.16°) which represent rotations of an octahedron about the pseudo-cubic perovskite [110]p, [001]p and [111]p axes. The reported Eu2CoO4 phase was not observed at 885 °C, but a ternary Ca-doped oxide, (Eu1+xCa1-x)CoO4-z (Bmab) where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 was found to be stable at this temperature. In the peripheral binary systems, Eu was not present in the Ca site of CaO, while a small solid solution region was identified for (Eu1-xCax)O(3-z)/2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05). Seven solid solution tie-line regions and six three-phase regions were determined in the CaO-½Eu2O3-CoOz system in air.

  5. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  6. The brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger family, maps within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region at 17p11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Toshiyuki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Inazawa, Johji

    1997-03-31

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SAIS) is caused by a microdeletion of 17p11.2 and comprises developmental and growth delay, facial abnormalities, unusual behavior and sleep problems. This phenotype may be due to haploinsufficiency of several contiguous genes. The human brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger protein family, has been isolated and mapped to l7p11.2. FISH analyses of metaphase or interphase chromosomes of 6 patients with SMS show that ZNF179 was deleted in one of the 2 homologs (17p11.2), indicating a possible association of the defect of this gene with the pathogenesis of SMS. Furthermore, using a prophase FISH ordering system, we sublocalized ZNF179 proximally to LLGL which lies on the critical region for SMS. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  8. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  9. The EU as a Norm Entrepreneur: The Case of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleibrink, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The EU has become one of the most prominent promoters of lifelong learning policies. Inside the European single market, EU member states have strong incentives to adopt similar approaches to lifelong learning and recognition of educational attainments in order to foster labour mobility. More surprisingly, countries neighbouring the EU also develop…

  10. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  11. Prospects and Tasks of Educational Development in Europe at the Dawn of a New Millennium. Conference of Ministers of Education of Member States of the Europe Region (4th, Paris, France, 21-27 September 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Participants at the fourth conference of Ministers of Education of Member States of the Europe region (MINEDEUROPE IV) received this document prior to the conference. It was designed to provide the participants with information and matters for reflection that might serve as a starting point for their deliberations and help them to formulate…

  12. [Effective laws for tobacco control: EU directives and Italian legislation].

    PubMed

    Charrier, Lorena; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Coppo, Alessandro; Di Stefano, Francesca; D'Elia, Paolo; Molinar, Roberta; Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Segnan, Nereo

    2006-01-01

    Effective tobacco control policies include law issuing: bans/restrictions on smoking in public areas and workplaces, increasing of taxes on tobacco products, bans on advertising of tobacco products, warning labels on cigarette boxes. For some of these policies the European Union (EU) has introduced specific directives that EU member states have to put into law. This paper briefly presents literature data, EU directives and the laws consequently issued in Italy. The importance of standardizing European legislation, especially for those policies that are not enforced by EU directives is also discussed. In Italy and in some other European countries smoking is forbidden in public and work-places, despite no EU directive. The positive impact of this ban in these countries suggests that it should be considered a priority in the European policies against tobacco in order to reduce the gap between literature recommendations and actions. PMID:17333695

  13. Multilevel Governance and Shared Sovereignty: European Union, Member States, and the FCTC

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, HADII M.; STUDLAR, DONLEY T.

    2010-01-01

    The Westphalian idea of sovereignty in international relations has undergone recent transformation. “Shared sovereignty” through multilevel governance describes the responsibility of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in tobacco control policy. We examine how this has occurred on the EU level through directives and recommendations, accession rules for new members, tobacco control campaigns, and financial support for antitobacco nongovernmental organizations. In particular, the negotiation and ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the participation in the FCTC Conference of the Parties illustrates shared sovereignty. The EU Commission was the lead negotiator for Member States on issues over which it had jurisdiction, while individual Member States, through the EU presidency, could negotiate on issues on which authority was divided or remained with them. Shared sovereignty through multilevel governance has become the norm in the tobacco control policy area for EU members, including having one international organization negotiate within the context of another. PMID:20622934

  14. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. PMID:27318260

  15. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  19. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  20. Stability for Development, Development for Stability: The Relationship between Regional Organizations and Social Cohesion through the Lens of the EU and MERCOSUR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parton, Brent T.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies aiming to foster social cohesion seek to enhance predictability and trust among heterogeneous actors. Although undoubtedly nation-states remain the dominant context for examining social cohesion, in Europe and in South America, nation-states have formed regional organizations to support political stability and economic cooperation in a…

  1. Luminescent nitridophosphates CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2.).

    PubMed

    Pucher, Florian J; Marchuk, Alexey; Schmidt, Peter J; Wiechert, Detlef; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2015-04-20

    Nitridophosphates MP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) have been synthesized at elevated pressures and 1100-1300 °C starting from the corresponding azides and P3 N5 with EuCl2 as dopant. Addition of NH4 Cl as mineralizer allowed for the growth of single crystals. This led to the successful structure elucidation of a highly condensed nitridophosphate from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (P63 , no. 173), a=16.847(2), c=7.8592(16) Å, V=1931.7(6) Å(3) , Z=24, 2033 observed reflections, 176 refined parameters, wR2 =0.096). Upon excitation by UV light, luminescence due to parity-allowed 4f(6) ((7) F)5d(1) →4f(7) ((8) S7/2 ) transition was observed in the orange (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =575 nm), green (SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =529 nm), and blue regions of the visible spectrum (BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) and BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =450 and 460 nm, respectively). Thus, the emission wavelength decreases with increasing ionic radius of the alkaline-earth ions. The corresponding full width at half maximum values (2240-2460 cm(-1) ) are comparable to those of other known Eu(2+) -doped (oxo)nitrides emitting in the same region of the visible spectrum. Following recently described quaternary Ba3 P5 N10 Br:Eu(2+) , this investigation represents the first report on the luminescence of Eu(2+) -doped ternary nitridophosphates. Similarly to nitridosilicates and related oxonitrides, Eu(2+) -doped nitridophosphates may have the potential to be further developed into efficient light-emitting diode phosphors. PMID:25765825

  2. Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

    2014-03-01

    Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health. PMID:24463208

  3. The Lacustrine Upper Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Four Corners Region, Usa: a Lithological and Mineralogical Terrestrial Analog for Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter-McIntyre, S. L.; Chan, M. A.; McPherson, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    The upper part of the Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation is an iron- and clay-rich volcaniclastic shale deposited in an ephemeral alkaline saline lake system. Sedimentary rocks exposed in Gale Crater consist of similar non-acidic clays, possibly of lacustrine origin. Three primary clastic lithofacies are present in both the Brushy Basin Member and at Gale Crater: silt-/claystone, sandstone, and conglomerate. Both the terrestrial and martian silt-/claystone lithofacies are interpreted as lacustrine depositional environments due to features such as parallel laminated and massive sedimentary structures. Vugs are present in the siltstone/claystone facies on both the Colorado Plateau and at Gale Crater. Fluvial features are also observed in both examples such as cross-bedded sandstones and imbricated conglomerates. Concretions are present in both the Colorado Plateau and Gale Crater units. The vugs in the Brushy Basin Member preserve algal forms with cellular elaboration and are interpreted as charophyte molds. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As, P and, 2. C, S, Se, P) are associated with the microbial fossils and may be potential markers for biosignatures. Vugs at Gale Crater are a potential target to investigate the possibility of preserved microbial (algal) life where early analyses show the presence of the elements capable of supporting life. The Brushy Basin Member is composed predominately of quartz, feldspars, zeolites and altered volcanic ash. The abundant clay minerals in both the terrestrial and martian examples are hypothesized to have formed due to partial alteration of volcanic minerals in alkaline fluid. Similarly, concretions present in the terrestrial unit exhibit a diverse range of mineralogies likely due to alkaline fluid chemistries interacting with reactive volcaniclastic sediments. Terrestrial concretion mineralogy is diverse even within an outcrop or stratigraphic horizon which suggests reactants to precipitate

  4. Bulletin on Women and Employment in the EU. 1994-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin on Women and Employment in the EU, 1996

    1996-01-01

    These six bulletins examine various aspects of women's employment in the European Union (EU). In the first bulletin, the different positions of women in the labor markets of the individual EU member countries are demonstrated to mirror the roles of women in each country's family and welfare system. The problems of unemployment and underemployment…

  5. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Kimo C; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious "phosphorus challenges" given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between +23.2 (Belgium) and -2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement. PMID:26421756

  6. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  7. GTF2IRD2 from the Williams–Beuren critical region encodes a mobile-element-derived fusion protein that antagonizes the action of its related family members

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephen J.; Taylor, Kylie M.; Santucci, Nicole; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Yeo, Jen-Li; Adams, Merritt; Gunning, Peter W.; Hardeman, Edna C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary GTF2IRD2 belongs to a family of transcriptional regulators (including TFII-I and GTF2IRD1) that are responsible for many of the key features of Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS). Sequence evidence suggests that GTF2IRD2 arose in eutherian mammals by duplication and divergence from the gene encoding TFII-I. However, in GTF2IRD2, most of the C-terminal domain has been lost and replaced by the domesticated remnant of an in-frame hAT-transposon mobile element. In this first experimental analysis of function, we show that transgenic expression of each of the three family members in skeletal muscle causes significant fiber type shifts, but the GTF2IRD2 protein causes an extreme shift in the opposite direction to the two other family members. Mating of GTF2IRD1 and GTF2IRD2 mice restores the fiber type balance, indicating an antagonistic relationship between these two paralogs. In cells, GTF2IRD2 localizes to cytoplasmic microtubules and discrete speckles in the nuclear periphery. We show that it can interact directly with TFII-Iβ and GTF2IRD1, and upon co-transfection changes the normal distribution of these two proteins into a punctate nuclear pattern typical of GTF2IRD2. These data suggest that GTF2IRD2 has evolved as a regulator of GTF2IRD1 and TFII-I; inhibiting their function by direct interaction and sequestration into inactive nuclear zones. PMID:22899722

  8. The prevalence and costs of obesity in the EU.

    PubMed

    Fry, James; Finley, Willa

    2005-08-01

    The present paper reports on results obtained as part of the economics module of the LIPGENE project. It reviews recent trends in obesity in the fifteen member states of the EU (the member states before enlargement in 2004) and concludes that in 2002 for both adult men and women at least half the fifteen member states of the EU had obesity levels of >20%. In the same year the total direct and indirect annual costs of obesity in the fifteen member states of the EU were 32,800 euro x 10(6). The provision of 'healthy' foods with an adapted lipid profile provides one means of mitigating the impact of obesity. However, there are extra costs associated with the supply of such foods, via additional costs of food ingredients, identity preservation costs for premium-value food products and the penalties caused by the inability to exploit economies of scale. The limited scale of the markets for healthy foods is caused by their high selling prices. Also presented is an analysis of the costs of subsidising, throughout the EU, ingredients that improve the fatty acid profile of beef, eggs, poultry meat and low-fat spreads, so that healthier versions of these products sell at the same price as traditional alternatives. The total costs of such subsidies for these four food products would have been 10 euro x 10(9)/year in 2002, which was 30% of the direct and indirect costs of obesity. PMID:16048669

  9. Structure of National Perceptions of Social Needs across EU Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickes, Paul; Fusco, Alessio; Marlier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Back in 1975, the European Union (EU) Council of Ministers defined the poor as "individuals or families whose resources are so small as to exclude them from the minimum acceptable way of life of the Member State in which they live". This widely quoted definition leaves room for discussion about what can be considered a "minimum acceptable way of…

  10. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... European Union (``EU'') member state governments of France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom to... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member... dispute European Communities and Certain Member States--Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil...

  11. The role of regional groundwater flow in the hydrogeology of the Culebra member of the Rustler formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Corbet, T.F.; Knupp, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    Numerical simulation has been used to enhance conceptual understanding, of the hydrogeology of the Culebra Dolomite in the context of regional groundwater flow. The hydrogeology is of interest because this unit is a possible pathway for offsite migration of radionuclides from a proposed repository for defense-generated transuranic wastes (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The numerical model used is three-dimensional, extends laterally to topographic features that form the actual boundaries of a regional groundwater system, and uses a free-surface upper boundary condition to simulate the effect of change in the rate of recharge on groundwater flow. Steady-state simulations were performed to examine the sensitivity of simulation results to assumed values for hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Transient simulations, covering the time period from 14,000 years in the past to 10,000 years in the future, provided insight into how patterns of groundwater flow respond to changes in climate. Simulation results suggest that rates and directions of Groundwater flow in the Culebra change with time due to interaction between recharge, movement of the water table, and the topography of the land surface. The gentle east-to-west slope of the land surface in the vicinity of the WIPP caused groundwater in the Culebra to flow toward and discharge into Nash Draw, a topographic depression. Modern-day flow directions in the Culebra reflect regional rather than local features of the topography. Changes in Groundwater flow, however, lagged behind changes in the rate of recharge. The present-day position of the water table is still adjusting to the decrease in recharge that ended 8,000 years ago. Contaminants introduced into the Culebra will travel toward the accessible environment along the Culebra rather than by leaking upward or downward into other units. Natural changes in flow over the next 10,000 years will be small and will mainly reflect future short-term wet periods.

  12. Massive production of A2SiO4:Eu3+ and A2SiO4:Eu2+ (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) microspheres and luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fengjun; Jia, Qiuli

    2015-06-01

    A2SiO4:Eu3+ and A2SiO4:Eu2+ (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) microspheres with dense structure were synthesized by the modified spray-drying process. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, and spectrophotometer. The XRD results reveal that all samples are isostructure. The SEM results show that the obtained samples are microspheres with size in the range of 0.6-2.2 μm. Dextrin plays an important role in the formation of spherical morphology. The excitation and emission spectra of the samples indicate that Eu3+ (or Eu2+) ions doped into different alkaline earth silicates will give different emission bands in different color regions and with different emission intensities. A2SiO4:Eu3+ samples show characteristic emission bands originating from 5D0 → 7Fj transitions of Eu3+ ions. A2SiO4:Eu2+ samples show different emission bands. The two emission bands for Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ relate to the two Eu2+ activator sites locating at two Sr2+ sites in Sr2SiO4 host. The difference of luminescent properties relates to the different sites of Eu3+ (or Eu2+) ions in the A2SiO4 hosts.

  13. Comparison of abundances of chemical elements in mineralized and unmineralized sandstone of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Smith Lake District, Grants uranium region, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, C.T.; Spirakis, C.S.; Robertson, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical treatment of analytical data from the Mariano Lake and Ruby uranium deposits in the Smith Lake district, New Mexico, indicates that organic carbon, arsenic, barium, calcium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, sulfur, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium are concentrated along with uranium in primary ore. Comparison of the Smith Lake data with information from other primary deposits in the Grants uranium region and elsewhere in the Morrison Formation of the Colorado Plateau suggests that these elements, with the possible exceptions of zirconium and gallium and with the probable addition of aluminum and magnesium, are typically associated with primary, tabular uranium deposits. Chemical differences between the Ruby and Mariano Lake deposits are consistent with the interpretation that the Ruby deposit has been more affected by post-mineralization oxidizing solutions than has the Mariano Lake deposit.

  14. Supporting health systems in Europe: added value of EU actions?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Since the start of the economic crisis, the European Union's (EU's) predominant discourse has been austerity and fiscal consolidation. The detrimental effects on Europe's health systems and the health status of its citizens are well described. However, little is known about the emerging EU-level initiatives to support national health systems handle the challenges of efficient care provision and system reorganisation aimed to meet their future needs. This review analyses the manner, conditions and prospects of such EU support. First, health system objectives are increasingly entering the EU health policy agenda. Second, professional and patient mobility provisions may support member states (MS) in copying with crisis related health challenges but can potentially acerbate them at the same time. Third, in recent initiatives health system goals are more closely tied to the EU's economic growth narrative. And fourth, health system issues are taken up in existing EU-level structures for debate and exchange between MS. In addition, the design of some policies may have the potential to intensify socioeconomic and health inequalities rather than ameliorate them. PMID:23968231

  15. Patient mobility in the European Union: pushing for EU internal health market.

    PubMed

    Lang, Iris Goldner

    2009-12-01

    Having access to high-quality healthcare is a priority issue for European citizens and is recognised by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. The right to healthcare also encompasses situations where patients travel from one EU Member State to another and receive treatment there. This paper will explore the contradictory relation between the competence of EU Member States to regulate their health systems on their own, on the one hand, and free movement of services in the European Union, on the other hand. It will discuss the consequences of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this field and the provisions of the Proposal for a Directive on Patients' Rights in Cross-Border Healthcare, especially in the light of opening up of EU Member States' healthcare markets, the need to control national healthcare expenditures and to protect the welfare state and the population of the host state. PMID:20157977

  16. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  17. Eu doping and reduction into barium orthophosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ricardo D. S.; dos S. Rezende, Marcos V.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated Eu3+ and Eu2+ ion incorporation and the reduction of Eu3+ ions in a LiBaPO4 lattice using atomistic simulations based on lattice energy minimization. We predicted the most probable sites occupied by Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions, and the related charge-compensation mechanisms involved in these substitutions to the most provable reduction agent for Eu reduction. It was found that Eu3+and Eu2+ ions are the most energetically favorable for incorporation at Ba site. In the case of the Eu3+ ion, charge compensation by the LiBa‧ antisite is the most provable. Eu3+ reduction involving a H2 reduction atmosphere is the most favorable. Our results reveal that Eu3+ and Eu2+ position plays an important role in the luminescence characteristic and in the persistent luminescence mechanisms related to LiBaPO4.

  18. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (RE) (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) phosphate in vacuum ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Zhang, Guo-Bin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We report the VUV spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. ► The O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer bands at about 220 nm have been observed. ► The 4f–5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+} have been observed. ► There is energy transfer between the host and rare-earth activators. -- Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method, and their vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescent characteristics have been investigated. The band in the wavelength range of 130–157 nm and the other one range from 155 to 216 nm with the maximum at about 187 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of these compounds are attributed to the host lattice absorption and O–Zr charge transfer transition, respectively. The charge transfer bands (CTB) of O{sup 2−}-Sm{sup 3+}, O{sup 2−}-Dy{sup 3+} and O{sup 2−}-Tm{sup 3+}, in Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}-activated samples, have not been obviously observed probably because the 2p electrons of oxygen are tightly bound to the zirconium ion in the host lattice. For Eu{sup 3+}-activated samples, the relatively weak O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} CTB at about 220 nm is observed. And for Tb{sup 3+}-activated samples, the bands at 223 and 258 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. It is observed that there is energy transfer between the host lattice and the luminescent activators (e.g. Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}). From the standpoint of luminescent efficiency, color purity and chemical stability, K{sub 2}GdZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} are attractive candidates for novel yellow, red, green-emitting PDP phosphors.

  19. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV) is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep) and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR) led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in the non-coding region of

  20. Clinical development of Gene therapy needs a tailored approach: A regulatory perspective from the EU.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Gopalan; Salmikangas, Paula; Schneider, Christian K; Galli, Maria Cristina; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues; Flory, Egbert; Cossu, Giulio; Ovelgonne, Hans

    2014-02-18

    Gene therapy is a rapidly evolving field, which needs an integrated approach, as acknowledged in the Concept paper on the revision of the guideline on gene transfer medicinal products (Concept paper, EMA, 2009). The first gene therapy application for marketing authorisation was approved in the ICH region in 2012, the product being Alipogene tiparvovec (http, summary for the public, 2012). The regulatory process for this product has been commented on extensively, highlighting the challenges posed by such a novel technology (English, 2011; Flemming, 2012; Melchiorri et al, 2013; Miller, 2012). Here, as current or previous members of the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), we share our perspectives and views on gene therapy as a treatment modality based on current common understanding and regulatory experience of gene therapy products in the EU to date. It is our view that a tailored approach is needed for a given gene therapy product in order to achieve successful Marketing Authorisation. PMID:24547991

  1. Pvlea-18, a Member of a New Late-Embryogenesis-Abundant Protein Family That Accumulates during Water Stress and in the Growing Regions of Well-Irrigated Bean Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Colmenero-Flores, José M.; Moreno, Liz P.; Smith, Claudia E.; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    1999-01-01

    Pvlea-18 is a novel stress gene whose transcript is present in the dry embryo and the endosperm from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds. It accumulates in vegetative tissues in response to water deficit and abscisic acid application (J.M. Colmenero-Flores, F. Campos, A. Garciarrubio, A.A. Covarrubias [1997] Plant Mol Biol 35: 393–405). We show that the Pvlea-18 gene encodes a 14-kD protein that accumulates during late embryogenesis. Related proteins have been detected in both monocots and dicots, indicating that PvLEA-18 is a member of a new family of LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins. We also show that the PvLEA-18 transcript and protein accumulate not only in different organs of the bean seedlings during water stress but also in well-irrigated seedlings. This accumulation occurs in seedling regions with more negative values of water and osmotic potentials, such as the growing region of the hypocotyl. This phenomenon has not previously been described for LEA proteins. Immunohistochemical localization showed that the PvLEA-18 protein is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of all cell types, with a higher accumulation in the epidermis and vascular cylinder tissues, particularly in protoxylem cells and root meristematic tissues. We found a similar localization but a higher abundance in water-stressed seedlings. PMID:10318687

  2. Collapsable seal member

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  3. Collapsable seal member

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-12-08

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  4. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to transforming to a low carbon resource-efficient energy system: Insights for the European Union (EU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Jess, T.; Mahlooji, M.; Ristic, B.

    2015-12-01

    The world's energy sector is experiencing a serious transition from reliance on fossil fuel energy sources to extensive reliance on renewable energies. Europe is leading the way in this transition to a low carbon economy in an attempt to keep climate change below 2oC. Member States have committed themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and increasing the share of renewables in the EU's energy mix to 20% by 2020. The EU has now gone a step further with the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by 2050. Nevertheless, the short-term focus of the European Commission is at "cost-efficient ways" to cut its greenhouse gas emissions which forgoes the unintended impacts of a large expansion of low-carbon energy technologies on major natural resources such as water and land. This study uses the "System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment" (Hadian and Madani, 2015) to evaluate the Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) of energy sources in different European Union (EU) member states. RAF reflects the overall resource-use efficiency of energy sources with respect to four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. Weights are assigned to the four resource use efficiency criteria based on each member state's varying natural and economic resources to examine the changes in the desirability of energy sources based on regional resource availability conditions, and to help evaluating the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio. A longer-term strategy in Europe has been devised under the "Resource Efficient Europe" flagship imitative intended to put the EU on course to using resources in a sustainable way. This study will highlight the resource efficiency of the EU's energy sector in order to assist in a sustainable transition to a low carbon economy in Europe. ReferenceHadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All

  5. Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use: an overview.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    For the 28 member states of the European Union, Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which repeals Directive 2001/20/EC, represents a substantial innovation in the procedures for authorising clinical trials and for handling all the subsequent stages. It introduces a single authorisation that will be valid for all EU member states, as well as a single portal through which all data concerning all clinical trials performed throughout the EU will pass. The present article offers an overview of the general aspects of the new procedures. It does not address the specific issues involved, each of which merits separate examination. PMID:25522070

  6. Preferential Eu Site Occupation and Its Consequences in the Ternary Luminescent HalidesAB2I5:Eu2+(A=Li–Cs;B=Sr, Ba)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fang, C.  M.; Biswas, Koushik

    2015-07-22

    Several rare-earth-doped, heavy-metal halides have recently been identified as potential next-generation luminescent materials with high efficiency at low cost. AB2I5:Eu2+ (A=Li–Cs; B=Sr, Ba) is one such family of halides. Its members, such as CsBa2I5:Eu2+ and KSr2I5:Eu2+, are currently being investigated as high-performance scintillators with improved sensitivity, light yield, and energy resolution less than 3% at 662 keV. Within the AB2I5 family, our first-principles-based calculations reveal two remarkably different trends in Eu site occupation. The substitutional Eu ions occupy both eightfold-coordinated B1(VIII) and the sevenfold-coordinated B2(VII) sites in the Sr-containing compounds. However, in the Ba-containing crystals, Eu ions strongly prefer themore » B2(VII)sites. This random versus preferential distribution of Eu affects their electronic properties. The calculations also suggest that in the Ba-containing compounds one can expect the formation of Eu-rich domains. These results provide atomistic insight into recent experimental observations about the concentration and temperature effects in Eu-doped CsBa2I5. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to luminescent properties and applications. We also hypothesize Sr, Ba-mixed quaternary iodides ABaVIIISrVIII5:Eu as scintillators having enhanced homogeneity and electronic properties.« less

  7. AGU lost members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mail to the following members has been returned, and we are unable to locate forwarding addresses. If you have information on any of them, please contact AGU by mail or call toll free at 800-424-2488.

  8. Locations of the ets subfamily members net, elk1, and sap1 (ELK3, ELK1, and ELK4) on three homologous regions of the mouse and human genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Giovane, A.; Sobieszczuk, P.; Mignon, C.; Mattei, M.G.; Wasylyk, B.

    1995-10-10

    Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are related members of the Ets oncoprotein family. We show by in situ hybridization on banded chromosomes with specific cDNA probes that their map positions on mouse and human chromosomes (respectively) are net, 10C-D1 and 12q22-q23 (now called ELK3), sap1, 1E3-G and 1q32 (ELK4), and elk1, XA1-A3 and Xp11.2-p11.1 (ELK1), as well as a second locus 14q32 (ELK2) unique to the human genome. The results for the mouse net, sap1, and elk1 and human ELK3 genes are new. The human elk1 mapping confirms a previous study. The human ELK4 localization agrees with data published during the preparation of the manuscript. Human ELK3 colocalizes with sap2, and we confirm that they are identical. These results firmly establish for the first time that Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are distinct gene products with different chromosomal localizations in both the mouse and the human genomes. Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are conserved and map to homologous regions of the mouse and human chromosomes. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Locations of the ets subfamily members net, elk1, and sap1 (ELK3, ELK1, and ELK4) on three homologous regions of the mouse and human genomes.

    PubMed

    Giovane, A; Sobieszczuk, P; Mignon, C; Mattei, M G; Wasylyk, B

    1995-10-10

    Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are related members of the Ets oncoprotein family. We show by in situ hybridization on banded chromosomes with specific cDNA probes that their map positions on mouse and human chromosomes (respectively) are net, 10C-D1 and 12q22-q23 (now called ELK3), sap1, 1E3-G and 1q32 (ELK4), and elk1, XA1-A3 and Xp11.2-p11.1 (ELK1), as well as a second locus 14q32 (ELK2) unique to the human genome. The results for the mouse net, sap1, and elk1 and human ELK3 genes are new. The human elk1 mapping confirms a previous study. The human ELK4 localization agrees with data published during the preparation of the manuscript. Human ELK3 colocalizes with sap2, and we confirm that they are identical. These results firmly establish for the first time that Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are distinct gene products with different chromosomal localizations in both the mouse and the human genomes. Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are conserved and map to homologous regions of the mouse and human chromosomes. PMID:8575773

  10. Shared idiotopes among antibodies encoded by heavy-chain variable region (VH) gene members of the J558 VH family as basis for cross-reactive regulation of clones with different antigen specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Victor-Kobrin, C; Manser, T; Moran, T M; Imanishi-Kari, T; Gefter, M; Bona, C A

    1985-01-01

    A wide idiotype cross-reactivity was observed among six groups of monoclonal antibodies specific for arsonate and nitrophenyl haptens, hemagglutinin of PR8 and X31 influenza viruses, dextran, A48-idiotype, and a set of six monoclonal antibodies with unknown antigenic specificity. All of these antibodies are encoded by heavy-chain variable region (VH) genes belonging to the J558 VH family. This idiotypic cross-reactivity was determined by studying the binding of these antibodies to a panel of six monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, each one raised against a member of the six groups of monoclonal antibodies. The administration at birth of two such monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies induced a long-lasting suppression not only of the corresponding idiotype but also of VH-related idiotypes with different antigenic specificities. These results suggest that the idiotypes encoded by VH genes that belong to the same VH gene family are interactive one with another. The possible physiological consequences of this immunochemical cross-reactivity are discussed. PMID:2415968

  11. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, R.; Kreins, P.; Tetzlaff, B.; Wendland, F.

    2009-04-01

    The fundamental objectives of the European Union-Water Framework Directive and the EU Groundwater Directive are to attain a good status of water and groundwater resources in the member states of the EU by 2015. Following the implementation time table, the EU member States carried out a review about the qualitative and quantitative status for all river basins in the EU. For river basins, whose good status cannot be guaranteed by 2015, catchment wide operational plans and measurement programs are to be drafted and implemented until 2009. In the river basin district Weser, Germany, which comprises a catchment area of ca. 49.000 km2, the achievement of the good status is unclear, or rather unlikely for 63% of the groundwater bodies. Inputs from diffuse sources and most of all nitrogen losses from agriculturally used land have been identified as the main reasons for exceeding the groundwater threshold value for nitrate (50 mg/l) and for failing the „good qualitative status" of groundwater in 2015. For this reason the drafting and implementation of measurement programs in the Weser basin are primarily focused on nitrate. The achievement of good qualitative status of groundwater bodies entails a particular challenge especially for large river basins as the complex ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological and agro-economic relationships have to be considered simultaneously. Integrated large scale agroeconomic- hydrologic models are powerful tools to analyze the actual pollution loads and "hot spot" areas and to predict the temporal and spatial effects of reduction measures. We used the interdisciplinary model network REGFLUD to predict the nitrogen intakes into groundwater and the nitrogen losses to surface waters by different pathways at the regional scale using an area differentiated approach. The model system combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses from agriculture and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ/WEKU for describing the

  12. Probing dual mode emission of Eu3+ in garnet phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Gi Lee, Dong; Soo Yi, Soung; Jang, Kiwan; Shin, Dong-Soo; Hyun Jeong, Jung

    2013-05-01

    Eu3+ doped and Eu3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd3Ga5O12 phosphors have been developed by facile solid state reaction method which can be easily scaled-up in large quantity. The synthesis has been optimized to get a single phase material at 1300 °C. The phase and crystal parameters have been analyzed by using X-ray diffraction measurement. Photoluminescence excitation (monitored for the 5D0 → 7F1 transition of Eu3+) depicts that the active ion (Eu3+) can be excited through direct excitation into 4f band of Eu3+, through charge transfer band (Eu3+-O2-) excitation and also through the excitation into 8S7/2 → 6IJ intra f-f transition of Gd3+ ion, which significantly all together cover a broad excitation region in 200-420 nm. In addition, in the presence of Yb3+ ions, the emission is also achieved by near infrared excitation (976 nm), through a typical upconversion (UC) process. Thus, the material efficiently behaves as a dual mode emitting phosphor (emission is achieved both through normal fluorescence and through UC process). The conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells is only 15% of terrestrial solar energy for 200-400 nm region and also the sub-band gap energy (in infrared region) is lost as heat; therefore, this kind of dual mode phosphors may be used to overcome the above mentioned incomplete utilization of the solar spectrum and can open realm of new possibilities for energy harvesting.

  13. Cyan-emitting LiBaBO3:Eu2+ phosphor: Crystal structure and luminescence property comparison with LiSrBO3:Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhaohui; Ji, Haipeng; Fang, Minghao; Molokeev, Maxim S.; Liu, Shuyue; Liu, Yan'gai; Wu, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    Cyan-emitting LiBaBO3:Eu2+ phosphor was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 800 °C. Structure refinement by Rietveld method reveals that LiBaBO3 crystallizes in a monoclinic cell, space groups P21/c or P21/n. Upon 365 nm excitation, LiBaBO3:Eu2+ shows a symmetric emission band peaking at 496 nm with full-width at half-maximum of 80 nm; when monitoring at 496 nm, a broad excitation band in the UV region (250-420 nm) is observed. The luminescence property of LiBaBO3:Eu2+ is considerably different from LiSrBO3:Eu2+ which holds the same space group. The local structures of the two hosts are compared to explain the different behaviors of Eu2+.

  14. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    relations in health services, it will be difficult to realize these opportunities given the pre-dominance of public healthcare delivery in the EU and sensitivities associated with commercializing healthcare. Hence, a gradual approach based on pilot initiatives and selective collaboration would be advisable initially, which could be expanded once there is demonstrated evidence on outcomes. Overall, the paper makes a contribution to the social science and health literature by adding to the limited primary evidence base on globalization and health, especially from a developing-developed country and regional perspective. PMID:21310041

  15. Inhibition of translation by IFIT family members is determined by their ability to interact selectively with the 5′-terminal regions of cap0-, cap1- and 5′ppp- mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parimal; Sweeney, Trevor R.; Skabkin, Maxim A.; Skabkina, Olga V.; Pestova, Tatyana V.

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal recruitment of cellular mRNAs depends on binding of eIF4F to the mRNA’s 5′-terminal ‘cap’. The minimal ‘cap0’ consists of N7-methylguanosine linked to the first nucleotide via a 5′-5′ triphosphate (ppp) bridge. Cap0 is further modified by 2′-O-methylation of the next two riboses, yielding ‘cap1’ (m7GpppNmN) and ‘cap2’ (m7GpppNmNm). However, some viral RNAs lack 2′-O-methylation, whereas others contain only ppp- at their 5′-end. Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are highly expressed effectors of innate immunity that inhibit viral replication by incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we investigated the ability of IFIT family members to interact with cap1-, cap0- and 5′ppp- mRNAs and inhibit their translation. IFIT1 and IFIT1B showed very high affinity to cap-proximal regions of cap0-mRNAs (K1/2,app ∼9 to 23 nM). The 2′-O-methylation abrogated IFIT1/mRNA interaction, whereas IFIT1B retained the ability to bind cap1-mRNA, albeit with reduced affinity (K1/2,app ∼450 nM). The 5′-terminal regions of 5′ppp-mRNAs were recognized by IFIT5 (K1/2,app ∼400 nM). The activity of individual IFITs in inhibiting initiation on a specific mRNA was determined by their ability to interact with its 5′-terminal region: IFIT1 and IFIT1B efficiently outcompeted eIF4F and abrogated initiation on cap0-mRNAs, whereas inhibition on cap1- and 5′ppp- mRNAs by IFIT1B and IFIT5 was weaker and required higher protein concentrations. PMID:24371270

  16. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in the prospective spintronic material Eu1‑x Gd x O integrated with Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenov, Oleg E.; Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Tokmachev, Andrey M.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.; Storchak, Vyacheslav G.

    2016-06-01

    Remarkable properties of EuO make it a versatile spintronic material. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies of EuO, little is known about the anomalous Hall effect in this ferromagnet. So far, the effect has not been observed in bulk EuO, though has been detected in EuO films with uncontrolled distribution of defects. In the present work doping is taken under control: epitaxial films of Gd-doped EuO are synthesized integrated with Si using molecular beam epitaxy and characterized with x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Nanoscale transport studies reveal the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnetic region for samples with different Gd concentration. The saturated anomalous Hall effect conductivity value of 5.0 S·cm‑1 in Gd-doped EuO is more than an order of magnitude larger than those reported so far for Eu chalcogenides doped with anion vacancies.

  18. Anomalous Hall effect in the prospective spintronic material Eu1-x Gd x O integrated with Si.

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Oleg E; Averyanov, Dmitry V; Tokmachev, Andrey M; Taldenkov, Alexander N; Storchak, Vyacheslav G

    2016-06-01

    Remarkable properties of EuO make it a versatile spintronic material. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies of EuO, little is known about the anomalous Hall effect in this ferromagnet. So far, the effect has not been observed in bulk EuO, though has been detected in EuO films with uncontrolled distribution of defects. In the present work doping is taken under control: epitaxial films of Gd-doped EuO are synthesized integrated with Si using molecular beam epitaxy and characterized with x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Nanoscale transport studies reveal the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnetic region for samples with different Gd concentration. The saturated anomalous Hall effect conductivity value of 5.0 S·cm(-1) in Gd-doped EuO is more than an order of magnitude larger than those reported so far for Eu chalcogenides doped with anion vacancies. PMID:27165844

  19. Stress in service members.

    PubMed

    Lande, R Gregory

    2014-12-01

    Military service differs from civilian jobs in the stressors that service members experience, including frequent deployments (eg, to an area of combat operations), obedience, regimentation, subordination of self to the group, integrity, and flexibility. The military culture emphasizes teamwork and peer support. In some cases, service members cannot adapt to military life, become overwhelmed by stress, or cannot overcome a traumatic experience. Clinicians should conduct a thorough evaluation guided by an understanding of the military culture. Every effort should be made to identify the stress and the maladaptive response and provide early clinical interventions to prevent progression. PMID:25455065

  20. Accelerators for society: succession of European infrastructural projects: CARE, EuCARD, TIARA, EuCARD2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the realization of CARE (Coordinated Accelerator R&D), EuCARD (European Coordination of Accelerator R&D) and during the national annual review meeting of the TIARA - Test Infrastructure of European Research Area in Accelerator R&D. The European projects on accelerator technology started in 2003 with CARE. TIARA is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparatory phase) is an European infrastructural project run by this Consortium and realized inside EU-FP7. The paper presents a general overview of CARE, EuCARD and especially TIARA activities, with an introduction containing a portrait of contemporary accelerator technology and a digest of its applications in modern society. CARE, EuCARD and TIARA activities integrated the European accelerator community in a very effective way. These projects are expected very much to be continued.

  1. Mistakes Board Members Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Board members should avoid 10 common errors: losing patience, behaving badly, challenging the board after a vote, acting like inspectors, micromanaging school administrators, springing surprise questions at meetings, putting politics before children, representing special interests, violating executive session, and putting the board before family…

  2. The Labour Market Situation of EU and of Third Country Nationals in the European Union. Labour Market Research Topics No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiehl, Melanie; Werner, Heinz

    The nonnational population and labor force in the 15 European Union (EU) member states were characterized from the standpoints of size and structure, and the labor market conditions faced by nationals and nonnationals were compared. In 1995, the nonnational labor force in the EU totaled approximately 7.8 million; nearly 3 million were citizens of…

  3. Online Medical Literature Consultation Habits of Academic Teaching Physicians in the EU and CIS Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Voort, Chiel T. M.; Swenne, Cees A.; van der Hoorn-van Velthoven, Catharina A. M.; Belt, Johannes H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and in the European Union (EU2004), ample availability of up to date medical scientific literature is important for progress in medical science and for the education of the next generation of healthcare workers. The aim of this research is to assess if the use of online medical literature among academic teaching (AT) physicians is at the same level in the CIS as in the EU2004. Methodology/Principal Findings In the capital cities of the CIS and the EU2004 member states, AT physicians holding an academic position at least equivalent to an associate professor and performing the three classical tasks in academic medicine (teaching, research and patient care) were interviewed about their use of and familiarity with the Internet and 9 online literature services, including journals and bibliographical databases such as PubMed (Medline), The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Library staff members were interviewed about the availability of these online literature services at their libraries. About 750 physicians and 40 library staff members were invited for participation. Eventually 124 AT physicians and 22 library staff members participated. Internet was everywhere available, but used daily by more AT physicians in the EU2004 (71% versus 48% in the CIS, P = .005). AT physicians in the EU2004 accessed a higher percentage of all articles online (74% versus 43% in the CIS, P<.001). PubMed (P<.001), The Cochrane Library (P<.001) and Web of Science (P<.003) were used more frequently in the EU2004. In the EU2004 more AT physicians were familiar with Open Access journals (89% versus 51% in the CIS, P<.001). Conclusions/Significance AT physicians in the CIS use online medical literature less than in the EU2004. It is recommended that the awareness of freely available online literature services such as Open Access journals is enhanced among AT physicians and library staff members, especially in the CIS. PMID

  4. Diabetes device reimbursement in the EU-5.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Bobáková, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    The reimbursement landscape for new and innovative diabetes devices in Europe is very heterogeneous and nontransparent, with each country employing different mechanisms, pathways, and requirements. This article provides an overview of how diabetes device reimbursement works in the outpatient setting in the five major European Union markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom; the EU-5). It will be of particular interest to manufacturers of innovative devices. Markets are first categorized as either a centralized or a regionalized reimbursement decision-making system, and implications for device reimbursement are explored. In the second part, specific requirements and success factors for wide reimbursement in the EU-5 are analyzed in detail. Gaining early acceptance by the main influencers (key opinion leaders and payers) is the first step. Equally important is the provision of convincing evidence, be this clinical, health-economic (cost-effectiveness), or a demonstration of cost savings (budget impact). In some countries, local usage data may be a requirement as well. Lastly, as payers' willingness to pay stems directly from their perceived value of a device, a key success factor and a necessary precondition for manufacturers is to set the right price. PMID:23911192

  5. Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

  6. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  7. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

  8. AGU members win Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six AGU members have been awarded Fulbright grants to lecture or conduct research abroad during the current (1985-1986) academic year, according to the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, which helps to administer the Fulbright Scholar Program.James R. Barcus, a professor of physics at the University of Denver, is lecturing and doing research in thunderstorm coupling in global electricity at Catholic University in Lima, Peru, from January through June 1986.

  9. The VMI study on angular distribution of ejected electrons from Eu 4f76p1/26d autoionizing states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Shen, Li; Dong, Cheng; Dai, Chang-Jian

    2015-10-01

    The combination of a velocity mapping imaging technique and mathematical transformation is adopted to study the angular distribution of electrons ejected from the Eu 4f76p1/26d autoionizing states, which are excited with a three-step excitation scheme via different Eu 4f76s6d 8 DJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2) intermediate states. In order to determine the energy dependence of angular distribution of the ejected electrons, the anisotropic parameters are measured in the spectral profile of the 6p1/26d autoionizing states by tuning the wavelength of the third-step laser across the ionic resonance lines of the Eu 6s+ → 6p+. The configuration interaction is discussed by comparing the angular distributions of ejected electrons from the different states. The present study reveals the profound variations of anisotropic parameters in the entire region of autoionization resonance, highlighting the complicated nature of the autoionization process for the lowest member of 6p1/26d autoionization series. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174218).

  10. [Comment on] BOSP members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  11. Luminescence properties of rare earth doped metal oxide nanostructures: A case of Eu-ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, D.; Acharya, B. S.; Panda, N. R.

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports the growth and luminescence properties of Eu doped ZnO nanostructures. The experiment has been carried out by synthesizing the materials by simple wet-chemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show expansion of ZnO lattice with the incorporation of Eu ions which has been confirmed from the appearance of Eu2O3 as a minor phase in the XRD pattern. The estimation of crystallite size from XRD results matches closely with the results obtained from transmission electron microscopy. Further, these results show the formation of nanosized Eu-ZnO particles of average size around 60 nm stacked on each other. FTIR studies show the presence of both Zn-O and Eu-O modes in the spectra supporting the results obtained from XRD. The interesting results obtained from photoluminescence (PL) measurements show the presence of both band edge emission in UV region and the defect emissions in violet, blue and green region. The appearance of 5D0→7FJ transitions of Eu3+ ions in red region clearly suggests the possible occurrence of energy transfer between the energy states of ZnO host and Eu3+ ions.

  12. Boon or burden: what has the EU ever done for science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Alison; Butler, Declan; Gibney, Elizabeth; Schiermeier, Quirin; van Noorden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    More than 500 million people and 28 nations make up the European Union. It will lose one of its richest, most populous members, if the United Kingdom votes to leave on 23 June. Ahead of a possible ‘Brexit’, Nature examines five core ways that the EU shapes the course of research.

  13. Digital Dividend Aware Business Models for the Creative Industries: Challenges and Opportunities in EU Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossiavelou, Vassiliki

    EU counties have a historically unique opportunity to enable their creative industries to promote the knowledge societies, applying new business models to their media content and networks markets, that are digital dividend (DD) aware. This new extra-media gatekeeping factor could shape new alliances and co operations among the member states and the global media markets, as well.

  14. EU-China Environment Research: Enhancing collaboration through SPRING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michaela; Han, Dawei

    2013-04-01

    There are huge challenges in both known and potential environmental problems in China and EU. Local geographical and climate conditions vary significantly across the two regions. For example the distribution of water resources is spatially and temporally uneven and often leads to water shortages in some areas, and flooding in others. In addition there is a sharp drop in mineral, oil and gas resources, as well as an increase in the living standard, which is a challenge for sustainable development. China's economy is still growing fast, placing an increased burden on the environment. The EU's economy is more developed with a rich experience in dealing with environmental problems in a fast growing economy. Therefore, it is mutually beneficial for the two sides to collaborate in environmental research. The FP7 funded SPRING project is intended to facilitate better EU-China environmental research cooperation and to create a long-term environment vision with clearly identifiable pathways for the two partners to work together. The project team is composed of five EU partners and five Chinese partners with expertise in water, soil, air, climate change and biodiversity. The project runs from March 2010-Feburary 2013. SPRING has taken a multi-level approach to achieving this, developing foresight and road-mapping studies to manage long term aims and facilitate increased cooperation and exchange for researchers, policy and decision makers and funding bodies. The outcomes of the project include detailed technology survey, success scenario analysis and EU-Horizon research road map with a focus on the research needs between EU and China in the next twenty years.

  15. Anticipation of Occupation and Qualification Trends in the European Union: Innovations for Effective Anticipation of Qualification and Competence Trends and the Adaptation of VET Provision in Member States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    The approaches being taken and innovations being adopted at the national and European levels to anticipate occupation and qualification trends in the European Union (EU) were examined in a survey of the 15 EU member states. The survey findings were presented by country and in a synthesis. In addition, the findings for Belgium were broken down by…

  16. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  17. Structural, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Radić, Nenad; Grbić, Boško; Maletić, Slavica; Stefanov, Plamen; Pačevski, Aleksandar; Vasilić, Rastko

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we used plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in water solution containing 10 g/L Na3PO4·12H2O + 2 g/L Eu2O3 powder for preparation of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings. The surfaces of obtained coatings exhibit a typical PEO porous structure. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings are mainly composed of Ti, O, P, and Eu; it is observed that Eu content in the coatings increases with PEO time. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the coatings are crystallized and composed of anatase and rutile TiO2 phases, with anatase being the dominant one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Ti 2p spin-orbit components of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings are shifted towards higher binding energy, with respect to pure TiO2 coatings, suggesting that Eu3+ ions are incorporated into TiO2 lattice. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed that TiO2:Eu3+ coatings exhibit evident red shift with respect to the pure TiO2 coatings. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings are characterized by sharp emission bands in orange-red region ascribed to f-f transitions of Eu3+ ions from excited level 5D0 to lower levels 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). The excitation PL spectra of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings can be divided into two regions: the broad band region from 250 nm to 350 nm associated with charge transfer state of Eu3+ and the series of sharp peaks in the range from 350 nm to 550 nm corresponding to direct excitation of the Eu3+ ions. It is observed that the intensity of peaks in excitation and emission PL spectra increases with the concentration of Eu3+, but the peak positions remain practically unchanged. The ratio of PL emission for electric and magnetic dipole transitions indicates highly asymmetric environment around Eu3+ ions. The photocatalytic activity (PA) of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings is evaluated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. It is shown that PEO time, i.e., the amount

  18. Quantitative analysis of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt by spectrophotometry and electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tack-Jin; Uehara, Akihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu

    2011-02-01

    The redox behavior of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in the LiCl-KCl eutectic at 773 K was investigated. Since the equilibrium potential of the melt is very close to the redox potential of the Eu 3+|Eu 2+ couple, the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ species coexist. Quantitative analysis of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ was performed by spectrophotometry and by potentiometry. Under the coexistence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+, potentiometric titration of Eu ion using a yttria-stabilized zirconia membrane electrode (YSZME) was performed by changing the concentration of O 2-. The formation of the europium oxychloride, EuOCl, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, whiles no precipitation of the oxides, EuO and Eu 2O 3, was found. The equivalent point of the EuOCl formation ( x = [O 2-] added/[Eu] total) was shifted to a smaller value from the theoretical value ( x = 1) due to the coexisting Eu 2+. The contribution of the coexisting Eu 2+ to the formation of EuOCl was estimated by using [Eu 2+]/[Eu 3+] as determined by potentiometry and this was subtracted from the titration data. The solubility product of EuOCl was determined to be p ks(EuOCl) = 7.81 ± 0.10.

  19. Suicides and suicide attempts among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2012; methods of self-harm vary by major geographic region of assignment.

    PubMed

    Corr, William P

    2014-10-01

    This report analyzed data from the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report program about suicide events (suicide attempts and suicides) among active component service members during 2010-2012. Most attempts (85.2%) and suicides (83.5%) occurred among service members stationed in the U.S. Drugs were identified as the method of self-harm in 54.8% of attempts but in only 3.6% of suicides. Firearms were the leading method of suicide in both the U.S. and combat zones (61.1% and 97.2%, respectively) but accounted for only 5.4% of suicides in those stationed in Europe/Asia. Hanging/asphyxiation (22.9% overall) was the second most common method in suicides. For suicides using firearms, the rates of suicide and the types of firearm used varied according to service members' geographically related access to firearms. Challenges to reducing the frequency of service member suicides by firearms are discussed. PMID:25357138

  20. Monodisperse spherical mesoporous Eu-doped TiO2 phosphor particles and the luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jianbo; Xiang, Liqin; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2007-03-01

    Monodisperse spherical and mesoporous Eu-doped TiO2 phosphor particles were prepared by nonionic surfactant-assisted soft-chemistry method. It is shown that the phosphor particles possess submicron diameter of about 250nm and narrow size distribution. Under ultraviolet irradiation the particles show characteristic luminescence corresponding to D05-Fj7 of Eu3+. Especially, the calcined particles consisted of mesopores and semicrystalline framework shows the strongest photoluminescence compared to the amorphous particles without annealing and the completely crystalline particles annealed at higher temperature. This is attributed to the energy transfer from titania nanocrystallite to Eu3+ ions dispersed in glassy amorphous titania region.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of Eu3+-doped hydroxyapatite nanocrystal and the thermal treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Flávia R. O.; de Lima, Nelson B.; Bressiani, Ana Helena A.; Courrol, Lilia C.; Gomes, Laércio

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present the synthesis, characterization and the luminescence properties of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (hydroxyapatite/HAp) nanocrystals doped with europium trivalent ions. The most important processes that lead to europium emissions in the visible region were identified. Eu:HAp nanopowder excited at 394 nm (or 460 nm) exhibits several emissions: (i) weak emissions at 579 nm, 592 nm and 616 nm due to the 5D0 → 7F0, 5D0 → 7F1 and 5D0 → 7F2 transitions, respectively, with europium ion occupying site I in hydroxyapatite structure and (ii) strong emissions due to the 5D0 → 7F0 (574 nm), 5D0 → 7F1 (602 nm) and 5D0 → 7F2 (610-630 nm) transitions, when Eu3+ is occupying site II. The emission spectrum and the time-resolved luminescence analysis showed that the HAp nanocrystals (nanopowder) thermally treated at temperature (T) between 500 and 800 °C have a change in the initial Eu3+ site distribution of 100 % of Eu3+ at site I to a more stable one where the majority of europium ions are at site II: 30% remains at site I and 70% migrates to site II. In addition, an enhancement of the Eu3+ emission intensity is observed due to the increasing crystallite size. A time-resolved luminescence investigation using a short pulse laser excitation at 460 nm was employed to measure the luminescence decays and to determine the most important mechanisms involved in the deexcitation process of 5D0 excited state of Eu3+, where it is seen a fast (2.9 μs) energy transfer from Eu3+- site I (donor) to Eu3+- site II (acceptor) in the thermally treated nanopowders with T > 500 °C. The initial presence of 100% of Eu3+ at site I in the synthesized nanocrystals is gradually modified by the thermal treatments with temperatures above 500 °C by thermal activation of Ca2+ vacancy (the charge compensator) diffusion through the HAp lattice, which propitiates the Ca2+- vacancies and Eu3+ ions to exchange positions in the lattice. By this thermal activated mechanism, Eu3+ ion migrates

  2. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. PMID:26574580

  3. Giant magnetocaloric effect in magnetically frustrated EuHo2O4 and EuDy2O4 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, A.; Khan, N.; Bhoi, D.; Mandal, P.

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of EuHo2O4 and EuDy2O4 by magnetization and heat capacity measurements down to 2 K. These compounds undergo a field-induced antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition and exhibit a huge entropy change. For a field change of 0-8 T, the maximum magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes are 30 (25) J kg-1 K-1 and 12.7 (16) K, respectively, and the corresponding value of refrigerant capacity is 540 (415) J kg-1 for EuHo2O4 (EuDy2O4). These magnetocaloric parameters also remain large down to lowest temperature measured and are even larger than that for some of the potential magnetic refrigerants reported in the same temperature range. Moreover, these materials are highly insulating and exhibit no thermal and field hysteresis, fulfilling the necessary conditions for a good magnetic refrigerant in the low-temperature region.

  4. LaVo4: Eu Phosphor Films with Enhanced Eu Solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Harold

    2011-08-11

    Eu doped rare-earth orthovanadates are known to be good red phosphor materials. In particular, LaVO{sub 4}:Eu is a promising candidate due to the low Eu-site point symmetry, and thus high dipole transition probability within Judd-Ofelt theory. However, the low solubility limit (< 3 mol %) of Eu in LaVO{sub 4} prevents its efficient use as a phosphor. We present optical evidence of enhanced Eu solubility as high as 10 mol % in LaVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and postannealing. The photoluminescent intensity exceeded that of YVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films when excited below the host bandgap, indicating stronger direct emission of Eu in LaVO{sub 4}.

  5. Tuning Mixed-Valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in Strontium Formate Frameworks for Multichannel Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Lanhua; McLeod, John A; Yang, Linju; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Shuao

    2016-08-01

    Cooperative performance of mixed-valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in single-compound phosphors offers significant advantages in color rendering and luminescence efficiency, but their synthesis is challenging because of Eu(2+) oxidation. Using the tunable nature of the metal-ion nodes in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we present an in situ reduction and crystallization route for preparing MOFs and doping Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) with a controlled ratio. These materials exhibit rich photoluminescence, including intrinsic- and sensitized-emissions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) , and long-lived luminescence from charge transfer. Color rendering can be easily achieved by fine-tuning the valence states of Eu. A linear relation between temperature and the intensity ratio of Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) emissions provides outstanding properties for applications as self-calibrated luminescent thermometers with a wide working temperature range. Further incorporation of Tb(3+) into the MOFs results in white light, utilizing all Eu(2+) ,Tb(3+) , and Eu(3+) emissions in a single crystalline lattice. PMID:27305606

  6. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products....

  7. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products....

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties of KLa):Eu3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaifa; Sun, Yumei; Han, Liu; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue

    2016-04-01

    KLa):Eu3+ phosphors were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The after tuning of synthesis time and the ratio of the ethylene glycol to water ratio made the phosphor present different morphologies, including peanut-like shape and spheres. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum, and fluorescence spectrum. Under the excitation of 397 nm near-ultraviolet, the typical red emission produced by Eu3+ ions can be observed. And the phosphors show strong red light around 612 nm, attributed to D→F transition of Eu ion. The luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors were studied based on changing the synthesis condition. It is found that the synthesis time and the changing of the ratio of ethylene glycol to water play the crucial role in the formation of morphology. The optimum dopant concentration of Eu ions in KLa):Eu3+ is around 7 mol. %. Moreover, the fluorescence decay curve and thermal stability of luminescence were also investigated in detail. The Commission International de I'Eclairage coordinates of KLa):0.07Eu3+ located in the red reddish region. All the results suggest that KLa):0.07Eu3+ might be a promising reddish-orange emitting phosphor used in white light-emitting diodes (w-LED).

  9. Insertions or Deletions (Indels) in the rrn 16S-23S rRNA Gene Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS) Compromise the Typing and Identification of Strains within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) Complex and Closely Related Members

    PubMed Central

    Maslunka, Christopher; Gifford, Bianca; Tucci, Joseph; Gürtler, Volker; Seviour, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether ITS sequences in the rrn operon are suitable for identifying individual Acinetobacter Acb complex members, we analysed length and sequence differences between multiple ITS copies within the genomes of individual strains. Length differences in ITS reported previously between A. nosocomialis BCRC15417T (615 bp) and other strains (607 bp) can be explained by presence of an insertion (indel 13i/1) in the longer ITS variant. The same Indel 13i/1 was also found in ITS sequences of ten strains of A. calcoaceticus, all 639 bp long, and the 628 bp ITS of Acinetobacter strain BENAB127. Four additional indels (13i/2–13i/5) were detected in Acinetobacter strain c/t13TU 10090 ITS length variants (608, 609, 620, 621 and 630 bp). These ITS variants appear to have resulted from horizontal gene transfer involving other Acinetobacter species or in some cases unrelated bacteria. Although some ITS copies in strain c/t13TU 10090 are of the same length (620 bp) as those in Acinetobacter strains b/n1&3, A. pittii (10 strains), A. calcoaceticus and A. oleivorans (not currently acknowledged as an Acb member), their individual ITS sequences differ. Thus ITS length by itself can not by itself be used to identify Acb complex strains. A shared indel in ITS copies in two separate Acinetobacter species compromises the specificity of ITS targeted probes, as shown with the Aun-3 probe designed to target the ITS in A. pitti. The presence of indel 13i/5 in the ITS of Acinetobacter strain c/t13TU means it too responded positively to this probe. Thus, neither ITS sequencing nor the currently available ITS targeted probes can distinguish reliably between Acb member species. PMID:25141005

  10. Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.

    PubMed

    Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

    2014-06-01

    The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS. PMID:24582156

  11. The Relevance of Directive 2010/53/EU for Living Organ Donation Practice: An ELPAT View.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Sterckx, Sigrid; Lennerling, Annette; Mamode, Nizam; Citterio, Franco; Frunza, Mihaela; Zuidema, Willij C; Burnapp, Lisa; Weimar, Willem; Dor, Frank J M F

    2015-10-01

    With the recent transposition of Directive 2010/53/EU into the transplant regulation of EU Member States, the time is right to have a closer look at its implications for living organ donation practice. We first discuss the relevance of the Action Plan which forms the basis for the policy of the European Commission in the field of organ donation and transplantation. We then analyze the impact of Directive 2010/53/EU which was adopted to support the implementation of the Priority Actions set out in the Action Plan. We more specifically focus on the obligations of transplant centers engaged in living organ donation and highlight their significance for clinical practice. Finally, we point out some strengths and weaknesses of the Directive in addressing living organ donation. PMID:25856404

  12. Fabrication of MPEG-b-PMAA capped YVO4:Eu nanoparticles with biocompatibility for cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Hu, Jia; Guo, Miao; Liu, Wei-Jun; Feng, Yi-Mei; Xie, Jing-Ran; Du, Gui-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanoparticle with multilayer core-shell architecture for cell imaging is designed and synthesized by coating a fluorescent YVO4:Eu core with a diblock copolymer, MPEG-b-PMAA. The synthesis of YVO4:Eu core, which further makes MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs adapt for cell imaging, is guided by the model determined upon the evaluation of pH and CEu%. The PMAA block attached tightly on the YVO4:Eu core forms the inner shell and the MPEG block forms the biocompatible outermost shell. Factors including reaction time, reaction temperature, CEu% and pH are optimized for the preparation of the YVO4:Eu NPs. A precise defined model is established according to analyzing the coefficients of pH and CEu% during the synthesis. The MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs, with an average diameter of 24 nm, have a tetragonal structure and demonstrate luminescence in the red region, which lies in a biological window (optical imaging). Significant enhancement in luminescence intensity by MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs formation is observed. The capping copolymer MPEG-b-PMAA improves the dispersibility of hydrophobic YVO4:Eu NPs in water, making the NPs stable under different conditions. In addition, the biocompatibility MPEG layer reduces the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles effectively. 95% cell viability can be achieved at the NPs concentration of 800 mgL(-1) after 24h of culture. Cellular uptake of the MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs is evaluated by cell imaging assay, indicating that the NPs can be taken up rapidly and largely by cancerous or non-cancerous cells through an endocytosis mechanism. PMID:26513755

  13. Regulatory aspects of nanotechnology in the agri/feed/food sector in EU and non-EU countries.

    PubMed

    Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin; Arena, Maria; Bouwmeester, Hans; Botelho Moniz, Filipa; Brandhoff, Puck; Gottardo, Stefania; Marvin, Hans J P; Mech, Agnieszka; Quiros Pesudo, Laia; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud J

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to innovate the agricultural, feed and food sectors (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). Applications that are marketed already include nano-encapsulated agrochemicals or nutrients, antimicrobial nanoparticles and active and intelligent food packaging. Many nano-enabled products are currently under research and development, and may enter the market in the near future. As for any other regulated product, applicants applying for market approval have to demonstrate the safe use of such new products without posing undue safety risks to the consumer and the environment. Several countries all over the world have been active in examining the appropriateness of their regulatory frameworks for dealing with nanotechnologies. As a consequence of this, different approaches have been taken in regulating nano-based products in agri/feed/food. The EU, along with Switzerland, were identified to be the only world region where nano-specific provisions have been incorporated in existing legislation, while in other regions nanomaterials are regulated more implicitly by mainly building on guidance for industry. This paper presents an overview and discusses the state of the art of different regulatory measures for nanomaterials in agri/feed/food, including legislation and guidance for safety assessment in EU and non-EU countries. PMID:26169479

  14. Biodiversity funds and conservation needs in the EU under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Tobias; Meller, Laura; van Teeffelen, Astrid J.A.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Despite ambitious biodiversity policy goals, less than a fifth of the European Union’s (EU) legally protected species and habitats show a favorable conservation status. The recent EU biodiversity strategy recognizes that climate change adds to the challenge of halting biodiversity loss, and that an optimal distribution of financial resources is needed. Here, we analyze recent EU biodiversity funding from a climate change perspective. We compare the allocation of funds to the distribution of both current conservation priorities (within and beyond Natura 2000) and future conservation needs at the level of NUTS-2 regions, using modelled bird distributions as indicators of conservation value. We find that funding is reasonably well aligned with current conservation efforts but poorly fit with future needs under climate change, indicating obstacles for implementing adaptation measures. We suggest revising EU biodiversity funding instruments for the 2014-2020 budget period to better account for potential climate change impacts on biodiversity. PMID:25264456

  15. Biodiversity funds and conservation needs in the EU under climate change.

    PubMed

    Lung, Tobias; Meller, Laura; van Teeffelen, Astrid J A; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

    2014-07-01

    Despite ambitious biodiversity policy goals, less than a fifth of the European Union's (EU) legally protected species and habitats show a favorable conservation status. The recent EU biodiversity strategy recognizes that climate change adds to the challenge of halting biodiversity loss, and that an optimal distribution of financial resources is needed. Here, we analyze recent EU biodiversity funding from a climate change perspective. We compare the allocation of funds to the distribution of both current conservation priorities (within and beyond Natura 2000) and future conservation needs at the level of NUTS-2 regions, using modelled bird distributions as indicators of conservation value. We find that funding is reasonably well aligned with current conservation efforts but poorly fit with future needs under climate change, indicating obstacles for implementing adaptation measures. We suggest revising EU biodiversity funding instruments for the 2014-2020 budget period to better account for potential climate change impacts on biodiversity. PMID:25264456

  16. Eu/Tb codoped spindle-shaped fluorinated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for dual-color cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Baojin; Zhang, Shan; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Sang, Yuanhua; Xia, Haibing; Jiang, Huaidong; Claverie, Jerome; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanide doped fluorinated hydroxyapatite (FAp) nanoparticles are promising cell imaging nanomaterials but they are excited at wavelengths which do not match the light sources usually found in a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In this work, we have successfully prepared spindle-shaped Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method. Compared with single Eu doped FAp, Eu/Tb codoped FAp can be excited by a 488 nm laser, and exhibit both green and red light emission. By changing the amounts of Eu and Tb peaks, the emission in the green region (500-580 nm) can be decreased to the benefit of the emission in the red region (580-720 nm), thus reaching a balanced dual color emission. Using MC3T3-E1 cells co-cultured with Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles, it is observed that the nanoparticles are cytocompatible even at a concentration as high as 800 μg ml-1. The Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles are located in the cytoplasm and can be monitored by dual color--green and red imaging with a single excitation light at 488 nm. At a concentration of 200 μg ml-1, the cytoplasm is saturated in 8 hours, and Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles retain their fluorescence for at least 3 days. The cytocompatible Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles with unique dual color emission will be of great use for cell and tissue imaging.Lanthanide doped fluorinated hydroxyapatite (FAp) nanoparticles are promising cell imaging nanomaterials but they are excited at wavelengths which do not match the light sources usually found in a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In this work, we have successfully prepared spindle-shaped Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method. Compared with single Eu doped FAp, Eu/Tb codoped FAp can be excited by a 488 nm laser, and exhibit both green and red light emission. By changing the amounts of Eu and Tb peaks, the emission in the green region (500-580 nm) can be decreased to the benefit of the emission in the

  17. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: A "Magnum Opus" or an Incomplete "Modus Vivendi?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldat-Jaffe, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the European Union (EU) has the means to protect minority and regional languages in the EU, looking at the ways three different bodies of the EU, the European Parliament (EP), the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) differ in handling language…

  18. Clusters in weighted macroeconomic networks: the EU case. Introducing the overlapping index of GDP/capita fluctuation correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligor, M.; Ausloos, M.

    2008-06-01

    GDP/capita correlations are investigated in various time windows (TW), for the time interval 1990 2005. The target group of countries is the set of 25 EU members, 15 till 2004 plus the 10 countries which joined EU later on. The TW-means of the statistical correlation coefficients are taken as the weights (links) of a fully connected network having the countries as nodes. Thereafter we define and introduce the overlapping index of weighted network nodes. A cluster structure of EU countries is derived from the statistically relevant eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix. This may be considered to yield some information about the structure, stability and evolution of the EU country clusters in a macroeconomic sense.

  19. Impact assessment of the European Clinical Trials Directive: a longitudinal, prospective, observational study analyzing patterns and trends in clinical drug trial applications submitted since 2001 to regulatory agencies in six EU countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Shifts in clinical trial application rates over time indicate if the attractiveness of a country or region for the conduct of clinical trials is growing or decreasing. The purpose of this observational study was to track changes in drug trial application patterns across several EU countries in order to analyze the medium-term impact of the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC on the conduct of drug trials. Methods Rates of Clinical Trial Applications (CTA) for studies with medicinal products in those six countries in the EU, which authorize on average more than 500 trials per year, were analyzed. Publicly available figures on the number of annually submitted CTA, the distribution of trials per phase and the type of sponsorship were tracked; missing data were provided by national drug agencies. Results Since 2001, the number of CTA in Italy and Spain increased significantly (5.0 and 2.5% average annual growth). For Italy, the gain was driven by a strong increase of applications from academic trial sponsors; Spain's growth was due to a rise in trials run by commercial sponsors. The Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK saw a decline (1.9, 2.3, 3.0 and 5.3% average annual diminution; significant (P < 0.05) except for Germany) in clinical drug trials. The decrease in the UK was caused by a sharp fall in academic trial activities. Across the six analyzed countries, no EU-wide trial-phase-specific patterns or trends were observed. Conclusions The EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC did not achieve the harmonization of clinical trial requirements across Europe. Rather, it resulted in the leveling of clinical trial activities caused by a continuing decrease in CTA rates in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. Southern European countries, Italy and Spain, benefited to some extent from policy changes introduced by the Directive. In Italy's case, national funding measures helped to considerably promote the conduct of non-commercial trials. On the

  20. Improving cancer control in the European Union: conclusions from the Lisbon round-table under the Portuguese EU Presidency, 2007.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Joaquim; Coleman, Michel P; Haward, Robert; Zanetti, Roberto; Hakama, Matti; Borras, Josep Maria; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; de Koning, Harry J; Travado, Luzia

    2008-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the European Union (EU), and a public health burden. Improving cancer control in the EU will require implementation of efficient strategies within Member States and better policy coordination between them. In cooperation between the rotating EU Presidencies of Germany (2007), Portugal (2007) and Slovenia (2008), special attention was devoted to an integrated approach to cancer control in EU policies and programmes. A round-table focussed on national cancer plans, population-based cancer registries and cancer screening programmes was held during the Health Strategies in Europe meeting in Lisbon in July 2007, under the Portuguese Presidency. These three topics were selected as critical for improving cancer control at both national and European levels. The round-table was designed to produce a set of recommendations to inform EU cancer policy. This paper provides a résumé of the conclusions and recommendations, to stimulate wider discussion and policy development. The conclusions of the meeting were presented at the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council in December 2007 and cancer was included in the Council Conclusions for the new European Health Strategy. Success in cancer control will require consistent attention from future EU Presidencies, such as the initiative of the Slovenian EU Presidency in early 2008. PMID:18325756

  1. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  2. The healthcare system and the provision of oral healthcare in EU Member States: France.

    PubMed

    Pegon-Machat, E; Faulks, D; Eaton, K A; Widström, E; Hugues, P; Tubert-Jeannin, S

    2016-02-26

    The French oral health system is based on the provision of dental treatment and is organised around a fee-per-item model. The system is funded by a complex mix of public and complementary health insurance schemes. The system is successful in that it provides access to affordable dental treatment to the majority of the French population. However, France had the highest health expenditure as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) of all European Union countries in 2008 and rising oral health inequalities may be exacerbated by the manner in which oral health care is provided and funded. In addition, there is no organised national strategy for the prevention of oral diseases or for oral health promotion. PMID:26917309

  3. Discrimination and Good Practice Activities in Education: Trends and Developments in the 27 EU Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights collects, through its network of observation points, information on discrimination and good practice in the areas of legislation, employment, housing, racist violence, and education. Data on education includes information on: access to education for vulnerable groups, discriminatory practices,…

  4. Magnetic and Fermi Surface Properties of Ferromagnets EuPd2 and EuPt2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ai; Akamine, Hiromu; Ashitomi, Yousuke; Honda, Fuminori; Aoki, Dai; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Tatetsu, Yasutomi; Maehira, Takahiro; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2016-08-01

    We succeeded in growing single crystals of the ferromagnets EuPd2 and EuPt2 with the Laves-type cubic structure by the Bridgman method, namely, heating constituting materials in a Mo crucible up to a high temperature of about 1500 °C. The ferromagnetic properties of EuPd2 and EuPt2 with Curie temperatures of 74 and 100 K, respectively, were confirmed from the results of electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetization measurements. The ordered moment is 7 μB/Eu, revealing the Eu-divalent ferromagnetism. The present Eu-divalent electronic state is found to be robust against high pressures of up to 8 GPa and is not changed into the Eu-trivalent state. We also carried out de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments for EuPd2. The detected dHvA branches in EuPd2 are well explained by the relativistic linearized augmented plane wave (RLAPW) energy band calculations for SrPd2, revealing a closed hole Fermi surface and compensated four closed electron Fermi surfaces.

  5. Latch ring for connecting tubular member

    SciTech Connect

    Milberger, L.J.

    1991-06-04

    This patent describes a device for releasably locking an inner member well bore of a tubular outer member, comprising a combination of a grooved inner member profile formed on the exterior of the inner member; a grooved outer member profile formed in the bore of the outer member; a split ring carried by the inner member the ring having a grooved outer profile on its exterior mates with the outer member profile; and the inner member being axially movable.

  6. Building Multidisciplinary Training Networks for Rural Development. Report of the Regional Workshop for Pre-service Training of Members of Multidisciplinary Educational Teams in Rural Areas (Pune, India, July 16-20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Papers designed to help build multidisciplinary training networks for rural development are collected in this document, an outgrowth of a regional training workshop attended by participants from Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and India. The six papers deal with the objectives of the workshop which were to:…

  7. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  8. Administrative Support for Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the need of administrative support for board members. An effective board services office can help a lot in attracting and retaining community leaders. Board members need administrative support to help them manage events, records, communications, scheduling, correspondence and constituent service. In small to…

  9. Personality characteristics of Wikipedia members.

    PubMed

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Lamdan, Naama; Madiel, Rinat; Hayat, Tsahi

    2008-12-01

    Wikipedia is an online, free access, volunteer-contributed encyclopedia. This article focuses on the Wikipedians' (Wikipedia users) personality characteristics, studying Wikipedians' conceptions of Real-Me and BFI dimensions. To survey these aspects, we posted links to two online web questionnaires; one was targeted at Wikipedians and the second to non-Wikipedia users. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated in the study, of which 69 were active Wikipedia members. It was found that Wikipedia members locate their real me on the Internet more frequently as compared to non-Wikipedia members. Variance analysis revealed significant differences between Wikipedia members and non-Wikipedia members in agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, which were lower for the Wikipedia members. An interaction was found between Wikipedia membership and gender: introverted women were more likely to be Wikipedia members as compared with extroverted women. The results of this study are discussed with special emphasis on the understanding of the motivators of Wikipedia members. PMID:18954273

  10. Modelling the economic consequences of the EU Water Framework Directive for Dutch agriculture.

    PubMed

    Helming, John; Reinhard, Stijn

    2009-10-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to take measures to ensure that bodies of water will be in good chemical and ecological condition by 2015. Important measures to achieve this goal include reducing emissions of nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P(2)O(5)) from manure and mineral fertilizers into the environment. In regions with a high livestock density, this measure is expected to affect agricultural production and income. To quantify these effects, an environmental economic model is required that can assess alternatives capable of reducing N and P(2)O(5) potential emissions to water. In this paper, we develop a model that is capable of analysing changes in potential emissions to water of N and P(2)O(5) and apply it to the Netherlands, a country with large nutrient emissions. Compared to a 2015 reference scenario based on current efforts to reduce nutrient emissions, we found that the WFD measures will increase regional transport and export of manure and reduce the number of animals in the Netherlands. Fodder adjustments (defined as lower N and P(2)O(5) input in purchased fodder) to decrease nutrient excretion in manure were a less attractive option than amongst others export, transportation of manure to another region, land use changes or reduction of the number of livestock. Compared to the reference scenario in 2015, total agricultural income will decrease by about 81.5 million euros per year (about 49 euros /ha per year), although the effects will differ among parts of the Netherlands and agricultural sectors. The average predicted decrease in N emissions from agricultural sites, vulnerable to leaching into bodies of water will be almost 20% or approximately 14.7 kg N/ha per year. The reduction in N emissions to air from animal sheds, manure storage systems, application of animal manure and mineral fertilisers to the crops and grazing animals equals 6.5% or 5 kg ammonia (NH(3)) per hectare. PMID:19716645

  11. Polyethylene recycling: Waste policy scenario analysis for the EU-27.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, Valeria; Saveyn, Hans G M; Eder, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper quantifies the main impacts that the adoption of the best recycling practices together with a reduction in the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the adoption of a kerbside collection system could have on the 27 Member States of the EU. The main consequences in terms of employment, waste management costs, emissions and energy use have been quantified for two scenarios of polyethylene (PE) waste production and recycling. That is to say, a "business as usual scenario", where the 2012 performances of PE waste production and recycling are extrapolated to 2020, is compared to a "best practice scenario", where the best available recycling practices are modelled together with the possible adoption of the amended Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive related to the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the implementation of a kerbside collection system. The main results show that socio-economic and environmental benefits can be generated across the EU by the implementation of the best practice scenario. In particular, estimations show a possible reduction of 4.4 million tonnes of non-recycled PE waste, together with a reduction of around €90 million in waste management costs in 2020 for the best practice scenario versus the business as usual scenario. An additional 35,622 jobs are also expected to be created. In environmental terms, the quantity of CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by around 1.46 million tonnes and the net energy requirements are expected to increase by 16.5 million GJ as a consequence of the reduction in the energy produced from waste. The main analysis provided in this paper, together with the data and the model presented, can be useful to identify the possible costs and benefits that the implementation of PE waste policies and Directives could generate for the EU. PMID:25976302

  12. [The Synthesis, Luminescence and Energy Transmission of NaLa(MoO4) 2 : Eu3+/Tb3+/Tm3+ Materials].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Yan, Jing-hui; Han, Yu-ting; Qiao, Shu-liang; Yang, Bo; Li, Li; Liu, Cai-hong; Yau, Shuang; Zou, Ming-qiang

    2015-10-01

    A series of Eu3+ /Tb3+ /Tm3+ single/co-doped NaLa(MoO4)2 (NLM) phosphors have been synthesized by microemulsion-hydrothermal method. Phosphor crystal structure, morphology and luminescent properties were tested and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that the prepared samples are all tetragonal single crystals. By way of substitution, the sites of La3+ are replaced by Eu3+, Tb3+ and Tm3+. Morphology of the samples are tetragonal sheet structure and the size of particles is 1 - 1.5 μm. When the doping concentration of Eu3+ is 9%, NLM : 9%Eu3+ phosphor emission peak is the strongest at 616 nm, the critical transfer distance (R(c)) between Eu3+ in the NLM matrix is about 15.20 Å at this time. At the emission spectrum of NLM : 9%Eu3+, the peak at 591 nm is the magnetic dipole transition of 5D0 to 7F1 of Eu3+. The peak at 616 nm is the electric dipole transition of 5D0 to 7 F2 of Eu3+. Electric dipole transition emission intensity is about 10 times of the strength of the magnetic dipole transition. This indicates that Eu3+ is located at noninversion symmetry site. By Fixing Eu3+ (Tb3+) concentration and varying the concentration of Tb3+ (Eu3+), the energy transfer mechanism between Eu3+ and Tb3+ was studied. By adjusting the Eu3+, Tb3+ and Tm3+ doping concentrations, tunable luminescence of visible light region is implemented under the single matrix. The luminescence of NLM x%Eu3+, y%Tb3+, z%Tm3+ phosphors are translated from blue (0.205, 0.135) to pseudo-white (0.305, 0.266) under 360 nm irradiation. PMID:26904805

  13. Introduction to EU Grants and Fellowships for PhD students and early Post-docs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Julia

    2013-04-01

    This talk is based on the presentation "Introduction to EU Grants and Fellowships for PhD students and early Post-docs" and aims at informing young scientists about individual funding schemes in FP7 Specific Programmes "People" and "Ideas". It also aims at encouraging young scientists employed at Max Planck Institutes in the "Regional Cluster Bavaria", or scientists who wish to come to Max Planck Institutes which are part of the cluster, to benefit from the support of the Regional EU Office Bavaria, whose consultants can give valuable administrative and tailor-made internal advice to add on the success of a competitive scientific proposal.

  14. A multi-equation spatial econometric model, with application to EU manufacturing productivity growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingleton, Bernard

    2007-06-01

    A multi-equation spatial econometric model is used to explain variations across EU regions in manufacturing productivity growth based on recent theoretical developments in urban economics and economic geography. The paper shows that temporal and spatial parameter homogeneity is an unrealistic assumption, contrary to what is typically assumed in the literature. Constraints are imposed on parameters across time periods and between core and peripheral regions of the EU, with the significant loss of fit providing overwhelming evidence of parameter heterogeneity, although the final model does highlight increasing returns to scale, which is a central feature of contemporary theory.

  15. Photoluminescence properties of a novel red emitting Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, You-shun; Shi, Wei-wei; Han, Cong-lin; Kang, Yan-yan; Wang, Yan-su; Zhang, Zhi-wei

    2015-06-01

    A novel red-emitting phosphor Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu3+ is synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the phase formation of Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu3+ materials. The photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra, the concentration dependence of the emission intensity, decay curves and Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) of the phosphors are investigated. It is observed that Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu3+ phosphors exhibit two dominating bands situated at 591 and 616 nm, originating from the 5D0 → 7F1 and 5D0 → 7F2 transition of the Eu3+ ion, respectively. The decay time is also determined for various concentrations of Eu3+ in Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu3+. Crystal lattice, PL spectra and decay time analysis indicate there exist two isolated Eu3+ crystallography sites in Ba10F2(PO4)6. The calculated color coordinates lie in the red region. Therefore, Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu3+ phosphors may be good candidates for red components in near-UV (NUV) white LEDs.

  16. Photoluminescence properties of a novel red emitting Ba₁₀F₂(PO ₄)₆:Eu³⁺ phosphor.

    PubMed

    Peng, You-Shun; Shi, Wei-Wei; Han, Cong-Lin; Kang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yan-Su; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2015-06-15

    A novel red-emitting phosphor Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu(3+) is synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the phase formation of Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu(3+) materials. The photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra, the concentration dependence of the emission intensity, decay curves and Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) of the phosphors are investigated. It is observed that Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu(3+) phosphors exhibit two dominating bands situated at 591 and 616 nm, originating from the (5)D0→(7)F1 and (5)D0→(7)F2 transition of the Eu(3+) ion, respectively. The decay time is also determined for various concentrations of Eu(3+) in Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu(3+). Crystal lattice, PL spectra and decay time analysis indicate there exist two isolated Eu(3+) crystallography sites in Ba10F2(PO4)6. The calculated color coordinates lie in the red region. Therefore, Ba10F2(PO4)6:Eu(3+) phosphors may be good candidates for red components in near-UV (NUV) white LEDs. PMID:25775944

  17. Luminescence studies and EPR investigation of solution combustion derived Eu doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannatha Reddy, A.; Kokila, M. K.; Nagabhushana, H.; Shivakumara, C.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Hari Krishna, R.

    2014-11-01

    ZnO:Eu (0.1 mol%) nanopowders have been synthesized by auto ignition based low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns confirm the nanosized particles which exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's formula was found to be in the range 35-39 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal particles are agglomerated with quasi-hexagonal morphology. A blue shift of absorption edge with increase in band gap is observed for Eu doped ZnO samples. Upon 254 nm excitation, ZnO:Eu nanopowders show peaks in regions blue (420-484 nm), green (528 nm) and red (600 nm) which corresponds to both Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum exhibits a broad resonance signal at g = 4.195 which is attributed to Eu2+ ions. Further, EPR and thermoluminescence (TL) studies reveal presence of native defects in this phosphor. Using TL glow peaks the trap parameters have been evaluated and discussed.

  18. Luminescence studies and EPR investigation of solution combustion derived Eu doped ZnO.

    PubMed

    Jagannatha Reddy, A; Kokila, M K; Nagabhushana, H; Shivakumara, C; Chakradhar, R P S; Nagabhushana, B M; Hari Krishna, R

    2014-11-11

    ZnO:Eu (0.1 mol%) nanopowders have been synthesized by auto ignition based low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns confirm the nanosized particles which exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's formula was found to be in the range 35-39 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal particles are agglomerated with quasi-hexagonal morphology. A blue shift of absorption edge with increase in band gap is observed for Eu doped ZnO samples. Upon 254 nm excitation, ZnO:Eu nanopowders show peaks in regions blue (420-484 nm), green (528 nm) and red (600 nm) which corresponds to both Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum exhibits a broad resonance signal at g=4.195 which is attributed to Eu2+ ions. Further, EPR and thermoluminescence (TL) studies reveal presence of native defects in this phosphor. Using TL glow peaks the trap parameters have been evaluated and discussed. PMID:24878437

  19. Strong luminescence and efficient energy transfer in Eu3+/Tb3+-codoped ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Huang, F. Y.; Dong, G. S.; Fan, H. H.; Li, K. F.; Cheah, K. W.; Chen, J.

    2014-11-01

    Single crystalline Eu3+/Tb3+-codoped ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized by using a simple co-precipitation method. Successful doping is realized so that strong green and red luminescence can be efficiently excited by ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation, demonstrating an efficient energy transfer from ZnO host to rare earth ions. The energy transfer from the ZnO host to Tb3+ in ZnO: Tb3+ samples and ZnO host to Eu3+ in the ZnO: Eu3+ samples under UV excitation are investigated. It is found that the red 5D0 → 7F2 emission of Eu3+ ions decreases with increasing temperature but the green 5D4 → 7F5 emission of Tb3+ ions increases with increasing temperature, implying a different energy transfer processes in the two samples. Moreover, energy transfer from Tb3+ ions to Eu3+ ions in ZnO nanocrystals is also observed by analyzing luminescence spectra and the decay curves. By adjusting the doping concentration, the Eu3+/Tb3+-codoped ZnO phosphors emit green and red luminescence with chromaticity coordinates near white light region, high color purity and high intensity, indicating that they are promising light-conversion materials and have potential in field emission display devices and liquid crystal display backlights.

  20. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  1. Antiferromagnetism in EuNiGe3

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, R. J.; Ananad, V. K.; Johnston, David C.

    2013-02-07

    The synthesis and crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline EuNiGe3 are reported. EuNiGe3 crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric body-centered tetragonal BaNiSn3-type structure (space group I4mm), in agreement with previous reports, with the Eu atoms at the corners and body center of the unit cell. The physical property data consistently demonstrate that this is a metallic system in which Eu spins S = 7/2 order antiferromagnetically at a temperature TN = 13.6 K.Magnetic susceptibility χ data forT >TN indicate that the Eu atoms have spin 7/2 with g = 2, that the Ni atoms are nonmagnetic, and that the dominant interactions between the Eu spins are ferromagnetic. Thus we propose that EuNiGe3 has a collinear A-type antiferromagnetic structure, with the Eu ordered moments in the ab plane aligned ferromagnetically and with the moments in adjacent planes along the c axis aligned antiferromagnetically. A fit of χ(T TN) by our molecular field theory is consistent with a collinear magnetic structure. Electrical resistivity ρ data from TN to 350 K are fitted by the Bloch-Gr¨uneisen model for electron-phonon scattering, yielding a Debye temperature of 265(2) K.Astrong decrease in ρ occurs belowTN due to loss of spin-disorder scattering. Heat capacity data at 25 K T 300Kare fitted by the Debye model, yielding the same Debye temperature 268(2) K as found from ρ(T ). The extracted magnetic heat capacity is consistent with S = 7/2 and shows that significant short-range dynamical spin correlations occur above TN. The magnetic entropy at TN = 13.6 K is 83% of the expected asymptotic high-T value, with the remainder recovered by 30 K.

  2. AGU members elected to Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six AGU members are among the sixty new members and fifteen foreign associates elected on April 27 to the National Academy of Sciences in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.AGU members elected were AGU Past-President G. Brent Dalrymple of USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.; Donald J . DePaolo, University of California, Berkeley; Ho-Kwang (David) Mao, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C.; Mario J . Molina, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; and Alexandra Navrotsky, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. Elected as foreign associates were Nikolai V. Sobolev, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, and Friedrich H. Busse, University of Bayreuth, Germany.

  3. Inequality, Poverty, and Material Deprivation in New and Old Members of European Union

    PubMed Central

    Matković, Teo; Šućur, Zoran; Zrinščak, Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Aim To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Method Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases (in particular, Household Budget Survey). For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. Results According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection

  4. Luminescence properties of a novel green emitting Ba2CaZn2Si6O17:Eu2+ phosphor for white light - Emitting diodes applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annadurai, G.; Kennedy, S. Masilla Moses; Sivakumar, V.

    2016-05-01

    A novel green emitting Ba2CaZn2Si6O17:Eu2+ (BCZSO:Eu2+) phosphor was synthesized using conventional high temperature solid state reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction was carried out to confirm the phase formation of the synthesized phosphors. Photoluminescence emission spectrum was recorded under excitation at 340 nm. The BCZSO:Eu2+ phosphor exhibited an intense asymmetric green emission band around 502 nm which originated from the 4f65d1 → 4f7 transition of Eu2+ ion. The optimum doping concentration of Eu2+ was found to be 0.06 mol. The energy transfer mechanism among Eu2+ in BCZSO phosphor was found to be a dipole-dipole interaction, and the critical distance (RC) for the Eu2+ ions calculated by the concentration quenching and spectral overlap methods were 23.2 Å and 13.7 Å, respectively. The decay curve of BCZSO:Eu2+ phosphors were discussed. The CIE chromaticity coordinate values (x = 0.259, y = 0.463) of BCZSO:Eu2+ phosphor were located in green region and the correlated color temperature was 7571 K. All these properties gave an indication that BCZSO:Eu2+ phosphor could be a potential green-emitting phosphor for UV based white light emitting diodes.

  5. Become an AGU Supporting Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You can extend your commitment to the continuing vitality .of geophysics by helping AGU to build funds that will provide for new initiatives and assist in funding some of the nonrevenue programs of AGU, such as the congressional science fellowship, minority student scholarships, and student travel grants. The AGU Development Committee is seeking gifts and contributions toward building the endowment of the Union: The vitality of AGU and the vitality of geophysics march hand in hand.Four categories of supporting membership are offered by the Union: Individual Supporting Member ($80 per year), Life Supporting Member ($1500), Sustaining Member ($5000), Benefactor ($10,000). Benefactors, Sustaining, and Life Supporting Members pay no further dues.

  6. AGU Members Visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Holle, Kate

    2007-06-01

    More than 200 scientists and engineers from around the United States convened in Washington, D.C., on 1-2 May 2007 to participate in the annual Science Engineering and Technology (SET) Congressional Visits Day (CVD). The AGU Office of Public Affairs frequently helps to arrange for members' visits to their congressional delegations, but CVD is a unique event during which AGU members can team up with a larger group of scientists and engineers to promote federal funding of scientific research.

  7. The system of Regional Contact Offices for promoting GMES services and the use of Space Technologies in European Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Paola; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bacai, Hina; Basoni, Anna; Bosc, Christelle; Clave, Magali; Cornacchia, Carmela; L'Astorina, Alba; Monbet, Philippe; Mueller, Bastian; Nicolau, Sonia; Pergola, Nicola; Rampini, Anna; Tramutoli, Valerio; Schumacher, Volker; Wells, Alan; Zepeda Juarez, Jesus; Zolotikova, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    In 2005, the EU made the strategic choice of developing a space-based programme, called Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES). GMES is an independent Earth monitoring initiative led by the European Union and carried out in partnership with the Member States and the European Space Agency (ESA). Its primary objective is to provide information services that give access to accurate data and information in the field of the environment and security and are tailored to the needs of users. However, at the regional level, stakeholders are often not aware about the potential benefits of services Europe's GMES initiative can provide; yet Europe's ca. 350 regions represent a large reservoir of potential GMES users where GMES services can add value to existing services. Refining data, products and services from global GMES services in the various domains (i.e. land, marine, atmosphere, emergency response, security and climate change), GMES downstream services may be customised to individual user needs, many of which are to be found a the regional level. Within a number of regions, links between the different types of stakeholders have grown over the years. Often, individual actors have developed inter-regional links but their linkage is in most cases not formalised. When looking at the European scale, that overall awareness of GMES downstream opportunities is still very low with respect to the potential benefits regions could draw from a wider participation. However, being aware of the potential of GMES, of the important role they can play and of the need for exchanging experiences, pioneering Local and Regional Authorities (LRAs) intending to retrieve benefit from space technologies, including GMES, have now started to collaborate within structured networks, NEREUS being the most advanced example. The logically next step is that LRAs engage in a dialogue with service-industry and European decision-makers to maximize the benefits from these innovative tools

  8. Third EU report on the statistics on animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes: trends, problems, conclusions.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Spielmann, Horst; Rusche, Brigitte

    2004-09-01

    A brief overview is given of the data published in the third report on the number of animals used for scientific purposes in the European Union (EU), in 1999. In comparison to the second EU statistical report, the meaningfulness of the data has been greatly improved, since 14 EU Member States have now used the "EU tables". Even though the total number of animals officially reported in the EU for 1999 (9.81 million animals) is lower than the number reported for 1996 in the second report (11.65 million animals), an increase in animal numbers was observed in several Member States. Repeatedly, the use of transgenic animals was considered to be the cause for this. Most national authorities provided some comments on the data they submitted. However, the quality of these accompanying notes varies considerably, with the comments provided by The Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Austria, Denmark and the United Kingdom containing the most-detailed remarks on their data. PMID:15588169

  9. Quantification of pesticides used in agriculture in the EU-27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Fantke, Peter; Theloke, Jochen; Friedrich, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    Pesticides have become relatively ubiquitous pollutants. They may affect non-targeted organisms and can be found as contaminants in agricultural soils, groundwater, rivers, lakes and in the food chain (Margni et al., 2002; Hamilton & Crossley, 2004; Arias-Estévez et al., 2008). As "it has been common knowledge that many pesticides cause harm to the environment and to human health" (Pretty & Waibel, 2005), it is essential to account for a quantitative assessment of impacts of current agricultural practice at the European scale. Therefore, inventory data sets of applications and related emissions of the most relevant active substances are necessary. A review of publicly available data sets evidenced that data on consumption of active substances and releases into the environment for EU member states are of low quality or lacking entirely. Either only few substances are covered (e.g. EPER, E-PRTR) or data are highly aggregated in terms of total amount of active substances. Sales or consumption data are differentiated by target organisms and crop types (Eurostat) or by chemical classes (FAOSTAT, OECD.StatExtracts). In Germany, sales data categorised into target organisms and chemical classes are available. To our knowledge, Denmark and the United Kingdom are the only European countries providing application rates for specific active substances and crops. As a basis for analysing the relation between source, environmental fate and sink of pesticides and for considering the importance of crop-specific properties on the fate of pesticides (Trapp and Kulhanek, 2006), crop-specific emission inventories for individual active substances are required. Thus, the aim of our work was to develop a crop-specific inventory for active substances currently used in agriculture in the EU-27. Based on Eurostat (2007), the five most important active substances applied to the crop categories of cereals, maize, oilseeds, potatoes, sugar-beets, grapes and vine, fruit trees and vegetables

  10. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer. PMID:21412442

  11. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’, it argues that its ‘policy core’ has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices. PMID:26924934

  12. Economic Disparities and Life Satisfaction in European Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittau, M. Grazia; Zelli, Roberto; Gelman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of economic variables in predicting regional disparities in reported life satisfaction of European Union (EU) citizens. European subnational units (regions) are defined according to the first-level EU nomenclature of territorial units. We use multilevel modeling to explicitly account for the hierarchical nature of…

  13. The preparation of a Eu3+-doped ZnO bi-functional layer and its application in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Na; Luo, Qun; Qiao, Xvsheng; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2015-12-01

    Recently, spectra conversion has been used to minimize energy loss in photovoltaic devices. In this work, we explore the development of a novel Eu3+-doped ZnO bi-functional layer for use in organic solar cells. The bi-functional layer acts as both a spectra conversion and an electron transporting layer. Compared to conventional spectra conversion layers, it has a simpler device structure, is easier to fabricate, and has a wider spectrum-sensitized region. A series of Eu3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized using the simple solution route. X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible absorbance spectra were used to characterize the obtained ZnO nanocrystals. The results reveal that the size and bandgap of ZnO nanocrystals can be controlled through regulation of the doping concentration of Eu3+ ions. The energy transfer of ZnO → Eu3+ is observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. At a bandgap excitation of around 300-400 nm, a typical emission band from the Eu3+ is obtained. By employing the Eu3+- doped ZnO nanocrystals as a buffer layer in a P3HT:PC61BM bulk heterojunction device, the obtained performance is similar to the undoped ZnO device, indicating that the electrical properties of ZnO are not affected by Eu3+ doping. Due to the down-conversion energy transfer between ZnO and Eu3+, the external quantum efficiency of the ZnO:Eu3+ device at 300-400 nm is higher than that of the pure ZnO device, which subsequently leads to an increase in short circuit current density (J SC). This work proves that it is possible to improve the solar spectrum response in the ultraviolet region of organic solar cells effectively by incorporating the bi-functional layer.

  14. Reforming the EU Clinical Trials Directive: streamlining processes or a radical "new" agenda?.

    PubMed

    McHale, Jean V

    2013-09-01

    From its conception the EU Clinical Trials Directive met with controversy. Some saw it as an unnecessary inhibitor to scientific research, introducing bureaucracy which was unduly expensive, slowing down the clinical trial approval system. The Directive however also enshrined respect for fundamental rights in relation to clinical trials decision-making and impacted upon the domestic law of member states facilitating the alignment of trial review processes. Nearly a decade after its implementation the EU is moving towards implementation of further reform in this area, from a Directive to a Regulation, from a system placing the research ethics system at the heart of the clinical trials approval committee to one which does not and which represents a see change in international and domestic approaches to research ethics. This article critically examines the proposed reform of the regulation of clinical trials on medicinal product through the introduction of a new EU Regulation and asks whether this can be seen as a natural streamlining of processes or a radical new agenda in EU health law and regulation. PMID:23977734

  15. Animal vs. non-animal tests for the monitoring of marine biotoxins in the EU.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2005-01-01

    Since bivalve molluscs can contain algae biotoxins that can cause gastroenterological or even lethal neurological diseases in humans, a public health control system on marine biotoxins has been implemented in EU Directive 91/492. Currently, the reference method laid down for this purpose is the so-called "mouse bioassay" with death of the animals as an endpoint. To date, this extremely distressful animal test has not been standardised or validated, and there is scientific evidence that it is neither relevant nor reliable. Therefore different EU Member States have been striving to replace the mouse bioassay or to reduce the animal numbers and the distress for the animals. In the United Kingdom, the test is being performed with two instead of three mice, the animals are anaesthetised before injection of the mollusc extract and remain in narcosis until their death. In Germany the mouse bioassay has not been performed for many years; without restriction of consumer health safety, marine biotoxins are detected with chemical analytical test methods. The application of alternative test methods is legally required according to EU Directive 86/609 on the Protection of Laboratory Animals. Apparently there is a conflict between two equal valid EU Directives, which has to be overcome. PMID:15719147

  16. Luminescence in Ba5Cl6Si2O6:Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Khushbu; Talwar, Gurjeet; Moharil, S. V.; Ghormare, K. B.

    2015-08-01

    Phosphor Ba5Cl6Si2O6:Eu2+ is prepared through solid state reaction method at 800 C for 12 to 14 hrs. The photoluminescence and long after glow decay characteristics are studied. PL emission is observed in violet region. Emission is due to Eu2+ transiton between the ground state 8S7/2 (4f7) and the excited states of 4f65d1 configuration. Decay curve consists of a rapid decay component and a slow decay component, which suggests the existence of the long lasting phosphorescence.

  17. Optical properties of Eu(III) doped strontium gadolinium niobate oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwnath, Verma; Srinivas, M.; Patel, Nimesh; Modi, Dhaval; Murthy, K. V. R.

    2016-05-01

    Sr2GdNbO6 doped with trivalent ion of Eu phosphors having monoclinic phase of space group P21/n have been synthesized via solid state reaction method, and their photoluminescence properties have been examined under UV excitation. The emission peaks exhibited around 580, 596, and 610nm wavelength. By using xenon lamp as a source of excitation having wavelengths at 254 and 262nm, it is observed that the maximum light emission yielded in red region. It is inferred that the dopant Eu+3 ions may take the substitutional positions at non-centrosymmetric site.

  18. Effects of Eu concentration control on crystal growth and scintillation properties for Eu:LiSrAlF6 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Yokota, Y.; Yamaji, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-10-01

    Eu doped LiSrAlF6 (Eu:LiSAF) crystals with various Eu concentrations were grown by a micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method and the effects of Eu concentration control on crystal growth and scintillation properties for Eu:LiSAF crystals were investigated as a neutron scintillator. As-grown Eu0.3%:LiSAF crystal had no visible inclusion while milky parts were observed in the crystals with higher Eu contents. The secondary phases with the chemical composition of EuF2 or EuF3 in the Eu:LiSAF matrix were observed for the crystals with high Eu contents while the secondary phase couldn’t be observed in the powder XRD patterns. In the radioluminescence spectra of Eu:LiSAF crystals under α-ray irradiation, emission peaks around 375 nm originated from 5d-4f transition of Eu2+ ion were observed. The light yields systematically increased with an increase of actual Eu contents in the crystals and the decay times were 1490-1620 ns.

  19. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member property. 190.09... Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be used to pay that portion of the net equity claim of a member which...

  20. Luminescent properties of blue emitting phosphor SrZn2(PO4)2:Eu2+ for white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Yu-fei; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-jun; Pang, Li-bin

    2015-11-01

    Blue emitting phosphor SrZn2(PO4)2:Eu2+ is synthesized by a high temperature solid state method, and the luminescent properties are investigated. At the 330 nm radiation excitation, SrZn2(PO4)2:Eu2+ presents an emission band at 416 nm, which is assigned to the 4f65d1→4f7 transition of Eu2+ ion. The concentration quenching effect of Eu2+ in SrZn2(PO4)2 has been validated and proved to be a resonant type via a dipole-dipole interaction. The critical distance ( R c) of Eu2+ in SrZn2(PO4)2 is calculated to be 3.244 nm. The Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of SrZn2(PO4)2:Eu2+ locate at the blue region, such as (0.150, 0.072). The results indicate that the SrZn2(PO4)2:Eu2+ phosphor may have potential applications in white light emitting diodes (LEDs).

  1. Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in LaAl11 O18 :Eu,Tb phosphor.

    PubMed

    Mendhe, M S; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, S J

    2016-05-01

    Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) singly doped and co-doped LaAl11 O18 phosphors were prepared by a combustion method using urea as a fuel. The phase structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the prepared phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. When the content of Eu(2+) was fixed at 0.01, the emission chromaticity coordinates could be adjusted from blue to green region by tuning the contents of Tb(3+) ions from 0.01 to 0.03 through an energy transfer (ET) process. The fluorescence data collected from the samples with different contents of Tb(3+) into LaAl11 O18 : Eu, show the enhanced green emission at 545 nm associated with (5) D4 -(7) F5 transitions of Tb(3+) . The enhancement was attributed to ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) , and therefore Eu(2+) ion acts as a sensitizer (an energy donor) while Tb(3+) ion as an activator. The ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) is performed through dipole-dipole interaction. The ET efficiency and critical distance were also calculated. The present Eu(2+) -Tb(3+) co-doped LaAl11 O18 phosphor will have potential application for UV convertible white light-emitting diodes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26592806

  2. Quantification of pesticides used in agriculture in the EU-27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Fantke, Peter; Theloke, Jochen; Friedrich, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    Pesticides have become relatively ubiquitous pollutants. They may affect non-targeted organisms and can be found as contaminants in agricultural soils, groundwater, rivers, lakes and in the food chain (Margni et al., 2002; Hamilton & Crossley, 2004; Arias-Estévez et al., 2008). As "it has been common knowledge that many pesticides cause harm to the environment and to human health" (Pretty & Waibel, 2005), it is essential to account for a quantitative assessment of impacts of current agricultural practice at the European scale. Therefore, inventory data sets of applications and related emissions of the most relevant active substances are necessary. A review of publicly available data sets evidenced that data on consumption of active substances and releases into the environment for EU member states are of low quality or lacking entirely. Either only few substances are covered (e.g. EPER, E-PRTR) or data are highly aggregated in terms of total amount of active substances. Sales or consumption data are differentiated by target organisms and crop types (Eurostat) or by chemical classes (FAOSTAT, OECD.StatExtracts). In Germany, sales data categorised into target organisms and chemical classes are available. To our knowledge, Denmark and the United Kingdom are the only European countries providing application rates for specific active substances and crops. As a basis for analysing the relation between source, environmental fate and sink of pesticides and for considering the importance of crop-specific properties on the fate of pesticides (Trapp and Kulhanek, 2006), crop-specific emission inventories for individual active substances are required. Thus, the aim of our work was to develop a crop-specific inventory for active substances currently used in agriculture in the EU-27. Based on Eurostat (2007), the five most important active substances applied to the crop categories of cereals, maize, oilseeds, potatoes, sugar-beets, grapes and vine, fruit trees and vegetables

  3. The new EU chemicals policy--Discussions on details relevant for animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula

    2002-01-01

    The European Commission is planning to put forward drafts for a new chemicals legislation by June 2002. In fulfillment of an Environmental Council Conclusion, Working Groups have been set up for consultation during the ongoing preparatory stage. There, members of the General Directorates Environment and Enterprise discuss relevant topics with representatives from authorities, industry, environmental and animal protection organisations. There is agreement that animal tests shall be reduced to a minimum. However it is still unclear how this goal can best be achieved. In this context, the designing of testing strategies will play a major role. It is explained, why fixed test catalogues should be replaced by flexible tiered testing strategies and how concrete waiving strategies can contribute to avoiding animal tests. Another important aspect is the EU-wide implementation of a clause on the avoidance of duplicate testing, which is already enforced in Germany and Austria. In these Member States, first parties have to provide data from previously performed animal tests to second parties. Finally, it is discussed that the application of new non-animal tests can be promoted, if the revised EU chemicals policy once again contains the legal framework for an EU-specific acceptance of new test methods. PMID:12096327

  4. Member Takes Action Against Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertholf, Deedrick

    1999-01-01

    An ASBO member and chair of New York's School Emergency Response to Violent Events (SERVE) explains how this program tackles violence and teen suicide. SERVE teaches the basic principles of hostage situations, uses a confidential reporting system, and advocates safety audits and risk-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  5. Kentucky Hispanic School Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Kentucky Hispanic school board members. The data was obtained from Kentucky school superintendents or their designees in the 174 public school districts through a survey mailed in the spring, 2009. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on March 12, 2009. The follow-up survey was mailed…

  6. Staff Members as Lifelong Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Joanne V.

    Based on the assumption that all community college staff members should be lifelong learners, this paper outlines the purposes and principles underlying a quality staff development program and enumerates the elements, activities, incentives, and other considerations that are necessary for the program to be successful. First, the purposes of staff…

  7. Eu Anomalies Constrain Recycling of Lower Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M.; Rudnick, R. L.; McDonough, W. F.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Huang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Europium is fractionated from Sm and Gd during intra-crustal differentiation since Eu (II) strongly partitions into feldspar. Statistical analysis of Sm-Eu-Gd concentrations in over 2000 samples from the continental crust reveal that the bulk continental crust has a negative Eu anomaly. Samples include (1) shales, loess, and tillites which represent upper continental crust (n = 415); (2) amphibolite facies rocks, which represent the middle continental crust (n = 1325) and (3) granulite facies rocks (n = 845), which represent the lower continental crust. The upper and middle continental crust have a significant negative Eu anomaly, while the lower continental crust has a significant positive Eu anomaly. The Eu deficit in the upper and middle continental crust, however, cannot be compensated by the Eu excess in the lower continental crust, leaving the bulk continental crust with a negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.81 ± 0.04, 95% conf.). Since the building blocks of the continental crust (mantle-derived basalts or tonalitic slab melts) do not possess a negative Eu anomaly, removal of lower continental crust, which is the only crustal reservoir enriched in Eu, is required during crustal evolution. A mass balance model of the continents, based on Sm-Eu-Gd systematics, indicates that at least 2.2-3.0 crustal masses may have been added back to the mantle over Earth history via lower crustal recycling.

  8. Processing and scintillation properties of Eu 3+ doped Lu 2O 3 transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Chen, Q. W.; Shi, J. L.

    2009-03-01

    A novel processing was developed to fabricate transparent europium (Eu 3+) ion doped lutetia (Lu 2O 3) scintillation ceramics. The microstructural evolution of Eu 3+:Lu 2O 3 phosphor powder under different calcining temperatures was investigated by FTIR and TEM. Highly transparent polycrystalline Lu 2O 3 ceramics were densified from as-prepared powder by pressureless sintering under 1850 °C for 6 h in flowing H 2 atmosphere. Optical linear transmittances in the visible wavelength region for Lu 2O 3 ceramic could reach as high as above 80%. Integration of the X-ray excited emission spectra showed that Lu 2O 3:5at%Eu 3+ ceramic scintillator provided about 10 times overall emission intensity with respect to BGO single crystal at room temperature.

  9. Analyzing Turkey's Data from TIMSS 2007 to Investigate Regional Disparities in Eighth Grade Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erberber, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education…

  10. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence in LiCaAlF6:Eu2+ phosphor.

    PubMed

    More, Y K; Wankhede, S P; Moharil, S V; Kumar, Munish; Chougaonkar, M P

    2015-09-01

    Results on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) are reported. Continuous wave OSL signal as recorded using blue (470 nm) stimulation was found to be ~31% that of standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate. The rate of OSL depletion for standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate is only three times less as compared with that of LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+). Strong photoluminescence (PL) in the near ultraviolet region is observed for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) with the characteristic Eu(2+) emission at 369 nm for 254 nm excitation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) was observed at around 180°C. The glow peak was about six times more intense compared with the dosimetric peak of the well known thermoluminescence dosimetric (TLD) phosphor LiF-TLD 100. Thus this phosphor deserves much more attention than it has received until now and may be useful as a dosimetric material in radiation dosimetry. PMID:25620581

  12. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  13. Spectroscopic Study on Eu3+ Doped Borate Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles and Ag Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shaobo; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jinsu; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Jiashi; Hua, Ruinian; Dong, Bin; Xia, Haiping; Chen, Baojiu

    2015-01-01

    Transparent Eu(3+)-doped borate glasses containing Ag nanoparticles and Ag aggregates with composition (40 - x) CaO-59.5B2O3-0.5Eu2O3-xAgNO3 were prepared by a simple one-step melt-quenching technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the glasses reveal amorphous structural properties and no diffraction peaks belonging to metal Ag particles. Ag particles and Ag aggregates were observed from the absorption spectra. Effective energy transfers from the Ag aggregates to the Eu3+ ions were observed in the excitation spectra from monitoring the intrinsic emission of Eu3+x .5D0 --> 7F2. The glasses with higher Ag content can be effectively excited by light in a wide wavelength region, indicating that these glasses have potential application in the solid state lighting driven by semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs). The emission spectra of the samples with higher Ag contents exhibit plenteous spectral components covering the full visible region from violet to red, thus indicating that these glass materials possess an excellent and tunable color rendering index. The color coordinates for all the glass samples were calculated by using the intensity-corrected emission spectra and the standard data issued by the CIE (Commission International de l' Eclairage) in 1931. It was found that the color coordinates for most samples with higher Ag contents fall into the white region in the color space. PMID:26328363

  14. Introducing competition principles into health care through EU law and policy: a case study of the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Gronden, Johan; Szyszczak, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A national health care service is one of the central pillars of the welfare state in Europe. Recent moves to modernise health care, alongside introducing efficiencies through competition have resulted in experimentation and a re-organisation of national health care systems. The experimental nature of the reforms has brought health care into the focus, but uncertain territory, of EU economic law, especially competition law. Added to these pressures, the new EU fiscal measures oblige Member States to avoid excessive budgets and macro-economic imbalances. One constraint on an EU-based system of competition in health care is the effect of decentralisation, resulting in variations at the national level. Thus a case study is taken of the experience in The Netherlands. From this case study, we argue that a new form of Euro-national competition law is emerging for the health care sector with national authorities taking the lead in shaping the contours of this law. PMID:24841529

  15. Second Wave of Biometric ID-documents in Europe: The Residence Permit for non-EU/EEA Nationals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdeau, Detlef

    The first implementation of biometric documents, called biometric passports, based on a regulation is running, the second implementation since end of CY 2008 is coming to Europe. The focus is on persons staying for business, study or leisure for more than 3 months in Europe and coming from a state outside Europe and not being a member of the Visa-Waiver-Program of the EU. This second wave increases the demand for the security industry for certified security microcontroller chips, secure smart cards, readers and supporting infrastructure on top of the biometric Passport business. It underlines the continuing advance of contactless identification technology in the public sector. The article gives an overview on the application, the technology, the EU regulation, the EU roadmap and the implementations.

  16. Novel red-emitting Ba2Tb(BO3)2Cl:Eu phosphor with efficient energy transfer for potential application in white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhiguo; Zhuang, Jiaqing; Liao, Libing

    2012-07-01

    A novel red-emitting Ba(2)Tb(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu phosphor possessing a broad excitation band in the near-ultraviolet (n-UV) region was synthesized by the solid-state reaction. Versatile Ba(2)Tb(BO(3))(2)Cl compound has a rigid open framework, which can offer two types of sites for various valence's cations to occupy, and the coexistence of Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) and the red-emitting luminescence from Eu(3+) with the aid of efficient energy transfer of Eu(2+)-Eu(3+)(Tb(3+)) and Tb(3+)-Eu(3+) have been investigated. Ba(2)Tb(BO(3))(2)Cl emits green emission with the main peak around 543 nm, which originates from (5)D(4) → (7)F(5) transition of Tb(3+). Ba(2)Tb(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu shows bright red emission from Eu(3+) with peaks around 594, 612, and 624 nm under n-UV excitation (350-420 nm). The existence of Eu(2+) can be testified by the broad-band excitation spectrum, UV-vis reflectance spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectrum, and Eu L(3)-edge X-ray absorption spectrum. Decay time and time-resolved luminescence measurements indicated that the interesting luminescence behavior should be ascribed to efficient energy transfer of Eu(2+)-Eu(3+)(Tb(3+)) and Tb(3+)-Eu(3+) in Ba(2)Tb(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu phosphors. PMID:22686374

  17. Tunable white light emission from single-phased Li2 SrSiO4 :Dy(3+) phosphors by co-doping with Eu(3+).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Shen, Xi-Hai; Peng, You-Shun; Ren, Yan-Jun; Mao, Zhi-Yong

    2015-02-01

    A series of single-phase full-color emitting Li2 Sr1-x-y SiO4 :xDy(3+) ,yEu(3+) phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analyses. The samples showed emission peaks at 488 nm (blue), 572 nm (yellow), 592 nm (orange) and 617 nm (red) under 393 nm excitation. The photoluminescence excitation spectra, comprising the Eu-O charge transfer band and 4f-4f transition bands of Dy(3+) and Eu(3+) , range from 200 to 500 nm. The Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates for Li2 Sr0.98-x SiO4 :0.02Dy(3+) ,xEu(3+) phosphors were simulated. By manipulating Eu(3+) and Dy(3+) concentrations, the color points of Li2 Sr1-x-y SiO4 :xDy(3+) ,yEu(3+) were tuned from the greenish-white region to white light and eventually to reddish-white region, demonstrating that a tunable white light can be obtained by Li2 Sr1-x-y SiO4 :xDy(3+) ,yEu(3+) phosphors. Li2 Sr0.98-x SiO4 :0.02Dy(3+) , xEu(3+) can serve as a white-light-emitting phosphor for phosphor-converted light-emitting diode. PMID:24850635

  18. Spectroscopy and structural characteristics of Eu3+-activated perovskite tungstate Ba2La2ZnW2O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-11-01

    Eu3+-doped tungstate Ba2La2ZnW2O12 was prepared by the high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the matrix has a perovskite structure. The samples were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), by optical diffuse reflection, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and by their decay curves. Eu3+-activated Ba2La2ZnW2O12 shows red luminescence under the excitation of near-ultraviolet and blue light. Laser site-selective excitation and emission spectroscopy technology was applied to investigate the spectroscopic and microstructural properties. The excitation spectra were tested by monitoring the emission from 5D0  →  7F0-4 transitions. Accordingly the emission spectra and decay curves (lifetime) were measured by the excitation in the 5D0  →  7F0 wavelength region using a pulsed, tunable, and narrow-band dye laser. We have detected two Eu3+ sites in Ba2La2ZnW2O12 with the temperature region ranging from 10 K to below 300 K. On the spectra data of the site-selective emission and decay, the Stark energy levels of Eu3+ at two different sites were determined. The lifetimes of Eu3+ ions at the two sites were compared. The energy transfer and crystallographic assignments for the Eu3+ sites were discussed.

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence of inorganic borate host red emitting VUV phosphor YCaBO4:Eu3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, J. T.; Gawande, A. B.; Sonekar, R. P.; Nagpure, P. A.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    The red emitting borate host phosphor YCaBO4:Eu3+ has been prepared by a novel solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate). The photoluminescence properties of the powder samples of YCaBO4:Eu3+ has been investigated under UV and VUV excitation. The phosphor shows strong absorption in UV and VUV region and exhibits intense red emission upon excited by 254 nm UV and 173 nm VUV radiation. Under UV 254 nm excitation, YCaBO4:Eu3+ exhibits intense red emission around 610 nm. Under VUV excitation of 173 nm, the phosphor emits intense red emission around 610 nm and few weak emissions. These weak emissions could be suppressed by annealing the sample repeatedly at proper temperature and the borate phosphor YCaBO4:Eu3+ could be a good red emitting phosphor for PDP display and mercury free lamps.

  20. Eu(3+) doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd(2)O(2)S) nanostructures-synthesis and optical and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Thirumalai, J; Chandramohan, R; Divakar, R; Mohandas, E; Sekar, M; Parameswaran, P

    2008-10-01

    One-dimensional Eu(3+) doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+)) nanotubes/nanorods have been synthesized via precursors of Gd(OH)(3) nanostructures using a hydrothermal technique. The blue-shifts in the optical spectra for the Gd(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) system corresponding to the fundamental absorption and Eu(3+)-X(2-) ligand (X =  O/S) charge transfer bands (CTBs) are significant (∼0.22-0.36 eV) with respect to the bulk counterpart. The nanotubes are good candidates for investigating the size-induced electrical and optical properties of functional oxysulfides. In order to identify the origin and nature of the electronic transitions observed in the visible region, optical and photo-induced impedance measurements have been extended to the nanotubes in this report. PMID:21832604

  1. Waste management regulations and approaches in the EU: potential areas for enhancement or harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Salzer, Peter; Butler, Gregg; McGlynn, Grace; Chapman, Neil; McCombie, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a survey and study performed for the European Commission on 'Regulations Governing Radioactive Waste Disposal in EU Countries'. Its main purposes were to provide a survey of the regulations governing the disposal of all forms of radioactive waste in all EU Members States and, based on this study, to consider the potential for harmonization in different regulatory areas. Three key parts of the study are presented and the results discussed: collection and assessment of national data, including its verification by national stakeholders, application of multi-attribute analysis methodology to identify optimal waste classification scheme and a workshop of national authorities regulating disposal of radioactive waste. For five determined regulatory issues, the workshop carried out a 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) analysis of the impacts of harmonization. (authors)

  2. Estimating the soil organic carbon content for European NUTS2 regions based on LUCAS data collection.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B

    2013-01-01

    Under the European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, the European Commission Directorate-General for the Environment and the European Environmental Agency (EEA) identified a decline in soil organic carbon and soil losses by erosion as priorities for the collection of policy relevant soil data at European scale. Moreover, the estimation of soil organic carbon content is of crucial importance for soil protection and for climate change mitigation strategies. Soil organic carbon is one of the attributes of the recently developed LUCAS soil database. The request for data on soil organic carbon and other soil attributes arose from an on-going debate about efforts to establish harmonized datasets for all EU countries with data on soil threats in order to support modeling activities and display variations in these soil conditions across Europe. In 2009, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre conducted the LUCAS soil survey, sampling ca. 20,000 points across 23 EU member states. This article describes the results obtained from analyzing the soil organic carbon data in the LUCAS soil database. The collected data were compared with the modeled European topsoil organic carbon content data developed at the JRC. The best fitted comparison was performed at NUTS2 level and showed underestimation of modeled data in southern Europe and overestimation in the new central eastern member states. There is a good correlation in certain regions for countries such as the United Kingdom, Slovenia, Italy, Ireland, and France. Here we assess the feasibility of producing comparable estimates of the soil organic carbon content at NUTS2 regional level for the European Union (EU27) and draw a comparison with existing modeled data. In addition to the data analysis, we suggest how the modeled data can be improved in future updates with better calibration of the model. PMID:23178783

  3. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  4. Do ICP-MS based methods fulfill the EU monitoring requirements for the determination of elements in our environment?

    PubMed

    Tirez, Kristof; Vanhoof, Chris; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet; Bleux, Nico; Berghmans, Patrick; De Brucker, Nicole; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Undoubtedly, the most important advance in the environmental regulatory monitoring of elements of the last decade is the widespread introduction of ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) due to standards developed by the European Committee for Standardization. The versatility of ICP-MS units as a tool for the determination of major, minor and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Ti, V and Zn) in surface water, groundwater, river sediment, topsoil, subsoil, fine particulates and atmospheric deposition is illustrated in this paper. Ranges of background concentrations for major, minor and trace elements obtained from a regional case study (Flanders, Belgium) are summarized for all of these environmental compartments and discussed in the context of a harmonized implementation of European regulatory monitoring requirements. The results were derived from monitoring programs in support of EU environmental quality directives and were based on a selection of (non-polluted) background locations. Because of the availability of ICP-MS instruments nowadays, it can be argued that the main hindrance for meeting the European environmental monitoring requirements is no longer the technical feasibility of analysis at these concentration levels, but rather (i) potential contamination during sampling and analysis, (ii) too limited implementation of quality control programs, validating the routinely applied methods (including sampling and low level verification) and (iii) lack of harmonization in reporting of the chemical environmental status between the individual member states. PMID:26487336

  5. Is EU/EEA population protected from polio?

    PubMed Central

    Nijsten, DRE; Carrillo-Santisteve, P; Miglietta, A; Ruitenberg, J; Lopalco, PL

    2015-01-01

    The WHO European Region has been declared polio-free since 2002. By 2010, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was the only polio vaccine in use in the EU/EEA for the primary vaccination of children. A systematic review of the literature on polio seroprevalence studies, complemented by the analysis of available vaccine coverage data, has been carried out with the aim of assessing the level of protection against polio in the European population. A total of 52 studies, with data from 14 out of the 31 EU/EEA countries, were included in the analysis. This systematic review shows that, overall, seroprevalence for PV1 and PV3 is high in most countries, although seroimmunity gaps have been detected in several birth cohorts. In particular, relatively low immunity status was found in some countries for individuals born in the 60's and 70's. Discrepancies between reported vaccination coverage and immunity levels have been also highlighted. Countries should make sure that their population is being vaccinated for polio to reduce the risk of local poliovirus transmission in case of importation. Moreover, assessing immunity status should be priority for those traveling to areas where wild polioviruses are still circulating. PMID:25898095

  6. Distribution of eu- and heterochromatin in Plantago ovata.

    PubMed

    Dhar, M K; Fuchs, J; Houben, A

    2009-01-01

    Plantago ovata (2n = 8) is the only cultivated species in the monotypic genus Plantago. The seed husk of the plant constitutes the psyllium (Isabgol) which has many medicinal properties. The 1C DNA content was determined to be 0.635 pg (621 Mb) with an AT content of 59.7%. Applying Giemsa C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Cot-1 fraction of DNA on prometaphase and metaphase chromosomes we investigated the chromosomal distribution of eu- and heterochromatin. All applied techniques revealed that the euchromatin is located at the distal ends of all chromosome arms, besides the NOR-bearing ones. Interestingly, in addition one arm of chromosome 1 seems to be entirely euchromatic. Furthermore, we have analysed the correlation between the global distribution of histone H3 mono-, di- or trimethylated at either lysine 4, 9 or 27 and the microscopically detectable eu- and heterochromatin. Methylated H3K4 was found to be enriched exclusively within euchromatin. From the other tested methylation marks only H3K9me1, H3K9me2 and H3K27me1 showed, in addition to a more or less disperse labelling, an enrichment within the heterochromatic chromocentres. The cell cycle dependent phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 and threonine 11 was enriched in all pericentromeric regions. PMID:19738383

  7. TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE POLAR EU CANCRI IN THE OPEN CLUSTER MESSIER 67

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Howell, Steve B.; Bellini, Andrea; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Bolte, Michael E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov E-mail: psmith@as.arizona.edu E-mail: rubin@mpia.de

    2013-05-15

    We present time-resolved spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the AM Her system EU Cnc. EU Cnc is located near the core of the old open cluster Messier 67; new proper motion measurements indicate that EU Cnc is indeed a member of the star cluster, and this system therefore is useful to constrain the formation and evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. The spectra exhibit two-component emission features with independent radial velocity variations as well as time-variable cyclotron emission indicating a magnetic field strength of 41 MG. The period of the radial velocity and cyclotron hump variations are consistent with the previously known photometric period, and the spectroscopic flux variations are consistent in amplitude with previous photometric amplitude measurements. The secondary star is also detected in the spectrum. We also present polarimetric imaging measurements of EU Cnc that show a clear detection of polarization, and the degree of polarization drops below our detection threshold at phases when the cyclotron emission features are fading or not evident. The combined data are all consistent with the interpretation that EU Cnc is a low-state polar in the cluster Messier 67. The mass function of the system gives an estimate of the accretor mass of M{sub WD} {>=} 0.68 M{sub Sun} with M{sub WD} Almost-Equal-To 0.83 M{sub Sun} for an average inclination. We are thus able to place a lower limit on the progenitor mass of the accreting white dwarf of {>=}1.43 M{sub Sun }.

  8. 29 CFR 401.15 - Member or member in good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Member or member in good standing. 401.15 Section 401.15...-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.15 Member or member in good standing. Member or member in good standing, when used in reference to a labor organization, includes any...

  9. 29 CFR 401.15 - Member or member in good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Member or member in good standing. 401.15 Section 401.15...-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.15 Member or member in good standing. Member or member in good standing, when used in reference to a labor organization, includes any...

  10. 29 CFR 401.15 - Member or member in good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Member or member in good standing. 401.15 Section 401.15...-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.15 Member or member in good standing. Member or member in good standing, when used in reference to a labor organization, includes any...

  11. 29 CFR 401.15 - Member or member in good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Member or member in good standing. 401.15 Section 401.15...-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.15 Member or member in good standing. Member or member in good standing, when used in reference to a labor organization, includes any...

  12. 29 CFR 401.15 - Member or member in good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Member or member in good standing. 401.15 Section 401.15...-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.15 Member or member in good standing. Member or member in good standing, when used in reference to a labor organization, includes any...

  13. 7 CFR 946.23 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member... the event that both a member and his or her alternate are unable to attend a Committee meeting, the... alternate of the same classification (handler or producer) to serve in such member's place and stead....

  14. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  15. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  16. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  17. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  18. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  19. [Risk communication efforts regarding drug safety in the US and EU, and Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    In pharmacovigilance, it has been recognized that it is essential to share the information regarding the risk of drugs among stakeholders and to have risk communication (RC) which enables consumers to make their own judgments regarding the risk. In particular, RC between the governmental agencies and consumers is given a high priority. Hence, its provisions and initiatives should be considered thoroughly. I present a brief overview of current proactive approaches for RC to protect the patient's rights, to increase openness and transparency and to share information in the US and EU. Following the Food and Drug Administration Amendment Act (FDAAA), Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM) recommended that FDA makes efforts for RC. The RC Advisory Committee was established and consumers are involved as its members. FDA published "Guidance Drug Safety Information" in 2007 and "Strategic Plan for RC" in 2009. Thus, its framework has been developed. European Medicines Agency (EMA) issued "Work programme 2010" and "EMA Communication on safety related issues", which indicated its policies and measures. EMA is promoting development of the framework for Patient Involvement (e.g., members of scientific committees). Regarding the direct patient reporting of adverse drug reactions, FDA began that in 2003 and EMA recommends to encourage it for EU Member States, and it has already started in some countries. RC has important roles to take safety measures for drugs and to protect patient's rights, therefore such an approach for it be implemented is expected in Japan. PMID:22687688

  20. {sup 151}Eu and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy of EuSbSe{sub 3} and EuBiSe{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Schappacher, Falko M.; Poettgen, Rainer Bang Jin, Geng; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2007-11-15

    {sup 151}Eu and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy of EuSbSe{sub 3} and EuBiSe{sub 3} were measured at different temperatures. The presence of divalent europium and trivalent antimony were confirmed. The largely negative values of the isomer shift in {sup 151}Eu spectrum show highly ionic bonding within these two compounds. Both of them show magnetic hyperfine field splitting at 4.2 K, which indicates a change in the orientation of the EFG principal axis with respect to the magnetic hyperfine field direction. EuSbSe{sub 3} has slightly smaller electron density at the antimony nuclei, compared to Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3.} - Graphical abstract: Experimental and simulated {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectrum of EuSbSe{sub 3} at 77 K.

  1. Effect of Eu-citrate complex composition on its cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.M.; Kornilov, A.S.; Yadovin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    The dependence of Eu cementation by sodium amalgam in a semicountercurrent regime from citrate solutions on the Eu complex composition is studied. The purity of the {sup 153}Gd product from radioactive Eu can be increased during cementation by introducing correcting solutions of citric acid and stable Eu. The selected conditions are verified by processing irradiated targets. The content of radioactive Eu in the {sup 153}Gd product is reduced from 0.01 to 0.0005% with respect to {gamma}-activity.

  2. Eu2+-Activated CaSrSiO4: a New Red-Emitting Oxide Phosphor for White-Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Satoko; Sato, Yasushi; Komukai, Tetsufumi; Takatsuka, Yuji; Kato, Hideki; Kakihana, Masato

    2013-07-01

    Ca1-xSr1-xEu2xSiO4 (CaSrSiO4:Eu2+) phosphors were prepared by a novel aqueous solution technique using propylene glycol-modified silane (PGMS), combined with a freeze-drying process. The precursors were heat-treated under a reducing atmosphere with BaCl2 flux. X-ray diffraction indicated that the obtained phosphors exhibited an α'-CaSrSiO4 structure. The wavelength at the phosphors' maximum emission was systematically shifted beyond 600 nm as the Eu2+ concentration was increased. The corresponding excitation spectra were extended to the visible light region (400-500 nm) with increasing Eu2+ concentration. These results implied that CaSrSiO4:Eu2+ is a red-emitting phosphor excited by near-UV and blue-light-emitting diodes.

  3. Will the EU Clinical Trials Regulation Support the Innovative Industry in Bringing New Medicines Faster to Patients?

    PubMed

    Atzor, Sabine; Gokhale, Surendra; Doherty, Michael

    2013-04-01

    A perspective from the innovative industry is provided in this article about the long awaited legal proposal for a Clinical Trial Regulation ("Proposal"), adopted in July 2012. With this Proposal, the European Commission reacted to a call by all stakeholders for more harmonization and streamlining of the provisions for conducting clinical trials in the EU. Discrepant approaches between Member States, a failure to respect legal timelines, and a lack of formal coordination mechanisms within and between Member States have resulted in an increased workload for the industry and contributed to a decline in Europe's attractiveness as a place to carry out research and development. The Proposal introduces a concept whereby the sponsor makes a single submission of the clinical trial application dossier to an EU portal, which is followed by a single assessment based on cooperation between Member States. A possibility for the sponsor to choose a 'reporting Member State' to take the lead on key aspects of the assessment is expected to support excellence building and work sharing of Competent Authorities in the EU. The Proposal respects the fact that certain aspects need to be reviewed nationally. The new process aims to lead to a single decision per clinical trial per concerned Member State. The rules are built on the principle of strict adherence to timelines for authorization. The timelines are ambitious but at the same time competitive, as the process builds in mechanisms that strengthen compliance. The rules have been designed to encourage sponsors to file complete submission packages, since any substantial modification to a trial would lead to delays in its commencement. Sponsors need to streamline their internal processes accordingly. In the end, streamlining is an effort that needs to be accepted by all parties involved. The Proposal does not detail how Member States organize the involvement of different bodies, such as Competent Authorities and Ethics Committees

  4. Get Acquainted With EU Safety Glove Standards.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Simon

    2016-02-01

    As with many of the standards developed as a result of the EU Directive on PPE, the classification of a glove in a particular test is usually defined as one of a series of performance levels (usually between 1 and 4 or 5). It is then left to the user, following a suitable risk assessment exercise, to select a glove with a suitable profile of performance levels in relevant tests. PMID:26983326

  5. Mixed valence and metamagnetism in a metal flux grown compound Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Sumanta; Subbarao, Udumula; Joseph, Boby; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-05-15

    A new compound Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5} with plate shaped morphology has been grown from excess In flux. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic U{sub 2}Co{sub 3}Si{sub 5} structure type, Ibam space group and the lattice parameters are a=10.007(2) Å, b=11.666(2) Å and c=6.0011(12) Å. The crystal structure of this compound can be conceived as inter-twinned chains of [Pt{sub 2}Si{sub 2}] and [PtSi{sub 3}] tetrahedra connected along [100] direction to give rise to a complex three dimensional [Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5}] network. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data suggests that Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5} undergoes a strong antiferromagnetic ordering (T{sub N}=19 K) followed by a weak ferromagnetic transition (T{sub C}=5.5 K). The effective magnetic moment/Eu obtained from susceptibility data is 6.78 μ{sub B} accounts mixed valent Eu with almost 85% divalent Eu, which is supported by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. The compound undergoes a metamagnetic transition under applied magnetic field through a probable spin flop mechanism. - Graphical abstract: Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5}, a new member in the U{sub 2}Co{sub 3}Si{sub 5} (Ibam) family undergoes metamagnetic transition at high magnetic field and Eu is in mixed valence state. - Highlights: • A new compound Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5} has been synthesized using indium as an inactive metal flux. • The compound undergoes metamagnetic transition at higher field. • Eu in this compound resides in a mixed valence state.

  6. 2009 Regional Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Larry; Barbush, Jim; Riese, Gail; Quirk, Robert John; Morris, John P.; Hargrave, Heather

    2010-01-01

    APPA's six regions serve member institutions across the United States and Canada. They function independently from international APPA and offer their own educational programs, annual meetings, publications, and other benefits. Each region also maintains its own set of officers, committees, and activities. Participating in regions and state and…

  7. Pechini synthesis of lanthanide (Eu3+/Tb3+or Dy3+) ions activated BaGd2O4 nanostructured phosphors: an approach for tunable emissions.

    PubMed

    Seeta Rama Raju, G; Pavitra, E; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-09-14

    Trivalent lanthanide (Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Dy(3+)) ions activated tunable color emitting BaGd2O4 (BG) phosphors were synthesized by a facile Pechini-type sol-gel process. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the orthorhombic phase after annealing at 1300 °C for 5 h. Morphological studies were performed based on the analysis of transmission electron microscopy images, which showed needle type nanorods. The BG phosphor exhibited good photoluminescence (PL) properties in the respective regions when doped with Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Dy(3+) ions. The Eu(3+) co-activated BG:Tb(3+) phosphor yielded tunable emissions including tri-band established white light emission based on the co-activator concentration and excitation wavelength. The energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions was controlled by selecting a suitable excitation wavelength and the decay measurements were carried out for analyzing the energy transfer efficiency. The cathodoluminescence properties of these phosphors were almost similar to PL properties when doped with individual Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+) ions, but were different when co-doped with Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) or Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) ions. In the case of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) doped samples, the energy transfer process occurred unlike the PL channel. The calculated Commission International de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of individual ion doped BG phosphors confirmed red, green, and white emissions and for co-doped samples they showed tunable emission. PMID:25052006

  8. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Novel Red-Emitting PbNb2O6: Eu(3+) Phosphors.

    PubMed

    İlhan, Mustafa; Ekmekçi, Mete Kaan; Demir, Abdullah; Demirer, Halil

    2016-09-01

    Undoped and PbNb2O6:Eu(3+) (1.0 ≤ x ≤ 6.0 mol%) phosphors were synthesized at 1100 °C for 3.5 h by the conventional solid state reaction method. Synthesized PbNb2O6:Eu(3+) phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The PL spectra showed series of excitation peaks between 350 and 430 nm due to the 4f-4f transitions of Eu(3+). For 395.0 nm excitation, emission spectra of Eu(3+) doped samples were observed at 591 nm (orange) and 614 nm (red) due to the (5)D0 → (7)F1 transitions and (5)D0 → (7)F2 transitions, respectively. PL analysis results also showed that the emission intensity increased by increasing Eu(3+) ion content. No concentration quenching effect was observed. The CIE chromaticity color coordinates (x,y) of the PbNb2O6:Eu(3+) phosphors were found to be in the red region of the chromaticity diagram. PMID:27324954

  9. Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Red-Emitting BaTa2O6:Eu(3+) Phosphors.

    PubMed

    İlhan, Mustafa; Ekmekçi, Mete Kaan; Mergen, Ayhan; Yaman, Cemalettin

    2016-09-01

    Undoped and Eu(3+) doped BaTa2O6 phosphors were synthesized via solid state reaction method and characterized by using XRD, SEM-EDS and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The XRD results revealed that the crystal structure of BaTa2O6 allowed up to 10 mol% levels of Eu(3+) ions due to the TTB characteristic network of adjacent octahedrals. SEM-EDS analyses confirmed the formation of BaTa2O6 structure and EuTaO4 secondary phase. BaTa2O6:Eu(3+) phosphors exhibited orange and red emissions at 592.2 nm and 615.7 nm in the visible region respectively. The Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of the BaTa2O6:Eu(3+) phosphors that excited at λ ex = 400 nm ranged from orangish-red to pinkish-red depending on increasing Eu(3+) concentration. PMID:27325113

  10. On the Luminescence Enhancement of Mn2+ By Co-doping of Eu2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Hossu, Marius; Schaeffer, Roger O.; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yongbin; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Joly, Alan G.

    2013-06-01

    The photoluminescence and X-ray luminescence of ZnS:Mn, ZnS:Mn,Eu and ZnS:Eu were investigated and it was found that the luminescence intensity of Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu co-doped phosphors is highly dependent on the doping concentration of Eu2+. At the optimized Eu2+concentration (0.2%), the photoluminescence of Mn2+ shows about a 5.5 times enhancement and its X-ray luminescence is enhanced by a factor of 2.5. Both wurtzite and zinc blend phases are present in the samples with wurtzite phase dominant. Co-doping of Eu2+ into ZnS:Mn does not change appreciably the ratio of the two phases or the Mn2+ emission luminescence lifetime; however, the doping of Eu2+ into ZnS:Mn does change the phonon activity. Furthermore, it was found that the defect-related blue emission of ZnS:Eu overlaps with the excitation bands of Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn and there is likely energy transfer from these defect states to Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu. This energy transfer and the phonon modification are considered to be the two main reasons for the luminescence enhancement and the intensity dependence of Mn2+ emission on Eu2+ doping concentration in ZnS:Mn,Eu.