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Sample records for region influence mrna

  1. Phosphorylation at intrinsically disordered regions of PAM2 motif-containing proteins modulates their interactions with PABPC1 and influences mRNA fate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-Lieh; Chadee, Amanda B; Chen, Chyi-Ying A; Zhang, Yueqiang; Shyu, Ann-Bin

    2013-03-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) C1 recruits different interacting partners to regulate mRNA fate. The majority of PABP-interacting proteins contain a PAM2 motif to mediate their interactions with PABPC1. However, little is known about the regulation of these interactions or the corresponding functional consequences. Through in silico analysis, we found that PAM2 motifs are generally embedded within an extended intrinsic disorder region (IDR) and are located next to cluster(s) of potential serine (Ser) or threonine (Thr) phosphorylation sites within the IDR. We hypothesized that phosphorylation at these Ser/Thr sites regulates the interactions between PAM2-containing proteins and PABPC1. In the present study, we have tested this hypothesis using complementary approaches to increase or decrease phosphorylation. The results indicate that changing the extent of phosphorylation of three PAM2-containing proteins (Tob2, Pan3, and Tnrc6c) alters their ability to interact with PABPC1. Results from experiments using phospho-blocking or phosphomimetic mutants in PAM2-containing proteins further support our hypothesis. Moreover, the phosphomimetic mutations appreciably affected the functions of these proteins in mRNA turnover and gene silencing. Taken together, these results provide a new framework for understanding the roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in the dynamic and signal-dependent control of cytoplasmic mRNA functions. PMID:23340509

  2. Specific protein binding to a conserved region of the ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Manzella, J M; Blackshear, P J

    1992-04-01

    An RNA gel retardation assay was used to identify one or more cellular protein(s) (ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-UTR binding protein (ODCBP)) that bind specifically to a conserved region of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA. Ultraviolet light cross-linking demonstrated that this protein has an apparent Mr = 58,000 in mammalian cells. Treatment with the oxidizing agent diamide prevented binding of the ODCBP to ODC mRNA; addition of beta-mercaptoethanol reversed this inhibition and permitted mRNA.ODCBP complex formation. Cytoplasmic extracts from a variety of animal cells and tissues demonstrated similar binding activities; however, there was marked tissue-specific expression of the protein in the rat, with brain, heart, lung, and testis containing large amounts, and kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle expressing negligible amounts. Binding was completely prevented by several mutations within a highly conserved heptanucleotide region (CCAU/ACUC) that was within 61 bases of the initiation codon in ODC mRNAs from mammals, Xenopus, and Caenorhabditis elegans; mutations 5' and 3' of the conserved heptanucleotide domain had no effect on binding activity. Binding was not affected by manipulation of cellular polyamine levels or by treatment of cells with agents that stimulate ODC biosynthesis. Thus, we have identified a widely distributed cellular protein that binds to a conserved domain within the 5'-UTR of ODC mRNA from many animal species; functional consequences of this binding remain to be determined. PMID:1551914

  3. Codon influence on protein expression in E. coli correlates with mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Boël, Grégory; Letso, Reka; Neely, Helen; Price, W Nicholson; Wong, Kam-Ho; Su, Min; Luff, Jon D; Valecha, Mayank; Everett, John K; Acton, Thomas B; Xiao, Rong; Montelione, Gaetano T; Aalberts, Daniel P; Hunt, John F

    2016-01-21

    Degeneracy in the genetic code, which enables a single protein to be encoded by a multitude of synonymous gene sequences, has an important role in regulating protein expression, but substantial uncertainty exists concerning the details of this phenomenon. Here we analyse the sequence features influencing protein expression levels in 6,348 experiments using bacteriophage T7 polymerase to synthesize messenger RNA in Escherichia coli. Logistic regression yields a new codon-influence metric that correlates only weakly with genomic codon-usage frequency, but strongly with global physiological protein concentrations and also mRNA concentrations and lifetimes in vivo. Overall, the codon content influences protein expression more strongly than mRNA-folding parameters, although the latter dominate in the initial ~16 codons. Genes redesigned based on our analyses are transcribed with unaltered efficiency but translated with higher efficiency in vitro. The less efficiently translated native sequences show greatly reduced mRNA levels in vivo. Our results suggest that codon content modulates a kinetic competition between protein elongation and mRNA degradation that is a central feature of the physiology and also possibly the regulation of translation in E. coli. PMID:26760206

  4. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko; Lo Svenningsen, Sine; Sneppen, Kim; Pedersen, Steen

    2011-03-18

    Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described. Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual codons. When comparing the ribosome spacing at various segments of the mRNA to its functional half-life, we found a clear correlation between the functional mRNA half-life and the ribosome spacing in the mRNA region approximately between codon 20 and codon 45. From this finding, we predicted that inserts of slowly translated codons before codon 20 or after codon 45 should shorten or prolong, respectively, the functional mRNA half-life by altering the ribosome density in the important region. These predictions were tested on eight new lacZ variants, and their experimentally determined mRNA half-lives all supported the model. We thus suggest that translation-rate-mediated differences in the spacing between ribosomes in this early coding region is a parameter that determines the mRNAs functional half-life. We present a model that is in accordance with many earlier observations and that allows a prediction of the functional half-life of a given mRNA sequence. PMID:21255584

  5. Cytochrome P450 mRNA Expression in the Rodent Brain: Species-, Sex-, and Region-Dependent Differences

    PubMed Central

    Stamou, Marianna; Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a critical role in the activation and detoxication of many neurotoxic chemicals. Although research has largely focused on P450-mediated metabolism in the liver, emerging evidence suggests that brain P450s influence neurotoxicity by modulating local metabolite levels. As a first step toward better understanding the relative role of brain P450s in determining neurotoxic outcome, we characterized mRNA expression of specific P450 isoforms in the rodent brain. Adult mice (male and female) and rats (male) were treated with vehicle, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone. Transcripts for CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP1A2, and the orphan CYP4X1 and CYP2S1 were quantified in the liver, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction. These P450s were all detected in the liver with the exception of CYP4X1, which was detected in rat but not mouse liver. P450 expression profiles in the brain varied regionally. With the exception of the hippocampus, there were no sex differences in regional brain P450 expression profiles in mice; however, there were marked species differences. In the liver, phenobarbital induced CYP2B expression in both species. Dexamethasone induced hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A in mice but not rats. In contrast, brain P450s did not respond to these classic hepatic P450 inducers. Our findings demonstrate that P450 mRNA expression in the brain varies by region, regional brain P450 profiles vary between species, and their induction varies from that of hepatic P450s. These novel data will be useful for designing mechanistic studies to examine the relative role of P450-mediated brain metabolism in neurotoxicity. PMID:24255117

  6. Cytochrome p450 mRNA expression in the rodent brain: species-, sex-, and region-dependent differences.

    PubMed

    Stamou, Marianna; Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a critical role in the activation and detoxication of many neurotoxic chemicals. Although research has largely focused on P450-mediated metabolism in the liver, emerging evidence suggests that brain P450s influence neurotoxicity by modulating local metabolite levels. As a first step toward better understanding the relative role of brain P450s in determining neurotoxic outcome, we characterized mRNA expression of specific P450 isoforms in the rodent brain. Adult mice (male and female) and rats (male) were treated with vehicle, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone. Transcripts for CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP1A2, and the orphan CYP4X1 and CYP2S1 were quantified in the liver, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction. These P450s were all detected in the liver with the exception of CYP4X1, which was detected in rat but not mouse liver. P450 expression profiles in the brain varied regionally. With the exception of the hippocampus, there were no sex differences in regional brain P450 expression profiles in mice; however, there were marked species differences. In the liver, phenobarbital induced CYP2B expression in both species. Dexamethasone induced hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A in mice but not rats. In contrast, brain P450s did not respond to these classic hepatic P450 inducers. Our findings demonstrate that P450 mRNA expression in the brain varies by region, regional brain P450 profiles vary between species, and their induction varies from that of hepatic P450s. These novel data will be useful for designing mechanistic studies to examine the relative role of P450-mediated brain metabolism in neurotoxicity. PMID:24255117

  7. The 3' noncoding region of beta-globin mRNA is not essential for in vitro translation.

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, M N; Roberts, B E; Efstratiadis, A

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit beta globin DNA sequence, excised from plasmid pbetaG1, directs in vitro synthesis of beta-globin in a transcription-translation cell-free system, even after specific elimination of the entire 3'-noncoding region. A DNA restriction fragment carrying this 3' noncoding region and hybridized to globin mRNA cannot arrest the cell-free translation of beta-globin mRNA. Images PMID:424286

  8. Glucocorticoid regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein-B mRNA stability involves the 3'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen W; Bi, Weizhen; Jenkins, Gaye N; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2008-04-01

    Expression of pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that acts to reduce alveolar surface tension, is developmentally regulated and restricted to lung alveolar type II cells. The hydrophobic protein surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is essential in surfactant function, and insufficient levels of SP-B result in severe respiratory dysfunction. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung maturity and surfactant synthesis both experimentally and clinically. Glucocorticoids act transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally to increase steady-state levels of human SP-B mRNA; however, the mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids act post-transcriptionally is unknown. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids act post-transcriptionally to increase SP-B mRNA stability via sequence-specific mRNA-protein interactions. We found that glucocorticoids increase SP-B mRNA stability in isolated human type II cells and in nonpulmonary cells, but do not alter mouse SP-B mRNA stability in a mouse type II cell line. Deletion analysis of an artificially-expressed SP-B mRNA indicates that the SP-B mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR) is necessary for stabilization, and the region involved can be restricted to a 126-nucleotide-long region near the SP-B coding sequence. RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that cytosolic proteins bind to this region in the absence or presence of glucocorticoids. The formation of mRNA:protein complexes is not seen in other regions of the SP-B mRNA 3'-UTR. These results indicate that a specific 126-nucleotide region of human SP-B 3'-UTR is necessary for increased SP-B mRNA stability by glucocorticoids by a mechanism that is not lung cell specific and may involve mRNA-protein interactions. PMID:18006875

  9. Regional distribution of solute carrier mRNA expression along the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Meier, Yvonne; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Darimont, Jutta; Ismair, Manfred G; Hiller, Christian; Fried, Michael; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Vavricka, Stephan R

    2007-04-01

    Intestinal absorption of drugs, nutrients, and other compounds is mediated by uptake transporters expressed at the apical enterocyte membrane. These compounds are returned to the intestinal lumen or released into portal circulation by intestinal efflux transporters expressed at apical or basolateral membranes, respectively. One important transporter superfamily, multiple members of which are intestinally expressed, are the solute carriers (SLCs). SLC expression levels may determine the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of these transporters. In this study we characterize the distribution of 15 human SLC transporter mRNAs in histologically normal biopsies from five regions of the intestine of 10 patients. The mRNA expression levels of CNT1, CNT2, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ABST), serotonin transporter (SERT), PEPT1, and OCTN2 exhibit marked differences between different regions of the intestine: the first five are predominantly expressed in the small intestine, whereas OCTN2 exhibits strongest expression in the colon. Two transporter mRNAs studied (OCTN1, OATP2B1) are expressed at similar levels in all gut sections. In addition, ENT2 mRNA is present at low levels across the colon, but not in the small intestine. The other six SLC mRNAs studied are not expressed in the intestine. Quantitative knowledge of transporter expression levels in different regions of the human gastrointestinal tract could be useful for designing intestinal delivery strategies for orally administered drugs. Furthermore, changes in transporter expression that occur in pathological states, such as inflammatory bowel disease, can now be defined more precisely by comparison with the expression levels measured in healthy individuals. PMID:17220238

  10. Identification of two proteins that bind to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, N; Baekelandt, V; Goritchenko, L; Benowitz, L I

    1997-01-01

    GAP-43 is a membrane phosphoprotein that is important for the development and plasticity of neural connections. In undifferentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, GAP-43 mRNA degrades rapidly ( t = 5 h), but becomes stable when cells are treated with nerve growth factor. To identify trans- acting factors that may influence mRNA stability, we combined column chromatography and gel mobility shift assays to isolate GAP-43 mRNA binding proteins from neonatal bovine brain tissue. This resulted in the isolation of two proteins that bind specifically and competitively to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA. Partial amino acid sequencing revealed that one of the RNA binding proteins coincides with FBP (far upstream element binding protein), previously characterized as a protein that resembles hnRNP K and which binds to a single-stranded, pyrimidine-rich DNA sequence upstream of the c -myc gene to activate its expression. The other binding protein shares sequence homology with PTB, a polypyrimidine tract binding protein implicated in RNA splicing and regulation of translation initiation. The two proteins bind to a 26 nt pyrimidine-rich sequence lying 300 nt downstream of the end of the coding region, in an area shown by others to confer instability on a reporter mRNA in transient transfection assays. We therefore propose that FBP and the PTB-like protein may compete for binding at the same site to influence the stability of GAP-43 mRNA. PMID:9092640

  11. Challenging the Roles of NSP3 and Untranslated Regions in Rotavirus mRNA Translation.

    PubMed

    Gratia, Matthieu; Vende, Patrice; Charpilienne, Annie; Baron, Hilma Carolina; Laroche, Cécile; Sarot, Emeline; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Duarte, Mariela; Poncet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus NSP3 is a translational surrogate of the PABP-poly(A) complex for rotavirus mRNAs. To further explore the effects of NSP3 and untranslated regions (UTRs) on rotavirus mRNAs translation, we used a quantitative in vivo assay with simultaneous cytoplasmic NSP3 expression (wild-type or deletion mutant) and electroporated rotavirus-like and standard synthetic mRNAs. This assay shows that the last four GACC nucleotides of viral mRNA are essential for efficient translation and that both the NSP3 eIF4G- and RNA-binding domains are required. We also show efficient translation of rotavirus-like mRNAs even with a 5'UTR as short as 5 nucleotides, while more than eleven nucleotides are required for the 3'UTR. Despite the weak requirement for a long 5'UTR, a good AUG environment remains a requirement for rotavirus mRNAs translation. PMID:26727111

  12. Region-Specific Activation of oskar mRNA Translation by Inhibition of Bruno-Mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Goheun; Pai, Chin-I; Sato, Keiji; Person, Maria D.; Nakamura, Akira; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    A complex program of translational repression, mRNA localization, and translational activation ensures that Oskar (Osk) protein accumulates only at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Inappropriate expression of Osk disrupts embryonic axial patterning, and is lethal. A key factor in translational repression is Bruno (Bru), which binds to regulatory elements in the osk mRNA 3′ UTR. After posterior localization of osk mRNA, repression by Bru must be alleviated. Here we describe an in vivo assay system to monitor the spatial pattern of Bru-dependent repression, separate from the full complexity of osk regulation. This assay reveals a form of translational activation—region-specific activation—which acts regionally in the oocyte, is not mechanistically coupled to mRNA localization, and functions by inhibiting repression by Bru. We also show that Bru dimerizes and identify mutations that disrupt this interaction to test its role in vivo. Loss of dimerization does not disrupt repression, as might have been expected from an existing model for the mechanism of repression. However, loss of dimerization does impair regional activation of translation, suggesting that dimerization may constrain, not promote, repression. Our work provides new insight into the question of how localized mRNAs become translationally active, showing that repression of osk mRNA is locally inactivated by a mechanism acting independent of mRNA localization. PMID:25723530

  13. Chronic food restriction and streptozotocin-induced diabetes differentially alter prodynorphin mRNA levels in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Berman, Y; Devi, L; Spangler, R; Kreek, M J; Carr, K D

    1997-06-01

    It was previously reported that chronic food restriction and streptozotocin-induced diabetes lead to brain region-specific changes in levels of Prodyn-derived peptides. These changes parallel behavioral adaptations that are reversed by opioid antagonists. In the present study, effects of food restriction and diabetes on Prodyn gene expression were measured in rat brain regions using a quantitative solution hybridization mRNA assay. Picogram amounts of Prodyn mRNA were determined in extracts of five brain regions. The highest density of Prodyn mRNA was observed in extracts of nucleus accumbens (4.68 pg/microg total RNA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (4.18 pg/microg), and in caudate nucleus (3.51 pg/microg). Lower levels were observed in the lateral hypothalamus (1.87 pg/microg) and central nucleus of the amygdala (1.22 pg/microg). Food restriction and diabetes both markedly increased the levels of Prodyn mRNA in the central amygdala (163% and 93%, respectively). Levels in the lateral hypothalamus were also increased (35% and 29%, respectively), though only the food-restriction effect was statistically significant. Neither treatment altered prodynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These results suggest that dynorphin neurons in central amygdala and lateral hypothalamus may be involved in behavioral or physiological adaptations to sustained metabolic need. PMID:9191075

  14. Challenging the Roles of NSP3 and Untranslated Regions in Rotavirus mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Gratia, Matthieu; Vende, Patrice; Charpilienne, Annie; Baron, Hilma Carolina; Laroche, Cécile; Sarot, Emeline; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Duarte, Mariela; Poncet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus NSP3 is a translational surrogate of the PABP-poly(A) complex for rotavirus mRNAs. To further explore the effects of NSP3 and untranslated regions (UTRs) on rotavirus mRNAs translation, we used a quantitative in vivo assay with simultaneous cytoplasmic NSP3 expression (wild-type or deletion mutant) and electroporated rotavirus-like and standard synthetic mRNAs. This assay shows that the last four GACC nucleotides of viral mRNA are essential for efficient translation and that both the NSP3 eIF4G- and RNA-binding domains are required. We also show efficient translation of rotavirus-like mRNAs even with a 5’UTR as short as 5 nucleotides, while more than eleven nucleotides are required for the 3’UTR. Despite the weak requirement for a long 5’UTR, a good AUG environment remains a requirement for rotavirus mRNAs translation. PMID:26727111

  15. 5'-Untranslated region of heat shock protein 70 mRNA drives translation under hypertonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Laura; Alfieri, Roberta R; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Brigotti, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    In mammalian cells, adaptation to hypertonic conditions leads to the activation of an array of early (cell shrinkage, regulatory volume increase) and late (accumulation of compatible osmolytes) responses and increased level of HSPs (heat shock proteins). Protein synthesis is strongly inhibited few minutes after the hypertonic challenge as demonstrated in whole cells and as reproduced under controlled conditions in cell-free systems. Different mechanisms known to mediate the accumulation of HSP70, such as mRNA transcription and stabilization, require fully active protein synthesis. We show that the 5'-untranslated region of HSP70 messenger drives a hypertonicity-resistant translation (up to 0.425 osmol/kg of water), whereas cap-dependent protein synthesis is almost totally blocked under the same conditions. The results, obtained in cell-free systems and in whole cells, might help to explain why HSP70 is accumulated in cells when total protein synthesis is impaired. We also observed that translation initiated by viral IRES (from Cricket paralysis virus) is highly efficient in cells exposed to hyperosmolarity, suggesting that the resistance to hypertonic conditions is a more general feature of cap-independent translation. The described mechanism may also play a role in the control of translation of other messengers encoding for proteins involved in the adaptation to hypertonicity. PMID:23291172

  16. Region effects influence local tree species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  17. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  18. mRNA Transcript abundance during plant growth and the influence of Li(+) exposure.

    PubMed

    Duff, M C; Kuhne, W W; Halverson, N V; Chang, C-S; Kitamura, E; Hawthorn, L; Martinez, N E; Stafford, C; Milliken, C E; Caldwell, E F; Stieve-Caldwell, E

    2014-12-01

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li(+) concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li(+) focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li(+) exposure in Arabidopsis with Li(+) uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li(+)-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li(+) resembled prior studies due to its influence on: inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li(+) exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li(+) exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li(+)-sensitive genes and a gene-based "response plan" for acute and chronic Li(+) exposure are delineated. PMID:25443852

  19. mRNA Transcript Abundance during Plant Growth and the Influence of Li+ Exposure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duff, M. C.; Kuhne, W. W.; Halverson, N. V.; Chang, C. -S.; Kitamura, E.; Hawthorn, L.; Martinez, N. E.; Stafford, C.; Milliken, C. E.; Caldwell, E. F.; et al

    2014-10-23

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li+ concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li+ focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li+ exposure in Arabidopsis with Li+ uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li+-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li+ resembled prior studies due to its influence on:more » inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li+ exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li+ exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li+-sensitive genes and a gene-based “response plan” for acute and chronic Li+ exposure are delineated.« less

  20. Upstream open reading frame in 5'-untranslated region reduces titin mRNA translational efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cadar, Adrian G; Zhong, Lin; Lin, Angel; Valenzuela, Mauricio O; Lim, Chee C

    2014-10-10

    Titin is the largest known protein and a critical determinant of myofibril elasticity and sarcomere structure in striated muscle. Accumulating evidence that mRNA transcripts are post-transcriptionally regulated by specific motifs located in the flanking untranslated regions (UTRs) led us to consider the role of titin 5'-UTR in regulating its translational efficiency. Titin 5'-UTR is highly homologous between human, mouse, and rat, and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a stem-loop and two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) converging on a shared in frame stop codon. We generated a mouse titin 5'-UTR luciferase reporter construct and targeted the stem-loop and each uAUG for mutation. The wild-type and mutated constructs were transfected into the cardiac HL-1 cell line and primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). SV40 driven 5'-UTR luciferase activity was significantly suppressed by wild-type titin 5'-UTR (∼ 70% in HL-1 cells and ∼ 60% in NRVM). Mutating both uAUGs was found to alleviate titin 5'-UTR suppression, while eliminating the stem-loop had no effect. Treatment with various growth stimuli: pacing, PMA or neuregulin had no effect on titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. Doxorubicin stress stimuli reduced titin 5'-UTR suppression, while H2O2 had no effect. A reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13422986 at position -4 of the uAUG2 was introduced and found to further repress titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. We conclude that the uAUG motifs in titin 5'-UTR serve as translational repressors in the control of titin gene expression, and that mutations/SNPs of the uAUGs or doxorubicin stress could alter titin translational efficiency. PMID:25264194

  1. Coupling of mRNA Structure Rearrangement to Ribosome Movement during Bypassing of Non-coding Regions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Coakley, Arthur; O'Connor, Michelle; Petrov, Alexey; O'Leary, Seán E; Atkins, John F; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2015-11-19

    Nearly half of the ribosomes translating a particular bacteriophage T4 mRNA bypass a region of 50 nt, resuming translation 3' of this gap. How this large-scale, specific hop occurs and what determines whether a ribosome bypasses remain unclear. We apply single-molecule fluorescence with zero-mode waveguides to track individual Escherichia coli ribosomes during translation of T4's gene 60 mRNA. Ribosomes that bypass are characterized by a 10- to 20-fold longer pause in a non-canonical rotated state at the take-off codon. During the pause, mRNA secondary structure rearrangements are coupled to ribosome forward movement, facilitated by nascent peptide interactions that disengage the ribosome anticodon-codon interactions for slippage. Close to the landing site, the ribosome then scans mRNA in search of optimal base-pairing interactions. Our results provide a mechanistic and conformational framework for bypassing, highlighting a non-canonical ribosomal state to allow for mRNA structure refolding to drive large-scale ribosome movements. PMID:26590426

  2. Synthesis in Escherichia coli of human adenovirus type 12 transforming proteins encoded by early region 1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kimelman, D; Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Symington, J S; Ptashne, M; Green, M

    1984-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad)-encoded early region 1A (E1A) tumor (T) antigens have been implicated in the positive regulation of viral early genes, the positive and negative regulation of some cellular genes, and cell immortalization and transformation. To further study the Ad E1A T antigens and to facilitate their purification, we have cloned cDNA copies of the Ad12 E1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA downstream of a hybrid Escherichia coli trp-lac (tac) promoter. Up to 8% of the protein synthesized in E. coli cells transformed by each of the two different Ad12 E1A cDNA constructs were immunoprecipitated as a Mr 47,000 protein by antibody to a synthetic peptide encoded in the Ad12 E1A DNA sequence. Both proteins produced in E. coli appear to be authentic and complete Ad12 E1A T antigens because they possess (i) the Ad12 E1A NH2-terminal amino acid sequence predicted from the DNA sequence; (ii) the Ad12 E1A COOH-terminal sequence, as shown by immunoprecipitation with anti-peptide antibody; and (iii) a molecular weight and an acidic isoelectric point similar to that of the E1A T antigens synthesized in Ad12-infected and transformed mammalian cells. The T antigens were purified to near homogeneity in yields of 100-200 micrograms per g wet weight of transformed E. coli cells. Images PMID:6387701

  3. Translational control of maskin mRNA by its 3' untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Hedda A.; Radford, Helois E.; Wilson, Lolita S.; Lissenden, Sarah; de Moor, Cornelia H.

    2007-01-01

    Background information. Maskin is a member of the acidic transforming coiled-coil (TACC) domain proteins found in Xenopus leavis oocytes and embryos. It is implicated in the coordination of the spindle and has been reported to mediate translational repression of cyclin B1 mRNA. Results We report here that maskin mRNA is translationally repressed at the level of initiation in stage 4 oocytes and becomes activated in stage 6 oocytes. The translational repression of maskin mRNA correlates with the presence of a short poly(A) tail on this mRNA in stage 4 oocytes. The 3' UTR of maskin can confer the translational regulation to a reporter mRNA, and so can the 3' UTR of human TACC3. A conserved GUCU repeat element was found to repress translation in both stage 4 and stage 6 oocytes, but deletion of this element did not abrogate repression in stage 4 oocytes. UV crosslinking experiments indicated that overlapping sets of proteins bind efficiently to both the maskin and the cyclin B1 3' UTRs. As previously reported, CPEB binds to the cyclin B1 3' UTR, but its binding to the maskin 3' UTR is minimal. By RNA affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified the embryonic deadenylation element binding protein (EDEN-BP) as one of the proteins binding to both the maskin and the cyclin B1 3' UTRs. Conclusion Maskin mRNA is translationally regulated by at least two repressor elements and an activation element. One of the repessor elements is the evolutionarily conserved GUCU repeat. EDEN-BP binds to both the maskin and cyclin B1 3' UTRs, indicating it may be involved in the deadenylation of these mRNAs. PMID:17241108

  4. Influence of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on PPARG mRNA Expression Using Monozygotic Twin Case Control

    PubMed Central

    Queiroga, Marcos Roberto; Barbieri, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Sandra Aires; Luchessi, André Ducati; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) on anthropometric variables and PPARG mRNA expression was investigated. Monozygotic twin pairs aged 11–18 years were grouped into discordant (D) and concordant (C) high and low VO2max groups. VO2max was determined by progressive maximal exercise test on treadmill with gas exchange analysis. Body mass (BM), BMI, waist circumference (WC), triceps (TR), and subscapular (SB) skinfold thicknesses were measured. Twins from the discordant group had differences in VO2max values (D-high = 45.9 ± 10.0 versus D-low = 32.4 ± 10.6 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.025), while no differences were found in the concordant group (C-high = 42.4 ± 9.2 versus C-low = 38.8 ± 9.8 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.952). In discordant group, VO2max was negatively correlated with TR + SB (r = −0.540, P = 0.021) and positively correlated with PPARG expression in leukocytes (r = 0.952, P = 0.001). Moreover, PPARG expression was directly correlated with BM (r = 0.714, P = 0.047) and height (r = 0.762, P = 0.028). In concordant twins, VO2max was inversely correlated with BM (r = −0.290, P = 0.027), BMI (r = −0.472, P = 0.001), WC (r = −0.426, P = 0.001), and TR + SB (r = −0.739, P = 0.001). Twins D-high had 1.78-fold greater PPARG expression when compared with twins D-low (P = 0.048). In conclusion, the cardiorespiratory fitness may modulate PPARG expression in childhood and adolescence, independently of the genetic background. PMID:25879043

  5. The destabilizing elements in the coding region of c-fos mRNA are recognized as RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wellington, C L; Greenberg, M E; Belasco, J G

    1993-01-01

    The protein-coding region of the c-fos proto-oncogene transcript contains elements that direct the rapid deadenylation and decay of this mRNA in mammalian cells. The function of these coding region instability determinants requires movement of ribosomes across mRNAs containing them. Three types of mechanisms could account for this translational requirement. Two of these possibilities, (i) that rapid mRNA decay might be mediated by the nascent polypeptide chain and (ii) that it might result from an unusual codon usage, have experimental precedent. Here, we present evidence that the destabilizing elements in the c-fos coding region are not recognized in either of these two ways. Instead, the ability of the c-fos coding region to function as a potent mRNA destabilizer when translated in the +1 reading frame indicates that the signals for rapid deadenylation and decay reside in the sequence or structure of the RNA comprising this c-fos domain. Images PMID:8336733

  6. A novel mRNA and a low molecular weight polypeptide encoded in the transforming region of adenovirus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Katze, M G; Persson, H; Philipson, L

    1982-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation was used to identify adenovirus type 2 (ad2) tumor antigens synthesized in vivo. The antisera, prepared from tumor-bearing animals, reacted with a wide spectrum of ad2 early proteins including a 11 000-dalton (11 K) polypeptide. The gene for this polypeptide was mapped to the transforming region of the viral genome by hybridization selection followed by in vitro translation and immunoprecipitation. Hybrid arrest translation revealed that the 11 K RNA was transcribed from the leftward reading strand (1-strand) in contrast to other mRNAs from this region. Sucrose gradient analysis of the selected 11 K mRNA revealed that the size of the mRNA was 20S corresponding to approximately 2000 nucleotides. Novel 1-strand transcripts of this length from the transforming region were identified by S1 endonuclease analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that both strands of the transforming region of ad2 DNA are actively transcribed into functional mRNA early after viral infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6985356

  7. P2 purinergic receptor mRNA in rat and human sinoatrial node and other heart regions.

    PubMed

    Musa, Hanny; Tellez, James O; Chandler, Natalie J; Greener, Ian D; Maczewski, Michał; Mackiewicz, Urszula; Beresewicz, Andrzej; Molenaar, Peter; Boyett, Mark R; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2009-06-01

    It is known that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a cotransmitter in the heart. Additionally, ATP is released from ischemic and hypoxic myocytes. Therefore, cardiac-derived sources of ATP have the potential to modify cardiac function. ATP activates P2X(1-7) and P2Y(1-14) receptors; however, the presence of P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes in strategic cardiac locations such as the sinoatrial node has not been determined. An understanding of P2X and P2Y receptor localization would facilitate investigation of purine receptor function in the heart. Therefore, we used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization to measure the expression of mRNA of all known purine receptors in rat left ventricle, right atrium and sinoatrial node (SAN), and human right atrium and SAN. Expression of mRNA for all the cloned P2 receptors was observed in the ventricles, atria, and SAN of the rat. However, their abundance varied in different regions of the heart. P2X(5) was the most abundant of the P2X receptors in all three regions of the rat heart. In rat left ventricle, P2Y(1), P2Y(2), and P2Y(14) mRNA levels were highest for P2Y receptors, while in right atrium and SAN, P2Y(2) and P2Y(14) levels were highest, respectively. We extended these studies to investigate P2X(4) receptor mRNA in heart from rats with coronary artery ligation-induced heart failure. P2X(4) receptor mRNA was upregulated by 93% in SAN (P < 0.05), while a trend towards an increase was also observed in the right atrium and left ventricle (not significant). Thus, P2X(4)-mediated effects might be modulated in heart failure. mRNA for P2X(4-7) and P2Y(1,2,4,6,12-14), but not P2X(2,3) and P2Y(11), was detected in human right atrium and SAN. In addition, mRNA for P2X(1) was detected in human SAN but not human right atrium. In human right atrium and SAN, P2X(4) and P2X(7) mRNA was the highest for P2X receptors. P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) mRNA were the most abundant for P2Y receptors in the right atrium, while P2Y(1), P2Y(2), and P2Y(14

  8. Conserved regions of the DMD 3’ UTR regulate translation and mRNA abundance in cultured myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, C. Aaron; Howard, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease, is caused by mutations in the DMD gene, which encodes for the protein dystrophin. Its regulation is of therapeutic interest as even small changes in expression of functional dystrophin can significantly impact the severity of DMD. While tissue-specific distribution and transcriptional regulation of several DMD mRNA isoforms has been well characterized, the post-transcriptional regulation of dystrophin synthesis is not well understood. Here, we utilize qRTPCR and a quantitative dual-luciferase reporter assay to examine the effects of isoform specific DMD 5’ UTRs and the highly conserved DMD 3’ UTR on mRNA abundance and translational control of gene expression in C2C12 cells. The 5’ UTRs were shown to initiate translation with low efficiency in both myoblasts and myotubes. Whereas, two large highly conserved elements in the 3’ UTR, which overlap the previously described Lemaire A and D regions, increase mRNA levels and enhance translation upon differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. The results presented here implicate an important role for DMD UTRs in dystrophin expression and delineate the cis-acting elements required for the myotube-specific regulation of steady-state mRNA levels and translational enhancer activity found in the DMD 3’ UTR. PMID:24928536

  9. Selenium Deficiency Influences the mRNA Expression of Selenoproteins and Cytokines in Chicken Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yilin; Zhao, Jinxin; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces hemolysis in chickens, but the molecular mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Se primarily elicits its function through the activity of selenoproteins, which contain the unique amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Se deficiency on the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines. One hundred eighty chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (90 chickens per group). During the entire experimental period, chickens were allowed ad libitum consumption of feed and water. The chickens were fed either a Se-deficient diet (0.008 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a Se-supplemented diet (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 35 days. At the 35th day, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines were examined in erythrocytes of 5 chickens per group, and the correlation was analyzed. The results showed that the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12β, TGF-β4, and IFN-γ) decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of 3 cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6 and IL-7) was higher in the Se-deficient group. In both groups, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin 1 (Txnrd1), selenoprotein P1 (SELP), and selenoprotein synthetase (SPS2) were highly expressed compared to the other selenoproteins in chicken erythrocytes (P < 0.05). These data suggest that GPXs, Txnrd1, SELP, and SPS2 possibly play a more important role than the other selenoproteins. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6, and IL-7) suggested that the immune system of chickens was damaged by the Se deficiency. Correlation analysis suggested that although the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines decreased and that of 3 cytokines increased, there was a close correlation between their expression levels and a Se diet. These results suggested that Se deficiency influenced the expressions of 24 selenoproteins

  10. A eukaryotic-like 3′ untranslated region in Salmonella enterica hilD mRNA

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Casadesús, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Long 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) are common in eukaryotic mRNAs. In contrast, long 3′UTRs are rare in bacteria, and have not been characterized in detail. We describe a 3′UTR of 310 nucleotides in hilD mRNA, a transcript that encodes a transcriptional activator of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Deletion of the hilD 3′UTR increases the hilD mRNA level, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR may play a role in hilD mRNA turnover. Cloning of the hilD 3′UTR downstream of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene decreases green fluorescent protein (GFP) activity in both Escherichia coli and S. enterica, indicating that the hilD 3′UTR can act as an independent module. S. enterica mutants lacking either ribonuclease E or polynucleotide phosphorylase contain similar amounts of hilD and hilD Δ3′UTR mRNAs, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR is a target for hilD mRNA degradation by the degradosome. The hilD 3′UTR is also necessary for modulation of hilD and SPI-1 expression by the RNA chaperone Hfq. Overexpression of SPI-1 in the absence of the hilD 3′UTR retards Salmonella growth and causes uncontrolled invasion of epithelial cells. Based on these observations, we propose that the S. enterica hilD 3′UTR is a cis-acting element that contributes to cellular homeostasis by promoting hilD mRNA turnover. PMID:24682814

  11. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  12. Molecular cloning of amyloid cDNA derived from mRNA of the Alzheimer disease brain: coding and noncoding regions of the fetal precursor mRNA are expressed in the cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Zain, S.B.; Salim, M.; Chou, W.G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.M.; Majocha, R.E.; Marotta, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    To gain insight into factors associated with the excessive accumulation of ..beta..-amyloid in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, the present studies were initiated to distinguish between a unique primary structure of the AD-specific amyloid precursor mRNA vis a vis other determinants that may affect amyloid levels. Previous molecular cloning experiments focused on amyloid derived from sources other than AD cases. In the present work, the authors cloned and characterized amyloid cDNA derived directly from AD brain mRNA. Poly(A)/sup +/ RNA from AD cortices was used for the preparation of lambdagt11 recombinant cDNA libraries. An insert of 1564 nucleotides was isolated that included the ..beta..-amyloid domain and corresponded to 75% of the coding region and approx. = 70% of the 3'-noncoding region of the fetal precursor amyloid cDNA reported by others. On RNA blots, the AD amyloid mRNA consisted of a doublet of 3.2 and 3.4 kilobases. In control and AD cases, the amyloid mRNA levels were nonuniform and were independent of glial-specific mRNA levels. Based on the sequence analysis data, they conclude that a segment of the amyloid gene is expressed in the AD cortex as a high molecular weight precursor mRNA with major coding and 3'-noncoding regions that are identical to the fetal brain gene product.

  13. Identification of a third region of cell-specific alternative splicing in human fibronectin mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, A.; Kornblihtt, A.R.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe here a third region of variability in human fibronectin (FN) due to alternative RNA splicing. Two other positions of alternative splicing have been reported previously (ED and IIICS). The third region involves a 273-nucleotide exon encoding exactly one 91-amino acid repeat of type III homology, located between the DNA- and the cell-binding domains of FN, which is either included in or excluded from FN mRNA. The two mRNA variants arising by an exon-skipping mechanism are present in cells known to synthesize the cellular form of FN. However, liver cells, which are the source of plasma FN, produce only messengers without the extra type III sequence. Therefore, the region described here resembles, both structurally and functionally, the previously described ED (for extra domain) region, located toward the C terminus of the molecule between the cell- and heparin- (hep 2) binding domains. The authors conclude that both the extra type III repeat (names EDII) and ED represent sequences restricted to cellular FN. Combination of all the possible patterns of splicing in the three regions described to date may generate up to 20 distinct FN polypeptides from a single gene.

  14. A novel long non-coding RNA in the rheumatoid arthritis risk locus TRAF1-C5 influences C5 mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Messemaker, T C; Frank-Bertoncelj, M; Marques, R B; Adriaans, A; Bakker, A M; Daha, N; Gay, S; Huizinga, T W; Toes, R E M; Mikkers, H M M; Kurreeman, F

    2016-03-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can regulate the transcript levels of genes in the same genomic region. These locally acting lncRNAs have been found deregulated in human disease and some have been shown to harbour quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in autoimmune diseases. However, lncRNAs linked to the transcription of candidate risk genes in loci associated to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not yet been identified. The TRAF1 and C5 risk locus shows evidence of multiple eQTLs and transcription of intergenic non-coding sequences. Here, we identified a non-coding transcript (C5T1lncRNA) starting in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of C5. RA-relevant cell types express C5T1lncRNA and RNA levels are further enhanced by specific immune stimuli. C5T1lncRNA is expressed predominantly in the nucleus and its expression correlates positively with C5 mRNA in various tissues (P=0.001) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P=0.02) indicating transcriptional co-regulation. Knockdown results in a concurrent decrease in C5 mRNA levels but not of other neighbouring genes. Overall, our data show the identification of a novel lncRNA C5T1lncRNA that is fully located in the associated region and influences transcript levels of C5, a gene previously linked to RA pathogenesis. PMID:26673966

  15. Risk of childhood asthma is associated with CpG-site polymorphisms, regional DNA methylation and mRNA levels at the GSDMB/ORMDL3 locus

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Reinius, Lovisa E.; Greco, Dario; Gref, Anna; Orsmark-Pietras, Christina; Persson, Helena; Pershagen, Göran; Hedlin, Gunilla; Melén, Erik; Scheynius, Annika; Kere, Juha; Söderhäll, Cilla

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSDMB (Gasdermin B) and ORMDL3 (ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3) are strongly associated with childhood asthma, but the molecular alterations contributing to disease remain unknown. We investigated the effects of asthma-associated SNPs on DNA methylation and mRNA levels of GSDMB and ORMDL3. Genetic association between GSDMB/ORMDL3 and physician-diagnosed childhood asthma was confirmed in the Swedish birth-cohort BAMSE. CpG-site SNPs (rs7216389 and rs4065275) showed differences in DNA methylation depending on carrier status of the risk alleles, and were significantly associated with methylation levels in two CpG sites in the 5′ UTR (untranslated region) of ORMDL3. In the Swedish Search study, we found significant differences in DNA methylation between asthmatics and controls in five CpG sites; after adjusting for lymphocyte and neutrophil cell counts, three remained significant: one in IKZF3 [IKAROS family zinc finger 3 (Aiolos); cg16293631] and two in the CpG island (CGI) of ORMDL3 (cg02305874 and cg16638648). Also, cg16293631 and cg02305874 correlated with mRNA levels of ORMDL3. The association between methylation and asthma was independent of the genotype in rs7216389, rs4065275 and rs12603332. Both SNPs and CpG sites showed significant associations with ORMDL3 mRNA levels. SNPs influenced expression independently of methylation, and the residual association between methylation and expression was not mediated by these SNPs. We found a differentially methylated region in the CGI shore of ORMDL3 with six CpG sites less methylated in CD8+ T-cells. In summary, this study supports that there are differences in DNA methylation at this locus between asthmatics and controls; and both SNPs and CpG sites are independently associated with ORMDL3 expression. PMID:25256354

  16. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Raghupathi, R.; Welsh, F.A.; Gennarelli, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cellular response to traumatic brain injury, the expression of mRNA for c-fos and the 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp72) was determined using in situ hybridization following lateral fluid-percussion injury (2.2-2.4 atm) in rat brain. At 2 h after injury, induction of c-fos mRNA was restricted to regions of the cortex surrounding the contusion area. An increase in c-fos mRNA, but not hsp72 mRNA, was observed bilaterally in the CA{sub 3} subfield of the hippocampus and the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and in the thalamus ipsilateral to the impact site. By 6 h, increased expression of c-fos mRNA was observed only in the corpus callosum on the impact side; hsp72 mRNA persisted in the deep cortical layers and upper layers of the subcortical white matter below the site of maximal injury. By 24 h, both c-fos and hsp72 mRNA had returned to control levels in all regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury triggers regionally and temporally specific expression of c-fos and hsp72 mRNA, which may be suggestive of differential neurochemical alterations in neurons and glia following experimental brain injury. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Structure of the coding region and mRNA variants of the apyrase gene from pea (Pisum sativum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Abe, S.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    Partial amino acid sequences of a 49 kDa apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) from the cytoskeletal fraction of etiolated pea stems were used to derive oligonucleotide DNA primers to generate a cDNA fragment of pea apyrase mRNA by RT-PCR and these primers were used to screen a pea stem cDNA library. Two almost identical cDNAs differing in just 6 nucleotides within the coding regions were found, and these cDNA sequences were used to clone genomic fragments by PCR. Two nearly identical gene fragments containing 8 exons and 7 introns were obtained. One of them (H-type) encoded the mRNA sequence described by Hsieh et al. (1996) (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Z32743), while the other (S-type) differed by the same 6 nucleotides as the mRNAs, suggesting that these genes may be alleles. The six nucleotide differences between these two alleles were found solely in the first exon, and these mutation sites had two types of consensus sequences. These mRNAs were found with varying lengths of 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTR). There are some similarities between the 3'-UTR of these mRNAs and those of actin and actin binding proteins in plants. The putative roles of the 3'-UTR and alternative polyadenylation sites are discussed in relation to their possible role in targeting the mRNAs to different subcellular compartments.

  18. Sequences of a hairpin structure in the 3'-untranslated region mediate regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein B mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen W; Payne, David E; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2012-05-15

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension requires adequate expression of surfactant protein B (SP-B). Dexamethasone (DEX, 10(-7) M) increases human SP-B mRNA stability by a mechanism that requires a 126-nt-long segment (the 7.6S region) of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The objective of this study was to identify sequences in the 7.6S region that mediate regulation of SP-B mRNA stability. The 7.6S region was found to be sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA. Sequential substitution mutagenesis of the 7.6S region indicates that a 90-nt region is required for DEX-mediated stabilization and maintenance of intrinsic stability. In this region, one 30-nt-long element (002), predicted to form a stem-loop structure, is sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA and intrinsic mRNA stability. Cytosolic proteins specifically bind element 002, and binding activity is unaffected whether proteins are isolated from cells incubated in the absence or presence of DEX. While loop sequences of element 002 have no role in regulation of SP-B mRNA stability, the proximal stem sequences are required for DEX-mediated stabilization and specific binding of proteins. Mutation of the sequences that comprise the proximal or distal arm of the stem negates the destabilizing activity of element 002 on intrinsic SP-B mRNA stability. These results indicate that cytosolic proteins bind a single hairpin structure that mediates intrinsic and hormonal regulation of SP-B mRNA stability via mechanisms that involve sequences of the stems of the hairpin structure. PMID:22367784

  19. Influence of beta-blockers on the myocardial mRNA expressions of circadian clock- and metabolism-related genes.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Ishikawa-Kobayashi, Eiko; Ando, Hitoshi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Daily rhythms are regulated by a master clock-system in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and by a peripheral clock-system in each organ. Because norepinephrine is one of the timekeepers for the myocardial circadian clock that influences cardiac metabolism, it is speculated that a beta-blocker may affect the circadian clock and metabolism in heart tissue. In this study, thirty mg/kg/day of propranolol (a lipophilic beta-blocker) or atenolol (a hydrophilic beta-blocker) was given orally to Wistar rats for 4 weeks. The mRNA expressions of Bmal1 and E4BP4 in heart tissue were suppressed by the beta-blockers. However, the mRNA expressions of these clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus were unchanged. Myocardial mRNA expressions of lactate dehydrogenase a and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 were also suppressed by the beta-blockers. In addition, ATP content in heart tissue was significantly elevated by the beta-blockers throughout 24 hours. The effects of propranolol and atenolol did not differ significantly. This study showed for the first time that a beta-blocker affects myocardial clock gene expression. Propranolol and atenolol increased ATP content in heart tissue throughout 24 hours. The influences of beta-blockers may be negligible on the SCN, and may be independent of lipid solubility on heart tissue. It is well known that these drugs exert a protective effect against myocardial ischemia, which may be mediated by an increase in the preservation of myocardial ATP. PMID:23394803

  20. CaMKIIalpha 3' untranslated region-directed mRNA translocation in living neurons: visualization by GFP linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rook, M. S.; Lu, M.; Kosik, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The CaMKIIalpha mRNA extends into distal hippocampal dendrites, and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) is sufficient to mediate this localization. We labeled the 3'UTR of the CaMKIIalpha mRNA in hippocampal cultures by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/MS2 bacteriophage tagging system. The CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR formed discrete granules throughout the dendrites of transfected cells. The identity of the fluorescent granules was verified by in situ hybridization. Over 30 min time periods these granules redistributed without a net increase in granule number; with depolarization there is a tendency toward increased numbers of granules in the dendrites. These observations suggest that finer time resolution of granule motility might reveal changes in the motility characteristics of granules after depolarization. So that motile granules could be tracked, shorter periods of observation were required. The movements of motile granules can be categorized as oscillatory, unidirectional anterograde, or unidirectional retrograde. Colocalization of CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR granules and synapses suggested that oscillatory movements allowed the granules to sample several local synapses. Neuronal depolarization increased the number of granules in the anterograde motile pool. Based on the time frame over which the granule number increased, the translocation of granules may serve to prepare the dendrite for mounting an adequate local translation response to future stimuli. Although the resident pool of granules can respond to signals that induce local translation, the number of granules in a dendrite might reflect its activation history.

  1. Alterations of BDNF and trkB mRNA Expression in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model of Preclinical Stages of Parkinson’s Disease: An Influence of Chronic Pramipexole in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berghauzen-Maciejewska, Klemencja; Wardas, Jadwiga; Kosmowska, Barbara; Głowacka, Urszula; Kuter, Katarzyna; Ossowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion of the mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways in rats, modelling preclinical stages of Parkinson’s disease, induces a depressive-like behaviour which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the aforementioned model of depression. Therefore, we investigated the influence of 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration into the ventral region of the caudate-putamen on mRNA levels of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) receptor. The BDNF and trkB mRNA levels were determined in the nigrostriatal and limbic structures by in situ hybridization 2 weeks after the operation. Pramipexole (1 mg/kg sc twice a day) and imipramine (10 mg/kg ip once a day) were injected for 2 weeks. The lesion lowered the BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the hippocampus [CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)] and amygdala (basolateral/lateral) as well as the BDNF mRNA content in the habenula (medial/lateral). The lesion did not influence BDNF and trkB expression in the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Chronic imipramine reversed the lesion-induced decreases in BDNF mRNA in the DG. Chronic pramipexole increased BDNF mRNA, but decreased trkB mRNA in the VTA in lesioned rats. Furthermore, it reduced BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, BDNF mRNA in the amygdala and trkB mRNA in the caudate-putamen in these animals. The present study indicates that both the 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic lesion and chronic pramipexole influence BDNF signalling in limbic structures, which may be related to their pro-depressive and antidepressant activity in rats, respectively. PMID:25739024

  2. Regional atmospheric influence on the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.; Bizouard, C.

    2015-03-01

    From the maps of regional contribution to atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) over the period 1948-2011 (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data) time domain excitation in Chandler frequency band was extracted by Panteleev's filtering method. This permits us to investigate the evolution of the regional atmospheric influence on Chandler wobble. It appears that the temperate latitudes bring the strongest inputs. For pressure term they are limited to continents, and highlight the role of Europe. For the wind term they mostly result from ocean area, encompassing in particular North Atlantic. A quasi-20 year cycle is found in the regional patterns of the atmospheric excitation. The integrated AAM is finally compared with the geodetic excitation reconstructed from the observed polar motion.

  3. Conserved nucleotide sequences in the open reading frame and 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein P mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K E; Lloyd, R S; Burk, R F

    1993-01-01

    Rat liver selenoprotein P contains 10 selenocysteine residues in its primary structure (deduced). It is the only selenoprotein characterized to date that has more than one selenocysteine residue. Selenoprotein P cDNA has been cloned from human liver and heart cDNA libraries and sequenced. The open reading frames are identical and contain a signal peptide, indicating that the protein is secreted by both organs and is therefore not exclusively produced in the liver. Ten selenocysteine residues (deduced) are present. Comparison of the open reading frame of the human cDNA with the rat cDNA reveals a 69% identity of the nucleotide sequence and 72% identity of the deduced amino acid sequence. Two regions in the 3' untranslated portion have high conservation between human and rat. Each of these regions contains a predicted stable stem-loop structure similar to the single stem-loop structures reported in 3' untranslated regions of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase and glutathione peroxidase. The stem-loop structure of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase has been shown to be necessary for incorporation of the selenocysteine residue at the UGA codon. Because only two stem-loop structures are present in the 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein P mRNA, it can be concluded that a separate stem-loop structure is not required for each selenocysteine residue. Images PMID:8421687

  4. Identification of sequences within the murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA 3'-untranslated region that mediate mRNA stabilization induced by mitogen treatment of EL-4 thymoma cells.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Y; Bickel, M; Pluznik, D H; Cohen, R B

    1991-09-25

    Phorbol esters (TPA) and concanavalin A (ConA) are known to induce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in murine thymoma EL-4 cells by mRNA stabilization. The role of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in GM-CSF mRNA stabilization induced by TPA and ConA in EL-4 cells was examined by transfection studies using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) constructions. The GM-CSF 3'-UTR contains a 63-nucleotide region at its 3' end with repeating ATTTA motifs which is responsible for mRNA degradation in a variety of cell types (Shaw, G., and Kamen, R. (1986) Cell 46, 659-666). We produced constructs containing most of the GM-CSF 3'-UTR (303 nucleotides, pRSV-CATgm) or the 3'-terminal AT-rich region (116 nucleotides, pRSV-CATau) and measured CAT enzyme activity and CAT mRNA after transient transfection into EL-4 and NIH 3T3 cells. Low levels of CAT activity were seen in both cells with either plasmid compared with levels of CAT activity obtained with pRSV-CAT. TPA treatment caused an approximately 10-fold increase in CAT activity and mRNA in EL-4 cells transfected with pRSV-CATgm. No increases were seen in EL-4 cells transfected with pRSV-CATau or pRSV-CAT. No response to TPA was detected in transfected NIH 3T3 cells, indicating that the response to TPA is relatively cell-specific. There was no increase in CAT activity after ConA treatment in EL-4 or NIH 3T3 cells transfected with any of the constructs suggesting that the GM-CSF 3'-UTR lacks elements that can respond alone to ConA. Nuclear run-on and actinomycin D chase experiments in EL-4 cells showed that TPA induces CAT activity via mRNA stabilization. By linker-substitution mutagenesis we show that TPA inducibility depends on a 60-nucleotide region of the 3'-UTR whose 5' end is located 160 nucleotides upstream of the 5' end of the AU-rich region. PMID:1917935

  5. Endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' untranslated region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA: regulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J; Sánchez de Miguel, L; Montón, M; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1997-01-01

    Changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression may be involved in the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation dysfunction associated with several vascular diseases. In the present work, we demonstrate that eNOS mRNA contains a previously undescribed cis element in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). A U+C-rich segment in the 3' UTR is critical in complex formation with bovine aortic endothelial cell cytosolic proteins. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which destabilizes eNOS mRNA, increased the binding activity of the cytosolic proteins in a time-dependent manner. These data suggest that endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' UTR of eNOS mRNA. These proteins may play a role in TNF-alpha-induced eNOS mRNA destabilization. PMID:9315630

  6. Hypoxia stimulates binding of a cytoplasmic protein to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of rat tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Dominski, Z; Kole, R; Millhorn, D E

    1994-04-01

    Reduced oxygen tension (hypoxia) induces a 3-fold increase in stability of mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, in the pheochromocytoma (PC12) clonal cell line. To investigate the possibility that RNA-protein interactions are involved in mediating this increase in stability, RNA gel shift assays were performed using different fragments of labeled TH mRNA and the S-100 fraction of PC12 cytoplasmic protein extracts. We identified a sequence within the 3'-untranslated region of TH mRNA that binds cytoplasmic protein. RNase T1 mapping revealed that the protein was bound to a 28 nucleotide long sequence that is located between bases 1551-1579 of TH mRNA. Moreover, protein binding to this fragment was prevented with an antisense oligonucleotide directed against bases 1551-1579 and subsequent RNase H digestion. This fragment of the 3'-untranslated region of TH mRNA is rich in pyrimidine nucleotides, and the binding of cytoplasmic protein to this fragment was reduced by competition with other polypyrimidine sequences including poly(C) but not poly(U) polymers. The binding of the protein to TH mRNA was increased when cytoplasmic proteins were extracted from PC12 cells exposed to hypoxia (5% O2) for 24 h. Electrophoresis of the UV cross-linked RNA-protein complex on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a complex of 74 kDa. The potential role of this protein-TH mRNA interaction in regulation of TH mRNA stability during hypoxia is discussed. PMID:7908289

  7. Influence of functional polymorphisms in TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 cytokine genes on mRNA expression levels and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Juliana Garcia; Rossi, Ana Flávia Teixeira; Nizato, Daniela Manchini; Cadamuro, Aline Cristina Targa; Jorge, Yvana Cristina; Valsechi, Marina Curado; Venâncio, Larissa Paola Rodrigues; Rahal, Paula; Pavarino, Érika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2015-12-01

    Functional polymorphisms in promoter regions can produce changes in the affinity of transcription factors, thus altering the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of inflammatory cytokines associated with the risk of cancer development. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence that polymorphisms in the cytokine genes known as TNF-α-308 G/A (rs1800629), TNF-α-857 C/T (rs1799724), IL-8-251 T/A (rs4073), IL-8-845 T/C (rs2227532), and IL-10-592 C/A (rs1800872) have on changes to mRNA expression levels and on the risks of chronic gastritis (CG) and gastric cancer (GC). A sample of 723 individuals was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Relative mRNA expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Polymorphisms TNF-α-308 G/A and IL-8-251 A/T were not associated with risks of these gastric lesions. However, TNF-α-857 C/T, IL-8-845 T/C, and IL-10-592 C/A were found to be associated with a higher risk of GC, and IL-10-592 C/A was found to be associated with a higher risk of CG. The relative mRNA expression levels (RQ) of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were markedly downregulated in the CG group (median RQs = 0.128, 0.247, and 0.614, respectively), while the RQ levels of TNF-α in the GC group were upregulated (RQ = 2.749), but were basal for IL-8 (RQ = 1.053) and downregulated for IL-10 (RQ = 0.179). When the groups were stratified according to wild-type and polymorphic alleles, only for IL-8-845 T/C the polymorphic allele was found to influence the expression levels of this cytokine. IL-8-845 C allele carriers were significantly upregulated in both groups (GC and CG; RQ = 3.138 and 2.181, respectively) when compared to TT homozygotes (RQ = -0.407 and 0.165, respectively). In silico analysis in the IL-8 promoter region revealed that the presence of the variant C allele in position -845 is responsible for the presence of the binding

  8. The tRNA methyltransferase NSun2 stabilizes p16INK4 mRNA by methylating the 3′-untranslated region of p16

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Liu, Zhenyun; Yi, Jie; Tang, Hao; Xing, Junyue; Yu, Minqwei; Tong, Tanjun; Shang, Yongfeng; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Wengong

    2012-01-01

    The impact of methylation of the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of a messenger RNA (mRNA) remains largely unknown. Here we show that NSun2, a transfer RNA methyltransferase, inhibits the turnover of p16INK4 mRNA. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces p16 expression by shortening the half-life of the p16 mRNA, while overexpression of NSun2 stabilizes the p16 mRNA. In vitro methylation assays show that NSun2 methylates the p16 3′UTR at A988. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces the stability of the EGFP-p16 chimeric reporter transcripts bearing wild-type p16 3′UTR, but not p16 3′UTR with a mutant methylation site. Methylation by NSun2 prevents the association of p16 3′UTR with HuR, AUF1 and Ago2/RISC, and prevents the recruitment of EGFP-p16 3′UTR chimeric transcripts to processing bodies. In response to oxidative stress, NSun2 is essential for elevating p16 expression levels. We conclude that NSun2-mediated methylation of the p16 3′UTR is a novel mechanism to stabilize p16 mRNA. PMID:22395603

  9. mRNA Transcript Abundance during Plant Growth and the Influence of Li+ Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M. C.; Kuhne, W. W.; Halverson, N. V.; Chang, C. -S.; Kitamura, E.; Hawthorn, L.; Martinez, N. E.; Stafford, C.; Milliken, C. E.; Caldwell, E. F.; Stieve-Caldwell, E.

    2014-10-23

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li+ concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li+ focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li+ exposure in Arabidopsis with Li+ uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li+-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li+ resembled prior studies due to its influence on: inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li+ exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li+ exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li+-sensitive genes and a gene-based “response plan” for acute and chronic Li+ exposure are delineated.

  10. Globin mRNA contains a sequence complementary to double-stranded region of nuclear pre-mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ryskov, A P; Tokarskaya, O V; Georgiev, G P; Coutelle, C; Thiele, B

    1976-01-01

    Melted ds RNA isolated from rabbit bone marrow pre-mRNA was hybridized with excess of globin mRNA which was prepared from rabbit reticulocytes. 7-9% of ds sequences became RNAase-stable and about 30% of the sequences could be bound to poly(U)-Sepharose through poly (A) of mRNA. The size of RNAase-stable hybrid is about 30 nucleotides, that is one fourth of the length of one strand of the ds RNA. PMID:986644

  11. The Role of Structural Elements of the 5'-Terminal Region of p53 mRNA in Translation under Stress Conditions Assayed by the Antisense Oligonucleotide Approach

    PubMed Central

    Swiatkowska, Agata; Zydowicz, Paulina; Gorska, Agnieszka; Suchacka, Julia; Dutkiewicz, Mariola; Ciesiołka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The p53 protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and stress response. In the 5’-terminal region of p53 mRNA, an IRES element has been found which takes part in the translational regulation of p53 expression. Two characteristic hairpin motifs are present in this mRNA region: G56-C169, with the first AUG codon, and U180-A218, which interacts with the Hdm2 protein (human homolog of mouse double minute 2 protein). 2′-OMe modified antisense oligomers hybridizing to the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA were applied to assess the role of these structural elements in translation initiation under conditions of cellular stress. Structural changes in the RNA target occurring upon oligomers’ binding were monitored by the Pb2+-induced cleavage method. The impact of antisense oligomers on the synthesis of two proteins, the full-length p53 and its isoform Δ40p53, was analysed in HT-29, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, under normal conditions and under stress, as well as in vitro conditions. The results revealed that the hairpin U180-A218 and adjacent single-stranded region A219-A228 were predominantly responsible for high efficacy of IRES-mediated translation in the presence of stress factors. These motifs play a role of cis-acting elements which are able to modulate IRES activity, likely via interactions with protein factors. PMID:26513723

  12. RNase III mediated cleavage of the coding region of mraZ mRNA is required for efficient cell division in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoya; Tanaka, Yuya; Takemoto, Norihiko; Hamamoto, Nagisa; Inui, Masayuki

    2016-03-01

    The Corynebacterium glutamicum R cgR_1959 gene encodes an endoribonuclease of the RNase III family. Deletion mutant of cgR_1959 (Δrnc mutant) showed an elongated cell shape, and presence of several lines on the cell surface, indicating a required of RNase III for maintaining normal cell morphology in C. glutamicum. The level of mraZ mRNA was increased, whereas cgR_1596 mRNA encoding a putative cell wall hydrolase and ftsEX mRNA were decreased in the Δrnc mutant. The half-life of mraZ mRNA was significantly prolonged in the Δrnc and the Δpnp mutant strains. This indicated that the degradation of mraZ mRNA was performed by RNase III and the 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease, PNPase. Northern hybridization and primer extension analysis revealed that the cleavage site for mraZ mRNA by RNase III is in the coding region. Overproduction of MraZ resulted in an elongated cell shape. The expression of ftsEX decreased while that of cgR_1596 unchanged in an MraZ-overexpressing strain. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a transcriptional reporter assay indicate that MraZ is a transcriptional repressor of ftsEX in C. glutamicum. These results indicate that RNase III is required for efficient expression of MraZ-dependent ftsEX and MraZ-independent cgR_1596. PMID:26713407

  13. Defining a novel cis element in the 3'-untranslated region of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase component R2 mRNA: role in transforming growth factor-beta 1 induced mRNA stabilization.

    PubMed Central

    Amara, F M; Chen, F Y; Wright, J A

    1995-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase R2 gene expression is elevated in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor beta 1. We investigated the possibility that the 3'-UTR of ribonucleotide reductase R2 mRNA contains regulatory information for TGF-beta 1 induced message stability. Using end-labeled RNA fragments in gel shift assays and UV cross-linking analyses, we detected in the 3'-UTR a novel 9 nucleotide (nt) cis element, 5'-GAGUUUGAG-3' site, which interacted specifically with a cytosolic protease sensitive factor to form a 75 kDa complex. The cis element protein binding activity was inducible and markedly up-regulated cross-link 4 h after TGF-beta 1 treatment of mouse BALB/c 3T3 cells. Other 3'-UTRs [IRE, GM-CSF, c-myc and homopolymer (U)] were poor competitors to the cis element with regard to forming the TGF-beta 1 dependent RNA-protein complex. However, the cis element effectively competed out the formation of the R2 3'-UTR protein complex. Cytosolic extracts from a variety of mammalian cell lines (monkey Cos7, several mouse fibrosarcomas and human HeLa S3) demonstrated similar TGF-beta 1 dependent RNA-protein band shifts as cell extract from BALB/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Binding was completely prevented by several different mutations within the cis element, and by substitution mutagenesis, we were able to predict the consensus sequences, 5'-GAGUUUNNN-3' and 5'-NNNUUUGAG-3' for optimal protein binding. These results support a model in which the 9 nt region functions in cis to destabilize R2 mRNA in cells; and upon activation, a TGF-beta 1 responsive protein is induced and interacts with the 9 nt cis element in a mechanism that leads to stabilization of the mRNA. This appears to be the first example of a mRNA binding site that is involved in TGF-beta 1-mediated effects. Images PMID:7784197

  14. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Interactions with a G quadruplex structure in the 3′-Untranslated Region of NR2B mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Snezana; DeMarco, Brett A.; Underwood, Ayana; Williams, Kathryn R.; Bassell, Gary J.; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion in the 5′-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which leads to the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of specific mRNAs, has been shown to bind a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing G quadruplex structures. It has been suggested that FMRP controls the local protein synthesis of several protein components of the Post Synaptic Density (PSD) in response to specific cellular needs. We have previously shown that the interactions between FMRP and mRNAs of the PSD scaffold proteins PSD-95 and Shank1 are mediated via stable G-quadruplex structures formed within the 3′-untranslated regions of these mRNAs. In this study we used biophysical methods to show that a comparable G quadruplex structure forms in the 3′-untranslated region of the glutamate receptor subunit NR2B mRNA encoding for a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is recognized specifically by FMRP, suggesting a common theme for FMRP recognition of its dendritic mRNA targets. PMID:26412477

  15. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Y K; Hecht, N B

    1991-05-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA. PMID:2023906

  16. Influence of Industrialization in the Campinas Rural Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Alfonso Trujillo

    The Campinas region of Brazil was studied to determine if the introduction of industrial plants in rural areas influenced the life of the rural population. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the manner by which the industrialization influence is functioning in the Campinas rural area. The region and its rural population were…

  17. Influence of moonlight on mRNA expression patterns of melatonin receptor subtypes in the pineal organ of a tropical fish.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro

    2014-04-01

    The goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, is a lunar-synchronized spawner, which repeatedly releases gametes around the first quarter moon during the reproductive season. A previous study reported that manipulating moonlight brightness at night disrupted synchronized spawning, suggesting involvement of this natural light source in lunar synchronization. The present study examined whether the mRNA expression pattern of melatonin receptor subtypes MT1 and Mel1c in the pineal organ of the goldlined spinefoot is related to moonlight. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the abundance of MT1 and Mel1c mRNA at midnight increased during the new moon phase and decreased during the full moon phase. Exposing fish to moonlight intensity during the full moon period resulted in a decrease in Mel1c mRNA abundance within 1h. Fluctuations in the melatonin receptor genes according to changes in the moon phase agreed with those of melatonin levels in the blood. These results indicate that periodic changes in cues from the moon influence melatonin receptor mRNA expression levels. The melatonin-melatonin receptor system may play a role in predicting the moon phase through changes in night brightness. PMID:24269345

  18. Plakophilins 1 and 3 Bind to FXR1 and Thereby Influence the mRNA Stability of Desmosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Kešo, Regina; Breuninger, Sonja; Hofmann, Sarah; Henn, Manuela; Röhrig, Theresa; Ströbel, Philipp; Stoecklin, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Plakophilins 1 and 3 (PKP1/3) are members of the arm repeat family of catenin proteins and serve as structural components of desmosomes, which are important for cell-cell-adhesion. In addition, PKP1/3 occur as soluble proteins outside desmosomes, yet their role in the cytoplasm is not known. We found that cytoplasmic PKP1/3 coprecipitated with the RNA-binding proteins FXR1, G3BP, PABPC1, and UPF1, and these PKP1/3 complexes also comprised desmoplakin and PKP2 mRNAs. Moreover, we showed that the interaction of PKP1/3 with G3BP, PABPC1, and UPF1 but not with FXR1 was RNase sensitive. To address the cytoplasmic function of PKP1/3, we performed gain-and-loss-of-function studies. Both PKP1 and PKP3 knockdown cell lines showed reduced protein and mRNA levels for desmoplakin and PKP2. Whereas global rates of translation were unaffected, desmoplakin and PKP2 mRNA were destabilized. Furthermore, binding of PKP1/3 to FXR1 was RNA independent, and both PKP3 and FXR1 stabilized PKP2 mRNA. Our results demonstrate that cytoplasmic PKP1/3 are components of mRNA ribonucleoprotein particles and act as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. PMID:25225333

  19. Motifs within the CA-repeat-rich region of Surfactant Protein B (SFTPB) intron 4 differentially affect mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjun; Ni, Lan; Silveyra, Patricia; Wang, Guirong; Noutsios, Georgios T; Singh, Anamika; DiAngelo, Susan L; Sanusi, Olabisi; Raval, Manmeet; Floros, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The first half of the surfactant protein B (SP-B) gene intron 4 is a CA-repeat-rich region that contains 11 motifs. To study the role of this region on SP-B mRNA splicing, minigenes were generated by systematic removal of motifs from either the 5′ or 3′ end. These were transfected in CHO cells to study their splicing efficiency. The latter was determined as the ratio of completely to incompletely spliced SP-B RNA. Our results indicate that SP-B intron 4 motifs differentially affect splicing. Motifs 8 and 9 significantly enhanced and reduced splicing of intron 4, respectively. RNA mobility shift assays performed with a Motif 8 sequence that contains a CAUC cis-element and cell extracts resulted in a RNA:protein shift that was lost upon mutation of the element. Furthermore, in silico analysis of mRNA secondary structure stability for minigenes with and without motif 8 indicated a correlation between mRNA stability and splicing ratio. We conclude that differential loss of specific intron 4 motifs results in one or more of the following: a) altered splicing, b) differences in RNA stability and c) changes in secondary structure. These, in turn, may affect SP-B content in lung health or disease. PMID:23687636

  20. Direct and Indirect ENSO Influences on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the strongest signals in the tropics and imposes large influences on climate in many regions, such as the Indian summer monsoon, central American precipitation, and the South China Sea precipitation. ENSO affects regional climate variability both directly and indirectly. The direct influence is through concurrent atmospheric circulation response to anomalous heating associated with equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies. The indirect influence is by first inducing regional SST anomalies through the so-called "atmospheric bridge" and then atmospheric circulation response to the regional SST anomalies. Previous studies are either focused on the direct influence of ENSO via concurrent atmospheric change or the indirect influence of ENSO via regional SST anomalies. In this talk, the presenter will distinguish the direct and indirect influences of ENSO and demonstrate how the two types of influences may play together in leading to regional climate variability. Summer climate anomalies in three regions will be used for illustration: the Indian summer monsoon, central American summer precipitation, and the South China Sea summer precipitation.

  1. 3'-untranslated region of SP-B mRNA mediates inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B expression.

    PubMed

    Pryhuber, G S; Church, S L; Kroft, T; Panchal, A; Whitsett, J A

    1994-07-01

    Surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is a small hydrophobic polypeptide that enhances spreading and stability of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolus of the lung. Decreased expression of SP-B is associated with respiratory failure in premature infants and in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) cause ARDS-like lung injury in vivo. Inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B mRNA expression in vitro were mediated by decreased SP-B mRNA stability rather than by decreased rate of SP-B gene transcription. In the present study, a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI H441-4, was stably transfected with expression vectors consisting of the thymidine kinase (TK) promotor and human growth hormone (hGH) gene, in which the hGH 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was replaced by the 2.0-kb human SP-B cDNA [pTKGH(SP-B2.0)] or the 837-bp human SP-B 3'-UTR [pTKGH(SP-B.837)]. The mRNAs and cellular growth hormone protein generated from the chimeric TKGH(SP-B2.0) and TKGH(SP-B.837) genes were each inhibited by approximately 50% by TPA and TNF-alpha. Dexamethasone decreased the inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha. The inhibition of steady-state hGH-SP-B mRNA by TPA and TNF-alpha was mediated by a cis-active element located in the 3-UTR region of SP-B mRNA. PMID:8048538

  2. Puerperal influence of bovine uterine health status on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Peter, S; Michel, G; Hahn, A; Ibrahim, M; Lubke-Becker, A; Jung, M; Einspanier, R; Gabler, C

    2015-06-01

    After parturition, uterine bacterial infections lead to inflammatory processes such as subclinical/clinical endometritis with high prevalence in dairy cows. Endometrial epithelial cells participate in this immune response with the production of pro-inflammatory factors. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the endometrial mRNA expression pattern of pro-inflammatory factors during a selected postpartum (pp) period. Dairy cows with three different uterine health conditions on days 24-30 pp (healthy: n = 11, subclinical endometritis: n = 10, clinical endometritis: n = 10) were sampled using the cytobrush technique. Subsequently, each cow was sampled 3 more times in weekly intervals (days 31-37 pp; days 38-44 pp; days 45-51 pp). Samples were subjected to mRNA analysis performed by RT-qPCR. Additionally, an analysis of cultivable bacteria was performed at the early/late stage of the selected puerperal period. mRNA expression of 16 candidate genes was analyzed by using two different approaches. The first approach referred to the initial grouping on days 24-30 pp to reveal long-term effects of the uterine health on the subsequent puerperal period. The second approach considered the current uterine health status at each sampling to elucidate the impact of different points in time. Long-term effects seem to appear for chemokines, prostacyclin synthase and prostaglandin D2 synthase. If related to the current uterine health, the majority of candidate genes were significantly higher expressed in endometritic cows on days 45-51 pp in contrast to earlier stages of the puerperium. Microbiological analysis revealed the significantly higher prevalence of Trueperella pyogenes findings in cows with clinical endometritis on days 24-30 pp, but no correlations were found on days 45-51 pp. In conclusion, a strong immune response to subclinical/clinical endometritis in the late puerperium may be related to the negative impact of these conditions on reproductive performance

  3. The Seed Region of a Small RNA Drives the Controlled Destruction of the Target mRNA by the Endoribonuclease RNase E

    PubMed Central

    Bandyra, Katarzyna J.; Said, Nelly; Pfeiffer, Verena; Górna, Maria W.; Vogel, Jörg; Luisi, Ben F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Numerous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria modulate rates of translation initiation and degradation of target mRNAs, which they recognize through base-pairing facilitated by the RNA chaperone Hfq. Recent evidence indicates that the ternary complex of Hfq, sRNA and mRNA guides endoribonuclease RNase E to initiate turnover of both the RNAs. We show that a sRNA not only guides RNase E to a defined site in a target RNA, but also allosterically activates the enzyme by presenting a monophosphate group at the 5′-end of the cognate-pairing “seed.” Moreover, in the absence of the target the 5′-monophosphate makes the sRNA seed region vulnerable to an attack by RNase E against which Hfq confers no protection. These results suggest that the chemical signature and pairing status of the sRNA seed region may help to both ‘proofread’ recognition and activate mRNA cleavage, as part of a dynamic process involving cooperation of RNA, Hfq and RNase E. PMID:22902561

  4. Stability and translation of TCR zeta mRNA are regulated by the adenosine-uridine-rich elements in splice-deleted 3' untranslated region of zeta-chain.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Krishnan, Sandeep; Tsokos, Christos G; Robertson, James W; Fisher, Carolyn U; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Tsokos, George C

    2006-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) T cells display reduced expression of TCR zeta protein. Recently, we reported that in SLE T cells, the residual TCR zeta protein is predominantly derived from an alternatively spliced form that undergoes splice deletion of 562 nt (from 672 to 1233 bases) within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TCR zeta mRNA. The stability and translation of the alternatively spliced form of TCR zeta mRNA are low compared with that of the wild-type TCR zeta mRNA. We report that two adenosine-uridine-rich sequence elements (AREs), defined by the splice-deleted 3' UTR region, but not an ARE located upstream are responsible for securing TCR zeta mRNA stability and translation. The stabilizing effect of the splice-deleted region-defined AREs extended to the luciferase mRNA and was not cell type-specific. The findings demonstrate distinct sequences within the splice-deleted region 672 to 1233 of the 3' UTR, which regulate the transcription, mRNA stability, and translation of TCR zeta mRNA. The absence of these sequences represents a molecular mechanism that contributes to altered TCR zeta-chain expression in lupus. PMID:17114503

  5. Replacement of the yeast TRP4 3' untranslated region by a hammerhead ribozyme results in a stable and efficiently exported mRNA that lacks a poly(A) tail.

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Katrin; Valerius, Oliver; Mangus, David A; Jacobson, Allan; Braus, Gerhard H

    2002-01-01

    The mRNA poly(A) tail serves different purposes, including the facilitation of nuclear export, mRNA stabilization, efficient translation, and, finally, specific degradation. The posttranscriptional addition of a poly(A) tail depends on sequence motifs in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the mRNA and a complex trans-acting protein machinery. In this study, we have replaced the 3' UTR of the yeast TRP4 gene with sequences encoding a hammerhead ribozyme that efficiently cleaves itself in vivo. Expression of the TRP4-ribozyme allele resulted in the accumulation of a nonpolyadenylated mRNA. Cells expressing the TRP4-ribozyme mRNA showed a reduced growth rate due to a reduction in Trp4p enzyme activity. The reduction in enzyme activity was not caused by inefficient mRNA export from the nucleus or mRNA destabilization. Rather, analyses of mRNA association with polyribosomes indicate that translation of the ribozyme-containing mRNA is impaired. This translational defect allows sufficient synthesis of Trp4p to support growth of trp4 cells, but is, nevertheless, of such magnitude as to activate the general control network of amino acid biosynthesis. PMID:12003493

  6. Genome-Wide Associations between Genetic and Epigenetic Variation Influence mRNA Expression and Insulin Secretion in Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Anders H.; Volkov, Petr; Bacos, Karl; Dayeh, Tasnim; Hall, Elin; Nilsson, Emma A.; Ladenvall, Claes; Rönn, Tina; Ling, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may interact and together affect biological processes and disease development. However, most previous studies have investigated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms independently, and studies examining their interactions throughout the human genome are lacking. To identify genetic loci that interact with the epigenome, we performed the first genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human pancreatic islets. We related 574,553 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide DNA methylation data of 468,787 CpG sites targeting 99% of RefSeq genes in islets from 89 donors. We identified 67,438 SNP-CpG pairs in cis, corresponding to 36,783 SNPs (6.4% of tested SNPs) and 11,735 CpG sites (2.5% of tested CpGs), and 2,562 significant SNP-CpG pairs in trans, corresponding to 1,465 SNPs (0.3% of tested SNPs) and 383 CpG sites (0.08% of tested CpGs), showing significant associations after correction for multiple testing. These include reported diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY5, KCNJ11, HLA-DQA1, INS, PDX1 and GRB10. CpGs of significant cis-mQTLs were overrepresented in the gene body and outside of CpG islands. Follow-up analyses further identified mQTLs associated with gene expression and insulin secretion in human islets. Causal inference test (CIT) identified SNP-CpG pairs where DNA methylation in human islets is the potential mediator of the genetic association with gene expression or insulin secretion. Functional analyses further demonstrated that identified candidate genes (GPX7, GSTT1 and SNX19) directly affect key biological processes such as proliferation and apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Finally, we found direct correlations between DNA methylation of 22,773 (4.9%) CpGs with mRNA expression of 4,876 genes, where 90% of the correlations were negative when CpGs were located in the region surrounding transcription start site. Our study demonstrates for the first time how genome-wide genetic and epigenetic

  7. Photoperiodic Condition Is Associated with Region-Specific Expression of GNRH1 mRNA in the Preoptic Area of the Male Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)1

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2009-01-01

    Many seasonally breeding avian species exhibit marked changes in hypothalamic content of gonadotropin-releasing vhormone 1 (GNRH1) protein that are reflective of breeding condition. We recently cloned the GNRH1 cDNA in European starlings and demonstrated that changes in GNRH1 mRNA levels occur with a time course similar to what has been observed with GNRH1 protein. However, we did not previously resolve whether these differences were attributable to changes in the number of cells expressing the gene. Herein, we investigated photoperiod-induced changes in the number and distribution of GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cells in the preoptic area of male starlings. GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cell number was significantly greater in breeding birds than in nonbreeding birds. Starlings maintained in short nonstimulatory day length (i.e., prebreeding) showed intermediate cell numbers. Detailed analysis of the rostrocaudal and mediolateral distribution revealed that breeding birds had greater numbers of cells expressing GNRH1 mRNA in the medial intermediate, mediocaudal, and lateral intermediate preoptic area compared with prebreeding and nonbreeding birds. These data demonstrate that photoperiodic changes in reproductive state in starlings are associated with region-specific alterations in the number of cells expressing the GNRH1 gene. It remains to be determined whether these changes reflect quantitative differences in gene expression among an otherwise stable population of cells or a phenotypic switch in which cells gain or lose the ability to make GNRH1 mRNA in response to environmental cues. PMID:19516022

  8. The regulation of gene expression in transformed maize aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. Analysis of promoter activity, intron enhancement, and mRNA untranslated regions on expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, D R; Young, T E

    1994-01-01

    Gene expression in the aleurone and endosperm is highly regulated during both seed development and germination. Studies of alpha-amylase expression in the aleurone of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have generated the current paradigm for hormonal control of gene expression in germinating cereal grain. Gene expression studies in both the aleurone and endosperm tissues of maize (Zea mays) seed have been hampered because of a lack of an efficient transformation system. We report here the rapid isolation of protoplasts from maize aleurone and endosperm tissue, their transformation using polyethylene glycol or electroporation, and the regulation of gene expression in these cells. Adh1 promoter activity was reduced relative to the 35S promoter in aleurone and endosperm protoplasts compared to Black Mexican Sweet suspension cells in which it was nearly as strong as the 35S promoter. Intron-mediated stimulation of expression was substantially higher in transformed aleurone or endosperm protoplasts than in cell-suspension culture protoplasts, and the data suggest that the effect of an intron may be affected by cell type. To examine cytoplasmic regulation, the 5' and 3' untranslated regions from a barley alpha-amylase were fused to the firefly luciferase-coding region, and their effect on translation and mRNA stability was examined following the delivery of in vitro synthesized mRNA to aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. The alpha-amylase untranslated regions regulated translational efficiency in a tissue-specific manner, increasing translation in aleurone or endosperm protoplasts but not in maize or carrot cell-suspension protoplasts, in animal cells, or in in vitro translation lysates. PMID:7824660

  9. Nucleolin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C proteins specifically interact with the 3'-untranslated region of amyloid protein precursor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S H; Malter, J S

    1995-07-21

    The central nervous system deposition by neurons and glia of beta A4 amyloid protein is an important contributing factor to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloidogenic cells overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNAs suggesting a transcriptional or post-transcriptional defect may contribute to this process. We have previously shown that APP mRNAs display regulated stability which is dependent on a 29-base element within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). This domain specifically interacted with several cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins. We have purified these APP RNA-binding proteins from a human T-cell leukemia and demonstrate that five cytoplasmic proteins of 70, 48, 47, 39, and 38 kDa form the previously observed APP RNA protein complexes. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that the 70-, 48-, and 47-kDa proteins were fragments of nucleolin and that the 39- and 38-kDa proteins were heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C protein. Northwestern and Western blot analyses of purified material further confirmed these data. Nucleolin protein is known to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm but hnRNP C has not been reported within the cytoplasm. This report of sequence specific, mRNA binding by nucleolin and hnRNP C suggests that these proteins participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of APP mRNA through 3'-UTR, site-specific interactions. PMID:7615529

  10. The 5′ Untranslated Region of the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 mRNA Enables Cap-Independent Translation Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Eduardo; Landry, Dori M.; Cáceres, C. Joaquín; Pino, Karla; Rossi, Federico; Navarrete, Camilo; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Thompson, Sunnie R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex human retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia and of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The mRNA of some complex retroviruses, including the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), can initiate translation using a canonical cap-dependent mechanism or through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, we present strong evidence showing that like HIV-1 and SIV, the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA harbors an IRES. Cap-independent translational activity was evaluated and demonstrated using dual luciferase bicistronic mRNAs in rabbit reticulocyte lysate, in mammalian cell culture, and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Characterization of the HTLV-1 IRES shows that its activity is dependent on the ribosomal protein S25 (RPS25) and that its function is highly sensitive to the drug edeine. Together, these findings suggest that the 5′UTR of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA enables internal recruitment of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. However, the recognition of the initiation codon requires ribosome scanning. These results suggest that, after internal recruitment by the HTLV-1 IRES, a scanning step takes place for the 40S ribosomal subunit to be positioned at the translation initiation codon. IMPORTANCE The mechanism by which retroviral mRNAs recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit internally is not understood. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of translation initiation used by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The results show that the HTLV-1 mRNA can initiate translation via a noncanonical mechanism mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). This study also provides evidence showing the involvement of cellular proteins in HTLV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Together, the data presented in this report significantly contribute to the understanding of HTLV-1 gene

  11. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J.

    2012-04-25

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  12. A Mutation in the 5′ Untranslated Region Increases Stability of norA mRNA, Encoding a Multidrug Resistance Transporter of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Bénédicte; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Zhang, Xiamei; Hooper, David C.

    2001-01-01

    NorA, a multidrug efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus, protects the cell from multiple drugs, including quinolones. The flqB mutation (T→G) in the 5′ untranslated region upstream of norA causes norA overexpression of 4.9-fold in cis, as measured in norA::blaZ fusions. The transcriptional initiation site of norA was unchanged in mutant and wild-type strains, but the half-life of norA mRNA was increased 4.8-fold in the flqB mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Computer-generated folding of the first 68 nucleotides of the norA transcript predicts an additional stem-loop and changes in a putative RNase III cleavage site in the flqB mutant. PMID:11244079

  13. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were <= 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  14. Wfs1-deficient animals have brain-region-specific changes of Na+, K+-ATPase activity and mRNA expression of α1 and β1 subunits.

    PubMed

    Sütt, S; Altpere, A; Reimets, R; Visnapuu, T; Loomets, M; Raud, S; Salum, T; Mahlapuu, R; Kairane, C; Zilmer, M; Vasar, E

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the WFS1 gene, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glycoprotein, cause Wolfram syndrome, a disease characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and different psychiatric abnormalities. Loss of neuronal cells and pancreatic β-cells in Wolfram syndrome patients is probably related to the dysfunction of ER stress regulation, which leads to cell apoptosis. The present study shows that Wfs1-deficient mice have brain-region-specific changes in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and in the expression of the α1 and β1 subunits. We found a significant (1.6-fold) increase of Na-pump activity and β1 subunit mRNA expression in mice lacking the Wfs1 gene in the temporal lobe compared with their wild-type littermates. By contrast, exposure of mice to the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety decreased Na-pump activity 1.3-fold in the midbrain and dorsal striatum and 2.0-fold in the ventral striatum of homozygous animals compared with the nonexposed group. Na-pump α1 -subunit mRNA was significantly decreased in the dorsal striatum and midbrain of Wfs1-deficient homozygous animals compared with wild-type littermates. In the temporal lobe, an increase in the activity of the Na-pump is probably related to increased anxiety established in Wfs1-deficient mice, whereas the blunted dopamine function in the forebrain of Wfs1-deficient mice may be associated with a decrease of Na-pump activity in the dorsal and ventral striatum and in the midbrain after exposure to the EPM. PMID:25385034

  15. A profile of UK unemployment: regional versus demographic influences.

    PubMed

    Brown, S; Sessions, J G

    1997-06-01

    "This paper profiles the incidence of unemployment in the [United Kingdom] over the period 1985-91 using data derived from the British Social Attitudes Survey. The approach of the paper is to quantify the differential probabilities of unemployment faced by particular groups within the population, focusing in particular on the relative effects of demographic and regional influences. Our results indicate that, even after controlling for a plethora of demographic characteristics, regional disparities in unemployment risk are prevalent, with individuals in Northern Ireland, Wales, the North and West Midlands of England facing a higher chance of unemployment ceteris paribus." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293417

  16. Influence of the E region dynamo on equatorial spread F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Sanatani, S.; Patterson, T. N. L.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated E region Pedersen conductivity can be an important parameter in determining whether the bottomside of the equatorial F layer will be stable against the Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability. The F layer is observed to become unstable when it rises to great heights after sunset. One effect of this height rise is to decrease the stabilizing influence of ion-neutral collisions at F region heights. It is shown here that the same eastward electric field that raises the F layer also decreases the Pedersen conductivity of the E region, which further destabilizes convective overturning. Because the conductivity of magnetic tubes that penetrate the main F layer is large compared to the E layer contribution, these effects are important only for the bottomside of the equatorial F layer.

  17. Flood regionalization: A hybrid geographic and predictor-variable region-of-influence regression method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, K.; Milly, P.C.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate estimation of streamflow characteristics at an ungauged site, hydrologists often define a region of influence containing gauged sites hydrologically similar to the estimation site. This region can be defined either in geographic space or in the space of the variables that are used to predict streamflow (predictor variables). These approaches are complementary, and a combination of the two may be superior to either. Here we propose a hybrid region-of-influence (HRoI) regression method that combines the two approaches. The new method was applied with streamflow records from 1,091 gauges in the southeastern United States to estimate the 50-year peak flow (Q50). The HRoI approach yielded lower root-mean-square estimation errors and produced fewer extreme errors than either the predictor-variable or geographic region-of-influence approaches. It is concluded, for Q50 in the study region, that similarity with respect to the basin characteristics considered (area, slope, and annual precipitation) is important, but incomplete, and that the consideration of geographic proximity of stations provides a useful surrogate for characteristics that are not included in the analysis. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  18. The 5′-untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA exhibits cap-independent translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Ramdohr, Pablo; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Tapia, Karla; Rodriguez, Felipe E.; Lowy, Fernando; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Dangerfield, John A.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the identification of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The 5′-UTR of the full-length mRNA derived from the infectious, complete MMTV genome was cloned into a dual luciferase reporter construct containing an upstream Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc) and a downstream firefly luciferase gene (FLuc). In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the MMTV 5′-UTR was capable of driving translation of the second cistron. In vitro translational activity from the MMTV 5′-UTR was resistant to the addition of m7GpppG cap-analog and cleavage of eIF4G by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L-protease. IRES activity was also demonstrated in the Xenopus laevis oocyte by micro-injection of capped and polyadenylated bicistronic RNAs harboring the MMTV-5′-UTR. Finally, transfection assays showed that the MMTV-IRES exhibits cell type-dependent translational activity, suggesting a requirement for as yet unidentified cellular factors for its optimal function. PMID:19889724

  19. A Viral mRNA Motif at the 3′-Untranslated Region that Confers Translatability in a Cell-Specific Manner. Implications for Virus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Moreno, Manuel; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) mRNAs contain several motifs that participate in the regulation of their translation. We have discovered a motif at the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNAs, constituted by three repeated sequences, which is involved in the translation of both SINV genomic and subgenomic mRNAs in insect, but not in mammalian cells. These data illustrate for the first time that an element present at the 3′-UTR confers translatability to mRNAs from an animal virus in a cell-specific manner. Sequences located at the beginning of the 5′-UTR may also regulate SINV subgenomic mRNA translation in both cell lines in a context of infection. Moreover, a replicon derived from Sleeping disease virus, an alphavirus that have no known arthropod vector for transmission, is much more efficient in insect cells when the repeated sequences from SINV are inserted at its 3′-UTR, due to the enhanced translatability of its mRNAs. Thus, these findings provide a clue to understand, at the molecular level, the evolution of alphaviruses and their host range. PMID:26755446

  20. A Viral mRNA Motif at the 3'-Untranslated Region that Confers Translatability in a Cell-Specific Manner. Implications for Virus Evolution.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Moreno, Manuel; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) mRNAs contain several motifs that participate in the regulation of their translation. We have discovered a motif at the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNAs, constituted by three repeated sequences, which is involved in the translation of both SINV genomic and subgenomic mRNAs in insect, but not in mammalian cells. These data illustrate for the first time that an element present at the 3'-UTR confers translatability to mRNAs from an animal virus in a cell-specific manner. Sequences located at the beginning of the 5'-UTR may also regulate SINV subgenomic mRNA translation in both cell lines in a context of infection. Moreover, a replicon derived from Sleeping disease virus, an alphavirus that have no known arthropod vector for transmission, is much more efficient in insect cells when the repeated sequences from SINV are inserted at its 3'-UTR, due to the enhanced translatability of its mRNAs. Thus, these findings provide a clue to understand, at the molecular level, the evolution of alphaviruses and their host range. PMID:26755446

  1. Quantitative characterization of regional differences in the GABAA-receptor alpha1-subunit mRNA expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pávai, Z; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Orbán-Kis, K; Szilágyi, T

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition in the central nervous system is largely mediated by local-circuit neurons that release GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid). GABAA-receptors play a major role in virtually all brain physiological functions and serve as targets for numerous classes of drugs, used both in clinical practice and as research tools. These receptors are heteropentamers, alpha1 being the most widely occurring subunit; therefore it is the best candidate to be studied in pathological conditions where the inhibitory system might be altered (e.g. epilepsy). We compared quantitatively the regional distribution of GABAA-receptor alpha1-subunit (GABAAR-alpha1) expression in three brain areas: neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum by RT-qPCR. TaqMan probe was used in order to avoid detection of non-specific amplification products and synaptophysin as internal control. This substance was chosen because it has a stable expression restricted to neurons, and contrary to GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene for expression analysis, synaptophysin expression is not modified in animal models of epilepsy. Expression of synaptophysin was higher than expression of GABAAR-alpha1 in all samples from the central nervous system. The latter was significantly different among the studied brain areas. It was the smallest in the hippocampus, intermediate in the neocortex and the highest in the cerebellum. Interanimal differences were small for any brain region under study. These results indicate that combination of TaqMan real-time PCR method with synaptophysin as internal control can reliably measure the relative expression of GABAAR-alpha1 mRNA, and are suitable for investigating the modifications that appear under pathological conditions and/or diverse experimental paradigms. PMID:20191118

  2. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein binds to the 5' untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA and stimulates cap-independent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carlos J; Contreras, Nataly; Angulo, Jenniffer; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Pino-Ajenjo, Constanza; Llorian, Miriam; Ameur, Melissa; Lisboa, Francisco; Pino, Karla; Lowy, Fernando; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the full-length mRNA of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) harbors an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study, we show that the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), an RNA-binding protein with four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), binds to the MMTV 5' UTR stimulating its IRES activity. There are three isoforms of PTB: PTB1, PTB2, and PTB4. Results show that PTB1 and PTB4, but not PTB2, stimulate MMTV-IRES activity. PTB1 promotes MMTV-IRES-mediated initiation more strongly than PTB4. When expressed in combination, PTB1 further enhanced PTB4 stimulation of the MMTV-IRES, while PTB2 fully abrogates PTB4-induced stimulation. PTB1-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES was not altered in the presence of PTB4 or PTB2. Mutational analysis reveals that stimulation of MMTV-IRES activity is abrogated when PTB1 is mutated either in RRM1/RRM2 or RRM3/RRM4. In contrast, a PTB4 RRM1/RRM2 mutant has reduced effect over MMTV-IRES activity, while stimulation of the MMTV-IRES activity is still observed when the PTB4 RRM3/RMM4 mutant is used. Therefore, PTB1 and PTB4 differentially stimulate the IRES activity. In contrast, PTB2 acts as a negative modulator of PTB4-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES. We conclude that PTB1 and PTB4 act as IRES trans-acting factors of the MMTV-IRES. PMID:26972759

  3. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  4. Influence of Subtropical Region Strawberry Cultivars on Jelly Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Curi, Paula Nogueira; de Sousa Tavares, Bruna; de Almeida, Aline Botelho; Pio, Rafael; Peche, Pedro Maranha; de Souza, Vanessa Rios

    2016-06-01

    At the end of the production period of strawberries grown in subtropical regions, postharvest durability is severely diminished due to rising temperatures which compromises the commercialization of fresh fruit. An ideal option would be to process strawberries in the form of preserves, jams, and jellies. Along this line it becomes extremely important to conduct a survey of which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of jelly, as well as to understand what the consumer profile is for this product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different strawberry cultivars grown in subtropical regions of Brazil (Camarosa, Festival, San Andreas, Oso Grande, Camino Real, and Albion) on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use. The strawberry cultivars presented different physicochemical characteristics which resulted in jellies with different physicochemical and rheological characteristics. In this study, however, we verified that all cultivars have potential to be processed in the form of jelly due to good acceptance of all formulations prepared. In general consumers prefer a lighter-colored strawberry jelly, with a less intense red color, more acidic, and less consistent/firm. PMID:27115540

  5. Evaluating Observation Influence on Regional Water Budgets in Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Mocko, David; Robertson, Franklin R.; daSilva, Arlindo M.

    2014-01-01

    The assimilation of observations in reanalyses incurs the potential for the physical terms of budgets to be balanced by a term relating the fit of the observations relative to a forecast first guess analysis. This may indicate a limitation in the physical processes of the background model, or perhaps inconsistencies in the observing system and its assimilation. In the MERRA reanalysis, an area of long term moisture flux divergence over land has been identified over the Central United States. Here, we evaluate the water vapor budget in this region, taking advantage of two unique features of the MERRA diagnostic output; 1) a closed water budget that includes the analysis increment and 2) a gridded diagnostic output data set of the assimilated observations and their innovations (e.g. forecast departures). In the Central United States, an anomaly occurs where the analysis adds water to the region, while precipitation decreases and moisture flux divergence increases. This is related more to a change in the observing system than to a deficiency in the model physical processes. MERRAs Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) data narrow the observations that influence this feature to the ATOVS and Aqua satellites during the 06Z and 18Z analysis cycles. Observing system experiments further narrow the instruments that affect the anomalous feature to AMSUA (mainly window channels) and AIRS. This effort also shows the complexities of the observing system, and the reactions of the regional water budgets in reanalyses to the assimilated observations.

  6. On how climate variability influences regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Kusche, Jürgen; Rietbroek, Roelof; Forootan, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    Regional trends in sea level change are strongly influenced by climate variations, such as ENSO (El-Nino Southern Oscillation), the IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole), or the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). Hence, before computing long term regional sea level change, these sea level variations need to be taken into account as they lead to strong dependencies of computed regional sea level trends on the time period of the investigation. In this study, sea level change during the years 1993 to 2013 is analysed to identify the dominant modes of sea level change caused by climate variations. Here, two different gridded altimetry products are analysed, namely ESA's combined CCI SeaLevel v1.1 ECV product (doi: 10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2013-v_1.1-201412), and absolute dynamic topography produced by Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by Aviso, with support from Cnes (http://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/duacs/). Reconstructions using the different decomposition techniques including the standard principle component analysis (PCA), rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOF) and independent component analysis (ICA) method are analysed. They are compared with sea level change modelled with the global finite-element sea-ice ocean model (FESOM). The results indicate that from the applied methods, ICA is most suitable to separate the individual climate variability signals in independent modes of sea level change. This especially holds for extracting the ENSO contribution in sea level changes, which was better separated by applying ICA, from both altimetry and modelled sea level products. In addition, it is presented how modelled sea level change reflects climate variations compared to that identified in the altimetry products.

  7. An Upstream Hfq Binding Site in the fhlA mRNA Leader Region Facilitates the OxyS-fhlA Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nilshad N.; Feig, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background To survive, bacteria must be able to adapt to environmental stresses. Small regulatory RNAs have been implicated as intermediates in a variety of stress-response pathways allowing dynamic gene regulation. The RNA binding protein Hfq facilitates this process in many cases, helping sRNAs base pair with their target mRNAs and initiate gene regulation. Although Hfq has been identified as a critical component in many RNPs, the manner by which Hfq controls these interactions is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the requirement of Hfq in these mRNA-sRNA complexes, the OxyS-fhlA system was used as a model. OxyS is induced in response to oxidative stress and down regulates the translation of fhlA, a gene encoding a transcriptional activator for formate metabolism. Biophysical characterization of this system previously used a minimal construct of the fhlA mRNA which inadvertently removed a critical element within the leader sequence of this mRNA that effected thermodynamics and kinetics for the interaction with Hfq. Conclusions/Significance Herein, we report thermodynamic, kinetic and structural mapping studies during binary and ternary complex formation between Hfq, OxyS and fhlA mRNA. Hfq binds fhlA mRNA using both the proximal and distal surfaces and stimulates association kinetics between the sRNA and mRNA but remains bound to fhlA forming a ternary complex. The upstream Hfq binding element within fhlA is similar to (ARN)x elements recently identified in other mRNAs regulated by Hfq. This work leads to a kinetic model for the dynamics of these complexes and the regulation of gene expression by bacterial sRNAs. PMID:20927406

  8. Decreased stability and translation of T cell receptor zeta mRNA with an alternatively spliced 3'-untranslated region contribute to zeta chain down-regulation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Tsokos, Christos G; Krishnan, Sandeep; Robertson, James; Fisher, Carolyn U; Warke, Rahul G; Warke, Vishal G; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Tsokos, George C

    2005-05-13

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the aberrant expression of T cell receptor (TCR) zeta chain of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are not known. Previously we demonstrated that although normal T cells express high levels of TCR zeta mRNA with wild-type (WT) 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), systemic lupus erythematosus T cells display significantly high levels of TCR zeta mRNA with the alternatively spliced (AS) 3' UTR form, which is derived by splice deletion of nucleotides 672-1233 of the TCR zeta transcript. Here we report that the stability of TCR zeta mRNA with an AS 3' UTR is low compared with TCR zeta mRNA with WT 3' UTR. AS 3' UTR, but not WT 3' UTR, conferred similar instability to the luciferase gene. Immunoblotting of cell lysates derived from transfected COS-7 cells demonstrated that TCR zeta with AS 3' UTR produced low amounts of 16-kDa protein. In vitro transcription and translation also produced low amounts of protein from TCR zeta with AS 3' UTR. Taken together our findings suggest that nucleotides 672-1233 bp of TCR zeta 3' UTR play a critical role in its stability and also have elements required for the translational regulation of TCR zeta chain expression in human T cells. PMID:15743765

  9. Characterization of the interaction between alphaCP(2) and the 3'-untranslated region of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, J N; Kauschke, S G; Stefanovic, B; Burchardt, E R; Brenner, D A

    2000-11-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells produce increased type I collagen in hepatic fibrosis. The increase in type I collagen protein results from an increase in mRNA levels that is mainly mediated by increased mRNA stability. Protein-RNA interactions in the 3'-UTR of the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA correlate with stabilization of the mRNA during hepatic stellate cell activation. A component of the binding complex is alphaCP(2). Recombinant alphaCP(2) is sufficient for binding to the 3'-UTR of collagen alpha1(I). To characterize the binding affinity of and specificity for alphaCP(2), we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using the poly(C)-rich sequence in the 3'-UTR of collagen alpha1(I) as probe. The binding affinity of alphaCP(2) for the 3'-UTR sequence is approximately 2 nM in vitro and the wild-type 3' sequence binds with high specificity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a system for detecting protein-nucleotide interactions that is suitable for high throughput assays using molecular beacons. Molecular beacons, developed for DNA-DNA hybridization, are oligonucleotides with a fluorophore and quencher brought together by a hairpin sequence. Fluorescence increases when the hairpin is disrupted by binding to an antisense sequence or interaction with a protein. Molecular beacons displayed a similar high affinity for binding to recombinant alphaCP(2) to the wild-type 3' sequence, although the kinetics of binding were slower. PMID:11058131

  10. Flood Frequency of Unregulated Streams of Tennessee Using Regional-Regression Equations and the Region-of-Influence Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, G.S.; Tasker, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    The region-of-influence method and regional-regression equations are used to predict flood frequency of unregulated and ungaged rivers and streams of Tennessee. The prediction methods have been developed using strem-gage records from unregulated streams draining basins having 1-30% total impervious area. A computer application automates the calculation of the flood frequencies of the unregulated streams. Average deleted-residual prediction errors for the region-of-influence method are found to be slightly smaller than those for the regional regression methods.

  11. Adolescent testosterone influences BDNF and TrkB mRNA and neurotrophin-interneuron marker relationships in mammalian frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Allen, Katherine; Fung, Samantha; Rothmond, Debora; Noble, Pam L; Handelsman, David J; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2015-11-01

    Late adolescence in males is a period of increased susceptibility for the onset of schizophrenia, coinciding with increased circulating testosterone. The cognitive deficits prevalent in schizophrenia may be related to unhealthy cortical interneurons, which are trophically dependent on brain derived neurotrophic factor. We investigated, under conditions of depleted (monkey and rat) and replaced (rat) testosterone over adolescence, changes in gene expression of cortical BDNF and TrkB transcripts and interneuron markers and the relationships between these mRNAs and circulating testosterone. Testosterone removal by gonadectomy reduced gene expression of some BDNF transcripts in monkey and rat frontal cortices and the BDNF mRNA reduction was prevented by testosterone replacement. In rat, testosterone replacement increased the potential for classical TrkB signalling by increasing the full length to truncated TrkB mRNA ratio, whereas in the monkey cortex, circulating testosterone was negatively correlated with the TrkB full length/truncated mRNA ratio. We did not identify changes in interneuron gene expression in monkey frontal cortex in response to gonadectomy, and in rat, we showed that only somatostatin mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy but not restored by testosterone replacement. We identified complex and possibly species-specific, relationships between BDNF/TrkB gene expression and interneuron marker gene expression that appear to be dependent on the presence of testosterone at adolescence in rat and monkey frontal cortices. Taken together, our findings suggest there are dynamic relationships between BDNF/TrkB and interneuron markers that are dependent on the presence of testosterone but that this may not be a straightforward increase in testosterone leading to changes in BDNF/TrkB that contributes to interneuron health. PMID:26088421

  12. Rhythmic control of mRNA stability modulates circadian amplitude of mouse Period3 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kwak, Eunyee; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2015-03-01

    The daily oscillations observed in most living organisms are endogenously generated with a period of 24 h, and the underlying structure of periodic oscillation is an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop. The mechanisms of untranslated region (UTR)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation (e.g., mRNA degradation and internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation) have been suggested to fine-tune the expression of clock genes. Mouse Period3 (mPer3) is one of the paralogs of Period gene and its function is important in peripheral clocks and sleep physiology. mPer3 mRNA displays a circadian oscillation as well as a circadian phase-dependent stability, while the stability regulators still remain unknown. In this study, we identify three proteins - heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), and hnRNP D - that bind to mPer3 mRNA 3'-UTR. We show that hnRNP K is a stabilizer that increases the amplitude of circadian mPer3 mRNA oscillation and hnRNP D is a destabilizer that decreases it, while PTB exhibits no effect on mPer3 mRNA expression. Our experiments describe their cytoplasmic roles for the mRNA stability regulation and the circadian amplitude formation. Moreover, our mathematical model suggests a mechanism through which post-transcriptional mRNA stability modulation provides not only the flexibility of oscillation amplitude, but also the robustness of the period and the phase for circadian mPer3 expression. Mouse Period3 (mPer3) is one of well-known clock genes. We identified three 3'-UTR-binding proteins that modulate the mRNA stability, and they influenced to the amplitude of circadian mPer3 mRNA oscillation. Our mathematical model not only showed the relationship between mRNA stability and its oscillation profile but provided the molecular mechanism for the robustness of the period and the phase in circadian oscillation. hnK, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K; hnD, hn

  13. Sex- and region-specific alterations of progesterone receptor mRNA levels and estrogen sensitivity in rat brain following developmental exposure to the estrogenic UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.

    PubMed

    Maerkel, Kirsten; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Durrer, Stefan; Conscience, Marianne; Schlumpf, Margret

    2005-05-01

    Recently, we reported on in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters and on developmental toxicity of 4-methylbenzylidene (4-MBC) camphor [Schlumpf, M., Cotton, B., Conscience, M., Haller, V., Steinmann, B., Lichtensteiger, W., 2001a. In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity of UV screens. Environ. Health Perspect. 109, 239; Schlumpf, M., Berger, L., Cotton, B., Conscience-Egli, M., Durrer, S., Fleischmann, I., Haller, V., Maerkel, K., Lichtensteiger, W., 2001b. Estrogen active UV screens. SÖFW-J. 7, 10]. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47mg/(kgday)) was administered in chow to long Evans rats from 10 weeks before mating of the parent (F0) generation until adulthood of the F1 generation. Peripheral reproductive organs and central nervous system were studied in adult offspring. mRNA expression of progesterone receptor (PR), an estrogen-regulated gene, was investigated in medial preoptic area (MPO) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) by real-time RT-PCR. We analyzed intact 12-week-old male and female offspring under steady state conditions and adult gonadectomized offspring 6h after a single s.c. injection of estradiol-17β (E2) (10 or 50μg/kg) in order to assess estrogen sensitivity. At steady state conditions we observed significantly higher PR mRNA expression in VMH of control females versus control males. 4-MBC exposed females exhibited a decrease in PR mRNA to levels of control males. The increase in PR mRNA in response to E2 was higher in VMH of males of both 4-MBC groups as compared to control males. PR mRNA levels were similar in MPO of control males and females. Developmental 4-MBC exposure increased PR mRNA levels in male MPO, but did not significantly change female levels. The acute response to the lower E2 dose was decreased in MPO of 4-MBC-exposed males, whereas females of the 7mg/kg dose group exhibited an increased reaction to 50μg/kg of E2. Our data indicate that developmental exposure to endocrine active chemicals such as the UV filter 4-MBC can

  14. Ribosomal Protein S1 Specifically Binds to the 5′ Untranslated Region of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stationary-Phase Sigma Factor rpoS mRNA in the Logarithmic Phase of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ševo, Milica; Buratti, Emanuele; Venturi, Vittorio

    2004-01-01

    The rpoS gene encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor (RpoS or σs), which was identified in several gram-negative bacteria as a central regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in cell survival in response to cessation of growth (stationary phase) and providing cross-protection against various stresses. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the levels of σs increase dramatically at the onset of the stationary phase and are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The P. aeruginosa rpoS gene is transcribed as a monocistronic rpoS mRNA transcript comprised of an unusually long 373-bp 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR). In this study, the 5′ UTR and total protein extracts from P. aeruginosa logarithmic and stationary phases of growth were used in order to investigate the protein-RNA interactions that may modulate the translational process. It was observed that a 69-kDa protein, which corresponded to ribosomal protein S1, preferentially binds the 5′ UTR of the rpoS mRNA in the logarithmic phase and not in the stationary phase. This is the first report of a protein-rpoS mRNA 5′ UTR interaction in P. aeruginosa, and the possible involvement of protein S1 in translation regulation of rpoS is discussed. PMID:15262927

  15. The 5′-untranslated region of p16INK4a melanoma tumor suppressor acts as a cellular IRES, controlling mRNA translation under hypoxia through YBX1 binding

    PubMed Central

    Bisio, Alessandra; Latorre, Elisa; Andreotti, Virginia; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Harland, Mark; Scarra, Giovanna Bianchi; Ghiorzo, Paola; Spitale, Robert C.; Provenzani, Alessandro; Inga, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    CDKN2A/p16INK4a is an essential tumor suppressor gene that controls cell cycle progression and replicative senescence. It is also the main melanoma susceptibility gene. Here we report that p16INK4a 5′UTR mRNA acts as a cellular Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES). The potential for p16INK4a 5′UTR to drive cap-independent translation was evaluated by dual-luciferase assays using bicistronic and monocistronic vectors. Results of reporters' relative activities coupled to control analyses for actual bicistronic mRNA transcription, indicated that the wild type p16INK4a 5′UTR could stimulate cap-independent translation. Notably, hypoxic stress and the treatment with mTOR inhibitors enhanced the translation-stimulating property of p16INK4a 5′UTR. RNA immunoprecipitation performed in melanoma-derived SK-Mel-28 and in a patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell line indicated that YBX1 can bind the wild type p16INK4a mRNA increasing its translation efficiency, particularly during hypoxic stress. Modulation of YBX1 expression further supported its involvement in cap-independent translation of the wild type p16INK4a but not a c.-42T>A variant. RNA SHAPE assays revealed local flexibility changes for the c.-42T>A variant at the predicted YBX1 binding site region. Our results indicate that p16INK4a 5′UTR contains a cellular IRES that can enhance mRNA translation efficiency, in part through YBX1. PMID:26498684

  16. Influence of BMP-2 on early follicular development and mRNA expression of oocyte specific genes in bovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Rodrigo O D S; da Cunha, Ellen V; Portela, Antonia M L R; Passos, José R S; Costa, José J N; Silva, Anderson W B; Saraiva, Márcia V A; Peixoto, Christina A; Donato, Mariana A M; van den Hurk, Robert; Silva, José R V

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations (0, 10, 50 and 100ng/mL) of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on primordial and secondary follicle development. It also investigates the effects of FSH and BMP-2 on the growth, morphology, ultrastructure and expression of mRNA for GDF9, NLRP5 and NPM2 genes in secondary follicles cultured for 18 days. The presence of BMP-2 at all tested concentrations increased the development of primordial follicles in vitro, but the highest concentration of BMP-2 (100 ng/mL) reduced the percentage of normal follicles when compared with tissues cultured with 10 ng/mL BMP-2. During culture of secondary follicles, in contrast to higher concentrations (50 or 100 ng/mL), 10 ng/mL BMP-2 kept the morphology of follicles during initial stages of in vitro culture. This concentration of BMP-2 also benefits maintenance of the ultrastructure of 18-day cultured follicles. The presence of both BMP-2 and FSH in culture medium resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in follicular diameter after 18 days of culture. However, both FSH and BMP-2 reduced follicular mRNA expression of GDF9 and NLRP5 when compared to follicles cultured in media containing only FSH. In combination with FSH, BMP-2 reduced the mRNA levels of NPM2, when compared to follicles cultured in control medium. It is concluded from these data that 10 ng/mL BMP-2 promotes the growth of primordial in vitro and it helps to maintain the ultrastructure of secondary follicles, while FSH is more important for better expression of follicular markers like GDF9 and NLRP5. PMID:26435174

  17. Slowly digestible starch influences mRNA abundance of glucose and short-chain fatty acid transporters in the porcine distal intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A D; Regmi, P R; Gänzle, M G; van Kempen, T A T G; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between starch chemistry and intestinal nutrient transporters is not well characterized. We hypothesized that inclusion of slowly instead of rapidly digestible starch in pig diets will decrease glucose and increase short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporter expression in the distal gut. Weaned barrows (n = 32) were fed 4 diets containing 70% starch [ranging from 0 to 63% amylose and from 1.06 (rapidly) to 0.22%/min (slowly) rate of in vitro digestion] at 3 × maintenance energy requirement in a complete randomized block design. Ileal and colon mucosa was collected on day 21 to quantify mRNA abundance of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1), and Na(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT). Messenger RNA was extracted and cDNA manufactured prior to relative quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Data were analyzed using the 2(-Δ ΔC)(T) method, with β-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as reference genes, and regression analysis was performed. As in vitro rate of digestion decreased, SGLT1 linearly increased (P < 0.05) in the ileum. Contrary to SGLT1, MCT1 tended to linearly decrease (P = 0.08) in the ileum and increased quadratically (P < 0.001) in the colon with decreasing rate of digestion. Starch digestion rate did not affect SMCT in the ileum; however, colonic SMCT quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) with decreasing rate of digestion. In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, slowly digestible starch increased ileal glucose and decreased ileal SCFA transporter mRNA abundance, possibly due to an increased glucose in the luminal ileum. Effects of starch on colonic SCFA transporter mRNA abundance were inconsistent. PMID:23365289

  18. Visual Empirical Region of Influence (VERI) Pattern Recognition Algorithms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-05-01

    We developed new pattern recognition (PR) algorithms based on a human visual perception model. We named these algorithms Visual Empirical Region of Influence (VERI) algorithms. To compare the new algorithm's effectiveness against othe PR algorithms, we benchmarked their clustering capabilities with a standard set of two-dimensional data that is well known in the PR community. The VERI algorithm succeeded in clustering all the data correctly. No existing algorithm had previously clustered all the pattens inmore » the data set successfully. The commands to execute VERI algorithms are quite difficult to master when executed from a DOS command line. The algorithm requires several parameters to operate correctly. From our own experiences we realized that if we wanted to provide a new data analysis tool to the PR community we would have to provide a new data analysis tool to the PR community we would have to make the tool powerful, yet easy and intuitive to use. That was our motivation for developing graphical user interfaces (GUI's) to the VERI algorithms. We developed GUI's to control the VERI algorithm in a single pass mode and in an optimization mode. We also developed a visualization technique that allows users to graphically animate and visually inspect multi-dimensional data after it has been classified by the VERI algorithms. The visualization technique that allows users to graphically animate and visually inspect multi-dimensional data after it has been classified by the VERI algorithms. The visualization package is integrated into the single pass interface. Both the single pass interface and optimization interface are part of the PR software package we have developed and make available to other users. The single pass mode only finds PR results for the sets of features in the data set that are manually requested by the user. The optimization model uses a brute force method of searching through the cominations of features in a data set for features that produce

  19. R and D -- Seismic report on the influence of the source region on regional seismic waveforms as inferred from modeling

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Jones, E.M.; Bos, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    The identification of an underground nuclear test from its seismic signal recorded by seismometers at regional distances is one of the fundamental scientific goals of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty R and D Program. The work being reported here addresses the issue of event discrimination through the use of computer models that use realistic simulations of nuclear explosions in various settings for the generation of near-regional and regional synthetic seismograms. The study exercises some unique, recently developed computer modeling capabilities that heretofore have not been available for discrimination studies. A variety of source conditions and regional paths are investigated. Under the assumptions of the study, conclusions are: (1) spall, non-linear deformation, and depth-of-burial do not substantially influence the near-regional signal and (2) effects due to basins along the regional path very much dominate over source region geology in influencing the signal at regional distances. These conclusions, however, are relevant only for the frequencies addressed, which span the range from 0.1 to 1 Hz for the regional calculations and 0.1 to 3 Hz for the near-regional calculations. They also are relevant only for the crudely ``China-like`` basin, crust, and mantle properties used in the study. If it is determined that further investigations are required, researchers may use this study as a template for such work.

  20. mRNA imprinting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Following its synthesis in the nucleus, mRNA undergoes various stages that are critical for the proper synthesis, localization and possibly functionality of its encoded protein. Recently, we have shown that two RNA polymerase II (Pol II) subunits, Rpb4p and Rpb7p, associate with the nascent transcript co-transcriptionally. This “mRNA imprinting” lasts throughout the mRNA lifetime and is required for proper regulation of all major stages that the mRNA undergoes. Other possible cases of co-transcriptional imprinting are discussed. Since mRNAs can be transported from the synthesizing cell to other cells, we propose that mRNA imprinting can also affect the phenotype of the recipient cells. This can be viewed as “mRNA-based epigenetics.” PMID:21686103

  1. Efficient Translation Initiation Directed by the 900-Nucleotide-Long and GC-Rich 5′ Untranslated Region of the Human Retrotransposon LINE-1 mRNA Is Strictly Cap Dependent Rather than Internal Ribosome Entry Site Mediated▿

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Andreev, Dmitri E.; Terenin, Ilya M.; Olovnikov, Ivan A.; Prassolov, Vladimir S.; Merrick, William C.; Shatsky, Ivan N.

    2007-01-01

    Retrotransposon L1 is a mobile genetic element of the LINE family that is extremely widespread in the mammalian genome. It encodes a dicistronic mRNA, which is exceptionally rare among eukaryotic cellular mRNAs. The extremely long and GC-rich L1 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) directs synthesis of numerous copies of RNA-binding protein ORF1p per mRNA. One could suggest that the 5′UTR of L1 mRNA contained a powerful internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. Using transfection of cultured cells with the polyadenylated monocistronic (L1 5′UTR-Fluc) or bicistronic (Rluc-L1 5′UTR-Fluc) RNA constructs, capped or uncapped, it has been firmly established that the 5′UTR of L1 does not contain an IRES. Uncapping reduces the initiation activity of the L1 5′UTR to that of background. Moreover, the translation is inhibited by upstream AUG codons in the 5′UTR. Nevertheless, this cap-dependent initiation activity of the L1 5′UTR was unexpectedly high and resembles that of the beta-actin 5′UTR (84 nucleotides long). Strikingly, the deletion of up to 80% of the nucleotide sequence of the L1 5′UTR, with most of its stem loops, does not significantly change its translation initiation efficiency. These data can modify current ideas on mechanisms used by 40S ribosomal subunits to cope with complex 5′UTRs and call into question the conception that every long GC-rich 5′UTR working with a high efficiency has to contain an IRES. Our data also demonstrate that the ORF2 translation initiation is not directed by internal initiation, either. It is very inefficient and presumably based on a reinitiation event. PMID:17470553

  2. West Nile virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA in the 3′ untranslated region which up-regulates GATA4 mRNA and facilitates virus replication in mosquito cells

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mazhar; Torres, Shessy; Schnettler, Esther; Funk, Anneke; Grundhoff, Adam; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Asgari, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to a group of medically important single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses causing deadly disease outbreaks around the world. The 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the flavivirus genome, in particular the terminal 3′ stem–loop (3′SL) fulfils multiple functions in virus replication and virus–host interactions. Using the Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN), we detected a virally encoded small RNA, named KUN-miR-1, derived from 3′SL. Transcription of WNVKUN pre-miRNA (3′SL) in mosquito cells either from plasmid or Semliki Forest virus (SFV) RNA replicon resulted in the production of mature KUN-miR-1. Silencing of Dicer-1 but not Dicer-2 led to a reduction in the miRNA levels. Further, when a synthetic inhibitor of KUN-miR-1 was transfected into mosquito cells, replication of viral RNA was significantly reduced. Using cloning and bioinformatics approaches, we identified the cellular GATA4 mRNA as a target for KUN-miR-1. KUN-miR-1 produced in mosquito cells during virus infection or from plasmid DNA, SFV RNA replicon or mature miRNA duplex increased accumulation of GATA4 mRNA. Depletion of GATA4 mRNA by RNA silencing led to a significant reduction in virus RNA replication while a KUN-miR-1 RNA mimic enhanced replication of a mutant WNVKUN virus producing reduced amounts of KUN-miR-1, suggesting that GATA4-induction via KUN-miR-1 plays an important role in virus replication. PMID:22080551

  3. Genomewide Analysis of Rat Periaqueductal Gray-Dorsal Horn Reveals Time-, Region- and Frequency-Specific mRNA Expression Changes in Response to Electroacupuncture Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Qiao, Nan; Qi, Jun-Yi; Lin, Li-Bo; Zhang, Rong; Shou, Xiao-jing; Ping, Xing-Jie; Han, Ji-Sheng; Han, Jing-Dong; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Cui, Cai-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely applied for illness prevention, treatment or rehabilitation in the clinic, especially for pain management. However, the molecular events that induce these changes remain largely uncharacterized. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the spinal dorsal horn (DH) have been verified as two critical regions in the response to EA stimulation in EA analgesia. In this study, a genetic screen was conducted to delineate the gene expression profile in the PAG-DH regions of rats to explore the molecular events of the analgesic effect induced by low-frequency (2-Hz) and high-frequency (100-Hz) EAs. Microarray analysis at two different time points after EA stimulation revealed time-, region- and frequency-specific gene expression changes. These expression differences suggested that modulation of neural-immune interaction in the central nervous system played an important role during EA analgesia. Furthermore, low-frequency EA could regulate gene expression to a greater degree than high-frequency EA. Altogether, the present study offers, for the first time, a characterized transcriptional response pattern in the PAG-DH regions followed by EA stimulation and, thus, provides a solid experimental framework for future in-depth analysis of the mechanisms underlying EA-induced effects. PMID:25346229

  4. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the

  5. The Prethalamus Is Established during Gastrulation and Influences Diencephalic Regionalization

    PubMed Central

    Staudt, Nicole; Houart, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The vertebrate neural plate contains distinct domains of gene expression, prefiguring the future brain areas. In this study, we draw an extended expression map of the rostral neural plate that reveals discrete domains inside the presumptive posterior forebrain. We show, by fate mapping, that these well-defined cell populations will develop into specific diencephalic regions. To address whether these early subterritories are already committed to restricted identities, we began to analyse the consequences of ablation and transplantation of these specific cell populations. We found that precursors of the prethalamus are already specified and irreplaceable at late gastrula stage, because ablation of these cells results in loss of prethalamic markers. Moreover, when transplanted into the ectopic environment of the presumptive hindbrain, these cells still pursue their prethalamic differentiation program. Finally, transplantation of these precursors, in the rostral-most neural epithelium, induces changes in cell identity in the surrounding host forebrain. This cell–non-autonomous property led us to propose that these committed prethalamic precursors may play an instructive role in the regionalization of the developing diencephalon. PMID:17341136

  6. Influence of ketamine on regional brain glucose use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W.; Mans, A.M.; Biebuyck, J.F.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of ketamine on cerebral function at the level of individual brain structures as reflected by glucose use. Rats received either 5 or 30 mg/kg ketamine intravenously as a loading dose, followed by an infusion to maintain a steady-state level of the drug. An additional group received 30 mg/kg as a single injection only, and was studied 20 min later, by which time they were recovering consciousness (withdrawal group). Regional brain energy metabolism was evaluated with (6-/sup 14/C)glucose and quantitative autoradiography during a 5-min experimental period. A subhypnotic, steady-state dose (5 mg/kg) of ketamine caused a stimulation of glucose use in most brain areas, with an average increase of 20%. At the larger steady-state dose (30 mg/kg, which is sufficient to cause anesthesia), there was no significant effect on most brain regions; some sensory nuclei were depressed (inferior colliculus, -29%; cerebellar dentate nucleus, -18%; vestibular nucleus, -16%), but glucose use in the ventral posterior hippocampus was increased by 33%. In contrast, during withdrawal from a 30-mg/kg bolus, there was a stimulation of glucose use throughout the brain (21-78%), at a time when plasma ketamine levels were similar to the levels in the 5 mg/kg group. At each steady-state dose, as well as during withdrawal, ketamine caused a notable stimulation of glucose use by the hippocampus.

  7. INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON MICROMETEOROLOGICAL SPATIAL VARIATIONS AT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL SCALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil - vegetation - atmosphere transfers significantly influence interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and boundary layer, in relation with plant phenology and water status. The current study focused on linking micrometeorological conditions to cultural practices at the local and regional sc...

  8. Influence of Agricultural Practices on Micrometerological Spatial Variations at Local and Regional Scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers significantly influence interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and boundary layer in relation with plant phenology and water status. The current study focused on linking micrometeorological conditions to cultural practices at the local and regional scales ...

  9. U-rich sequence-binding proteins (URBPs) interacting with a 20-nucleotide U-rich sequence in the 3' untranslated region of c-fos mRNA may be involved in the first step of c-fos mRNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    You, Y; Chen, C Y; Shyu, A B

    1992-01-01

    Rapid decay of the c-fos transcript plays a critical role in controlling transforming potential of the c-fos proto-oncogene. One of the mRNA instability determinants is a 75-nucleotide AU-rich element (ARE) present in the 3' untranslated region of the c-fos transcript. It appears to control two steps in the process of c-fos mRNA degradation: removal of the poly(A) tail, which does not require the AUUUA motifs, and subsequent degradation of deadenylated mRNA, which appears to be dependent on the AUUUA motifs. In this study, we report the identification of four U-rich sequence binding proteins (URBPs) that specifically interact with a 20-nucleotide U-rich sequence within the c-fos ARE. Gel mobility shift assay and competition experiments showed that these protein factors form three specific band-shifted complexes with the c-fos ARE. Binding activity of one of the protein factors, a 37-kDa protein, is significantly affected by serum induction and by pretreatment of cells with drugs known to stabilize many of the immediate-early gene mRNAs. Combining UV cross-linking with a new approach, designated sequential RNase digestion, we were able to better determine the molecular masses of these cellular proteins. The binding sites for the four proteins were all mapped to a 20-nucleotide U-rich sequence located at the 3' half of the c-fos ARE, which contains no AUUUA pentanucleotides but stretches of uridylate residues. Single U-to-A point mutations in each of the three AUUUA motifs within the c-fos ARE have little effect on formation of the mobility-shifted complexes. Our data indicate c-fos ARE-protein interaction involves recognition of U stretches rather than recognition of the AUUUA motifs. We propose that UTBP binding may be involved in the first step, removal of the Poly(A) tail, in the c-fos ARE-mediated decay pathway. Images PMID:1620106

  10. An AU-Rich Sequence Element (UUUN[A/U]U) Downstream of the Edited C in Apolipoprotein B mRNA Is a High-Affinity Binding Site for Apobec-1: Binding of Apobec-1 to This Motif in the 3′ Untranslated Region of c-myc Increases mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2000-01-01

    Apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, is a cytidine deaminase with RNA binding activity for AU-rich sequences. This RNA binding activity is required for Apobec-1 to mediate C-to-U RNA editing. Filter binding assays, using immobilized Apobec-1, demonstrate saturable binding to a 105-nt apoB RNA with a Kd of ∼435 nM. A series of AU-rich templates was used to identify a high-affinity (∼50 nM) binding site of consensus sequence UUUN[A/U]U, with multiple copies of this sequence constituting the high-affinity binding site. In order to determine whether this consensus site could be functionally demonstrated from within an apoB RNA, circular-permutation analysis was performed, revealing one major (UUUGAU) and one minor (UU) site located 3 and 16 nucleotides, respectively, downstream of the edited base. Secondary-structure predictions reveal a stem-loop flanking the edited base with Apobec-1 binding to the consensus site(s) at an open loop. A similar consensus (AUUUA) is present in the 3′ untranslated regions of several mRNAs, including that of c-myc, that are known to undergo rapid degradation. In this context, it is presumed that the consensus motif acts as a destabilizing element. As an independent test of the ability of Apobec-1 to bind to this sequence, F442A cells were transfected with Apobec-1 and the half-life of c-myc mRNA was determined following actinomycin D treatment. These studies demonstrated an increase in the half-life of c-myc mRNA from 90 to 240 min in control versus Apobec-1-expressing cells. Apobec-1 expression mutants, in which RNA binding activity is eliminated, failed to alter c-myc mRNA turnover. Taken together, the data establish a consensus binding site for Apobec-1 embedded in proximity to the edited base in apoB RNA. Binding to this site in other target RNAs raises the possibility that Apobec-1 may be involved in other aspects of RNA metabolism, independent of its role as an apoB RNA

  11. Involvement of long terminal repeat U3 sequences overlapping the transcription control region in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNA 3' end formation.

    PubMed Central

    DeZazzo, J D; Kilpatrick, J E; Imperiale, M J

    1991-01-01

    In retroviral proviruses, the poly(A) site is present in both long terminal repeats (LTRs) but used only in the 3' position. One mechanism to account for this selective poly(A) site usage is that LTR U3 sequences, transcribed only from the 3' poly(A) site, are required in the RNA for efficient processing. To test this possibility, mutations were made in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) U3 region and the mutated LTRs were inserted into simple and complex transcription units. HIV-1 poly(A) site usage was then quantitated by S1 nuclease analysis following transfection of each construct into human 293 cells. The results showed that U3 sequences confined to the transcription control region were required for efficient usage of the HIV-1 poly(A) site, even when it was placed 1.5 kb from the promoter. Although the roles of U3 in processing and transcription activation were separable, optimal 3' end formation was partly dependent on HIV-1 enhancer and SP1 binding site sequences. Images PMID:1996111

  12. The Mexico City Outflow and Its Regional Influence: A Regional Model Study in INTEX- B/MIRAGE Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mena, M.; D'Allura, A.; Chai, T.; Pierce, R. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    During the NASA INTEX-B and NSF MIRAGE field experiments in Spring of 2006, we applied a regional chemical transport model, STEM-2K3, to make nested forecasts coupled with a global model RAQMS by using its output as lateral and top boundary conditions. WRF mesoscale meteorological model was used to drive the regional model. The model predicted reasonable results compared with NASA DC-8 and NCAR C- 130 aircraft measurements over Mexico and Southern USA. Sulfate is the major ion in the Mexico City plume. Biomass/biofuel burning contributed to black carbon, though it became aged quickly during the transport process. Since aerosols and their precursors were usually co-emitted with gaseous pollutants from Mexico City, their interactions via direct reaction and radiative impacts became evident. The aerosol influence on photolysis rates depend not only on the aerosol optical depth, but also on the absorption portion or single scatter albedo (SSA). Sensitivity studies were performed to reveal the influence of aerosol SSA on photochemical processes over Mexico City and its downwind region. Due to the relatively high altitude of Mexico City, its outflow usually existed in middle troposphere over downwind regions. The radiative impact became a important portion of the influence of Mexico City plumes on downwind surface. The model study over Mexico City surface sites was also evaluated.

  13. CFTR mRNA expression is regulated by an upstream open reading frame and RNA secondary structure in its 5' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Samuel W; Rothnagel, Joseph A; Trezise, Ann E O

    2015-02-15

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)-encoded cis-acting elements is an important mechanism for the control of protein expression levels. Through controlling specific aspects of translation initiation, expression can be tightly regulated while remaining responsive to cellular requirements. With respect to cystic fibrosis (CF), the overexpression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein trafficking mutants, such as delta-F508, is of great biological and clinical interest. By understanding the post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate CFTR expression, new procedures can be developed to enhance CFTR expression in homozygous delta-F508 CF patients. We have identified the key elements of a complex negative regulatory mechanism that is encoded within the human CFTR 5'UTR and show how these elements act in combination to restrict CFTR gene expression to a consistently low level in a transcript-specific manner. This study shows, for the first time, that endogenous human CFTR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated through a 5'UTR-mediated mechanism. We show that the very low levels of endogenous CFTR expression, compared with other low expression genes, are maintained through the co-operative inhibitory effects of an upstream open reading frame and a thermodynamically stable RNA secondary structure. PMID:25274779

  14. The translation of recombinant proteins in E. coli can be improved by in silico generating and screening random libraries of a −70/+96 mRNA region with respect to the translation initiation codon

    PubMed Central

    Care, S.; Bignon, C.; Pelissier, M. C.; Blanc, E.; Canard, B.; Coutard, B.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant protein translation in Escherichia coli may be limited by stable (i.e. low free energy) secondary structures in the mRNA translation initiation region. To circumvent this issue, we have set-up a computer tool called ‘ExEnSo’ (Expression Enhancer Software) that generates a random library of 8192 sequences, calculates the free energy of secondary structures of each sequence in the −70/+96 region (base 1 is the translation initiation codon), and then selects the sequence having the highest free energy. The software uses this ‘optimized’ sequence to create a 5′ primer that can be used in PCR experiments to amplify the coding sequence of interest prior to sub-cloning into a prokaryotic expression vector. In this article, we report how ExEnSo was set-up and the results obtained with nine coding sequences with low expression levels in E. coli. The free energy of the −70/+96 region of all these coding sequences was increased compared to the non-optimized sequences. Moreover, the protein expression of eight out of nine of these coding sequences was increased in E. coli, indicating a good correlation between in silico and in vivo results. ExEnSo is available as a free online tool. PMID:18084029

  15. Targeted Mutagenesis in Plant Cells through Transformation of Sequence-Specific Nuclease mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Thomas J.; Clasen, Benjamin M.; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Demorest, Zachary L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Zhang, Feng; Luo, Song

    2016-01-01

    Plant genome engineering using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) promises to advance basic and applied plant research by enabling precise modification of endogenous genes. Whereas DNA is an effective means for delivering SSNs, DNA can integrate randomly into the plant genome, leading to unintentional gene inactivation. Further, prolonged expression of SSNs from DNA constructs can lead to the accumulation of off-target mutations. Here, we tested a new approach for SSN delivery to plant cells, namely transformation of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). mRNA delivery of a TALEN pair targeting the Nicotiana benthamiana ALS gene resulted in mutation frequencies of approximately 6% in comparison to DNA delivery, which resulted in mutation frequencies of 70.5%. mRNA delivery resulted in three-fold fewer insertions, and 76% were <10bp; in contrast, 88% of insertions generated through DNA delivery were >10bp. In an effort to increase mutation frequencies using mRNA, we fused several different 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) from Arabidopsis thaliana genes to the TALEN coding sequence. UTRs from an A. thaliana adenine nucleotide α hydrolases-like gene (At1G09740) enhanced mutation frequencies approximately two-fold, relative to a no-UTR control. These results indicate that mRNA can be used as a delivery vehicle for SSNs, and that manipulation of mRNA UTRs can influence efficiencies of genome editing. PMID:27176769

  16. Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Jacob B.; Feltus, Frank Alex

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near α duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near α duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression. PMID:23675377

  17. Influence of cartilage interstitial fluid on the mRNA levels of matrix proteins, cytokines, metalloproteases and their inhibitors in synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Hyc, Anna; Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Osiecka-Iwan, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Articular cartilage and the synovial membrane both ensure the smooth action of synovial joints; however, the influence of chondrocytes on synovial metabolism remains unclear. The secretory activity of chondrocytes is usually studied in cell cultures and may differ from that in intact cartilage. According to McCutchen's theory of 'weeping' joint lubrication, loading of the articular cartilage during motion squeezes the fluid with lubricating properties from the cartilage. The purpose of the study was to obtain cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF) from intact cartilage and to evaluate its influence on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells. CIF was rinsed out from the cartilage of newborn rats at a pressure of three bar. The chondrocytes survived rinsing and grew in culture. Cytokines in CIF were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The influence of CIF and CIF-like cocktail (all cytokines found in CIF) on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells was studied after a 4 h-incubation, by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pair test or by the Mann‑Whitney U test. CIF contained basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)‑1, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), macrophage (M)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte (G)-CSF and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). CIF stimulated the expression of hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1 and 2, lubricin, collagen I, versican, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)2 and 3, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 1-3, interleukin (IL)-6 and TGFβ1, and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1β. Incubation of the synovial membrane with CIF-like cocktail partially imitated the effects of CIF. Analysis of CIF composition may help to characterize the secretory activity of chondrocytes in their natural environment under various physiological and

  18. CsrA Represses Translation of sdiA, Which Encodes the N-Acylhomoserine-l-Lactone Receptor of Escherichia coli, by Binding Exclusively within the Coding Region of sdiA mRNA ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yakhnin, Helen; Baker, Carol S.; Berezin, Igor; Evangelista, Michael A.; Rassin, Alisa; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The RNA binding protein CsrA is the central component of a conserved global regulatory system that activates or represses gene expression posttranscriptionally. In every known example of CsrA-mediated translational control, CsrA binds to the 5′ untranslated region of target transcripts, thereby repressing translation initiation and/or altering the stability of the RNA. Furthermore, with few exceptions, repression by CsrA involves binding directly to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and blocking ribosome binding. sdiA encodes the quorum-sensing receptor for N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone in Escherichia coli. Because sdiA indirectly stimulates transcription of csrB, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA) antagonist of CsrA, we further explored the relationship between sdiA and the Csr system. Primer extension analysis revealed four putative transcription start sites within 85 nucleotides of the sdiA initiation codon. Potential σ70-dependent promoters were identified for each of these primer extension products. In addition, two CsrA binding sites were predicted in the initially translated region of sdiA. Expression of chromosomally integrated sdiA′-′lacZ translational fusions containing the entire promoter and CsrA binding site regions indicates that CsrA represses sdiA expression. The results from gel shift and footprint studies demonstrate that tight binding of CsrA requires both of these sites. Furthermore, the results from toeprint and in vitro translation experiments indicate that CsrA represses translation of sdiA by directly competing with 30S ribosomal subunit binding. Thus, this represents the first example of CsrA preventing translation by interacting solely within the coding region of an mRNA target. PMID:21908661

  19. Influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the global warming will impact on water resources. This study investigates the possible influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region. A description of the actual situation with emphasis on the water resources from the one side and on the water consuming factors, here called stressors, is given. The probable effects of climate change in the region and their influence on its water resources are then described. The main outcome is that in the analysed region the climate change will rather have positive influence on the water balance by inducing higher precipitations during the rivers' natural low flow period (winter). This outcome contradicts many common predictions, however, this due to the specifics induced by the alpine nature of the catchment. PMID:18776619

  20. An analysis of region-of-influence methods for flood regionalization in the Gulf-Atlantic Rolling Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, K.; Tasker, Gary D.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Region-of-influence (RoI) approaches for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites were applied and evaluated in a case study of the 50-year peak discharge in the Gulf-Atlantic Rolling Plains of the southeastern United States. Linear regression against basin characteristics was performed for each ungaged site considered based on data from a region of influence containing the n closest gages in predictor variable (PRoI) or geographic (GRoI) space. Augmentation of this count based cutoff by a distance based cutoff also was considered. Prediction errors were evaluated for an independent (split-sampled) dataset. For the dataset and metrics considered here: (1) for either PRoI or GRoI, optimal results were found when the simpler count based cutoff, rather than the distance augmented cutoff, was used; (2) GRoI produced lower error than PRoI when applied indiscriminately over the entire study region; (3) PRoI performance improved considerably when RoI was restricted to predefined geographic subregions.

  1. Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Ren, Shenghan; Qu, Xiaochao; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-20

    A void region exists in some biological tissues, and previous studies have shown that inaccurate images would be obtained if it were not processed. A hybrid radiosity-diffusion method (HRDM) that couples the radiosity theory and the diffusion equation has been proposed to deal with the void problem and has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) simple models. However, the extent of the impact of the void region on the accuracy of modeling light propagation has not been investigated. In this paper, we first implemented and verified the HRDM in 3D models, including both the regular geometries and a digital mouse model, and then investigated the influences of the void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium. Our investigation results show that the influence of the region can be neglected when the size of the void is less than a certain range, and other cases must be taken into account. PMID:23338186

  2. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:27142740

  3. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF SPATIAL INFLUENCES IN THE AMBOS NOGALES REGION OF THE US-MEXICAN BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  4. Influences on Aspirations for University Study among Regional and Outer-Metropolitan Year 11 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Peter; Larson, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Factors influencing career behavior of rural Australian secondary students from a regional center (n=218) and outer metropolitan school (n=89) were studied. College aspirations were similar. Parent encouragement, garde expectations, and relevance of college to employment were inhibitors or encouragers dependent on local culture. (Contains 47…

  5. INFLUENCE OF BED-REGION STOICHIOMETRY ON NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION IN FIXED-BED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of a 15.3 x 25.4 cm thick bed reactor with refractory walls to investigate the influence of bed-region (first-stage) stoichiometry on fuel nitrogen evolution and reaction in coal-fired mass-burning stokers. The combustor operated in a batch mode prov...

  6. Global, Regional and Local Influences on Adult Literacy Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between global, regional and local influences on adult literacy policy and practice in the UK through a discourse analysis of policy-related texts. The analysis is framed by theoretical perspectives from literacy studies and socio-material theory. The paper identifies a number of specific features in the UK…

  7. Regional variation of climatic influences on West Nile virus outbreaks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-10-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics. PMID:25092814

  8. Control of adenovirus E1B mRNA synthesis by a shift in the activities of RNA splice sites.

    PubMed Central

    Montell, C; Fisher, E F; Caruthers, M H; Berk, A J

    1984-01-01

    The primary transcript from adenovirus 2 early region 1B (E1B) is processed by differential RNA splicing into two overlapping mRNAs, 13S and 22S. The 22S mRNA is the major E1B mRNA during the early phase of infection, whereas the 13S mRNA predominates during the late phase. In previous work, it has been shown that this shift in proportions of the E1B mRNAs is influenced by increased cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA at late times in infection. Two observations presented here demonstrate that the increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA at late times is also regulated by a change in the specificity of RNA splicing. First, the relative concentrations of the 13S to 22S nuclear RNAs were not constant throughout infection but increased at late times. Secondly, studies with the mutant, adenovirus 2 pm2250 , provided evidence that there was an increased propensity to utilize a 5' splice in the region of the 13S 5' splice site at late times in infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 has a G----C transversion in the first base of E1B 13S mRNA intron preventing splicing of the 13S mRNA but not of the 22S mRNA. During the early phase of a pm2250 infection, the E1B primary transcripts were processed into the 22S mRNA only. However, during the late phase, when the 13S mRNA normally predominates, E1B primary transcripts were also processed by RNA splicing at two formerly unused or cryptic 5' splice sites. Both cryptic splice sites were located much closer to the disrupted 13S 5' splice site than to the 22S 5' splice site. Thus, the temporal increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA to the 22S mRNA is regulated by two processes, an increase in cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA and an increased propensity to utilize the 13S 5' splice site during the late phase of infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 was not defective for productive infection of HeLa cells or for transformation of rat cells. Images PMID:6727875

  9. alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles as markers of Westeuropean influence in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Sikström, C; Mikelsaar, A; Krumina, A; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, G

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles was studied in an attempt to elucidate migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. The frequency of the PI Z allele, a typically Northwesteuropean marker gene, showed a highly significant regional variation in the Baltic Sea region. The highest frequency (4.5%) was found in the western part of Latvia (Courland). The PI S allele, another marker of Westeuropean influence, also showed an increased frequency in the Courland population. These results indicate that among the populations east of the Baltic Sea the Curonian population has the most pronounced Westeuropean influence. Archaeological data have shown that from the 7th century and for several hundreds of years Courland received immigrations from mainland Sweden and the island of Gotland. We speculate that the increased frequencies of the PI Z alleles and S alleles in Courland may have been caused by these migrations. PMID:9858859

  10. Individual and coupled influences of AMO and ENSO on regional precipitation characteristics and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, Aneesh; Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the influences of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) on regional precipitation extremes and characteristics in the state of Florida is the focus of this study. Exhaustive evaluations of individual and combined influences of these oscillations using, descriptive indices-based assessment of statistically significant changes in rainfall characteristics, identification of spatially varying influences of oscillations on dry and wet spell transition states, antecedent precipitation prior to extreme events, intraevent temporal distribution of precipitation and changes in temporal occurrences of extremes including dry/wet cycles are carried out. Rain gage and gridded precipitation data analysis using parametric hypothesis tests confirm statistically significant changes in the precipitation characteristics from one phase to another of each oscillation and also in coupled phases. Spatially nonuniform and uniform influences of AMO and ENSO, respectively, on precipitation are evident. AMO influences vary in peninsular and continental parts of Florida and the warm (cool) phase of AMO contributes to increased precipitation extremes during wet (dry) season. The influence of ENSO is confined to dry season with El Niño (La Niña) contributing to increase (decrease) in extremes and total precipitation. Wetter antecedent conditions preceding daily extremes are dominant in AMO warm phase compared to the cool and are likely to impact design floods in the region. AMO influence on dry season precipitation extremes is noted for ENSO neutral years. The two oscillations in different phases modulate each other with seasonal and spatially varying impacts and implications on flood control and water supply in the region.

  11. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B; Jaffe, Daniel A; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Briggs, Nicole L; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K; Pekour, Mikhail S; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (∼2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. The regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (∼1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6-45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate. PMID:27398804

  12. [Influence factors of deposition induced by melt water erosion in Naqu region, China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-yuan; Cai, Qiang-guo; Li, Zhao-xia; Sun, Li-ying

    2015-02-01

    Melt water erosion is one of the important soil erosion forms caused by the melt water from glacier and snow in high altitude cold areas of China. This paper investigated the influencing factors of deposition caused by melt water erosion in Naqu region. Alluvial fan ratio was presented as an index to characterize the degree of the deposition induced by melt water erosion. Minimum polygon was determined based on spatial overlay technology of Geographic Information System (GIS). The regression equation between the deposition index and the influencing factors was established through the stepwise regression analysis based on minimum polygon. Key influencing factors were identified according to the stepwise regression equation. The results showed that large amounts of alluvial fan were observed in Naqu region; extensive alluvial fans were centered at gentle slope areas in the central part of Naqu region with great spatial differences; alluvial fans were mainly distributed at valley exits, most of which were at large scale with vast differences in area and thickness. Wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), K value of soil erodibility, annual temperature range and the steep slope area ratio were identified as the key influencing factors on the deposition induced by melt water erosion in the studied area. Index of deposition was positively correlated with the wind speed and NDVI, and showed negative relationships with the K value of soil erodibility, the annual temperature range and steep slope area ratio. PMID:26094471

  13. Single mRNA Tracking in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Yoon; Buxbaum, Adina R.; Singer, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric distribution of mRNA is a prevalent phenomenon observed in diverse cell types. The posttranscriptional movement and localization of mRNA provides an important mechanism to target certain proteins to specific cytoplasmic regions of their function. Recent technical advances have enabled real-time visualization of single mRNA molecules in living cells. Studies analyzing the motion of individual mRNAs have shed light on the complex RNA transport system. This chapter presents an overview of general approaches for single particle tracking and some methodologies that are used for single mRNA detection. PMID:20580973

  14. mRNA Localization and Translational Control in Drosophila Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Localization of an mRNA species to a particular subcellular region can complement translational control mechanisms to produce a restricted spatial distribution of the protein it encodes. mRNA localization has been studied most in asymmetric cells such as budding yeast, early embryos, and neurons, but the process is likely to be more widespread. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of mRNA localization and its functions in early embryonic development, focusing on Drosophila where the relevant knowledge is most advanced. Links between mRNA localization and translational control mechanisms also are examined. PMID:22865893

  15. Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Selahattin; Önen-Hall, A. Piril; Aydin, S. Nihal; Yakicier, Cengiz; Akarsu, Nurten; Tuncer, Murat

    2008-03-01

    The Cretaceous-Eocene volcano-sedimentary units of the Zonguldak region of the western Black Sea consist of subalkaline andesite and tuff, and sandstone dominated by smectite, kaolinite, accessory chlorite, illite, mordenite, and analcime associated with feldspar, quartz, opal-CT, amphibole, and calcite. Kaolinization, chloritization, sericitization, albitization, Fe-Ti-oxidation, and the presence of zeolite, epidote, and illite in andesitic rocks and tuffaceous materials developed as a result of the degradation of a glass shards matrix, enclosed feldspar, and clinopyroxene-type phenocrysts, due to alteration processes. The association of feldspar and glass with smectite and kaolinite, and the suborientation of feldspar-edged, subparallel kaolinite plates to fracture axes may exhibit an authigenic smectite or kaolinite. Increased alteration degree upward in which Al, Fe, and Ti are gained, and Si, Na, K, and Ca are depleted, is due to the alteration following possible diagenesis and hydrothermal activities. Micromorphologically, fibrous mordenite in the altered units and the presence of needle-type chrysotile in the residential buildings in which cancer cases lived were detected. In addition, the segregation pattern of cancer susceptibility in the region strongly suggested an environmental effect and a genetic influence on the increased cancer incidence in the region. The most likely diagnosis was Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is one of the hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, no mutations were observed in the p53 gene, which is the major cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The micromorphology observed in the altered units in which cancer cases were detected may have a role in the expression of an unidentified gene, but does not explain alone the occurrence of cancer as a primary cause in the region.

  16. Influence of the TEC fluctuations in the polar region on precise GPS positioning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieradzki, Rafal; Paziewski, Jacek; Wielgosz, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    The ionospheric delay is an atmoshperic effect influencing on Global Navigation Satellite System signals. On the one hand it is a factor limiting the accuracy of the GNSS positioning, and on the other it makes satellite observations a very good source of the information on the ionospheric conditions. The degradation of the relative positioning accuracy and reliability can be connected with high gradients of the total electron content or with the TEC fluctuations. The latter of these effects mainly occurs in the equatorial and polar regions. The ionosphere near the geomagnetic poles is characterized by relatively small TEC values in comparison to the other regions. However, the connection between the magnetosphere and ionosphere systems in the polar regions allows particle precipitation and leads to very strong ionospheric dynamics. In this work, performance of the GNSS precise relative positioning under disturbed ionospheric conditions in the northern polar region is studied. The test results are based on processing 24-hour data sets from the selected permanent GPS stations located in Greenland. The studies cover several days of high and low solar activity, and also periods of a geomagnetic storm characterized by intensive TEC fluctuations. The data processing was carried out in static and kinematic modes. The GINPOS software developed at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn was used for positioning tests. The study confirms and presents the influence of the ionospheric and geomagnetic activity in the polar region on the results in coordinate and ambiguity domains.

  17. Preliminary assessments of spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales region of the US-Mexican border.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Mukerjee, S; Monroy, G J; Keene, F E

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and particulate matter (PM) species were used from four sites, two on either side of the border. An examination of median levels and principal component analysis indicated the dominance of soil dusts and mobile sources. Pairwise comparisons of sites for VOCs associated with mobile sources revealed statistically significant differences between sites in the central Nogales area vs. the two sites furthest from the border. Particulate lead at Mexican sites was higher and significantly different vs. US sites. Although further analyses are necessary, findings suggest that local and immediate mobile/other anthropogenic and soil dust influences are present throughout Nogales, with particulate lead from leaded motor vehicle exhaust or soldering operations being a possible influence on the Mexican side. PMID:11516141

  18. The influence of regional deprivation index on personal happiness using multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kil Hun; Chun, Jin-Ho; Sohn, Hae Sook

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the happiness index of community residents, by considering personal and regional aspects, and to use as evidence of efforts for improvement of the happiness index. METHODS: The study was conducted based on information from 16,270 participants who met the data requirement among those who participated in the 2011 South Gyeongsang Community Health Survey. Of the factors that can influence the happiness index, socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, morbidity, and healthcare use, social contact, and participation in social activities were classified as personal factors; for regional factors, data from the 2010 census were used to extrapolate the regional deprivation indices at the submunicipal-level (eup, myeon, and dong) in South Gyeongsang Province. The happiness index for each characteristic was compared to that for others via t-test and ANOVA, and multilevel analysis was performed, using four models: a basic model for identification of only random effects, model 1 for identification of personal factors, model 2 for identification of regional factors, and model 3 for simultaneous consideration of both personal and regional factors. RESULTS: The mean happiness index was 63.2 points (64.6 points in males and 62.0 points in females), while the mean deprivation index was -1.58 points. In the multilevel analysis, the regional-level variance ratio of the basic model was 10.8%, confirming interregional differences. At the personal level, higher happiness indices were seen in groups consisting of males with high educational level, high income, high degree of physical activity, sufficient sleep, active social contact, and participation in social activities; whereas lower happiness indices were seen in people who frequently skipped breakfast, had unmet healthcare needs, and had accompanying diseases, as well as those with higher deprivation index. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed

  19. Regional visibility statistics in the United States: Natural and transboundary pollution influences, and implications for the Regional Haze Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Rokjin J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kumar, Naresh; Yantosca, Robert M.

    The Regional Haze Rule of the US Environmental Protection Agency mandates reduction in US anthropogenic emissions to achieve linear improvement of visibility in wilderness areas over the 2004-18 period toward an endpoint of natural visibility conditions by 2064. Linear improvement is to apply to the mean visibility degradation on the statistically 20% worst days, measured as a Haze Index in units of deciviews (log of aerosol extinction). We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with 1°×1° horizontal resolution to simulate present-day visibility statistics in the USA, compare them to observations from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) surface network, and provide natural and background visibility statistics for application of the Regional Haze Rule. Background is defined by suppression of US anthropogenic emissions but allowance for present-day foreign emissions and associated import of pollution. Our model is highly successful at reproducing the observed variability of visibility statistics for present-day conditions, including the low tail of the frequency distribution that is most representative of natural or background conditions. We find considerable spatial and temporal variability in natural visibility over the USA, especially due to fires in the west. A major uncertainty in estimating natural visibility is the sensitivity of biogenic organic aerosol formation to the availability of preexisting anthropogenic aerosol. Background visibility is more variable than natural visibility and the 20% worst days show large contributions from Canadian and Mexican pollution. Asian pollution, while degrading mean background visibility, is relatively less important on the worst days. Recognizing the influence of uncontrollable transboundary pollution in the Regional Haze Rule would substantially decrease the schedule of emission reductions required in the 2004-18 implementation phase. Meaningful application of the Rule in

  20. Different 3' end regions strongly influence the level of gene expression in plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ingelbrecht, I L; Herman, L M; Dekeyser, R A; Van Montagu, M C; Depicker, A G

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the functional role of a 3' end region on the expression of a reporter gene in plant cells. In stably transformed plants, expression of the reporter gene without a plant gene 3' end is variable and depends on the fortuitous presence of polyadenylation signals in the downstream sequences. When the reporter gene is flanked by pBR322 DNA, 3'-processing and polyadenylation occurs at (a) cryptic site(s) within these vector sequences. Using a transient gene expression system, we present a deletion analysis of the 3' end of the octopine synthase gene showing that the most proximal polyadenylation signal per se is not sufficient to ensure expression but that a downstream (G)T-rich sequence is also required. Optimal expression of the fusion gene requires more than 98 base pairs and at most 142 base pairs downstream from the most distal polyadenylation site. We analyzed the expression of chimeric genes with 3' end sequences originating from different plant genes. In the transient expression assay, all constructs direct similar neomycin phosphotransferase II activities. However, in stably transformed tissue, the gene constructs displayed characteristic expression levels which varied as much as 60-fold. This result suggests a role for 3' end sequences in post-transcriptional processes such as efficiency of 3'-processing and/or mRNA stability. PMID:2562510

  1. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  2. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  3. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  4. The influence of atmospheric circulation types on regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltacı, H.; Kındap, T.; Ünal, A.; Karaca, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara are described for the first time by means of Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis. Daily values of winter precipitation data based on 19 meteorological stations were used for the period from 1960 to 2012. Five clusters of coherent zones were determined, namely Black Sea-Marmara, Black Sea, Marmara, Thrace, and Aegean sub-regions. To investigate the prevailing atmospheric circulation types (CTs) that cause precipitation occurrence and intensity in these five different rainfall sub-basins, objective Lamb weather type (LWT) methodology was applied to National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis of daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) data. Precipitation occurrence suggested that wet CTs (i.e. N, NE, NW, and C) offer a high chance of precipitation in all sub-regions. For the eastern (western) part of the region, the high probability of rainfall occurrence is shown under the influence of E (SE, S, SW) atmospheric CTs. In terms of precipitation intensity, N and C CTs had the highest positive gradients in all the sub-basins of the Marmara. In addition, although Marmara and Black Sea sub-regions have the highest daily rainfall potential during NE types, high daily rainfall totals are recorded in all sub-regions except the Black Sea during NW types.

  5. Mapping the Regional Influence of Genetics on Brain Structure Variability - A Tensor-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Caroline; Leporé, Natasha; Pennec, Xavier; Lee, Agatha D.; Barysheva, Marina; Madsen, Sarah K.; Avedissian, Christina; Chou, Yi-Yu; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie; Wright, Margaret; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence brain structure and function profoundly The search for heritable anatomical features and their influencing genes would be accelerated with detailed 3D maps showing the degree to which brain morphometry is genetically determined. As part of an MRI study that will scan 1150 twins, we applied Tensor-Based Morphometry to compute morphometric differences in 23 pairs of identical twins and 23 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins (mean age: 23.8 ± 1.8 SD years). All 92 twins’ 3D brain MRI scans were nonlinearly registered to a common space using a Riemannian fluid-based warping approach to compute volumetric differences across subjects. A multi-template method was used to improve volume quantification. Vector fields driving each subject’s anatomy onto the common template were analyzed to create maps of local volumetric excesses and deficits relative to the standard template. Using a new structural equation modeling method, we computed the voxelwise proportion of variance in volumes attributable to additive (A) or dominant (D) genetic factors versus shared environmental (C) or unique environmental factors (E). The method was also applied to various anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). As hypothesized, the overall volumes of the brain, basal ganglia, thalamus, and each lobe were under strong genetic control; local white matter volumes were mostly controlled by common environment. After adjusting for individual differences in overall brain scale, genetic influences were still relatively high in the corpus callosum and in early-maturing brain regions such as the occipital lobes, while environmental influences were greater in frontal brain regions which have a more protracted maturational time-course. PMID:19446645

  6. Remote influences on freshwater flux variability in the Atlantic warm pool region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Chunzai

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of freshwater flux variability is both scientifically and socially important. Local freshwater flux response to a large Atlantic warm pool (AWP) is excessive freshwater or negative Evaporation minus Precipitation (EmP) anomalies, whereas the response is deficient to a small AWP. However, the EmP anomalies in the AWP region are also influenced by the SST anomalies in the tropical eastern Pacific and in the tropical South Atlantic. These remote influences operate through the inter-basin mode represented by the SST gradient between the tropical North Atlantic and eastern Pacific and the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM) defined as the SST gradient between the tropical North and South Atlantic. When either of these two modes is in the negative phase, the EmP and sea surface salinity anomalies in the AWP region can be positive although the AWP is large. This indicates that the remote influences of the inter-basin mode and/or the AMM can overwhelm the local effect and induce an opposite freshwater response. Additionally, although ENSO and the AMM sometimes coincide with AWP variability, an El Niño in the preceding winter or a positive AMM in the spring does not necessarily follow a large AWP in the summer.

  7. Influence of ingrowth regions on bone remodelling around a cementless hip resurfacing femoral implant.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ifaz T; Speirs, Andrew D; Beaulé, Paul E; Frei, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative to traditional hip replacement that can conserve proximal bone stock and has gained popularity but bone resorption may limit implant survival and remains a clinical concern. The goal of this study was to analyze bone remodelling patterns around an uncemented resurfacing implant and the influence of ingrowth regions on resorption. A computed tomography-derived finite element model of a proximal femur with a virtually implanted resurfacing component was simulated under peak walking loads. Bone ingrowth was simulated by six interface conditions: fully bonded; fully friction; bonded cap with friction stem; a small bonded region at the stem-cup intersection with the remaining surface friction; fully frictional, except for a bonded band along the distal end of the cap and superior half of the cap bonded with the rest frictional. Interface condition had a large influence on remodelling patterns. Bone resorption was minimized when no ingrowth occurred at the bone-implant interface. Bonding only the superior half of the cap increased bone resorption slightly but allowed for a large ingrowth region to improve secondary stability. PMID:24697332

  8. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  9. Vertical variations in the influence of the amount effect: South American Summer Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels-Crow, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Worden, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that convective recycling of atmospheric water vapor gives rise to the isotope "amount effect" in which d values are lower than predicted by simple Rayleigh distillation processes (i.e. (DdD = dDvapor ­- dDRayleigh < 0‰). Several studies have linked isotopes in precipitation [e.g. Vimeux et al., 2009] and atmospheric water vapor [e.g. Samuels-Crow et al., 2014] in the tropical Andes to upwind convection associated with the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). The vertical structure of this convective influence, however, remains unknown. Understanding the vertical structure of the amount effect over South America is essential for improving theoretical constraints and developing better models of the influence of the SASM on southern hemisphere humidity. Additionally, evaluating the vertical and lateral extent of the SASM's convective influence can provide important constraints for interpreting paleoclimate proxies in the region. We use data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to examine the vertical structure of the amount effect associated with the SASM and relate these results to regional convective precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential temperature. Preliminary results show that DdD is below 0‰ from the boundary layer through the mid-troposphere over tropical South America during austral summer, and meridional averages show that convective precipitation is highest over these areas where DdD < 0‰ extends higher in the atmosphere. We hypothesize that the depth of convection in the monsoon region controls the vertical structure of DdD, which should also be coherently linked to local equivalent potential temperature. References Vimeux et al. (2009), Palaeogeogr Palaeocl, 281(3-4), 229-241, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.03.054. Samuels-Crow et al. (2014), J Geophys Res-Atmos, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)2169-8996.

  10. Topographic and meteorological influences on space-time scaling of heavy convective rainfall in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubert Godoy, A.; Nykanen, D.

    2003-04-01

    Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation in mountainous terrain and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. Subtantiing a space-time statistical downscaling model for orographic convective precipitation based on the interplay between meteorological forcings and topographic influences on the scale-invariant properties of precipitation will be assessed.al progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of mid-western convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences. This study uses multi-scale statistical analysis to investigate the space-time scaling of organized thunderstorms that produced heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions. Focus is placed on the eastern and western slopes of the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Parameter estimates are analyzed over time and focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale parameters with meteorological forcings and orographic influences on the rainfall. Influences of geographic region (e.g., western versus eastern United States) and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing)on trends in multi-scale properties of precipitation are investigated. Spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours ae considered. This range of space-time scales is needed to bridge typical scale gaps between distributed hydrologic models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts and attempts to address the open research problem of scaling organized thunderstorms and convection in mountainous terrain down to 1-4 km scales. The potential for

  11. mRNA transcript therapy.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Drew

    2015-02-01

    mRNA is the central molecule of all forms of life. It is generally accepted that current life on Earth descended from an RNA world. mRNA, after its first therapeutic description in 1992, has recently come into increased focus as a method to deliver genetic information. The recent solution to the two main difficulties in using mRNA as a therapeutic, immune stimulation and potency, has provided the basis for a wide range of applications. While mRNA-based cancer immunotherapies have been in clinical trials for a few years, novel approaches; including, in vivo delivery of mRNA to replace or supplement proteins, mRNA-based generation of pluripotent stem cells, or genome engineering using mRNA-encoded meganucleases are beginning to be realized. This review presents the current state of mRNA drug technologies and potential applications, as well as discussing the challenges and prospects in mRNA development and drug discovery. PMID:25359562

  12. Influence of SSTs over Nino-3.4 Region on the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. S.; Gleixner, S.; K, M.

    2014-12-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) is sensitive to SST variations in the Pacific Ocean. In this study, the correlation coefficients between the SST in the Nino-3.4 region of season (June-August) and ISMR are evaluated using the datasets ERSST v3b and ISMR data (www.tropmet.res.in). An analysis of the mean monthly data of 64 years (1955-2013) reveals that the relationship between the SST in the Nino-3.4 region in June-August and the ISMR is changed after 1983. Seven drought years were reported between 1955 and 1983 and the warmest SST is in the equatorial eastern Pacific. After 1983, the warmest SST is shifted towards the central Pacific region during drought years. The coldest region in the central Pacific during wet years is shifted towards the eastern Pacific after 1983. The position of the sensitive area in the Pacific Ocean thus influences the drought/wet which is found to be changed in the recent epoch.

  13. The Influence of Regional Groundwater on the Dissolved Organic Matter in Costa Rican Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, E.; Osburn, C. L.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Genereux, D. P.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Dierick, D.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the role of regional groundwater in stream organic matter in two tropical watersheds in Costa Rica. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, stable C isotopes, absorbance, and fluorescence were used to distinguish DOM sources in two adjacent watersheds, the Arboleda and the Taconazo, which are similar in size, soils, rainfall, and vegetation, yet differ because the Arboleda receives a significant input of regional groundwater that is chemically distinct from the local groundwater, whereas the Taconazo does not. Characteristics of the DOM differed largely among the two streams. Fluorescence and isotope data suggested that more degraded DOM was predominant during dry periods in the Arboleda due to the influence of regional groundwater in that stream. During wet periods, fresher soil-derived DOM was predominant in both streams, similar to the quality of DOM in the Taconazo during base flow. DOM δ13C values of the Arboleda during baseflow ranged from -23 to -34‰, while in the Taconazo values ranged from -25 to -34‰. During storm flow the ranges were smaller and more similar. The Taconazo ranged from -23 to -29‰ and the Arboleda ranged from -23 to -31‰. These differences were more noticeable at baseflow and during the dry season (December to April), suggesting that the DOM from regional groundwater entering the Arboleda had less of an impact when heavily diluted by soil DOM mobilized by precipitation. In both streams, during periods of heavy precipitation, DOM concentrations were much higher than during base flow. Further, at baseflow the Arboleda showed generally lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the Taconazo, yet export of DOC from the Arboleda watershed was far higher than from the Taconazo due to the large contribution by regional groundwater to the Arboleda water export. Results from this research emphasize the role of regional groundwater in shaping the quality of the organic

  14. Sodium Channel Inhibitors Reduce DMPK mRNA and Protein.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, Luke; O'Reilly, Sean; Hadwen, Jeremiah; Tasnim, Nafisa; MacKenzie, Alex; Farooq, Faraz

    2015-08-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an expanded trinucleotide (CTG)n tract in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. This results in the aggregation of an expanded mRNA forming toxic intranuclear foci which sequester splicing factors. We believe down-regulation of DMPK mRNA represents a potential, and as yet unexplored, DM1 therapeutic avenue. Consequently, a computational screen for agents which down-regulate DMPK mRNA was undertaken, unexpectedly identifying the sodium channel blockers mexiletine, prilocaine, procainamide, and sparteine as effective suppressors of DMPK mRNA. Analysis of DMPK mRNA in C2C12 myoblasts following treatment with these agents revealed a reduction in the mRNA levels. In vivo analysis of CD1 mice also showed DMPK mRNA and protein down-regulation. The role of DMPK mRNA suppression in the documented efficacy of this class of compounds in DM1 is worthy of further investigation. PMID:26011798

  15. Regional influence of climate patterns on the wave climate of the southwestern Pacific: The New Zealand region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Victor A.; Bryan, Karin R.; Gorman, Richard M.

    2016-06-01

    This work investigates how the wave climate around New Zealand and the southwest Pacific is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Zonal Wave-number-3 Pattern (ZW3), and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) during the period 1958-2001. Their respective climate indices were correlated with modeled mean wave parameters extracted from a 45 year (1957-2002) wave hindcast carried out with the WAVEWATCH III model using the wind and ice fields from the ERA-40 reanalysis project. The correlation was performed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the wavelet spectral analysis. Prior to that, mean annual and interannual variabilities and trends in significant wave height (Hs) were computed over 44 years (1958-2001). In general, higher annual and interannual variabilities were found along the coastline, in regions dominated by local winds. An increasing trend in Hs was found around the country, with values varying between 1 and 6 cm/decade at the shoreline. The greatest Hs trends were identified to the south of 48°S, suggesting a relationship with the positive trend in the SAM. Seasonal to decadal time scales of the SAM strongly influenced wave parameters throughout the period analyzed. In addition, larger waves were observed during extreme ENSO and IOD events at interannual time scale, while they were more evident at seasonal and intraseasonal time scales in the correlations with the ZW3. Negative phases of the ZW3 and ENSO and positive phases of the IOD, PDO, and SAM resulted in larger waves around most parts of New Zealand.

  16. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    PubMed

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  17. Numerical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal Performance: Influence of Regional Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. R.; Hammond, G. E.; Freeze, G. A.; Hadgu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term waste isolation at a deep borehole disposal facility is most favorable at a site where the crystalline basement is hydraulically isolated and groundwater flow is negligible. Site suitability guidelines include evidence of lack of fluid flow in basement, for example lack of significant topographic relief, or evidence of ancient and/or saline groundwater at depth. However, lack of local topographic relief does not preclude regional hydraulic gradients created by recharge and discharge at distant outcrops; and precisely because of hydraulic isolation, the crystalline basement has the potential to be over- or under-pressured relative to overlying units. In the absence of previous boreholes in the area of a potential site, hydraulic gradients at depth are difficult to predict, and the possibility remains that a deep borehole drilled for the disposal of waste will encounter vertical or lateral driving forces for fluid flow. This study asks the question: How large a driving force can be tolerated while still maintaining repository performance? We use PFLOTRAN (an open source, massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code) and a 3-D model domain (representing a disposal borehole in crystalline basement overlain by sedimentary strata) to examine the influence of horizontal and vertical hydraulic gradients on the long-term performance of a deep borehole radioactive waste repository. Simulations include steady-state lateral hydraulic gradients and transient vertical hydraulic gradients, and predict radionuclide concentrations in an overlying aquifer to quantify the potential influence of regional hydraulic gradients on repository performance.

  18. Influence of sea-land breezes on the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols over coastal region.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Chitsan; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2011-04-01

    The influence of sea-land breezes (SLBs) on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere was investigated over coastal Taiwan. PM was simultaneously sampled at inland and offshore locations during three intensive sampling periods. The intensive PM sampling protocol was continuously conducted over a 48-hr period. During this time, PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm and between 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively) were simultaneously measured with dichotomous samplers at four sites (two inland and two offshore sites) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm) was measured with beta-ray monitors at these same 4 sites and at 10 sites of the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. PM sampling on a mobile air quality monitoring boat was further conducted along the coastline to collect offshore PM using a beta-ray monitor and a dichotomous sampler. Data obtained from the inland sites (n=12) and offshore sites (n=2) were applied to plot the PM10 concentration contour using Surfer software. This study also used a three-dimensional meteorological model (Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meteorological Model 5) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions to simulate surface wind fields and spatial distribution of PM10 over the coastal region during the intensive sampling periods. Spatial distribution of PM10 concentration was further used in investigating the influence of SLBs on the transport of PM10 over the coastal region. Field measurement and model simulation results showed that PM10 was transported back and forth across the coastline. In particular, a high PM10 concentration was observed at the inland sites during the day because of sea breezes, whereas a high PM10 concentration was detected offshore at night because of land breezes. This study revealed that the accumulation of PM in the near-ocean region because of SLBs influenced the

  19. Age of onset differentially influences the progression of regional dysfunction in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Daichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Ito, Mizuki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Katsuno, Masahisa; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Oda, Masaya; Abe, Koji; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Kano, Osamu; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-06-01

    The clinical courses of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show extensive variability. Our objective was to elucidate how age of onset influences the progression of regional symptoms and functional losses in sporadic ALS. We included 648 patients with sporadic ALS from a multicenter prospective ALS cohort. We investigated the distribution of initial symptoms and analyzed the time from onset to events affecting activities of daily living (ADL) as well as the longitudinal changes in each regional functional rating score among four groups with different ages of onset. The frequencies of dysarthria and dysphagia as initial symptoms were higher in the older age groups, whereas weakness of upper limbs was the most common initial symptom in the youngest age group. The survival times and the times from onset to loss of speech and swallowing were significantly shorter in the older age group (p < 0.001), although the times from onset to loss of upper limb function were not significantly different among the age groups. According to joint modeling analysis, the bulbar score declined faster in the older age groups (<50 vs. 60-69 years: p = 0.029, <50 vs. ≥70 years: p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant correlation between the age of onset and decline in the upper limb score. Our results showed that age of onset had a significant influence on survival time and the progression of bulbar symptoms, but had no influence on upper limb function in sporadic ALS. PMID:27083563

  20. Microbial Diversity of a Brazilian Coastal Region Influenced by an Upwelling System and Anthropogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Juliano C.; Araujo, Fabio V.; Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Oliveira, Joana A. L.; Santos, Henrique F.; Dávila, Alberto M. R.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Upwelling systems are characterised by an intense primary biomass production in the surface (warmest) water after the outcrop of the bottom (coldest) water, which is rich in nutrients. Although it is known that the microbial assemblage plays an important role in the food chain of marine systems and that the upwelling systems that occur in southwest Brazil drive the complex dynamics of the food chain, little is known about the microbial composition present in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a molecular survey based on SSU rRNA gene from the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life present in a tropical upwelling region (Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The aim was to analyse the horizontal and vertical variations of the microbial composition in two geographically close areas influenced by anthropogenic activity (sewage disposal/port activity) and upwelling phenomena, respectively. A lower estimated diversity of microorganisms of the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life was found in the water of the area influenced by anthropogenic activity compared to the area influenced by upwelling phenomena. We observed a heterogenic distribution of the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, especially in the Archaea and Eukarya domains. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla, whereas the microeukaryotic community was dominated by Metazoa, Fungi, Alveolata and Stramenopile. The estimated archaeal diversity was the lowest of the three domains and was dominated by uncharacterised marine Crenarchaeota that were most closely related to Marine Group I. Conclusions/Significance The variety of conditions and the presence of different microbial assemblages indicated that the area of Arraial do Cabo can be used as a model for detailed studies that contemplate the correlation between pollution-indicating parameters and the depletion of microbial diversity in areas close

  1. Recruitment of the 40S Ribosome Subunit to the 3′-Untranslated Region (UTR) of a Viral mRNA, via the eIF4 Complex, Facilitates Cap-independent Translation*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sohani Das; Kraft, Jelena J.; Miller, W. Allen; Goss, Dixie J.

    2015-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus mRNA, which lacks both cap and poly(A) tail, has a translation element (3′-BTE) in its 3′-UTR essential for efficient translation initiation at the 5′-proximal AUG. This mechanism requires eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), subunit of heterodimer eIF4F (plant eIF4F lacks eIF4A), and 3′-BTE-5′-UTR interaction. Using fluorescence anisotropy, SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) analysis, and toeprinting, we found that (i) 40S subunits bind to BTE (Kd = 350 ± 30 nm), (ii) the helicase complex eIF4F-eIF4A-eIF4B-ATP increases 40S subunit binding (Kd = 120 ± 10 nm) to the conserved stem-loop I of the 3′-BTE by exposing more unpaired bases, and (iii) long distance base pairing transfers this complex to the 5′-end of the mRNA, where translation initiates. Although 3′-5′ interactions have been recognized as important in mRNA translation, barley yellow dwarf virus employs a novel mechanism utilizing the 3′-UTR as the primary site of ribosome recruitment. PMID:25792742

  2. Understanding perception and factors influencing private voluntary health insurance policy subscription in the Lucknow region

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Tanuj; Paul, Ujjwal Kanti; Prasad, Himanshu Narayan; Das, Subodh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health insurance has been acknowledged by researchers as a valuable tool in health financing. In spite of its significance, a subscription paralysis has been observed in India for this product. People who can afford health insurance are also found to be either ignorant or aversive towards it. This study is designed to investigate into the socio-economic factors, individuals’ health insurance product perception and individuals’ personality traits for unbundling the paradox which inhibits people from subscribing to health insurance plans. Methods: This survey was conducted in the region of Lucknow. An online questionnaire was sent to sampled respondents. Response evinced by 263 respondents was formed as a part of study for the further data analysis. For assessing the relationships between variables T-test and F-test were applied as a part of quantitative measuring tool. Finally, logistic regression technique was used to estimate the factors that influence respondents’ decision to purchase health insurance. Results: Age, dependent family members, medical expenditure, health status and individual’s product perception were found to be significantly associated with health insurance subscription in the region. Personality traits have also showed a positive relationship with respondent’s insurance status. Conclusion: We found in our study that socio-economic factors, individuals’ product perception and personality traits induces health insurance policy subscription in the region. PMID:25674567

  3. Influence of conservation programs on amphibians using seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balas, Caleb J.; Euliss, Ned H.; Mushnet, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive modification of upland habitats surrounding wetlands to facilitate agricultural production has negatively impacted amphibian communities in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America. In attempts to mitigate ecosystem damage associated with extensive landscape alteration, vast tracks of upland croplands have been returned to perennial vegetative cover (i.e., conservation grasslands) under a variety of U.S. Department of Agriculture programs. We evaluated the influence of these conservation grasslands on amphibian occupancy of seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. Using automated call surveys, aquatic funnel traps, and visual encounter surveys, we detected eight amphibian species using wetlands within three land-use categories (farmed, conservation grasslands, and native prairie grasslands) during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Seasonal wetlands within farmlands were used less frequently by amphibians than those within conservation and native prairie grasslands, and wetlands within conservation grasslands were used less frequently than those within native prairie grasslands by all species and life-stages we successfully modeled. Our results suggest that, while not occupied as frequently as wetlands within native prairie, wetlands within conservation grasslands provide important habitat for maintaining amphibian biodiversity in the Prairie Pothole Region

  4. The influence of spectral nudging on typhoon formation in regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feser, Frauke; Barcikowska, Monika

    2012-03-01

    Regional climate models can successfully simulate tropical cyclones and typhoons. This has been shown and was evaluated for hindcast studies of the past few decades. But often global and regional weather phenomena are not simulated at the observed location, or occur too often or seldom even though the regional model is driven by global reanalysis data which constitute a near-realistic state of the global atmosphere. Therefore, several techniques have been developed in order to make the regional model follow the global state more closely. One is spectral nudging, which is applied for horizontal wind components with increasing strength for higher model levels in this study. The aim of this study is to show the influence that this method has on the formation of tropical cyclones (TC) in regional climate models. Two ensemble simulations (each with five simulations) were computed for Southeast Asia and the Northwestern Pacific for the typhoon season 2004, one with spectral nudging and one without. First of all, spectral nudging reduced the overall TC number by about a factor of 2. But the number of tracks which are similar to observed best track data (BTD) was greatly increased. Also, spatial track density patterns were found to be more similar when using spectral nudging. The tracks merge after a short time for the spectral nudging simulations and then follow the BTD closely; for the no nudge cases the similarity is greatly reduced. A comparison of seasonal precipitation, geopotential height, and temperature fields at several height levels with observations and reanalysis data showed overall a smaller ensemble spread, higher pattern correlations and reduced root mean square errors and biases for the spectral nudged simulations. Vertical temperature profiles for selected TCs indicate that spectral nudging is not inhibiting TC development at higher levels. Both the Madden-Julian Oscillation and monsoonal precipitation are reproduced realistically by the regional model

  5. Theory for computing the size and shape of a region of influence associated with a maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the region of influence of a maneuvering vehicle is described. Basic differential geometric relations, including the use of a general trajectory parameter and the introduction of auxiliary variables in the envelope theory are presented. To illustrate the application of the method, the destruct region for a maneuvering fighter firing missiles is computed.

  6. Influence of air-jet vortex generator diameter on separation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwaba, Ryszard

    2013-08-01

    Control of shock wave and boundary layer interaction continues to attract a lot of attention. In recent decades several methods of interaction control have been investigated. The research has mostly concerned solid (vane type) vortex generators and transpiration methods of suction and blowing. This investigation concerns interaction control using air-jets to generate streamwise vortices. The effectiveness of air-jet vortex generators in controlling separation has been proved in a previous research. The present paper focuses on the influence of the vortex generator diameter on the separation region. It presents the results of experimental investigations and provides new guidelines for the design of air-jet vortex generators to obtain more effective separation control.

  7. The influence of hazard models on GIS-based regional risk assessments and mitigation policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Wood, N.J.; Dinitz, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools for understanding and communicating the spatial distribution of risks associated with natural hazards in regional economies. We present a GIS-based decision support system (DSS) for assessing community vulnerability to natural hazards and evaluating potential mitigation policy outcomes. The Land Use Portfolio Modeler (LUPM) integrates earth science and socioeconomic information to predict the economic impacts of loss-reduction strategies. However, the potential use of such systems in decision making may be limited when multiple but conflicting interpretations of the hazard are available. To explore this problem, we conduct a policy comparison using the LUPM to test the sensitivity of three available assessments of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility in a coastal California community. We find that the uncertainty regarding the interpretation of the science inputs can influence the development and implementation of natural hazard management policies. Copyright ?? 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  8. How natural and anthropogenic influences alter global and regional surface temperatures: 1889 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, Judith L.; Rind, David H.

    2008-09-01

    To distinguish between simultaneous natural and anthropogenic impacts on surface temperature, regionally as well as globally, we perform a robust multivariate analysis using the best available estimates of each together with the observed surface temperature record from 1889 to 2006. The results enable us to compare, for the first time from observations, the geographical distributions of responses to individual influences consistent with their global impacts. We find a response to solar forcing quite different from that reported in several papers published recently in this journal, and zonally averaged responses to both natural and anthropogenic forcings that differ distinctly from those indicated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, whose conclusions depended on model simulations. Anthropogenic warming estimated directly from the historical observations is more pronounced between 45°S and 50°N than at higher latitudes whereas the model-simulated trends have minimum values in the tropics and increase steadily from 30 to 70°N.

  9. Simultaneous Factor Analysis of Coupled Aerosol and VOC Mass Spectra in Regions of Biogenic Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, Jay; Chang, Rachel; Hayden, Katherine; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Sjostedt, Steven; Vlasenko, Alexander; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that the traditional binary treatments of atmospheric organics as either gases or particles may be inadequate, highlighting the need for analytical techniques capable of simultaneously considering particle and gas-phase species. Organic mass spectra of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), respectively. The particle and VOC mass spectra were combined into a single dataset, which was analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling technique. The relative weights of the AMS and PTR-MS data were balanced in the PMF analysis according to the criteria that the scaled residuals within a solution be independent of the measuring instrument. Instrument relative weight is controlled by the application of a scaling factor to the PTR-MS uncertainties. The AMS and PTR-MS instruments were deployed from mid-May to mid-June at two sites in Canada: (1) Egbert, ON (2007), a semirural site ~70 km north of Toronto, and (2) Whistler, BC (2008), a remote site ~120 km north of Vancouver. The Egbert site is influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Toronto and populated regions to the south, biogenic emissions from boreal forests to the north, and biomass burning emissions. The Whistler site is strongly influenced by boreal forest terpene emissions, with lesser contributions from long-range transport and anthropogenic emissions.

  10. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C. H.; Zhang, Anthony L.; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170

  11. Genetic variability in the tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin region influences susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, B.; Waldron-Lynch, F.; McDermott, M. F.; Adams, C.; Amos, C. I.; Zhu, D. K.; Ward, R. H.; Clegg, D. O.; Shanahan, F.; Molloy, M. G.; O'Gara, F.

    1996-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class III tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin (TNF-LT) region (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different haplotypes were observed. One of these, the TNF a6, b5, c1, d3, e3 (H1) haplotype, was present in 35.3% of affected, but in only 20.5% of unaffected, individuals (P < .005). This haplotype accounted for 21.5% of the parental haplotypes transmitted to affected offspring and only 7.3% not transmitted to affected offspring (P = .0003). The TNF a6 and TNF c1 alleles were individually associated with RA (P = .0005 and .0008, respectively), as were the HLA-DRB1 "shared epitope" (SE) (P = .0001) and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = .0018). Both univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of TNF c1 and SE in increasing risk to RA (P < .001). Stratification by the presence of SE indicated an independent effect of the TNFc1 allele (P = .0003) and the HLA A1, B8, DR3 extended haplotype (always TNFa2, b3, c1, d1, e3) (P = .0027) in SE heterozygotes, while the H1 haplotype was associated with RA in SE homozygotes (P = .0018). The TNF-LT region appears to influence susceptibility to RA, distinct from HLA-DR. PMID:8751869

  12. Influence of regional cerebral blood volume on voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Cleppien, Dirk; Gass, Natalia; Falfan-Melgoza, Claudia; Vollmayr, Barbara; Hesser, Jürgen; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of structural brain alterations is one focus in research of brain diseases like depression. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on high-resolution 3D MRI images is a widely used non-invasive tool for such investigations. However, the result of VBM might be sensitive to local physiological parameters such as regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) changes. In order to investigate whether rCBV changes may contribute to variation in VBM, we performed analyses in a study with the congenital learned helplessness (cLH) model for long-term findings. The 3D structural and rCBV data were acquired with T2 -weighted rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) pulse sequences. The group effects were determined by standard statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and biological parametric mapping (BPM) and examined further using atlas-based regions. In our genetic animal model of depression, we found co-occurrence of differences in gray matter volume and rCBV, while there was no evidence of significant interaction between both. However, the multimodal analysis showed similar gray matter differences compared with the standard VBM approach. Our data corroborate the idea that two group VBM differences might not be influenced by rCBV differences in genetically different strains. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27074152

  13. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    PubMed

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech. PMID:19384890

  14. Influences of updated land-use datasets on WRF simulations for two Austrian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, Irene; Arnold Arias, Dèlia; Seibert, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out with the weather research and forecasting model to study the influence of different land-use datasets for two Austrian regions, the high-alpine Inn Valley area and the hilly Vienna Basin area. The three land-use datasets used were USGS, MODIS and a reclassified European dataset based on the CORINE CLC06 data. Simulations covered an episode in July 2007 applying a resolution of 0.8 km. Results were compared with surface observation data, radiosoundings, and satellite data. It was found that land-use both in the original CLC06 and the version where it had been reclassified to USGS classes for use in WRF was significantly more realistic than the built-in land-use datasets (USGS and MODIS). Synoptic processes during the episode considered were reproduced well by all simulations, where CLC06 and MODIS improved the model performance in both regions in terms of the surface temperatures and other meteorological parameters.

  15. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Caragh; Chung, Vincent C H; Zhang, Anthony L; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170

  16. Aerosol Physiochemistry in Clean and Polluted Regions: Influences on Optical Properties and CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A.; Kapustin, V.; Howell, S.; Shinozuka, Y.; McNaughton, C.; Zhou, J.; Decarlo, P.; Jimenez, J.; Roberts, G.

    2007-12-01

    Long range transport of aerosol from urban regions and anthropogenic sources is recognized to influence the radiative properties of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei, CCN, over large portions of the planet. The nature of these influences is determined by the size distributions, concentration and composition of the aerosol and their magnitude relative to natural sources. We have participated in diverse major field studies over the past decade designed to measure and isolate key properties that can be used to characterize various source regions and to provide aerosol parameters to effectively model both "direct" and "indirect" radiative effects. More recently these have expanded to include scales that can assess transformation in both gas and aerosol components as they evolve downwind or get lofted into the free troposphere. These experiments have revealed the importance of primary emissions and secondary emissions and the state of mixing of the aerosol both near the source and after aging downwind. The physiochemical processes that influence aerosol composition, growth, evolution, optical properties and cloud processes differ markedly with size. In this talk we focus on direct radiative effects that depend on sizes that dominate aerosol surface area or mass and on cloud related effects more sensitive to smaller sizes that dominate aerosol number and CCN. Key players of both anthropogenic and natural origin are black carbon (BC), sulfate, nitrate and organic carbon. These frequently evolve into internal mixtures and/or interact with similar natural aerosol such as dust and sea- salt. Hence, the size resolved state-of-mixing of these components determine their influences and also impact the strategies that might be used to mitigate any effects. Recent data highlight the significance of BC to both direct and indirect effects and reveal its multiple roles expressed through its optical properties, its evolution, its relation to light absorbing OC (brown carbon) and

  17. Influence of interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind on auroral brightness in different regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. F.; Lu, J. Y.; Wang, J.-S.; Peng, Z.; Zhou, L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">By integrating and averaging the auroral brightness from Polar Ultraviolet Imager auroral images, which have the whole auroral ovals, and combining the observation data of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind from NASA Operating Missions as a Node on the Internet (OMNI), we investigate the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of IMF and solar wind on auroral activities, and analyze the separate roles of the solar wind dynamic pressure, density, and velocity on aurora, respectively. We statistically analyze the relations between the interplanetary conditions and the auroral brightness in dawnside, dayside, duskside, and nightside. It is found that the three components of the IMF have different effects on the auroral brightness in the different <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Different from the nightside auroral brightness, the dawnside, dayside, and duskside auroral brightness are affected by the IMF Bx, and By components more significantly. The IMF Bx and By components have different effects on these three <span class="hlt">regional</span> auroral brightness under the opposite polarities of the IMF Bz. As expected, the nightside aurora is mainly affected by the IMF Bz, and under southward IMF, the larger the |Bz|, the brighter the nightside aurora. The IMF Bx and By components have no visible effects. On the other hand, it is also found that the aurora is not intensified singly with the increase of the solar wind dynamic pressure: when only the dynamic pressure is high, but the solar wind velocity is not very fast, the aurora will not necessarily be intensified significantly. These results can be used to qualitatively predict the auroral activities in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> for various interplanetary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.409..307H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.409..307H"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Mediterranean sea surface temperatures 3.5-1.5 Ma: <span class="hlt">Regional</span> and hemispheric <span class="hlt">influences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herbert, Timothy D.; Ng, Gideon; Cleaveland Peterson, Laura</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present a composite time series of Mediterranean sea surface temperature (SST) and marine biomarker accumulation for the time span from 3.5 to 1.525 Ma, based on alkenone unsaturation and concentration from hemipelagic sediments outcropping in southern Italy and Sicily. Paleotemperature data define three regimes: a late Pliocene climate on average 4- 5 °C warmer than modern, a latest Pliocene to early Pleistocene onset of 41 kyr cycles, and a major increase in the range of glacial-interglacial temperature change at ∼ 1.84 Ma that shortly precedes the former definition of the Plio-Pleistocene boundary in the Crotone sequence. Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) cycles are dominated by precession, with a ∼ 1.5 °C range. Obliquity-related rhythms <span class="hlt">influence</span> SST significantly shortly after ∼ 2.8 Ma (equivalent to MIS G10) and dominate after ∼ 2.51 Ma (equivalent to MIS 100). However, little, if any, long-term cooling occurred on an interglacial basis until after ∼ 1.85 Ma. Alkenone concentrations provide a good proxy for the accumulation of marine organic matter, and primarily reflect <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrology. Organic sedimentation, including the formation of layers highly enriched in organic matter ("sapropels") was paced throughout by precessional variations despite changes in both average <span class="hlt">regional</span> temperature, and the shift in temperature variance to the 41 kyr obliquity cycle in the latest Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Our reconstruction therefore highlights the intermingling of both hemispheric-wide changes in temperature and <span class="hlt">regional</span> variations in the hydrological cycle that combined to force major evolutionary changes in the fauna and flora of northern Africa and the southern Mediterranean in late Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E.980K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E.980K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding Space Weather <span class="hlt">influence</span> on earthquake triggering to shield people living in seismic <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khachikyan, Galina; Inchin, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Khassanov, Eldar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>There is an idea at present that space weather can <span class="hlt">influence</span> not only the technological infrastructure and people's health, but seismic activity as well. Space weather impact on the Earth results from magnetic reconnection between the Sun's and Earth's magnetic fields. The effectiveness of reconnection depends on sign and magnitude of Z-components in solar wind magnetic field and earth's magnetic field as measured in the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system. The more negative value of Zgsm in the solar wind magnetic field, and the more positive value of Zgsm in the geomagnetic field, the more solar wind energy penetrates into the earth's environment due to reconnection. It was found recently by Khachikyan et al. [2012, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude in a particular seismic <span class="hlt">region</span> (seismic potential - Mmax) may be determined, in first approximation, on the base of maximal geomagnetic Zgsm value in this <span class="hlt">region</span>, namely: Mmax = (5.22 +- 0.17) + (0.78 +- 0.06) x [abs (Zgsm)]. In this report we present statistical results on association between variations in space weather and global seismic activity, and demonstrate that a great Sumatra earthquake (M=9.1, on December 26, 2004, at 00:58:53 GMT) indeed occurred in <span class="hlt">region</span> where the geomagnetic Zgsm components are largest at the globe. In the time of earthquake occurrence, geomagnetic Zgsm value in the epicenter (3.30N, 95.980E) was equal to ~37147 nT. A range of possible maximal magnitude, as estimated from above relation, could be of 8.8 - 9.2. The recorded magnitude M=9.1 is within this range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26394327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26394327"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity <span class="hlt">Influences</span> Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stirnemann, Ingrid; Mortelliti, Alessio; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone) on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes]) within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate <span class="hlt">region</span> of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types). Our results highlight the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> occupancy of the species of interest. PMID:26394327</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653006','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653006"><span id="translatedtitle">The IgH 3′ regulatory <span class="hlt">region</span> <span class="hlt">influences</span> lymphomagenesis in Igλ-Myc mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saad, Faten; Saintamand, Alexis; Cogné, Michel; Denizot, Yves</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The IgH 3′regulatory <span class="hlt">region</span> (3′RR), encompassing the four transcriptional enhancers hs3a-hs1,2-hs3b-hs4, has a key role on class switch recombination, somatic hypermutation, IgH transcription and B-cell fate. In plasma cells, transcribed IgH and IgL loci often colocalized in transcription factories and an IgL transcription defect might translate into lowered IgH transcription. We explored whether the 3′RR would affect lymphomagenesis in Igλ-Myc transgenic mice prone to lymphoproliferations. Breeding Igλ-Myc transgenics in a background deficient for the 3′RR <span class="hlt">influences</span> lymphomagenesis toward less mature lymphomas (16% vs 54%, p = 0.01, Z test for two population proportions). In a 3′RR-deficient background mature tumors less often expressed the CD43 antigen (54% vs 0%, p = 0.02), a membrane glycoprotein expressed on activated mature B-cells. In contrast, in a 3′RR-deficient background tumors more often expressed the CD5 antigen (32% vs 12%, p = 0.05) that may serve to control autoimmunity and that is suspected to play a role in leukemic transformation. Lymphoma myc transcript levels, the Ki67 index of proliferation, the clonality, the usage of V(D)J segments, and their somatic hypermutation status were not affected in the 3′RR-deficient background. In conclusion, most probably through its action during the maturation process, the 3′RR can <span class="hlt">influence</span> lymphomagenesis even when not linked with an oncogene. PMID:25980500</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4579067','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4579067"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity <span class="hlt">Influences</span> Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stirnemann, Ingrid; Mortelliti, Alessio; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone) on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes]) within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate <span class="hlt">region</span> of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types). Our results highlight the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> occupancy of the species of interest. PMID:26394327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980500"><span id="translatedtitle">The IgH 3' regulatory <span class="hlt">region</span> <span class="hlt">influences</span> lymphomagenesis in Igλ-Myc mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saad, Faten; Saintamand, Alexis; Cogné, Michel; Denizot, Yves</p> <p>2015-08-21</p> <p>The IgH 3'regulatory <span class="hlt">region</span> (3'RR), encompassing the four transcriptional enhancers hs3a-hs1,2-hs3b-hs4, has a key role on class switch recombination, somatic hypermutation, IgH transcription and B-cell fate. In plasma cells, transcribed IgH and IgL loci often colocalized in transcription factories and an IgL transcription defect might translate into lowered IgH transcription. We explored whether the 3'RR would affect lymphomagenesis in Igλ-Myc transgenic mice prone to lymphoproliferations. Breeding Igλ-Myc transgenics in a background deficient for the 3'RR <span class="hlt">influences</span> lymphomagenesis toward less mature lymphomas (16% vs 54%, p = 0.01, Z test for two population proportions). In a 3'RR-deficient background mature tumors less often expressed the CD43 antigen (54% vs 0%, p = 0.02), a membrane glycoprotein expressed on activated mature B-cells. In contrast, in a 3'RR-deficient background tumors more often expressed the CD5 antigen (32% vs 12%, p = 0.05) that may serve to control autoimmunity and that is suspected to play a role in leukemic transformation. Lymphoma myc transcript levels, the Ki67 index of proliferation, the clonality, the usage of V(D)J segments, and their somatic hypermutation status were not affected in the 3'RR-deficient background. In conclusion, most probably through its action during the maturation process, the 3'RR can <span class="hlt">influence</span> lymphomagenesis even when not linked with an oncogene. PMID:25980500</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.H62C0884N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.H62C0884N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Orographic and Meteorological <span class="hlt">Influences</span> on the Spatial Organization of Thunderstorms in Mountainous <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nykanen, D. K.; Godoy, A. R.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The use of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to provide input of spatial rainfall patterns for distributed hydrologic models has gained increasing popularity over the past decade. One of the key challenges in this approach is the discrepancy between the typical scale of NWP forecasts and the scale needed for accurate hydrologic predictions, especially in moderate to extreme topography. Issues of scale also arise when driving hydrologic models with observed precipitation as the observations may have space-time resolutions that are too coarse (satellite) or fine (gage) for the needs of the hydrologic model. A better understanding of the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation across spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours is needed to bridge these scale gaps. Substantial progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of midwestern convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic <span class="hlt">influences</span> on precipitation processes. Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of orographic convective precipitation and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. This paper investigates the space-time organization of several heavy convective rainfall events in mountainous terrain using multi-scale statistical analysis. Focus is placed on the Appalachian <span class="hlt">region</span> and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Case studies which are characteristic of organized thunderstorms that produce heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous <span class="hlt">regions</span> have been studied to explore the multi-scaling behavior of orographic precipitation and specifically investigate differences in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613778A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613778A"><span id="translatedtitle">Medium term modelling of coupled hydrodynamics, turbulence and sediment pathways in a <span class="hlt">region</span> of freshwater <span class="hlt">influence</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amoudry, Laurent; Brown, Jenny; Souza, Alex; Norman, Danielle; Olsen, Karine</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Liverpool Bay, in the northwest of the UK, is a shallow, hypertidal <span class="hlt">region</span> of freshwater <span class="hlt">influence</span>. In this <span class="hlt">region</span>, baroclinic processes significantly affect the residual circulation, which in turn <span class="hlt">influences</span> the long term transport of sediment. A nested modelling system is implemented to simulate the coupled hydro and sediment dynamics in the bay. We use the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System (POLCOMS), which is based on a three-dimensional baroclinic numerical model formulated in spherical polar terrain-following coordinates. The hydrodynamic model solves the three-dimensional, hydrostatic, Boussinesq equations of motion separated into depth-varying and depth-independent parts to allow time splitting between barotropic and baroclinic components. This model is coupled to the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), to the WAve Model (WAM), and includes state-of-the-art Eulerian and Lagrangian sediment transport models. We implement POLCOMS to Liverpool Bay at a horizontal resolution of approximately 180 m. The bathymetry consists of digitized hydrographic charts combined with LIDAR and multibeam data. Three-dimensional baroclinic effects, river inputs, surface heating and offshore density structure are all considered. Liverpool Bay is subjected to a spring tidal range in excess of 10 m and thus intertidal areas are significant. Wetting and drying algorithms are therefore also implemented. A nesting approach is employed to prescribe offshore boundary conditions for elevations, currents, temperature and salinity. Boundary values are obtained from numerical simulations for the entire Irish and are then used to force the three-dimensional hydrodynamics in the Liverpool Bay domain. Atmospheric forcing consists of hourly wind velocity and atmospheric pressure, and three-hourly cloud cover, humidity and air temperature. We focus here on numerical simulations for a full year, 2008, which is considered to be a typical year for atmospheric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/478516','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/478516"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic variability in the tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin <span class="hlt">region</span> <span class="hlt">influences</span> susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mulcahy, B.; Waldron-Lynch, F.; Adams, C.; O`Gara, F.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>The major histocompatibility complex class H1 tumor necrosis factor-tymphotoxin (TNF-LT) <span class="hlt">region</span> (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different haplotypes were observed. One of these, the TNF a6, b5, c1, d3, e3 (H1) haplotype, was present in 35.3% of affected, but in only 20.5% of unaffected, individuals (P < .005). This haplotype accounted for 21.5% of the parental haplotypes transmitted to affected offspring and only 7.3 % not transmitted to affected offspring (P = .0003). The TNF a6 and TNF c1 alleles were individually associated with RA (P = .0005 and .0008, respectively), as were the HLA-DRB1 {open_quotes}shared epitope{close_quotes} (SE) (P = .0001) and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = .0018). Both univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of TNF c1 and SE in increasing risk to RA (P < .001). Stratification by the presence of SE indicated an independent effect of the TNFc1 allele (P = .0003) and the HLA A1, BS, DR3 extended haplotype (always TNFa2, b3, c1, d1, e3) (P = .0027) in SE heterozygotes, while the H1 haplotype was associated with RA in SE homozygotes (P = .0018). The TNF-LT <span class="hlt">region</span> appears to <span class="hlt">influence</span> susceptibility to RA, distinct from HLA-DR. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15016926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15016926"><span id="translatedtitle">Tillage and N-source <span class="hlt">influence</span> soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative <span class="hlt">influence</span> of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2685488','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2685488"><span id="translatedtitle">A Bivariate Whole Genome Linkage Study Identified Genomic <span class="hlt">Regions</span> <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Both BMD and Bone Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jianfeng; Pei, Yufang; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hong-Yi; Papasian, Christopher J; Drees, Betty M; Hamilton, James J; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Areal BMD (aBMD) and areal bone size (ABS) are biologically correlated traits and are each important determinants of bone strength and risk of fractures. Studies showed that aBMD and ABS are genetically correlated, indicating that they may share some common genetic factors, which, however, are largely unknown. To study the genetic factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> both aBMD and ABS, bivariate whole genome linkage analyses were conducted for aBMD-ABS at the femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and ultradistal (UD)-forearm in a large sample of 451 white pedigrees made up of 4498 individuals. We detected significant linkage on chromosome Xq27 (LOD = 4.89) for LS aBMD-ABS. In addition, we detected suggestive linkages at 20q11 (LOD = 3.65) and Xp11 (LOD = 2.96) for FN aBMD-ABS; at 12p11 (LOD = 3.39) and 17q21 (LOD = 2.94) for LS aBMD-ABS; and at 5q23 (LOD = 3.54), 7p15 (LOD = 3.45), Xq27 (LOD = 2.93), and 12p11 (LOD = 2.92) for UD-forearm aBMD-ABS. Subsequent discrimination analyses indicated that quantitative trait loci (QTLs) at 12p11 and 17q21 may have pleiotropic effects on aBMD and ABS. This study identified several genomic <span class="hlt">regions</span> that may contain QTLs important for both aBMD and ABS. Further endeavors are necessary to follow these <span class="hlt">regions</span> to eventually pinpoint the genetic variants affecting bone strength and risk of fractures. PMID:18597637</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.9385G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.9385G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of wave normal angles on hiss-electron interaction in Earth's slot <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Yuzhu; Xiao, Fuliang; Yan, Qi; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Zhou, Qinghua</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Wave-particle interaction which occurs in the radiation belts is generally determined by variations in wave normal angles. Using the Gaussian wave normal angle (X=tanθ) distribution, we study the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of peak wave normal angle (Xm = tanθm) on gyroresonance between plasmaspheric hiss waves and energetic electrons in the slot <span class="hlt">regions</span> L = 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5. The bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients are calculated for different Xm = 0,1,3,5, and then the phase space density (PSD) evolutions of energetic electrons driven by hiss waves are simulated over a continuous energy range 0.2-5 MeV. As Xm increases, diffusion coefficients basically decrease mainly from the medium to a critical pitch angle αc for Ek≤1.0 MeV but increase at lower pitch angles for Ek>1.0 MeV. Differences of diffusion coefficients between Xm = 0 and 1 are close but become substantial as Xm≥3. Hiss can cause substantial drops in electron PSDs for Ek≤0.5 MeV and Xm≤1 from the loss cone αL to αc. For Ek≥1.0 MeV, such PSD drops become much smaller and confined in the lower pitch angles close to αL for each Xm. In contrast, electron PSD increases for Ek≤1.0 MeV above αc at L = 2.5 and 3.0, probably because momentum diffusion coefficients increase steeply above αc. The current results demonstrate that gyroresonance between plasmaspheric hiss and energetic electrons in the slot <span class="hlt">region</span> is strongly associated with variations of peak wave normal angles, which should be integrated into future global modeling of radiation belt dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16.1577V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16.1577V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of ecohydrologic feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Walsum, P. E. V.; Supit, I.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Hydrologic climate change modelling is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. To reduce this dependency, we extended the <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrologic modelling framework SIMGRO to host a two-way coupling between the soil moisture model MetaSWAP and the crop growth simulation model WOFOST, accounting for ecohydrologic feedbacks in terms of radiation fraction that reaches the soil, crop coefficient, interception fraction of rainfall, interception storage capacity, and root zone depth. Except for the last, these feedbacks are dependent on the leaf area index (LAI). The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> groundwater on crop growth is included via a coupling to MODFLOW. Two versions of the MetaSWAP-WOFOST coupling were set up: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous crop growth simulation, the "dynamic" model. Parameterization of the static and dynamic models ensured that for the current climate the simulated long-term averages of actual evapotranspiration are the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios and two crops: grass and potato. In the dynamic model, higher temperatures in a warm year under the current climate resulted in accelerated crop development, and in the case of potato a shorter growing season, thus partly avoiding the late summer heat. The static model has a higher potential transpiration; depending on the available soil moisture, this translates to a higher actual transpiration. This difference between static and dynamic models is enlarged by climate change in combination with higher CO2 concentrations. Including the dynamic crop simulation gives for potato (and other annual arable land crops) systematically higher effects on the predicted recharge change due to climate change. Crop yields from soils with poor water retention capacities strongly depend on capillary rise if moisture supply from other sources is limited. Thus, including a crop simulation model in an integrated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27054730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27054730"><span id="translatedtitle">The farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and its <span class="hlt">influencing</span> factors in Poyang Lake <span class="hlt">Region</span>, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Meiqiu; Chen, Mengjiao; Lu, Yanfei; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Yujiao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Individual farmers represent the main management entities of agricultural production under the family-contract responsibility system in China, and thus play crucial roles in the prevention and control of agricultural nonpoint source (ANPS) pollution. The analysis of the farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution as well as the factors affecting their perceptions can provide valuable information for relevant policy-making to preserve high quality water in Poyang Lake and <span class="hlt">regional</span> quality of arable land. Through a survey titled 'Farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and farming behaviors in the Poyang Lake <span class="hlt">Region</span>', the data related to the perceptions of farmers on ANPS pollution were collected. The factors that affect their awareness of ANPS pollution were identified with the method of boosted regression trees (BRT). The results indicated that the farmers had awareness of the risk of ANPS pollution to some extent, but they lacked adequate scientific knowledge. Generally, they had no consciousness about how to prevent and control ANPS pollution and did not understand techniques needed for proper scientifically sound application of fertilizers and pesticides. The main factors that <span class="hlt">influenced</span> their perceptions of ANPS pollution are (from high to low): the ratio of total income which comes from farming, per capita farmland, age, education level, and household income. Some measures targeted to improve the prevention and control of ANPS pollution were proposed: developing modern agricultural techniques and promoting large-scale farming, increasing public campaigns related to ANPS pollution prevention and control with the goal of raising the level of awareness of farmers, and reforming the methods used to promote science and technology in agriculture and encourage the proper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. PMID:27054730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851248','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851248"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic m6A <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> methylation directs translational control of heat shock response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jun; Wan, Ji; Gao, Xiangwei; Zhang, Xingqian; Qian, Shu-Bing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The most abundant <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> post-transcriptional modification is N6-methyladenosine (m6A) that has broad roles in RNA biology1-5. In mammalian cells, the asymmetric distribution of m6A along mRNAs leaves relatively less methylation in the 5′ untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (5′UTR) compared to other <span class="hlt">regions</span>6,7. However, whether and how 5′UTR methylation is regulated is poorly understood. Despite the crucial role of the 5′UTR in translation initiation, very little is known whether m6A modification <span class="hlt">influences</span> <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation. Here we show that in response to heat shock stress, m6A is preferentially deposited to the 5′UTR of newly transcribed mRNAs. We found that the dynamic 5′UTR methylation is a result of stress-induced nuclear localization of YTHDF2, a well characterized m6A “reader”. Upon heat shock stress, the nuclear YTHDF2 preserves 5′UTR methylation of stress-induced transcripts by limiting the m6A “eraser” FTO from demethylation. Remarkably, the increased 5′UTR methylation in the form of m6A promotes cap-independent translation initiation, providing a mechanism for selective <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation under heat shock stress. Using Hsp70 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> as an example, we demonstrate that a single site m6A modification in the 5′UTR enables translation initiation independent of the 5′ end m7G cap. The elucidation of the dynamic feature of 5′UTR methylation and its critical role in cap-independent translation not only expands the breadth of physiological roles of m6A, but also uncovers a previously unappreciated translational control mechanism in heat shock response. PMID:26458103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212790W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212790W"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid <span class="hlt">Regions</span> Under the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Marine Saltwater Intrusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used <span class="hlt">regions</span>, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid <span class="hlt">regions</span>, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study <span class="hlt">region</span>, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3071223','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3071223"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex, Race, and Geographic <span class="hlt">Region</span> <span class="hlt">Influence</span> Clinical Outcomes Following Primary HIV-1 Infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MaWhinney, Samantha; Allshouse, Amanda; Feser, William; Markowitz, Martin; Little, Susan; Hecht, Richard; Daar, Eric S.; Collier, Ann C.; Margolick, Joseph; Kilby, J. Michael; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Kaldor, John; Levy, Jay; Schooley, Robert; Cooper, David A.; Altfeld, Marcus; Richman, Douglas; Connick, Elizabeth</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background. It is unknown whether sex and race <span class="hlt">influence</span> clinical outcomes following primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Methods. Data were evaluated from an observational, multicenter, primarily North American cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters. Results. Of 2277 seroconverters, 5.4% were women. At enrollment, women averaged .40 log10 fewer copies/mL of HIV-1 RNA (P < .001) and 66 more CD4+ T cells/μL (P = .006) than men, controlling for age and race. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was less likely to be initiated at any time point by nonwhite women and men compared to white men (P < .005), and by individuals from the southern United States compared to others (P = .047). Sex and race did not affect responses to ART after 6 months (P > .73). Women were 2.17-fold more likely than men to experience >1 HIV/AIDS-related event (P < .001). Nonwhite women were most likely to experience an HIV/AIDS-related event compared to all others (P = .035), after adjusting for intravenous drug use and ART. Eight years after diagnosis, >1 HIV/AIDS-related event had occurred in 78% of nonwhites and 37% of whites from the southern United States, and 24% of whites and 17% of nonwhites from other <span class="hlt">regions</span> (P < .001). Conclusions. Despite more favorable clinical parameters initially, female HIV-1-seroconverters had worse outcomes than did male seroconverters. Elevated morbidity was associated with being nonwhite and residing in the southern United States. PMID:21245157</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310329','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310329"><span id="translatedtitle">The length of a lantibiotic hinge <span class="hlt">region</span> has profound <span class="hlt">influence</span> on antimicrobial activity and host specificity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liang; van Heel, Auke J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyl)lanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g., in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called “hinge region” of nisin (residues NMK) was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge <span class="hlt">region</span> dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, −1, −2) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures. PMID:25688235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753360','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753360"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Splicing from the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) Gene Generates Isoforms with Distinct Subcellular <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Localization Patterns in Astrocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thomsen, Rune; Daugaard, Tina F.; Holm, Ida E.; Nielsen, Anders Lade</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The intermediate filament network of astrocytes includes Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) as a major component. Gfap <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is alternatively spliced resulting in generation of different protein isoforms where Gfapα is the most predominant isoform. The Gfapδ isoform is expressed in proliferating neurogenic astrocytes of the developing human brain and in the adult human and mouse brain. Here we provide a characterization of mouse Gfapδ <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and Gfapδ protein. RT-qPCR analysis showed that Gfapδ <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and Gfapα <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression is coordinately increased in the post-natal period. Immunohistochemical staining of developing mouse brain samples showed that Gfapδ is expressed in the sub-ventricular zones in accordance with the described localization in the developing and adult human brain. Immunofluorescence analysis verified incorporation of Gfapδ into the Gfap intermediate filament network and overlap in Gfapδ and Gfapα subcellular localization. Subcellular <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> localization studies identified different localization patterns of Gfapδ and Gfapα <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in mouse primary astrocytes. A larger fraction of Gfapα <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> showed <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> localization to astrocyte protrusions compared to Gfapδ <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The differential <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> localization patterns were dependent on the different 3′-exon sequences included in Gfapδ and Gfapα <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The presented results show that alternative Gfap <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> splicing results in isoform-specific <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> localization patterns with resulting different local <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> concentration ratios which have potential to participate in subcellular <span class="hlt">region</span>-specific intermediate filament dynamics during brain development, maintenance and in disease. PMID:23991052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058681','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058681"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoter <span class="hlt">Region</span> Hypermethylation and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Expression of MGMT and p16 Genes in Tissue and Blood Samples of Human Premalignant Oral Lesions and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhatia, Vikram; Makker, Annu; Tewari, Shikha; Yadu, Alka; Shilpi, Priyanka; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S. P.; Goel, Sudhir K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O6-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P = 0.0010) and 57% (P = 0.0016) of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P = 0.0135) and 33% (P = 0.0074) of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P = 0.0001) and 82% (P = 0.0001) in tissue and 57% (P = 0.0002) and 70% (P = 0.0001) in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC. PMID:24991542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042747','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042747"><span id="translatedtitle">Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-<span class="hlt">Influenced</span> Coastal <span class="hlt">Regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span> <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine <span class="hlt">regions</span> <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by unusual flood events. Major river systems in <span class="hlt">regions</span> with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284333"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression of epiregulin and amphiregulin on outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with 5-FU/LV plus irinotecan or irinotecan plus oxaliplatin as first-line treatment (FIRE 1-trial).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stahler, A; Heinemann, V; Giessen-Jung, C; Crispin, A; Schalhorn, A; Stintzing, S; Fischer von Weikersthal, L; Vehling-Kaiser, U; Stauch, M; Quietzsch, D; Held, S; von Einem, J C; Holch, J; Neumann, J; Kirchner, T; Jung, A; Modest, D P</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Our aim was to investigate the impact of EREG and AREG <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression (by RT-qPCR) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression (by immunohistochemistry) as well as RAS-and PIK3CA-mutations (by pyrosequencing) were assessed. Tumors of 208 mCRC patients receiving 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus irinotecan (FUFIRI) or irinotecan plus oxaliplatin (mIROX) within the FIRE-1 trial were analyzed for mutations. Molecular characteristics were correlated with response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS). <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression was evaluated using ROC-analysis in 192 tumors (AREG high n = 31 vs. low n = 161; EREG high n = 89 vs. low n = 103). High versus low AREG expression was associated with PFS of 10.0 versus 8.0 months (HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.402-0.940, p = 0.03) and OS of 24.6 versus 18.7 months (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.476-1.078, p = 0.11). High versus low EREG expression correlated with prolonged PFS (9.4 vs. 6.8 months, HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.460-0.846, p = 0.002) and OS (25.8 vs. 15.5 months, HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.351-0.657, p < 0.001). The positive prognostic effect of high EREG expression was confirmed in a multivariate analysis and was neither affected by EGFR expression nor by mutations of RAS- and PIK3CA-genes. EREG expression appears as an independent prognostic marker in patients with mCRC receiving first-line irinotecan-based chemotherapy. PMID:26284333</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4061519','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4061519"><span id="translatedtitle">N-3 fatty acid intake altered fat content and fatty acid distribution in chicken breast muscle, but did not <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression of lipid-related enzymes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The conversions of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid of plant origin to the C20 and C22 very long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is regulated by several cellular enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Methods Sixty-five male one-day old chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups and given one of four diets; with or without linseed oil (LO), (the diets contained equal amounts of fat) and with low or high selenium (Se). Final body weight, amount of Se and fat in breast muscle, fatty acid profile, and gene expression for fatty acid desaturases (Fads1, Fads2, Fads9), HMG-CoA reductase, Acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox), carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (Cpt1), superoxide dismutase (Sod) and glutathione peroxidase4 (Gpx4) were analyzed in all animals, and Gpx activity in whole blood was determined. Results <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression of elongases and desaturases in chicken breast muscle was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. Conclusion <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in chicken breast muscle of elongases and desaturases was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. PMID:24894510</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18374315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18374315"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression of splice forms of the zeta1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and spatial memory in aged mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Siba R; Magnusson, Kathy R</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Age-related changes in the protein and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression of some of the splice forms of the zeta1 (NR1) subunit of the NMDA receptor have been seen in mice and rats. The present study was designed to determine whether individual splice forms of the zeta1 subunit of the NMDA receptor within prefrontal/frontal cortical <span class="hlt">regions</span> contribute to memory deficits during aging and whether experience in learning tasks can <span class="hlt">influence</span> the expression of the splice forms. <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression of 4 splice forms (zeta1-1, zeta1-3, zeta1-a and zeta1-b) and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> for all known splice forms (zeta1-pan) were examined by in situ hybridization. <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> for C-terminal splice forms, zeta1-1 (+ C1 and + C2 cassettes) and zeta1-3 (+ C1 and + C2'), showed significant declines during aging in several brain <span class="hlt">regions</span> even though overall zeta1-pan <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression was not significantly affected by aging. This suggests that these splice forms are more <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by aging than the subunit as a whole. There was an increase in the expression of zeta1-a (-N1 cassette) splice form in the behaviorally-experienced old mice relative to the younger groups. Old mice with high levels of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression for the zeta1-a splice form in orbital cortex showed the best performances in the working memory task, but the poorest performances in the cued, associative learning task. These results suggest that there is a complex interaction between zeta1 splice form expression and performance of memory tasks during aging. PMID:18374315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.1671L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.1671L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of external forcing on subdecadal variability of <span class="hlt">regional</span> surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We use Granger causality to investigate the <span class="hlt">influences</span> of external forcings on subdecadal variability of <span class="hlt">regional</span> near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust <span class="hlt">influence</span> of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In other <span class="hlt">regions</span>, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to <span class="hlt">regional</span> SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several <span class="hlt">regions</span> suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9839444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9839444"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover as a mechanism of glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scheffler, I E; de la Cruz, B J; Prieto, S</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The phenomenon of glucose repression in yeast is concerned with the repression of a large number of genes when glucose is an abundant carbon source and almost all of the energy requirements of the cell can be satisfied from glycolysis. Prominent among the repressed genes are those encoding mitochondrial proteins required for respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Past studies have characterized a pathway by which a signal generated from extracellular glucose is transmitted to the nucleus. The ultimate outcome is the repression of transcription of numerous genes, but also the induction of a limited number of others. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on transcriptional control mechanisms. A discovery made originally with the transcript of the SDH2 gene prompted an investigation of post-transcriptional mechanisms, and more specifically a study of the turnover rate of this <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in the absence and presence of glucose. SDH2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has a very short half-life in medium with glucose (YPD) and a significantly longer half-life in medium with glycerol (YPG). Experimental evidence and recent progress in understanding of (1) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover in yeast and (2) initiation of translation on the 5' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> of mRNAs, lead to a working hypothesis with the following major features: the carbon source, via a signaling pathway involving kinase/phosphatase activities, controls the rate of initiation, and thus <span class="hlt">influences</span> a competition between eukaryotic initiation factors (prominently eIF4E, eIF4G, eIF3) binding to the capped <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and a decapping activity (DCP1) which is one of the rate limiting activities in the turnover of such mRNAs. PMID:9839444</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.A11B..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.A11B..04A"><span id="translatedtitle">Local and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Influences</span> on Atmospheric Nutrient Deposition in Southeast Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, A. G.; Machado, C. M.; Cardoso, A. A.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this work was to quantify sources of atmospheric nutrients, which are subsequently deposited to agricultural soils and natural ecosystems of São Paulo State (Brazil). The atmospheric concentrations of soluble ions (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, SO42-, Cl-, K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) in aerosol were evaluated, together with the gases NO2, NH3, HNO3 and SO2. Identification of nutrient sources was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA). Dry deposition fluxes were estimated using the measured atmospheric concentrations together with dry deposition velocities of gases and aerosols to different surface types. Results showed that the main sources of nutrients to the <span class="hlt">regions</span> atmosphere were fossil and biofuel combustion (N and S species), agricultural biomass burning (N, S, K and P), re-suspension of soils and dusts (Ca and Mg), and to a lesser extent long-range transport (S). NO2 concentrations were more <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by local emissions and subsequent chemical transformations occurring on a scale of up to 200-300 km. HNO3 was much less spatially variable, with consistently higher concentrations during warmer, drier periods, indicating an agreement with gas phase/aerosol phase thermodynamic equilibrium theory. Scavenging of gaseous HNO3 was a source of nitrate, for which deposition fluxes were higher during the dry season, when significant relationships were obtained between nitrate concentrations and biomass burning intensity. Additional sources were indicated for particulate nitrate and sulphate, such as road transport and secondary reactions. During winter, the main source of gaseous ammonia was biomass burning, while emissions from soils and wastes predominated during summer. Modeled deposition fluxes were highest to tropical forest and lowest to water and pasture surfaces. In agricultural areas, the deposition fluxes of aerosol components N, P and K (0.37, 0.029 and 0.59 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912749"><span id="translatedtitle">Localization of histidine decarboxylase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in rat brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bayliss, D A; Wang, Y M; Zahnow, C A; Joseph, D R; Millhorn, D E</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>The recent cloning of a cDNA encoding fetal rat liver histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the synthesizing enzyme for histamine, allows the study of the central histaminergic system at the molecular level. To this end, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses were used to determine the <span class="hlt">regional</span> and cellular distribution of neurons which express HDC <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in rat brain. Three hybridizing species which migrate as 1.6-, 2.6-, and 3.5-kb RNA were identified with Northern blots. The major (2.6 kb) and minor (3.5 kb) species, characteristic of HDC <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in fetal liver, were expressed at high levels in diencephalon and at just detectable levels in hippocampus, but not in other brain <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In contrast, the 1.6-kb species was present in all brain <span class="hlt">regions</span> examined except the olfactory bulb. Cells which contain HDC <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> were found by in situ hybridization in the hypothalamus; HDC mRNA-containing cells were not detected in other areas, including the hippocampus. Hypothalamic neurons which express HDC <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> were localized to all aspects of the tuberomammillary nucleus, a result consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings. PMID:19912749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhBio..12e6002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhBio..12e6002S"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> noise and to increase the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> gain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Changhong; Wang, Shuqiang; Zhou, Tianshou; Jiang, Yiguo</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Post-transcriptional regulation is ubiquitous in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but how it impacts gene expression remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze a simple gene model in which we assume that mRNAs are produced in a constitutive manner but are regulated post-transcriptionally by a decapping enzyme that switches between the active state and the inactive state. We derive the analytical <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> distribution governed by a chemical master equation, which can be well used to analyze the mechanism of how post-transcription regulation <span class="hlt">influences</span> the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression level including the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> noise. We demonstrate that the mean <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> level in the stochastic case is always higher than that in the deterministic case due to the stochastic effect of the enzyme, but the size of the increased part depends mainly on the switching rates between two enzyme states. More interesting is that we find that in contrast to transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate noise in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Our results provide insight into the role of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling the transcriptional noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26865733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26865733"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Genetic Structure and Environmental Variables <span class="hlt">Influence</span> our Conservation Approach for Feather Heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahrens, Collin W; James, Elizabeth A</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Continued alterations to the Australian environment compromise the long-term viability of many plant species. We investigate the population genetics of Ptilotus macrocephalus, a perennial herb that occurs in 2 nationally endangered communities on the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (VVP), Australia, to answer key questions regarding <span class="hlt">regional</span> differentiation and to guide conservation strategies. We evaluate genetic structure and diversity within and among 17 P. macrocephalus populations from 3 <span class="hlt">regions</span> of southeastern Australia using 17 microsatellite markers developed de novo. Genetic structure was present in P. macrocephalus between the 3 <span class="hlt">regions</span> but not at the population level. Environmental factors, namely temperature and precipitation, significantly explained differentiation between the North <span class="hlt">region</span> and the other 2 <span class="hlt">regions</span> indicating isolation by environment. Within <span class="hlt">regions</span>, genetic structure currently shows a high level of gene flow and genetic variation. Our results suggest that within-<span class="hlt">region</span> gene flow does not reflect current habitat fragmentation in southeastern Australia whereas temperature and precipitation are likely to be responsible for the differentiation detected among <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Climate change may severely impact P. macrocephalus on the VVP and test its evolutionary resilience. We suggest taking a proactive conservation approach to improve long-term viability by sourcing material for restoration to assist gene flow to the VVP <span class="hlt">region</span> to promote an increased adaptive capacity. PMID:26865733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032120','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032120"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of land use and climate on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole <span class="hlt">region</span> of Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Forcey, G.M.; Linz, G.M.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Bleier, W.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Bird populations are <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by a variety of factors at both small and large scales that range from the presence of suitable nesting habitat, predators, and food supplies to climate conditions and land-use patterns. We evaluated the <span class="hlt">influences</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate and land-use variables on wetland breeding birds in the Canada section of Bird Conservation <span class="hlt">Region</span> 11 (CA-BCR11), the Prairie Potholes. We used bird abundance data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, land-use data from the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, and weather data from the National Climatic Data and Information Archive to model effects of <span class="hlt">regional</span> environmental variables on bird abundance. Models were constructed a priori using information from published habitat associations in the literature, and fitting was performed with WinBUGS using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Both land-use and climate variables contributed to predicting bird abundance in CA-BCR11, although climate predictors contributed the most to improving model fit. Examination of <span class="hlt">regional</span> effects of climate and land use on wetland birds in CA-BCR11 revealed relationships with environmental covariates that are often overlooked by small-scale habitat studies. Results from these studies can be used to improve conservation and management planning for <span class="hlt">regional</span> populations of avifauna. ?? 2007 NRC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4010187','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4010187"><span id="translatedtitle">Ask When—Not Just Whether—It's a Risk: How <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Context <span class="hlt">Influences</span> Local Causes of Diarrheal Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goldstick, Jason E.; Trostle, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Contemporary epidemiology is enriched when it incorporates ecological concepts about systems and dependencies. With regard to diarrheal disease, the causes of which are many and interacting, the dynamics of within- and between-community disease transmission have distinct components but are also linked in important ways. However, few investigators have studied how <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale disease dynamics affect local patterns of diarrheal disease transmission. Characterizing this dependence is important for identifying local- and <span class="hlt">regional</span>-level transmission pathways. We used data from active surveillance of diarrheal disease prevalence gathered from February 2004 through July 2007 in 21 neighboring Ecuadorian villages to estimate how disease prevalence in spatially and temporally proximate villages modulates the <span class="hlt">influences</span> of village-level risk and protective factors. We found that the impact of local, village-level interventions such as improved latrines and water treatment can be quite different under conditions of high and low <span class="hlt">regional</span> disease prevalence. In particular, water treatment was effective only when <span class="hlt">regional</span> disease prevalence was low, suggesting that person-to-person spread, not waterborne spread, is probably responsible for most between-village transmission in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. Additional <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale data could enhance our understanding of how <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale transmission affects local-scale dynamics. PMID:24740889</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rana&pg=4&id=EJ1026204','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rana&pg=4&id=EJ1026204"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Student Satisfaction in Universities in the Gulf <span class="hlt">Region</span>: Does Gender of Students Matter?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parahoo, Sanjai K.; Harvey, Heather L.; Tamim, Rana M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>While various research studies have focused on antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction, few studies have done so in the Gulf <span class="hlt">region</span>. The objective of the present study was therefore to design and empirically examine a model of student satisfaction in a private university in the Gulf <span class="hlt">region</span> that operates in a high-technology-enabled…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJBm...37...96P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJBm...37...96P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of halophyte plantings in arid <span class="hlt">regions</span> on local atmospheric structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pielke, R. A.; Lee, T. J.; Glenn, E. P.; Avissar, R.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>The practicality of modifying climate in arid <span class="hlt">regions</span> through irrigation has up to now been constrained by the availability of fresh water with which to grow crops. The present results suggest a new paradigm: the use of salt water to grow halophyte crops and modify local climate along coastal deserts and other arid <span class="hlt">regions</span> where saline water supplies are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmEn.141..394S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmEn.141..394S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">influence</span> from a petrochemical complex by modeling and fingerprint analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, Yuan-Chang; Chen, Sheng-Po; Tong, Yu-Huei; Fan, Chen-Lun; Chen, Wei-Hao; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This study aimed to demonstrate a strategy to investigate the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on its neighboring districts from a gigantic petrochemical complex. Monitoring of the VOCs in the <span class="hlt">region</span> was achieved by a nine-station network, dubbed photochemical assessment measurement stations (PAMS), which produced speciated mixing ratios of 54 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) to represent VOCs with an hourly resolution within a 20 km radius. One-year (2013/10/1-2014/9/30) worth of PAMS data from the network were used in forms of total NMHCs (called PAMS-TNMHC) and speciated mixing ratios. Three dimensional modeling coupled with PAMS measurements successfully elucidated how the study domain was affected by the petrochemical complex and distant sources under three typical seasonal wind patterns: northeast monsoonal, southwest monsoonal, and local-circulation. More exquisite analysis of <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the neighboring districts was permitted with the use of speciated mixing ratios of VOCs provided by the PAMS network. The ratios of ethylene/acetylene (E/A) > 3 and propylene/acetylene (P/A) > 1.5 were used as indicators to reveal the PAMS sites affected by the petrochemical emissions. Consequently, the hourly speciated data from the nine PAMS sites enabled a finer assessment of the districts affected by the complex to calculate the percent time of <span class="hlt">influence</span> (dubbed TI%) for all the sites (districts). It was found that the <span class="hlt">region</span> was more affected by the complex under both the northeast monsoonal and the local-circulation wind types with some of the PAMS sites greater than 5% for the TI%. By contrast, <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the <span class="hlt">region</span> was found minimal under the southwest monsoonal flow with the TI% small than 1.5% across all sites. This study successfully devised a method of assessment with the use of speciated measurements of selected VOCs and modeling to assess the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of a prominent source on the neighboring districts by filtering out irrelevant sources under</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21A0002M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21A0002M"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward a Quantitative Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Emission Sources on Ozone Production in the Colorado Front Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Wolfe, D. E.; Tevlin, A.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Murphy, J. G.; Fischer, E. V.; Brown, S. S.; Angevine, W. M.; Edwards, P.; Williams, E. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Photochemical ozone production results from the oxidation and reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2 + NO). As with many US urban <span class="hlt">regions</span>, ozone levels observed in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Colorado are <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by urban emissions of NOx and VOCs. Despite nationwide decreases in these urban emissions, the Front Range of Colorado is one of the few US locations where ozone is currently increasing. It has also recently gone out of compliance with national ambient air quality standards for ozone during summer months. High ozone in Colorado may result from a number of factors, including long-range transport from Asia, increased <span class="hlt">influence</span> of biomass burning, population increases, or increased emissions from oil and gas activities. The Front Range is home to the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin, which has recently been experiencing a rise in oil and natural gas (O&NG) activity associated with the increase in non-conventional drilling techniques. The VOC and NOx emissions from O&NG activity in close proximity to the urban area may uniquely <span class="hlt">influence</span> ozone in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. This presentation will focus on using reactive nitrogen (NOx, NOy) and ozone measurements from a tall (300 m) tower to study the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of local emissions on Front Range ozone. The tower is located between the D-J Basin and agricultural areas to the north and the Denver metro area to the south. In-situ reactive nitrogen and ozone measurements were collected using a custom Cavity Ring-Down instrument. Additional CH4, CO, and NH3 measurements from the tower serve as tracers for O&NG, urban, and agricultural emissions. Concurrently measured aircraft data is used to confirm the relationships between the tracer species. This presentation will discuss methods for determining the contributions of different emission sources to Front Range ozone, with a focus on differentiating the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of urban and O&NG sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6400S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6400S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of natural and technological emergency situations on tourism and sustainable development in St.Petersburg and Leningrad <span class="hlt">region</span> (Russia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shnyparkov, A. L.; Petrova, E. G.; Vashchalova, T. V.; Gavrilova, S. A.; Danilina, A. V.; Gryaznova, V. V.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>St.Petersburg and Leningrad <span class="hlt">region</span> belong to the most populated and tourist-active <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the European part of Russia. St.Petersburg is a second important transportation connection point in Russia, there are many industrial and infrastructure facilities in Leningrad <span class="hlt">region</span> such as chemical plants, mechanic engineering, power stations including a nuclear power station, etc. That is why a lot of technical objects and people can be <span class="hlt">influenced</span> or damaged by natural hazards and various types of technological accidents can be triggered by natural phenomena that have place in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. According to the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situation, Leningrad <span class="hlt">region</span> has a medium level of frequency of emergency situations caused by natural triggers (two to four cases a year). The climatic and orographic conditions of the area contribute to the development of many different types of dangerous natural processes such as floods, storms, strong winds, extreme heat and frost, snowfalls, heavy rains, hale, etc. Hydro-meteorological phenomena are the most often among all natural triggers of emergency situations in the <span class="hlt">region</span>; about 50% of them are caused by storms and strong winds and 25% by floods. The biggest number of natural emergency situations happens in St.Petersburg. Storms make the marine navigation more difficult and even block the port sometimes. In Leningrad <span class="hlt">region</span>, 5-10 villages and cities (including St.Petersburg) are at risk to be flooded. In November 1999, the work of Leningradskaya nuclear power station was partly blocked due to the increasing in water level. The federal road Moscow-St.Petersburg is often under <span class="hlt">influence</span> of heavy snowfalls that cause many problems for transport system of the <span class="hlt">region</span> during the winter. The majority of technological emergency situations are caused by fires in industrial facilities and residential sector, trafic accidents and shipcrashes. Sometimes natural phenomena can also trigger technological accidents. However, their frequency is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24681440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24681440"><span id="translatedtitle">Myc and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> capping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dunn, Sianadh; Cowling, Victoria H</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>c-Myc is upregulated in response to growth factors and transmits the signal to proliferate by altering the gene expression landscape. When genetic alterations result in growth factor-independent c-Myc expression, it can become an oncogene. The majority of human tumour types exhibit a degree of c-Myc deregulation, resulting in unrestrained cell proliferation. c-Myc binds proximal to the promoter <span class="hlt">region</span> of genes and recruits co-factors including histone acetyltransferases and RNA pol II kinases, which promote transcription. c-Myc also promotes formation of the cap structure at the 5' end of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The cap is 7-methylguanosine linked to the first transcribed nucleotide of RNA pol II transcripts via a 5' to 5' triphosphate bridge. The cap is added to the first transcribed nucleotide by the capping enzymes, RNGTT and RNMT-RAM. During the early stages of transcription, the capping enzymes are recruited to RNA pol II phosphorylated on Serine-5 of the C-terminal domain. The <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> cap protects transcripts from degradation during transcription and recruits factors which promote RNA processing including, splicing, export and translation initiation. The proportion of transcripts with a cap structure is increased by elevating c-Myc expression, resulting in increased rates of translation. c-Myc promotes capping by promoting RNA pol II phosphorylation and by upregulating the enzyme SAHH which neutralises the inhibitory bi-product of methylation reactions, SAH. c-Myc-induced capping is required for c-Myc-dependent gene expression and cell proliferation. Targeting capping may represent a new therapeutic opportunity to inhibit c-Myc function in tumours. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. PMID:24681440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4743M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4743M"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">influence</span> of Santiago de Chile on air quality and meteorology during VOCALS-REX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mena, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Molina, L. T.; Spak, S.; Campos, T.; Mc Naughton, C.; Clarke, A.; Gallardo, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The VOCALS campaign was carried out in Chile during October-November 2008, gathering hundreds of scientists from all over the world with the objective to study stratocumulus decks in the East South Pacific, off the coast of Chile and Peru. Surface and airborne platforms measured multiple chemical and meteorological parameters, with support from chemical weather forecast models. Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">influence</span> on meteorology and climate was evidenced due to in situ measurements, and satellite observations, as was expected from the large point sources of sulfur due to smelters and power plants in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. However certain conditions benefited long range transport from central Chile, which made the Santiago plume clearly discernible (high ozone, organic aerosol, low CO) as sampled by the NSF C-130 almost 2000 km north of the city. This research will highlight how model products can provide guidance on the sources of the air masses sampled during the campaign, and how the Santiago plume <span class="hlt">influences</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality and meteorology (focusing on effective cloud radii and brightness temperature differences satellite measurements). Ultimately the research shows that the campaign's objective of contrasting cloud properties between pristine and anthropogenically <span class="hlt">influenced</span> airmasses provided a unique opportunity to isolate the signal of a large emerging South American megacity from remote <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the East South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..08J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..08J"><span id="translatedtitle">The Large-Scale Oscillations <span class="hlt">Influence</span> Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central <span class="hlt">Region</span> (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003692','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003692"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Analysis <span class="hlt">Influence</span> on Transport in Reanalysis <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Water Cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Robertson, F. R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> water cycles of reanalyses do not follow theoretical assumptions applicable to pure simulated budgets. The data analysis changes the wind, temperature and moisture, perturbing the theoretical balance. Of course, the analysis is correcting the model forecast error, so that the state fields should be more aligned with observations. Recently, it has been reported that the moisture convergence over continental <span class="hlt">regions</span>, even those with significant quantities of radiosonde profiles present, can produce long term values not consistent with theoretical bounds. Specifically, long averages over continents produce some <span class="hlt">regions</span> of moisture divergence. This implies that the observational analysis leads to a source of water in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. One such <span class="hlt">region</span> is the Unite States Great Plains, which many radiosonde and lidar wind observations are assimilated. We will utilize a new ancillary data set from the MERRA reanalysis called the Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) which provides the assimilated observations on MERRA's native grid allowing more thorough consideration of their impact on <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global climatology. Included with the GIO data are the observation minus forecast (OmF) and observation minus analysis (OmA). Using OmF and OmA, we can identify the bias of the analysis against each observing system and gain a better understanding of the observations that are controlling the <span class="hlt">regional</span> analysis. In this study we will focus on the wind and moisture assimilation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESRv...97..242Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESRv...97..242Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation response to Holocene climate change in monsoon-<span class="hlt">influenced</span> <span class="hlt">region</span> of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yan; Yu, Zicheng; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Jiawu; Yang, Bao</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Fossil pollen records from 31 sites with reliable chronologies and high-resolution data in the monsoonal <span class="hlt">region</span> of China were synthesized to document Holocene vegetation and climate change and to understand the large-scale controls on these changes. The reconstruction of moisture histories was based on a four-class ordinal wetness index at 200-year time slices at individual sites. The vegetation experienced diverse changes over the Holocene in different <span class="hlt">regions</span>: (1) between tropical seasonal rain forest and more open forest in tropical seasonal rain forest <span class="hlt">region</span>; (2) from mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest to more deciduous or Pinus-dominated forest in subtropical <span class="hlt">region</span>; (3) from mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest to deciduous forest in temperate deciduous forest <span class="hlt">region</span>; (4) from deciduous broadleaved forest to conifer-deciduous forest in conifer-deciduous mixed forest <span class="hlt">region</span>; (5) from steppe forest to steppe in temperate steppe <span class="hlt">region</span>; and (6) from steppe forest/meadow to meadow/steppe in highland meadow/steppe <span class="hlt">region</span>. Despite various vegetation sequences in different <span class="hlt">regions</span>, our synthesis results show that a humid climate generally characterized the early and middle Holocene, and a drier climate prevailed during the late Holocene, with an abrupt shift at ca. 4.5 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP). Abrupt palynological changes based on a squared-chord distance of pollen assemblages occurred at 11-10, 6-5 and 2-1 ka from most sites. The synthesized pattern of moisture change is similar to the ones inferred from other independent climate proxies; however, gradual vegetation changes in the early Holocene lagged about 1000 yr behind the summer monsoon maximum as indicated by speleothem isotope records from Dongge and Sanbao caves. Human activities likely affected vegetation change greatly during the late Holocene, but the magnitude and precise timing are less clear and require further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4505585','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4505585"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein C Proteins Interact with the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) Early 3′-Untranslated <span class="hlt">Region</span> and Alleviate Suppression of HPV16 Late L1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Splicing*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dhanjal, Soniya; Kajitani, Naoko; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Johansson, Cecilia; Schwartz, Stefan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In order to identify cellular factors that regulate human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) gene expression, cervical cancer cells permissive for HPV16 late gene expression were identified and characterized. These cells either contained a novel spliced variant of the L1 mRNAs that bypassed the suppressed HPV16 late, 5′-splice site SD3632; produced elevated levels of RNA-binding proteins SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF9 (SRp30c), and HuR that are known to regulate HPV16 late gene expression; or were shown by a gene expression array analysis to overexpress the RALYL RNA-binding protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) family. Overexpression of RALYL or hnRNP C1 induced HPV16 late gene expression from HPV16 subgenomic plasmids and from episomal forms of the full-length HPV16 genome. This induction was dependent on the HPV16 early untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span>. Binding of hnRNP C1 to the HPV16 early, untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> activated HPV16 late 5′-splice site SD3632 and resulted in production of HPV16 L1 mRNAs. Our results suggested that hnRNP C1 controls HPV16 late gene expression. PMID:25878250</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25878250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25878250"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein C Proteins Interact with the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) Early 3'-Untranslated <span class="hlt">Region</span> and Alleviate Suppression of HPV16 Late L1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Splicing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dhanjal, Soniya; Kajitani, Naoko; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Johansson, Cecilia; Schwartz, Stefan</p> <p>2015-05-22</p> <p>In order to identify cellular factors that regulate human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) gene expression, cervical cancer cells permissive for HPV16 late gene expression were identified and characterized. These cells either contained a novel spliced variant of the L1 mRNAs that bypassed the suppressed HPV16 late, 5'-splice site SD3632; produced elevated levels of RNA-binding proteins SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF9 (SRp30c), and HuR that are known to regulate HPV16 late gene expression; or were shown by a gene expression array analysis to overexpress the RALYL RNA-binding protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) family. Overexpression of RALYL or hnRNP C1 induced HPV16 late gene expression from HPV16 subgenomic plasmids and from episomal forms of the full-length HPV16 genome. This induction was dependent on the HPV16 early untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span>. Binding of hnRNP C1 to the HPV16 early, untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> activated HPV16 late 5'-splice site SD3632 and resulted in production of HPV16 L1 mRNAs. Our results suggested that hnRNP C1 controls HPV16 late gene expression. PMID:25878250</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..757C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..757C"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation trends and <span class="hlt">influencing</span> factors of total gaseous mercury in the Pearl River Delta-A highly industrialised <span class="hlt">region</span> in South China <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by seasonal monsoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Ming; Xu, Zhencheng; Fan, Ruifang; Tao, Jun; Chen, Duohong; Zhang, Deqiang; Xie, Donghai; Sun, Jiaren</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Studies on atmospheric mercury in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) <span class="hlt">region</span> are important because of the economic relevance of this <span class="hlt">region</span> to China, because of its economic developmental pattern and because it is a highly industrialised area <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by the strong seasonal monsoons. Total gaseous mercury (TGM), meteorological parameters and criteria pollutant concentrations were measured at Mt. Dinghu (DH, a <span class="hlt">regional</span> monitoring site) and Guangzhou (GZ, an urban monitoring site) in the PRD <span class="hlt">region</span> from October 2009 to April 2010 and from November 2010 to November 2011, respectively. The ranges of daily average TGM concentrations at the DH and GZ sites were 1.87-29.9 ng m-3 (5.07 ± 2.89 ng m-3) and 2.66-11.1 ng m-3 (4.60 ± 1.36 ng m-3), respectively, which were far more significant than the background values in the Northern Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng m-3), suggesting that the atmosphere in the PRD has suffered from mercury pollution. Similar TGM seasonal distributions at the two sites were observed, with a descending order of spring, winter, autumn and summer. The different seasonal monsoons were the dominant factor controlling the seasonal variability of the TGM, with variations in the boundary layer and oxidation also possibly partially contributing. Different diurnal patterns of the TGM at two sites were observed. TGM levels during the daytime were higher than those during the nighttime and were predominantly <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by mountain and valley winds at the DH site, whereas the opposite trend was evident at the GZ site, which was primarily <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by the boundary-layer height and O3 concentration. During the monitoring period, the correlations between the daily TGM levels and the SO2 and NO2 levels at the DH site were significant (r = 0.36, p < 0.001; r = 0.29, p < 0.001), suggesting that coal-fired emission is an important source of mercury for this <span class="hlt">regional</span> monitoring site. At the GZ site, the correlations between the daily TGM level and the NO, NO2, CO levels were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23804758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23804758"><span id="translatedtitle">miR-195 competes with HuR to modulate stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability and regulate cell migration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhuang, Ran; Rao, Jaladanki N; Zou, Tongtong; Liu, Lan; Xiao, Lan; Cao, Shan; Hansraj, Natasha Z; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Jian-Ying</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Stromal interaction molecule 1 (Stim1) functions as a sensor of Ca2+ within stores and plays an essential role in the activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Although lowering Stim1 levels reduces store-operated Ca2+ entry and inhibits intestinal epithelial repair after wounding, the mechanisms that control Stim1 expression remain unknown. Here, we show that cellular Stim1 abundance is controlled posttranscriptionally via factors that associate with 3'-untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (3'-UTR) of stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. MicroRNA-195 (miR-195) and the RNA-binding protein HuR competed for association with the stim1 3'-UTR and regulated stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay in opposite directions. Interaction of miR-195 with the stim1 3'-UTR destabilized stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, whereas the stability of stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> increased with HuR association. Interestingly, ectopic miR-195 overexpression enhanced stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> association with argonaute-containing complexes and increased the colocalization of tagged stim1 RNA with processing bodies (P-bodies); the translocation of stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was abolished by HuR overexpression. Moreover, decreased levels of Stim1 by miR-195 overexpression inhibited cell migration over the denuded area after wounding but was rescued by increasing HuR levels. In sum, Stim1 expression is controlled by two factors competing for <span class="hlt">influence</span> on stim1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability: the mRNA-stabilizing protein HuR and the decay-promoting miR-195. PMID:23804758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23471483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23471483"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleolin mediates microRNA-directed CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> deadenylation but increases translation of CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3'UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3'UTR, disruption of the miRNA target <span class="hlt">region</span>, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, promoting CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3'UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800008458','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800008458"><span id="translatedtitle">Glucose metabolism in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress <span class="hlt">influence</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Determination was made of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the <span class="hlt">regional</span> glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain <span class="hlt">regions</span> and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all <span class="hlt">regions</span> increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/585192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/585192"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> tectonics on halokinesis in the Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nilsen, K.T.; Johansen, J.T.; Vendeville, B.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Seismic analysis of salt structures in the Nordkapp Basin, a deep salt basin in the southern Barents Sea, combined with experimental modeling suggests that <span class="hlt">regional</span> tectonics closely controlled diapiric growth. Diapirs formed in the Early Triassic during basement-involved <span class="hlt">regional</span> extension. The diapirs then rose rapidly by passive growth and exhausted their source layer. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> extension in the Middle-Late Triassic triggered down-to-the-basin gravity gliding, which laterally shortened the diapirs. This squeezed salt out of diapir stems, forcing diapirs to rise, extrude, and form diapir overhangs. After burial under more than 1000 m of Upper Triassic-Lower Cretaceous sediments, the diapirs were rejuvenated by a Late Cretaceous episode of <span class="hlt">regional</span> extension and gravity gliding, which deformed their thick roofs. After extension, diapirs stopped rising and were buried under 1500 m of lower Tertiary sediments. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> compression of the Barents Sea <span class="hlt">region</span> in the middle Tertiary caused one more episode of diapiric rise. Diapirs in the Nordkapp Basin are now extinct.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41F0039M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41F0039M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of aerosol loading, water vapor and surface topography trends on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrology of the Indo-Ganges basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manoharan, V.; Cadeddu, M. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Satellite based measurements show high concentrations of aerosols (aerosol optical depth) over the Indo-Ganges basin. However, little is known about the vertical structure and distribution of the aerosols in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. In addition the direct (microphysical) and indirect (radiative) <span class="hlt">influence</span> of aerosols on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> water vapor characteristics and cloud formation over different land cover and surface elevations remains uncertain. Previous studies have shown that carbonaceous aerosol can absorb incoming solar radiation, warming the aerosol layer and hence reduce the solar radiation reaching the surface. This in turn reduces the surface temperature, heat and moisture fluxes and increases the stability of the boundary layer resulting in slower <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrological cycle. However, on a microphysical scale the aerosols, as cloud condensation nuclei, tend to enhance the cloud formation, although the resulting cloud droplets are slower to coalesce and to form into precipitation. This study utilizes a combination of ground based measurements collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment's (GVAX) and satellite based measurements collected by remote sensors (MODIS, CALIPSO) to carefully evaluate the potential effects of aerosol on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrology of the Ganges Valley. The study investigates how aerosol and water vapor properties (spatial and vertical distribution, aerosol speciation, etc.) differ between the Ganges valley, lowlands, and neighboring mountainous <span class="hlt">region</span> and whether this difference enhances or suppresses the <span class="hlt">regional</span> convective initiation and precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980891"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of proteins specifically interacting with YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3' UTR and the effect of hnRNP Q on YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyabin, D N; Nigmatullina, L F; Doronin, A N; Eliseeva, I A; Ovchinnikov, L P</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In this study, proteins specifically interacting with the 3' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (UTR) of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> of the multifunctional Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) were identified. One of these, hnRNP Q, was shown to specifically interact with the regulatory element (RE) in YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3' UTR and to inhibit translation of this <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Its binding to the RE was accompanied by displacement from this element of the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), a positive regulator of YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation, and by enhanced binding of the negative YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation regulator - YB-1 itself. PMID:23980891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964942"><span id="translatedtitle">Body <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">influences</span> of L-menthol application on the alleviation of heat strain while wearing firefighter's protective clothing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">influences</span> of menthol application according to the amount of surface area on physiological and psychological heat strains, along with body <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">influences</span>. Male students underwent two stages of experiments: [Experiment 1] Cutaneous thermal threshold test at rest on eight body <span class="hlt">regions</span> with/without a 0.8% menthol application at T (a) 28°C and 50% RH; [Experiment 2] Six exercise tests with/without a 0.8% menthol spray at T (a) 28°C and 40% RH, while wearing firefighter's protective clothing (No menthol, PC(NO); Face and neck menthol, PC(FN); Upper body menthol, PC(UP); Whole body menthol application, PC(WB)) or wearing normal clothing (No menthol, NC(NO); Upper body menthol, NC(UP)). Experiment 1 showed that menthol caused no significant <span class="hlt">influence</span> on cutaneous warm thresholds, while menthol applications evoked earlier detection of cool sensations, especially on the chest (P = 0.043). Experiment 2 revealed that NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) caused lower mean skin temperature, especially with higher peripheral vasoconstrictions on the extremities at rest. During exercise, NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) induced greater and earlier increases in rectal temperatures (T (re)) and a delayed sweat response, but lessened psychological burdens (P < 0.05). Both physiological and psychological effects of PC(FN) were insignificant. For a composite analysis, individual Menthol Sensitivity Index at cooling in Experiment 1 had significant relationships with the threshold for T (re) increase and changes in heart rate in NC(UP) of Experiment 2 (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that menthol's topical <span class="hlt">influence</span> is body <span class="hlt">region</span>-dependent, as well as depending on the exposed body surface area. PMID:21964942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.2791S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.2791S"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of the Land Surface Processes on the Southwest Monsoon Simulations using a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivas, C. V.; Bhaskar Rao, D. V.; Hari Prasad, D.; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of the land surface processes as an important mechanism in the development of the Indian Summer Monsoon is studied by performing simulations with a <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric model. Seasonal scale simulations are conducted for two contrasting summer monsoons (MJJAS months) in 2008 & 2009 with the Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research <span class="hlt">regional</span> model at a high resolution of 15 km using the boundary conditions derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data and using the NOAH land surface parameterization scheme. Simulations are evaluated by comparison of precipitation with 0.5° India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall data over land, atmospheric circulation fields with 1° resolution NCEP global final analysis, and surface fluxes with 0.75° resolution Era-Interim reanalysis. Results indicated significant variation in the evolution of the surface fluxes, air temperatures and flux convergence in the 2 contrasting years. A lower albedo, higher heating (sensible, latent heat fluxes), higher air temperatures, stronger flow and higher moisture flux convergence are noted over the subcontinent during the monsoon 2008 relative to the monsoon 2009. The simulated surface fluxes are in good comparison with observations. The stronger flow in 2008 is found to be associated with stronger heat flux gradients as well as stronger north-south geopotential/pressure gradients. The simulations revealed notable differences in many features such as zonal and meridional surface sensible heat gradients which, in turn, <span class="hlt">influenced</span> the low-level pressure gradients, wind flow, and moisture transport. The present study reveals that, even at a <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale, the physical processes of land-surface energy partitioning do <span class="hlt">influence</span> the <span class="hlt">regional</span> behavior of the monsoon system to a certain extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17696996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17696996"><span id="translatedtitle">Individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game associated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter <span class="hlt">region</span> and correlation between RS3 length and hippocampal <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knafo, A; Israel, S; Darvasi, A; Bachner-Melman, R; Uzefovsky, F; Cohen, L; Feldman, E; Lerer, E; Laiba, E; Raz, Y; Nemanov, L; Gritsenko, I; Dina, C; Agam, G; Dean, B; Bornstein, G; Ebstein, R P</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Human altruism is a widespread phenomenon that puzzled evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Economic games illustrate human altruism by showing that behavior deviates from economic predictions of profit maximization. A game that most plainly shows this altruistic tendency is the Dictator Game. We hypothesized that human altruistic behavior is to some extent hardwired and that a likely candidate that may contribute to individual differences in altruistic behavior is the arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) receptor that in some mammals such as the vole has a profound impact on affiliative behaviors. In the current investigation, 203 male and female university students played an online version of the Dictator Game, for real money payoffs. All subjects and their parents were genotyped for AVPR1a RS1 and RS3 promoter-<span class="hlt">region</span> repeat polymorphisms. Parents did not participate in online game playing. As variation in the length of a repetitive element in the vole AVPR1a promoter <span class="hlt">region</span> is associated with differences in social behavior, we examined the relationship between RS1 and RS3 repeat length (base pairs) and allocation sums. Participants with short versions (308-325 bp) of the AVPR1a RS3 repeat allocated significantly (likelihood ratio = 14.75, P = 0.001, df = 2) fewer shekels to the 'other' than participants with long versions (327-343 bp). We also implemented a family-based association test, UNPHASED, to confirm and validate the correlation between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and monetary allocations in the dictator game. Dictator game allocations were significantly associated with the RS3 repeat (global P value: likelihood ratio chi(2) = 11.73, df = 4, P = 0.019). The association between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and altruism was also confirmed using two self-report scales (the Bardi-Schwartz Universalism and Benevolence Value-expressive Behavior scales). RS3 long alleles were associated with higher scores on both measures. Finally, long AVPR1a RS3 repeats were associated with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3285941','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3285941"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative ferritin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation via internal initiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daba, Alina; Koromilas, Antonis E.; Pantopoulos, Kostas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ferritin stores and detoxifies an excess of intracellular iron, and thereby plays an important role in the metabolism of this metal. As unshielded iron promotes oxidative stress, ferritin is crucial in maintaining cellular redox balance and may also modulate cell growth, survival, and apoptosis. The expression of ferritin is controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. In light of the well-established transcriptional induction of ferritin by inflammatory signals, we examined how ferritin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation responds to stress conditions. We first used HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells engineered for coumermycin-inducible expression of PKR, a stress kinase that inhibits protein synthesis in virus-infected cells by phosphorylating eIF2α. In this setting, iron triggered partial ferritin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation despite a PKR-induced global shutdown in protein synthesis. Moreover, iron-mediated ferritin synthesis was evident in cells infected with an attenuated strain of poliovirus; when eIF4GI was cleaved, eIF2α was phosphorylated, and host protein synthesis was inhibited. Under global inhibition of protein synthesis or specific inhibition of ferritin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation in cells overexpressing PKR or IRP1, respectively, we demonstrate association of ferritin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> with heavy polysomes. Further experiments revealed that the 5′ untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (5′ UTR) of ferritin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> contains a bona fide internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Our data are consistent with the existence of an alternative, noncanonical mechanism for ferritin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation, which may primarily operate under stress conditions to protect cells from oxidative stress. PMID:22271759</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...88..159M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...88..159M"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing and climatic drivers for glaciation across monsoon-<span class="hlt">influenced</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.; Dortch, Jason M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Dietsch, Craig; Fuchs, Markus; Haneberg, William C.; Sharma, Milap C.; Townsend-Small, Amy</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Mapping and thirty-eight 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) ages help define the timing of glaciation in the monsoon-<span class="hlt">influenced</span> Greater Himalaya in central Garwhal, India. Glacial landforms in central Garwhal are present only within a few kilometers of the present glaciers and all date to less than ˜12.5 ka. This suggests that the Lateglacial and/or Holocene glacial advances were more extensive than their predecessors and hence destroyed or buried evidence for earlier glaciation or that other processes, such as intensive fluvial erosion and/or hillslope mass movements, have destroyed evidence of earlier glaciation. Prominent laterofrontal moraines date to the Lateglacial, the Early Holocene, and the Neoglaciation. Moraines next to the active ice and boulders on contemporary glaciers date to 101-102 years before present. This suggests only a minor glacial advance during the Little Ice Age occurred in central Garhwal. These young ages indicate that inheritance of TCNs in areas that were recently glaciated is very small and likely has little effect when considering TCN ages on moraines older than the global Last Glacial Maximum. The new 10Be ages are combined with 1081 recalculated 10Be ages from previous studies to develop a <span class="hlt">regional</span> framework of glaciation across the monsoon-<span class="hlt">influenced</span> and adjacent <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. We separate what appears to be continuous glaciation into 27 <span class="hlt">regional</span> glacial stages (plus 2 tentative glacial stages) that are termed monsoonal Himalayan-Tibetan stages (MOHITS). The <span class="hlt">regional</span> glacial stages cover a wide chronologic range that includes: five <span class="hlt">regional</span> glacial stages older than the Last Glacial cycle (MOHITS 13 at 483 ± 38 ka to MOHITS 5E at 122 ± 15 ka); thirteen <span class="hlt">regional</span> glacial stages within the Last Glacial cycle (MOHITS 5B at 91 ± 15 ka to MOHITS 2A at 12.9 ± 0.9 ka); and eleven <span class="hlt">regional</span> glacial stages during the Holocene (MOHITS 1k at 11.4 ± 0.7 ka to MOHITS 1A at 0.4 ± 0.1 ka). There are strong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004465','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004465"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of surface waves on water circulation in a mid-Atlantic continental shelf <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whitlock, C. H.; Talay, T. A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The importance of wave-induced currents in different weather conditions and water depths (18.3 m and 36.6 m) is assessed in a mid-Atlantic continental-shelf <span class="hlt">region</span>. A review of general circulation conditions is conducted. Factors which perturb the general circulation are examined using analytic techniques and limited experimental data. Actual wind and wave statistics for the <span class="hlt">region</span> are examined. Relative magnitudes of the various currents are compared on a frequency of annual occurrence basis. Results indicated that wave-induced currents are often the same order of magnitude as other currents in the <span class="hlt">region</span> and become more important at higher wind and wave conditions. Wind-wave and ocean-swell characteristics are among those parameters which must be monitored for the analytical computation of continental-shelf circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894660"><span id="translatedtitle">Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Structures Possibly <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Nye County, Nevada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen</p> <p>2006-09-21</p> <p>A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding <span class="hlt">regions</span> reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous <span class="hlt">regional</span> view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat <span class="hlt">regions</span>, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may <span class="hlt">influence</span> ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1299/version_history.txt','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1299/version_history.txt"><span id="translatedtitle">Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Structures Possibly <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Nye County, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Mankinen, Edward A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding <span class="hlt">regions</span> reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous <span class="hlt">regional</span> view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat <span class="hlt">regions</span>, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may <span class="hlt">influence</span> ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..526H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..526H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this <span class="hlt">region</span> is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the <span class="hlt">regional</span> offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord <span class="hlt">region</span>. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the <span class="hlt">region</span> that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also <span class="hlt">influence</span> radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar <span class="hlt">regions</span> of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016M%26PS..tmp..346P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016M%26PS..tmp..346P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span> in lunar basalts: Understanding late-stage melt evolution and its <span class="hlt">influence</span> on apatite formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Potts, Nicola J.; TartèSe, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; Westrenen, Wim; Griffiths, Alexandra A.; Barrett, Thomas J.; Franchi, Ian A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Recent studies geared toward understanding the volatile abundances of the lunar interior have focused on the volatile-bearing accessory mineral apatite. Translating measurements of volatile abundances in lunar apatite into the volatile inventory of the silicate melts from which they crystallized, and ultimately of the mantle source <span class="hlt">regions</span> of lunar magmas, however, has proved more difficult than initially thought. In this contribution, we report a detailed characterization of mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span> in four Apollo mare basalts (10044, 12064, 15058, and 70035) in order to ascertain the compositions of the melts from which apatite crystallized. The texture, modal mineralogy, and reconstructed bulk composition of these mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span> vary greatly within and between samples. There is no clear relationship between bulk-rock basaltic composition and that of bulk-mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span>, indicating that bulk-rock composition may have little <span class="hlt">influence</span> on mesostasis compositions. The development of individual melt pockets, combined with the occurrence of silicate liquid immiscibility, exerts greater control on the composition and texture of mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In general, the reconstructed late-stage lunar melts have roughly andesitic to dacitic compositions with low alkali contents, displaying much higher SiO2 abundances than the bulk compositions of their host magmatic rocks. Relevant partition coefficients for apatite-melt volatile partitioning under lunar conditions should, therefore, be derived from experiments conducted using intermediate compositions instead of compositions representing mare basalts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016M%26PS...51.1555P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016M%26PS...51.1555P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span> in lunar basalts: Understanding late-stage melt evolution and its <span class="hlt">influence</span> on apatite formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Potts, Nicola J.; TartèSe, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; Westrenen, Wim; Griffiths, Alexandra A.; Barrett, Thomas J.; Franchi, Ian A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Recent studies geared toward understanding the volatile abundances of the lunar interior have focused on the volatile-bearing accessory mineral apatite. Translating measurements of volatile abundances in lunar apatite into the volatile inventory of the silicate melts from which they crystallized, and ultimately of the mantle source <span class="hlt">regions</span> of lunar magmas, however, has proved more difficult than initially thought. In this contribution, we report a detailed characterization of mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span> in four Apollo mare basalts (10044, 12064, 15058, and 70035) in order to ascertain the compositions of the melts from which apatite crystallized. The texture, modal mineralogy, and reconstructed bulk composition of these mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span> vary greatly within and between samples. There is no clear relationship between bulk-rock basaltic composition and that of bulk-mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span>, indicating that bulk-rock composition may have little <span class="hlt">influence</span> on mesostasis compositions. The development of individual melt pockets, combined with the occurrence of silicate liquid immiscibility, exerts greater control on the composition and texture of mesostasis <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In general, the reconstructed late-stage lunar melts have roughly andesitic to dacitic compositions with low alkali contents, displaying much higher SiO2 abundances than the bulk compositions of their host magmatic rocks. Relevant partition coefficients for apatite-melt volatile partitioning under lunar conditions should, therefore, be derived from experiments conducted using intermediate compositions instead of compositions representing mare basalts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988389"><span id="translatedtitle">When it matters how you pronounce it: the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> accents on job interview outcome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rakić, Tamara; Steffens, Melanie C; Mummendey, Amélie</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The visual dimension has featured prominently in person perception in the last 25 years. Alone, this dimension cannot give the complete 'picture' of others because language and speech (i.e., the auditory dimension) are also highly informative. Social-cognition research investigates the role of auditory information for impression formation. In a series of experiments, we tested perceived competence, hirability, and socio-intellectual status of different targets based on their <span class="hlt">regional</span> accents. Given identical content of statements in different conditions of an alleged job interview, <span class="hlt">regional</span> German accents (Saxon, Bavarian, and Berlin) resulted in lower perceived competence and hirability than standard German, even though the Bavarian accent at the same time resulted in higher ratings of socio-intellectual status compared to other <span class="hlt">regional</span> accents (Experiment 1). These findings were confirmed when using a broader population sample and a 'matched guise' technique (Experiment 2). Our findings indicate that <span class="hlt">regional</span> accents, similar to faces, can be very powerful in creating differentiated pictures of individuals. PMID:21988389</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ743498.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ743498.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influences</span> of the Learning Environment of a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> University Campus on its International Graduates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis, Bronwyn; Sawyer, Janet; Gill, Rod; Medlin, John; Wilson, Digby</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Staff and students at small <span class="hlt">regional</span> campuses often consider them to be a learning environment with many advantages. Students can benefit from the opportunities for enhanced access to staff provided by factors such as small classes and a compact campus. International students from non-English-speaking backgrounds are one group for whom these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp...51S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp...51S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal <span class="hlt">region</span> and the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of sea surface temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal <span class="hlt">region</span> (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal <span class="hlt">region</span> and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal <span class="hlt">region</span> is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal <span class="hlt">region</span> can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal <span class="hlt">region</span> are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7289W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7289W"><span id="translatedtitle">Unravelling the competing <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant <span class="hlt">regional</span> uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven <span class="hlt">regional</span> signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both <span class="hlt">regional</span> uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the <span class="hlt">region</span>, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess <span class="hlt">regional</span> seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and <span class="hlt">regional</span> uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.157..153W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.157..153W"><span id="translatedtitle">The variability of biomass burning and its <span class="hlt">influence</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> aerosol properties during the wheat harvest season in North China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xingru; Wang, Yuesi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The spatial-temporal variation of biomass burning in June during the wheat harvest season in the North China (32-41°N, 111-120°E) and its <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosols in the urban environment were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the burn ban policy and the <span class="hlt">influence</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> pollution. Fire events that occurred in early and middle June accounted for approximately 89% of the events during the month, and fire points located in mid-eastern China (32.5-35.5°N, 114-120°E) comprised 71%. The occurrences exhibit oscillatory changes with a minimum in 2008 (during the Beijing Olympics) and a peak and explosive growth in 2012. Under high relative humidity and south winds, fire emissions from straw burning combined with high urban/industrial emissions to produce intensive <span class="hlt">regional</span> haze pollution in the North Plain. The formation of secondary inorganic particles was intensified due to the interactions of smoke plumes and urban/industrial pollutants in an urban environment. Higher concentrations and percentages (79%) of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon in the fine particles under high relative humidity conditions contributed to a deteriorated urban visibility. Therefore, stronger management and a comprehensive ban on wheat straw burning in June are urgently needed, especially during years when the south wind is dominant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813970M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813970M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Arctic sea-ice extent has rapidly declined over the past few decades, and most climate models project a continuation of this trend during the 21st century in response to greenhouse gas forcing. A number of recent studies have shown that this sea-ice loss induces vertically propagating Rossby waves, which weaken the stratospheric polar vortex and increase the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). SSWs have been shown to increase the probability of a negative NAO in the following weeks, thereby driving anomalous weather conditions over Europe and other mid-latitude <span class="hlt">regions</span>. In contrast, other studies have shown that Arctic sea-ice loss strengthens the polar vortex, increasing the probability of a positive NAO. Sun et al. (2015) suggest these conflicting results may be due to the <span class="hlt">region</span> of sea-ice loss considered. They find that if only <span class="hlt">regions</span> within the Arctic Circle are considered in sea-ice projections, the polar vortex weakens; if only <span class="hlt">regions</span> outwith the Arctic Circle are considered, the polar vortex strengthens. This is because the anomalous Rossby waves forced in the former/latter scenario constructively/destructively interfere with climatological Rossby waves, thus enhancing/suppressing upward wave propagation. In this study, we investigate whether Sun et al.'s results are robust to a different model. We also divide the <span class="hlt">regions</span> of sea-ice loss they considered into further sub-<span class="hlt">regions</span>, in order to examine the <span class="hlt">regional</span> differences in more detail. We do this by using the intermediate complexity climate model, IGCM4, which has a well resolved stratosphere and does a good job of representing stratospheric processes. Several simulations are run in atmosphere only mode, where one is a control experiment and the others are perturbation experiments. In the control run annually repeating historical mean surface conditions are imposed at the lower boundary, whereas in each perturbation run the model is forced by SST perturbations imposed in a specific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20118429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20118429"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of candidate <span class="hlt">regions</span> <span class="hlt">influencing</span> litter size in Danish Landrace sows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bjerre, D; Mark, T; Sørensen, P; Proschowsky, H F; Vernersen, A; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Selection for increased litter size has been one of the main objectives in Danish pig breeding since 1992. This selection has led to an average increase of 0.30 piglets/litter per year for Landrace and Yorkshire sows, resulting in an average litter size of 15.3 piglets born alive in 2007, with an SD of 3.5 piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in identity by state relationships and allele effects associated with litter size across 17 selected microsatellite marker positions on chromosomes 11, 13, and 15. For this purpose, 357 Danish Landrace sows with high and low EBV for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90% of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low EBV, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated separately for each marker by using deregressed EBV and a linear model that include both a polygenic and an allele effect. The investigated <span class="hlt">region</span> on chromosome 13 was found to have a greater average identity by state relationship compared with the other <span class="hlt">regions</span>, indicating that selection has taken place in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. This is supported by an increased average allele effect of microsatellite alleles in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. In spite of the apparent increased historical selection pressure on chromosome 13, fairly large variation in allele effects was observed, indicating that the markers within the <span class="hlt">region</span> may be used for marker-assisted selection. However, substantial variation in allele effects was observed for several markers on all 3 investigated chromosomes, indicating that selection should preferably be based on several markers. PMID:20118429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174672','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174672"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of watershed characteristics on chlorophyll a in waterbodies at global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Woelmer, Whitney; Kao, Yu-Chun; Bunnell, David; Deines, Andrew M.; Bennion, David; Rogers, Mark W.; Brooks, Colin N.; Sayers, Michael J.; Banach, David M.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Prediction of primary production of lentic water bodies (i.e., lakes and reservoirs) is valuable to researchers and resource managers alike, but is very rarely done at the global scale. With the development of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to gather large amounts of data across the world, including understudied and remote <span class="hlt">regions</span>. To determine which factors were most important in explaining the variation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), an indicator of primary production in water bodies, at global and <span class="hlt">regional</span> scales, we first developed a geospatial database of 227 water bodies and watersheds with corresponding Chl-a, nutrient, hydrogeomorphic, and climate data. Then we used a generalized additive modeling approach and developed model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables for all 227 water bodies and for 51 lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes <span class="hlt">region</span> in the data set. Our best global model contained two hydrogeomorphic variables (water body surface area and the ratio of watershed to water body surface area) and a climate variable (average temperature in the warmest model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables quarter) and explained ~ 30% of variation in Chl-a. Our <span class="hlt">regional</span> model contained one hydrogeomorphic variable (flow accumulation) and the same climate variable, but explained substantially more variation (58%). Our results indicate that a <span class="hlt">regional</span> approach to watershed modeling may be more informative to predicting Chl-a, and that nearly a third of global variability in Chl-a may be explained using hydrogeomorphic and climate variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020701','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020701"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Integral Length Scale on Stagnation <span class="hlt">Region</span> Heat Transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanfossen, G. James; Ching, Chang Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The purpose was twofold: first, to determine if a length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer for a given turbulence intensity and second, to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free stream turbulence. Toward this end, a model with a circular leading edge was fabricated with heat transfer gages in the stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span>. The model was qualified in a low turbulence wind tunnel by comparing measurements with Frossling's solution for stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer in a laminar free stream. Five turbulence generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. Each had identical mesh to bar width ratio but different bar widths. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical leading edge. Turbulence intensity and integral length scale were measured as a function of distance from the grids. Stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer was measured at various distances downstream of each grid. Data were taken at cylinder Reynolds numbers ranging from 42,000 to 193,000. Turbulence intensities were in the range 1.1 to 15.9 percent while the ratio of integral length scale to cylinder diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer augmentation increased with decreasing length scale. An optimum scale was not found. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square bar grids to within +4 percent. The data from the array of wires were not predicted by the correlation; augmentation was higher for this case indicating that the degree of isotropy in the turbulent flow field has a large effect on stagnation heat transfer. The data of other researchers are also compared with the correlation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SGeo...37..811P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SGeo...37..811P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Atmospheric Solar Radiation Absorption on Photodestruction of Ions at D-<span class="hlt">Region</span> Altitudes of the Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavlov, A. V.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on the photodetachment, dissociative photodetachment, and photodissociation rate coefficients (photodestruction rate coefficients) of O-, Cl-, O2 -, O3 -, OH-, NO2 -, NO3 -, O4 -, OH-(H2O), CO3 -, CO4 -, ONOO-, HCO3 -, CO3 -(H2O), NO3 -(H2O), O2 +(H2O), O4 +, N4 +, NO+(H2O), NO+(H2O)2, H+(H2O) n for n = 2-4, NO+(N2), and NO+(CO2) at D-<span class="hlt">region</span> altitudes of the ionosphere is studied. A numerical one-dimensional time-dependent neutral atmospheric composition model has been developed to estimate this <span class="hlt">influence</span>. The model simulations are carried out for the geomagnetically quiet time period of 15 October 1998 at moderate solar activity over the Boulder ozonesonde. If the solar zenith angle is not more than 90° then the strongest <span class="hlt">influence</span> of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on photodestruction of ions is found for photodissociation of CO4 - ions when CO3 - ions are formed. It follows from the calculations that decreases in the photodestruction rate coefficients of ions under consideration caused by this <span class="hlt">influence</span> are less than 2 % at 70 km altitude and above this altitude if the solar zenith angle does not exceed 90°.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGeo..tmp...18P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGeo..tmp...18P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Atmospheric Solar Radiation Absorption on Photodestruction of Ions at D-<span class="hlt">Region</span> Altitudes of the Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavlov, A. V.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on the photodetachment, dissociative photodetachment, and photodissociation rate coefficients (photodestruction rate coefficients) of O-, Cl-, O2 -, O3 -, OH-, NO2 -, NO3 -, O4 -, OH-(H2O), CO3 -, CO4 -, ONOO-, HCO3 -, CO3 -(H2O), NO3 -(H2O), O2 +(H2O), O4 +, N4 +, NO+(H2O), NO+(H2O)2, H+(H2O) n for n = 2-4, NO+(N2), and NO+(CO2) at D-<span class="hlt">region</span> altitudes of the ionosphere is studied. A numerical one-dimensional time-dependent neutral atmospheric composition model has been developed to estimate this <span class="hlt">influence</span>. The model simulations are carried out for the geomagnetically quiet time period of 15 October 1998 at moderate solar activity over the Boulder ozonesonde. If the solar zenith angle is not more than 90° then the strongest <span class="hlt">influence</span> of atmospheric solar radiation absorption on photodestruction of ions is found for photodissociation of CO4 - ions when CO3 - ions are formed. It follows from the calculations that decreases in the photodestruction rate coefficients of ions under consideration caused by this <span class="hlt">influence</span> are less than 2 % at 70 km altitude and above this altitude if the solar zenith angle does not exceed 90°.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.5994H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.5994H"><span id="translatedtitle">Local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> anthropogenic <span class="hlt">influence</span> on PM 2.5 elements in Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Schauer, J. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Hong Kong's persistent unhealthy level of fine particulate matter is a current public health challenge, complicated by the city being located in the rapidly industrializing Pearl River Delta <span class="hlt">Region</span> of China. While the sources of the <span class="hlt">region</span>'s fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) are still not well understood, this study provides new source information through ground measurements and statistical analysis of 24 elements associated with particulate matter collected on filters. Field measurements took place over 4 months (October 2002, December 2002, March 2003, and June 2003) at seven sites throughout the Pearl River Delta, with three sites located in Hong Kong and four sites in the neighboring province, Guangdong. The 4-month average element concentrations show significant variation throughout the <span class="hlt">region</span>, with higher levels of nearly every species seen among the northern Guangdong sites in comparison to Hong Kong. The high correlation (Pearson r>0.8) and similar magnitudes of 11 species (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, and Pb) at three contrasting sites in Hong Kong indicate that sources external to Hong Kong dominate the <span class="hlt">regional</span> levels of these elements. Further correlative analysis compared Hong Kong against potential source areas in Guangdong Province (Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Guangzhou). Moderate correlation of sulfur for all pairings of Hong Kong sites with three Guangdong sites in developed areas (average Pearson r of 0.52-0.94) supports the importance of long-distance transport impacting the <span class="hlt">region</span> as a whole, although local sources also clearly impact observed concentrations. Varying correlative characteristics for zinc when Hong Kong sites are paired with Shenzhen (average r=0.86), Guangzhou (average r=-0.65) and Zhongshan (average r=0.45) points to a source area located south of Guangzhou and locally impacting Zhongshan. The concentration distribution and correlative characteristics of bromide point to sources located within the Pearl River Delta, but the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25249478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25249478"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> water quality patterns in an alluvial aquifer: direct and indirect <span class="hlt">influences</span> of rivers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baillieux, A; Campisi, D; Jammet, N; Bucher, S; Hunkeler, D</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of rivers on the groundwater quality in alluvial aquifers can be twofold: direct and indirect. Rivers can have a direct <span class="hlt">influence</span> via recharge and an indirect one by controlling the distribution of fine-grained, organic-carbon rich flood deposits that induce reducing conditions. These direct and indirect <span class="hlt">influences</span> were quantified for a large alluvial aquifer on the Swiss Plateau (50km(2)) in interaction with an Alpine river using nitrate as an example. The hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of water were characterized using a network of 115 piezometers and pumping stations covering the entire aquifer. Aquifer properties, land use and recharge zones were evaluated as well. This information provided detailed insight into the factors that control the spatial variability of groundwater quality. Three main factors were identified: (1) diffuse agricultural pollution sources; (2) dilution processes resulting from river water infiltrations, revealed by the δ(18)OH2O and δ(2)HH2O contents of groundwater; and (3) denitrification processes, controlled by the spatial variability of flood deposits governed by fluvial depositional processes. It was possible to quantify the dependence of the nitrate concentration on these three factors at any sampling point of the aquifer using an end-member mixing model, where the average nitrate concentration in recharge from the agricultural area was evaluated at 52mg/L, and the nitrate concentration of infiltrating river at approximately 6mg/L. The study shows the importance of considering the indirect and direct impacts of rivers on alluvial aquifers and provides a methodological framework to evaluate aquifer scale water quality patterns. PMID:25249478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCHyd.169..123B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCHyd.169..123B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> water quality patterns in an alluvial aquifer: Direct and indirect <span class="hlt">influences</span> of rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baillieux, A.; Campisi, D.; Jammet, N.; Bucher, S.; Hunkeler, D.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of rivers on the groundwater quality in alluvial aquifers can be twofold: direct and indirect. Rivers can have a direct <span class="hlt">influence</span> via recharge and an indirect one by controlling the distribution of fine-grained, organic-carbon rich flood deposits that induce reducing conditions. These direct and indirect <span class="hlt">influences</span> were quantified for a large alluvial aquifer on the Swiss Plateau (50 km2) in interaction with an Alpine river using nitrate as an example. The hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of water were characterized using a network of 115 piezometers and pumping stations covering the entire aquifer. Aquifer properties, land use and recharge zones were evaluated as well. This information provided detailed insight into the factors that control the spatial variability of groundwater quality. Three main factors were identified: (1) diffuse agricultural pollution sources; (2) dilution processes resulting from river water infiltrations, revealed by the δ18OH2O and δ2HH2O contents of groundwater; and (3) denitrification processes, controlled by the spatial variability of flood deposits governed by fluvial depositional processes. It was possible to quantify the dependence of the nitrate concentration on these three factors at any sampling point of the aquifer using an end-member mixing model, where the average nitrate concentration in recharge from the agricultural area was evaluated at 52 mg/L, and the nitrate concentration of infiltrating river at approximately 6 mg/L. The study shows the importance of considering the indirect and direct impacts of rivers on alluvial aquifers and provides a methodological framework to evaluate aquifer scale water quality patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.2729C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.2729C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of urban morphometric modification on <span class="hlt">regional</span> boundary-layer dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, Allen; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Lau, Alexis K. H.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Fidelity in simulating urban boundary-layer (UBL) physics is recognized to prescribe the prognostic skill of subsequent <span class="hlt">regional</span> air pollutant transport modeling. Conventional mesoscale meteorological models (MMM) deployed over the South China coast among urban locales have often yielded positive bias in surface wind speed. This bias has been hypothetically attributed to model parameterizations that yield inaccurate meteorological predictions due to underrepresentation of urban aerodynamic roughness. Chemical transport model (CTM) simulations that are forced by the overestimated UBL wind field may undergo excessive advection which results in negative bias in predicted pollutant concentration. This study aimed to corroborate the proposed causality between parameterized urban morphometry and UBL meteorology. Focus was placed on the urban meteorological adjustments induced by urban morphometry modifications rather than prediction improvements attributable to urban canopy parameterization (UCP). Case studies were devised to assess the sensitivity of an urban-meteorology model to a pervasive, <span class="hlt">region</span>-wide urban morphometry modification. Performance of a UCP scheme was evaluated for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) <span class="hlt">region</span>, a meso- β-scale subtropical coastal megalopolis. To benchmark the limits of UBL adjustments that were predominantly attributable to urban morphometric transformation, numerical experiments were conducted against two urban fabrics of vastly dissimilar morphometric compositions, each occupying identical topographic tracts. Differences in the diurnal evolution of UBL structure and in the mean and turbulent flow characteristics were analyzed. This UCP sensitivity study suggests that improved urban morphological realism is able to reduce positive wind speed bias observed in conventional mesoscale meteorological models when applied to the PRD <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950022298','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950022298"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Turbulence Parameters, Reynolds Number, and Body Shape on Stagnation-<span class="hlt">Region</span> Heat Transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanfossen, G. James; Simoneau, Robert J.; Ching, Chan Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present work was threefold: (1) to determine if a free-stream turbulence length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation-<span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer over laminar levels; (2) to investigate the effect of velocity gradient on stagnation-<span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer augmentation by free-stream turbulence; and (3) to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free-stream turbulence. Heat transfer was measured in the stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span> of four models with elliptical leading edges that had ratios of major to minor axes of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2.25:1, and 3:1. Five turbulence-generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the model spanwise direction. Heat transfer data were taken at Reynolds numbers ranging from 37 000 to 228 000. Turbulence intensities were in the range of 1.1 to 15.9% while the ratio of integral length scale to leading-edge diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation-point velocity gradient was varied by nearly 50%. Stagnation-<span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer augmentation was found to increase with decreasing length scale but no optimum length scale was found. Heat transfer augmentation due to turbulence was found to be unaffected by the velocity gradient near the leading edge. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square-bar grids to within +/- 4%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ECSS...89...97M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ECSS...89...97M"><span id="translatedtitle">High Arctic sea ice conditions <span class="hlt">influence</span> marine birds wintering in Low Arctic <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McFarlane Tranquilla, Laura; Hedd, April; Burke, Chantelle; Montevecchi, William A.; Regular, Paul M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Stapleton, Leslie Ann; Wilhelm, Sabina I.; Fifield, David A.; Buren, Alejandro D.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Ocean climate change is having profound biological effects in polar <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Such change can also have far-reaching downstream effects in sub-polar <span class="hlt">regions</span>. This study documents an environmental relationship between High Arctic sea ice changes and mortality events of marine birds in Low Arctic coastal <span class="hlt">regions</span>. During April 2007 and March 2009, hundreds of beached seabird carcasses and moribund seabirds were found along the east and northeast coasts of Newfoundland, Canada. These seabird "wrecks" (i.e. dead birds on beaches) coincided with a period of strong, persistent onshore winds and heavily-accumulated sea ice that blocked bays and trapped seabirds near beaches. Ninety-two percent of wreck seabirds were Thick-billed Murres ( Uria lomvia). Body condition and demographic patterns of wreck murres were compared to Thick-billed Murres shot in the Newfoundland murre hunt. Average body and pectoral masses of wreck carcasses were 34% and 40% lighter (respectively) than shot murres, indicating that wreck birds had starved. The acute nature of each wreck suggested that starvation and associated hypothermia occurred within 2-3 days. In 2007, first-winter murres (77%) dominated the wreck. In 2009, there were more adults (78%), mostly females (66%). These results suggest that spatial and temporal segregation in ages and sexes can play a role in differential survival when stochastic weather conditions affect discrete areas where these groups aggregate. In wreck years, southward movement of Arctic sea ice to Low Arctic latitudes was later and blocked bays longer than in most other years. These inshore conditions corresponded with recent climate-driven changes in High Arctic ice break-up and ice extent; coupled with local weather conditions, these ice conditions appeared to be the key environmental features that precipitated the ice-associated seabird wrecks in the Low Arctic <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41G3140T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41G3140T"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in satellite CO2 data coverage and their <span class="hlt">influence</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> flux constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takagi, H.; Andres, R. J.; Belikov, D. A.; Boesch, H.; Bril, A.; Butz, A.; Inoue, M.; Morino, I.; Oda, T.; O'Dell, C.; Oshchepkov, S.; Parker, R.; Saito, M.; Uchino, O.; Valsala, V.; Yokota, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Maksyutov, S. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Inverse modeling of atmospheric transport is a technique that systematically searches for space-time distributions of trace gas fluxes that yield modeled atmospheric concentrations close to observations. This technique has been employed for the estimation of surface CO2 flux distributions in better understanding the mechanisms of the global carbon cycle. As this inference relies on observations, several studies were conducted in the past to see the sensitivity of flux estimates to the expansion of surface monitoring networks over time and the choice of data-providing sites in the estimation. These studies showed that changes in the geographical distribution of the surface data have a large impact on <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale flux estimates. With the advent of the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) in early 2009, the spatial coverage by the surface monitoring networks can now be widely expanded with the spaceborne soundings, from which column-averaged CO2 concentrations (XCO2) are retrieved. These GOSAT-based XCO2 retrievals are made available by five research groups, and their precisions have been reported to be below 2 ppm level. Where they coincide, the five XCO2 retrievals (all biases corrected) agree within one standard deviation of less than 1 ppm. On one hand, the extent that each of the XCO2 retrieval data product covers the surface differs from one to another, owing to differences in the retrieval algorithms and data screening criteria, and the coverage differences were found to be dependent on geographical locations. We investigated the extent to which these data-coverage differences alter constraints on individual <span class="hlt">regional</span> CO2 flux estimates. For this, we used a diagnostic known as the resolution kernel, which quantifies how well the <span class="hlt">regional</span> flux estimates can be resolved by the observations. The inversion system used here is the same as what is used to generate the GOSAT Level 4 <span class="hlt">regional</span> flux data product, and consists of NIES 08.1i transport model and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21637994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21637994"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by breed, parity, and stage of lactation. PMID:21637994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRB..113.3305H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRB..113.3305H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> seismic observations of the 9 October 2006 underground nuclear explosion in North Korea and the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of crustal structure on <span class="hlt">regional</span> phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Tae-Kyung; Baag, Chang-Eob; Choi, Hoseon; Sheen, Dong-Hoon</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The crustally guided shear wave, Lg, is typically the most prominent phase of a nuclear explosion at <span class="hlt">regional</span> distance. This Lg phase is analyzed often to discriminate a nuclear explosion from a natural earthquake. In addition, the Lg phase allows us to determine the size of the detonation. A nuclear explosion test in North Korea was conducted on 9 October 2006. The epicenter was located close to the eastern shore of the Korean Peninsula, resulting in raypaths that vary significantly according to the azimuths. In particular, rays radiated in the southern direction experience lateral variation of crustal structures at the continental margin. We examine the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of raypaths on <span class="hlt">regional</span> seismic phases by comparing the spectra and waveforms from different raypaths. Three natural earthquakes in North Korea are also examined to determine the raypath effect. We find that the Lg from the nuclear explosion dissipated significantly as result of energy leakage into the mantle resulting from variations in crustal thickness along the portion of the raypath traversing the western tip of the Sea of Japan (East Sea). Some of the leaked energy develops into mantle lid waves (Sn), causing a large energy increase to Sn. A similar feature is observed in the records of natural earthquakes. This feature is confirmed by seismic waveform modeling. The raypath effect also causes underestimation of magnitude. The Lg body wave magnitude, mb(Lg), is estimated to be 3.8-4.2 for records from pure continental paths and 2.6-3.4 for records from paths crossing continental margins. This result illustrates the need to consider raypath effects for the correct estimation of magnitudes of <span class="hlt">regional</span> events, including a nuclear explosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009PrOce..83..369L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009PrOce..83..369L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-<span class="hlt">regions</span> of the California Current</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavaniegos, Bertha E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Data are presented from the southern part of the California Current System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Niño 1997 to 1998, and La Niña 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity <span class="hlt">influence</span> ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja California <span class="hlt">region</span> (30-32°N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja California (24-30°N). Multiple regression analysis was done between <span class="hlt">regional</span> variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-<span class="hlt">region</span>, and the tunicates in central Baja California. In this last <span class="hlt">region</span>, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja California suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813584B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813584B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of climate variability on chemical composition of European wines: a <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale study (Italy and Slovenia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbante, Carlo; Polo, Fabio; Cozzi, Giulio; Ogrinc, Nives; Turetta, Clara</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate change is having an increasing <span class="hlt">influence</span> on vine phenology and grape composition, affecting vinifications, wine chemistry and the quality of productions. Wine grape cultivation provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate <span class="hlt">regions</span> that are global biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> level and on a shorter time scale, the seasonal weather conditions modify the quality of yields determining the final properties of wine. In the present research, we studied wines from Italy and Slovenia with the purpose of differentiating them by the different vintages (from 2009 to 2012), which are supposed to be <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by temperature and rain during each year's growing season. Specific chemical techniques were used, in particular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic mass spectrometry (IRMS), both of which are usually employed to detect wine adulterations and to establish the geographical provenance of wines. In particular, we investigated the relationship between macro- and micro-elements, Rare Earth Elements and stable isotopes [δ13C, δ18O, (D/H)I, (D/H)II]. The datasets were examined via statistical techniques to show their relation to weather conditions as well as their mutual connection. Italian and Slovenian wines were distinguished, with the exception of few samples, by both TEs and REEs results. This separation, due to different elemental compositions, may be justified as being part of two distinct environmental and geographical belongings (terroir) but also to the processes of wine production, from the harvest to the bottling, which have certainly interfered and characterized the products. In the case of Italian wines the weather conditions were evidenced with an important separation of stable isotopes which they confirmed to be very sensitive Regarding Slovenian wines, the studied <span class="hlt">regions</span> were characterized of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25900662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25900662"><span id="translatedtitle">Messenger RNAs bearing tRNA-like features exemplified by interferon alfa 5 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Díaz-Toledano, Rosa; Gómez, Jordi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this work was to ascertain whether liver <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> species share common structural features with hepatitis C virus (HCV) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> that allow them to support the RNase-P (pre-tRNA/processing enzyme) cleavage reaction in vitro. The presence of RNase-P competitive elements in the liver <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> population was determined by means of biochemical techniques, and a set of sensitive <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> species were identified through microarray screening. Cleavage specificity and substrate length requirement of around 200 nts, were determined for three <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> species. One of these cleavage sites was found in interferon-alpha 5 (IFNA5) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> between specific base positions and with the characteristic RNase-P chemistry of cleavage. It was mapped within a cloverleaf-like structure revealed by a comparative structural analysis based on several direct enzymes and chemical probing methods of three RNA fragments of increasing size, and subsequently contrasted against site-directed mutants. The core <span class="hlt">region</span> was coincident with the reported signal for the cytoplasmic accumulation <span class="hlt">region</span> (CAR) in IFNAs. Striking similarities with the tRNA-like element of the antagonist HCV <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> were found. In general, this study provides a new way of looking at a variety of viral tRNA-like motifs as this type of structural mimicry might be related to specific host <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> species rather than, or in addition to, tRNA itself. PMID:25900662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27249432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27249432"><span id="translatedtitle">THE RISK FACTORS <span class="hlt">INFLUENCING</span> THE EDENTULISM AND PROSTHETIC STATUS OF THE ADULT POPULATION IN DIFFERENT <span class="hlt">REGIONS</span> OF GEORGIA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to identify the level of edentulism and prosthetic status of the adult population in different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Georgia and to assess the <span class="hlt">influencing</span> risk- factors. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I- (20-34), II-(35-44), III-(45-64), IV- (65-74) in nine <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Statistically reliable data received showed the different extent of teeth loss in various <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Georgia. ≤10 teeth loss were characteristic for Mtskheta (60.2%) and Samtskhe-Javakheti (50.7%),whilst ≥20 teeth lost were noticed more in Achara(2.9%), Samtskhe-Javakheti(2.6%), Shida Qartli (2,5%). Therefore, prosthetic status was mostly presented with one or more bridges or artificial crowns, removable dentures were seen less. Differences in prosthetic status is generally related to low medical education background in all <span class="hlt">regions</span>, though lack of money was considered as essential obstacle for dental visit for Mtskheta, Imereti and Samtskhe-Javakheti population. Education and family income dictate attitudes towards prosthetic dental care and choice of crown types. On the other hand, material disparity represents the main obstacle to prosthetic procedures, especially implants. PMID:27249432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020390','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020390"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence that local land use practices <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in <span class="hlt">regional</span> temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.174..135M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.174..135M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> and hemispheric <span class="hlt">influences</span> on measured spring peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mixing ratios at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malley, Christopher S.; Cape, J. Neil; Jones, Matthew R.; Leeson, Sarah R.; Coyle, Mhairi; Braban, Christine F.; Heal, Mathew R.; Twigg, Marsailidh M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This work presents 15-min averaged measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) obtained during spring 2014 (24/04/2014 - 06/05/2014) at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite (southeast Scotland). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the conditions producing the distribution of PAN mixing ratios at the supersite in spring 2014. Air mass back trajectories showed the majority of air masses to have spent substantial time over the UK, continental Europe or Scandinavia prior to arrival at Auchencorth. The median and 95th percentile PAN mixing ratios observed were 0.46 ppb and 1.03 ppb, respectively. The median mixing ratio was elevated compared with previous PAN measurements during springtime (April-May) in southeast Scotland (corresponding median mixing ratios April-May 1994-1998: 0.1-0.3 ppb), which is hypothesised to be due to conditions conducive to <span class="hlt">regional</span> (European) photochemical PAN production. Additionally, PAN mixing ratios during <span class="hlt">regionally</span> <span class="hlt">influenced</span> conditions (0.4-1.5 ppb) were substantially more elevated from hemispheric background mixing ratios (0.4-0.6 ppb) than for ozone (O3, <span class="hlt">regional</span>: 10-45 ppb, hemispheric: 30-40 ppb). PAN and O3 both impact upon vegetation and human health and it is necessary to understand the extent to which hemispheric and <span class="hlt">regional</span> processes contribute to their abundances in different locations. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> processes can both increase and decrease PAN and O3 mixing ratios compared to imported hemispheric background mixing ratios. This study concludes that during the measurement period in spring 2014 at the Auchencorth supersite, <span class="hlt">regional</span> PAN and O3 modifying processes enhanced PAN mixing ratios more than for O3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/924044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/924044"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Vegetation and Seasonal Forcing on Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Across the Upper Midwest, USA: Implications for <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Desai, Ankur R; Noormets, Asko; Bolstad, Paul V; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, Bruce D; Davis, Kenneth J; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Gough, Christopher; Martin, Jonathan G; Ricciuto, Daniel M; Schmid, Hans P; Tang, Jianwu; Wang, Weiguo</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p>Carbon dioxide fluxes were examined over the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 from 14 different sites in the Upper Midwest (USA) to assess spatial variability of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperature/precipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the <span class="hlt">region</span> (northern hardwood, mixed forest, red pine, jack pine, pine barrens, and shrub wetland). The hardwood and red pine sites also spanned a range of stand ages (young, intermediate, mature). While seasonal changes in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and photosynthetic parameters were coherent across the 2 years at most sites, changes in ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) were not. Canopy height and vegetation type were important variables for explaining spatial variability of CO2 fluxes across the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Light-use efficiency (LUE) was not as strongly correlated to GEP as maximum assimilation capacity (Amax). A bottom-up multi-tower land cover aggregated scaling of CO2 flux to a 2000 km2 <span class="hlt">regional</span> flux estimate found June to August 2003 NEE, ER, and GEP to be -290 ± 89, 408 ± 48, and 698 ± 73 gC m<sup>-2</sup>, respectively. Aggregated NEE, ER, and GEP were 280% larger, 32% smaller and 3% larger, respectively, than that observed from a <span class="hlt">regionally</span> integrating 447 m tall flux tower. However, when the tall tower fluxes were decomposed using a footprint-weighted <span class="hlt">influence</span> function and then re-aggregated to a <span class="hlt">regional</span> estimate, the resulting NEE, ER, and GEP were within 11% of the multi-tower aggregation. Excluding wetland and young stand age sites from the aggregation worsened the comparison to observed fluxes. These results provide insight on the range of spatial sampling, replication, measurement error, and land cover accuracy needed for multi-tiered bottom-up scaling of CO2 fluxes in heterogeneous <span class="hlt">regions</span> such as the Upper Midwest, USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1081763','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1081763"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of vegetation and seasonal forcing on carbon dioxide fluxes across the Upper Midwest, USA: Implications for <span class="hlt">regional</span> scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Desai, Desai Ankur R.; Noormets, Asko; Bolstad, Paul V; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, Bruce D; Davis, Kenneth; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Gough, Christopher M; Martin, Jonathan G; Ricciuto, Daniel M; Schmid, Hans Peter; Tang, Jianwu; Wang, Weiguo</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide fluxes were examined over the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 from 14 different sites in Upper Midwest (USA) to assess spatial variability of ecosystem atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperature/precipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the <span class="hlt">region</span> (northern hardwood, mixed forest, red pine, jack pine, pine barrens and shrub wetland). The hardwood and red pine sites also spanned a range of stand ages (young, intermediate, mature). While seasonal changes in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and photosynthetic parameters were coherent across the 2 years at most sites, changes in ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) were not. Canopy height and vegetation type were important variables for explaining spatial variability of CO2 fluxes across the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Light-use efficiency (LUE) was not as strongly correlated to GEP as maximum assimilation capacity (Amax). A bottom-up multi-tower land cover aggregated scaling of CO2 flux to a 2000 km2 <span class="hlt">regional</span> flux estimate found June to August 2003 NEE, ER and GEP to be 290 89, 408, 48, and 698, 73 gC m-2, respectively. Aggregated NEE, ER and GEP were 280% larger, 32% smaller and 3% larger, respectively, than that observed from a <span class="hlt">regionally</span> integrating 447m tall flux tower. However, when the tall tower fluxes were decomposed using a footprint-weighted <span class="hlt">influence</span> function and then reaggregated to a <span class="hlt">regional</span> estimate, the resulting NEE, ER and GEP were within 11% of the multi-tower aggregation. Excluding wetland and young stand age sites from the aggregation worsened the comparison to observed fluxes. These results provide insight on the range of spatial sampling, replication, measurement error and land cover accuracy needed for multi-tiered bottom-up scaling of CO2 fluxes in heterogeneous <span class="hlt">regions</span> such as the Upper Midwest, USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27261255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27261255"><span id="translatedtitle">Connections Underlying Translation and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Green, Rachel</p> <p>2016-09-11</p> <p>Gene expression and regulation in organisms minimally depends on transcription by RNA polymerase and on the stability of the RNA product (for both coding and non-coding RNAs). For coding RNAs, gene expression is further <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by the amount of translation by the ribosome and by the stability of the protein product. The stabilities of these two classes of RNA, non-coding and coding, vary considerably: tRNAs and rRNAs tend to be long lived while mRNAs tend to be more short lived. Even among mRNAs, however, there is a considerable range in stability (ranging from seconds to hours in bacteria and up to days in metazoans), suggesting a significant role for stability in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we review recent experiments from bacteria, yeast and metazoans indicating that the stability of most mRNAs is broadly impacted by the actions of ribosomes that translate them. Ribosomal recognition of defective mRNAs triggers "<span class="hlt">mRNA</span> surveillance" pathways that target the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> for degradation [Shoemaker and Green (2012) ]. More generally, even the stability of perfectly functional mRNAs appears to be dictated by overall rates of translation by the ribosome [Herrick et al. (1990), Presnyak et al. (2015) ]. Given that mRNAs are synthesized for the purpose of being translated into proteins, it is reassuring that such intimate connections between <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and the ribosome can drive biological regulation. In closing, we consider the likelihood that these connections between protein synthesis and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability are widespread or whether other modes of regulation dominate the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability landscape in higher organisms. PMID:27261255</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GPC...138...56B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GPC...138...56B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Holocene anthropogenic and climatic <span class="hlt">influences</span> on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> vegetation of Mexico's Cuenca Oriental</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Tripti; Byrne, Roger</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Scholars continue to debate the relative magnitude of pre- and post-Conquest anthropogenic landscape transformation in many <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Mesoamerica. These debates have important implications for our understanding of the role of anthropogenic practices in the development, or at times degradation, of <span class="hlt">regional</span> environments. Paleoecological records that provide long-term perspectives on climate change and human land-use patterns are critical to addressing these uncertainties. However, many <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Mexico including the Cuenca Oriental, a semi-arid basin in the rain shadow of the Sierra Madre Oriental, remain poorly studied. We present a new paleoecological record from sediment cores recovered from Lake Aljojuca, located in the southern part of the basin. Stable isotope analyses of authigenic carbonates provide an independent record of past climate, while pollen and microscopic charcoal provide insights into past vegetation and fire history. The Aljojuca record is one of the only well-dated multi-proxy paleolimnological records from the Cuenca Oriental, and is one of few charcoal studies from highland Mexico. Zea mays pollen and increased fire activity at 2700 calendar years before present (cal yr. BP) suggest Formative period human settlement around the lake. Between 1700 and 800 cal yr BP, a drying climate combined with human uses of fire likely resulted in increases in the extent of xeric scrub vegetation. The Aljojuca record also documents important landscape changes during the historic period (~ 430 cal yr. BP-present) likely related to the introduction of invasive species and agricultural intensification. The Aljojuca record provides a unique perspective on human-environment relationships and highlights differences between landscape transformations in the pre- and post-Conquest periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4218308','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4218308"><span id="translatedtitle">ME-07<span class="hlt">INFLUENCE</span> OF <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> MICROENVIROMENT AND ASTROCYTE HETEROGENEITY ON ASTROCYTOMA DEVELOPMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Irvin, David; Schmid, Ralf; Bash, Ryan; Miller, C. Ryan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The role of the local microenvironment during early astrocytoma development remains elusive. We previously showed that Rb and Pten inactivation and Kras activation (TRP) transforms Gfap+ astrocytes and induces low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis throughout the adult brain. To confirm that astrocytes are the cell of origin, we targeted them using an alternative astrocyte-specific promoter, Glast. In the absence of oncogenic mutations, genetic lineage tracing with Glast-CreER; floxed TdTomato mice produced recombination in 8-38% of Gfap/Blbp+ astrocytes in the cortex, diencephalon, brainstem, and olfactory bulb. EdU labeling showed <0.04% proliferated at 7 days. Astrocyte proliferation (EdU+) increased 8-29-fold 3 weeks and TdTomato+ cells increased 3-7-fold by 8 weeks after TRP transformation. Glast;TdTomato+ astrocytes were rare in the brainstem and their transformation produced minimal tumorigenesis. In contrast, hGFAP-CreER uniformly induced recombination in ∼50% of astrocytes in all <span class="hlt">regions</span>, including the brainstem. Whereas TdTomato+ astrocytes increased 6-11-fold in hGFAP-TRP mice after 8 weeks, Glast-targeted transformation was 1-4 fold lower. Differences in growth rates were most pronounced in the brainstem (P<0.001), but olfactory bulb growth rates were similar (P>0.05). Both CreER driver and brain <span class="hlt">region</span> significantly affected astrocyte growth rate (ANOVA P < 0.0003). In both models, transformed astrocytes maintained Gfap/Blbp expression, gained expression of the stem cell marker Nestin, and formed increasingly dense perineuronal satellites over time. Ki-67 labeling showed clonal expansion, as hypercellular foci with 11-fold higher proliferation relative to less-cellular areas of tumor developed by 16 weeks. Glast-, but not hGFAP-driven tumors contained dividing, but untransformed (TdTomato;T121−) BLBP+ astrocytes, IBA1+ microglia, and PDGFRα+ oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPC). Proliferating microglia (6-0%) and OPC (18-5%) decreased over time, while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139a4107A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139a4107A"><span id="translatedtitle">Resonance energy transfer: <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of neighboring matter absorbing in the wavelength <span class="hlt">region</span> of the acceptor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, David L.; Ford, Jack S.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>In many of the materials and systems in which resonance energy transfer occurs, the individual chromophores are embedded within a superstructure of significantly different chemical composition. In accounting for the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the surrounding matter, the simplest and most widely used representation is commonly cast in terms of a dependence on local refractive index. However, such a depiction is a significant oversimplification, as it fails to register the electronic and local geometric effects of material specifically in the vicinity of the chromophores undergoing energy transfer. The principal objective of this study is to construct a detailed picture of how individual photon interaction events are modified by vicinal, non-absorbing chromophores. A specific aim is to discover what effects arise when input excitation is located in the neighborhood of other chromophores that have a slightly shorter wavelength of absorption; this involves a passive effect exerted on the transfer of energy at wavelengths where they themselves display no significant absorption. The theory is based on a thorough quantum electrodynamical analysis that allows the identification of specific optical and electronic chromophore attributes to expedite or inhibit electronic energy transfer. The Clausius-Mossotti dispersion relationship is then deployed to elicit a dependence on the bulk refractive index of the surroundings. A distinction is drawn between cases in which the <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the electromagnetic coupling between the donor and the acceptor is primarily due to the static electric field produced by a polar medium, and converse cases in which the mechanism for modifying the form of energy transfer involves the medium acquiring an induced electric dipole. The results provide insights into the detailed quantum mechanisms that operate in multi-chromophore systems, pointing to factors that contribute to the optimization of photosystem characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7214B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7214B"><span id="translatedtitle">Cenozoic climate evolution in Asian <span class="hlt">region</span> and its <span class="hlt">influence</span> on isotopic composition of precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Botsyun, Svetlana; Donnadieu, Yannick; Sepulchre, Pierre; Risi, Camille; Fluteau, Frédéric</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The evolution of Asian climate during the Cenozoic as well as the onset of monsoon systems in this area is highly debated. Factors that control climate include the geographical position of continents, the land-sea distribution and altitude of orogens. In tern, several climatic parameters such as air temperature, precipitation amount and isotopic fractionation through mass-dependent processes impact precipitation δ18O lapse rate. Stable oxygen paleoaltimetry is considered to be a very efficient and widely applied technique, but the link between stable oxygen composition of precipitation and climate is not well established. To quantify the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of paleogeography changes on climate and precipitation δ18O over Asia, the atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ-iso, with embedded stable oxygen isotopes, was used. For more realistic experiments, sea surface temperatures were calculated with the fully coupled model FOAM. Various scenarios of TP growth have been applied together with Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene boundary conditions. The results of our numerical modelling show a significant <span class="hlt">influence</span> of paleogeography changes on the Asian climate. The retreat of the Paratethys ocean, the changes in latitudinal position of India, and the height of the Tibetan Plateau most likely control precipitation patterns over Asia and cause spatial and temporal isotopic variations linked with the amount effect. Indian Ocean currents restructuring during the Eocene induces a substantial warming over Asian continent. The adiabatic and non-adiabatic temperature effects explain some of δ18O signal variations. We highlight the importance of these multiple factor on paleoelevations estimates derived using oxygen stable isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280625"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomaterials for <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K G; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R; Zetter, Bruce R; Shi, Jinjun</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Messenger RNA (<span class="hlt">mRNA</span>) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4641793','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4641793"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomaterials for <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Delivery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K. G.; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R.; Zetter, Bruce R.; Shi, Jinjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Messenger RNA (<span class="hlt">mRNA</span>) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC44B..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC44B..06T"><span id="translatedtitle">Large magnitude change of water isotope <span class="hlt">influence</span> by various factors over the Tibetan Plateau <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, L.; Yao, T.; Yu, W.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Paleoclimate and paleoenvironment have been rebuilt from isotopic record of ice cores, tree rings, lacustrine sediments, stalagmite and paleo-soil proxy records etc. This reconstruction method is based upon an established acceptance of relationship between present precipitation stable isotopes with one single climatic parameter, mostly air temperature. However, as hydrogen and oxygen isotopes are in the hydrological cycle, any other changes in atmosphere circulation and hydrological conditions also impact the water isotopic composition. The acknowledgment that parameters besides air temperature, affect water isotope composition is especially crucial when considering a long term geological time scale in which atmospheric circulation may not have been constant. Based on the present monitoring results of oxygen isotopes in precipitation, lake water, and glacial ice on the Tibetan Plateau <span class="hlt">region</span>, we present here a list of the parameters that can result in significant water isotope variations, including seasonal change of precipitation, altitudinal effect, moisture source changes, long-term change of precipitation isotopes and land surface processes. Conclusions show that all these factors can result in 5-11‰ variations in water δ18O, significant enough to distort the paleo-records. Thus, particularly when considering extended geological timescales, it is crucial to consider all factors that affect stable water isotopes before establishing the true paleo-climate and paleo-environment in the Tibetan Plateau <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113532S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113532S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Climate Change on Damages to Crops Produced by Hail Events at Spanish Peninsular <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saa Requejo, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; García Moreno, R.; Gascó, G.; Burgaz, F.; Díaz Alvarez, M. C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Climate, often the most critical factor for the sustainability of agricultural systems, dictates which crops will grow in a <span class="hlt">region</span>. Specific weather events, such as hail, will affect yield or quality of crops depending on the affected species, the temperatures reached and the timing of phenology. Predicting the occurrence of hailstorms is one of the most complicated tasks in weather forecasting because of the small area of land that is usually affected, and because of the short time hail events last. The importance of the study is related to the insurance of the different crops, since the damages are perceived as increasing during the last years, and consequently the amount of the economical compensations to crop producers. Under these conditions the State Agricultural Insurance Body of the Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs were interested to know the extent of the new changing conditions to analyze the viability of the actual system and the potential future changes. The results demonstrate trend variability on damage risk to different crops produced by hail events at the Spanish peninsula. Meanwhile in some provinces show a negative trend in others are positive. However, all of them present several oscillations that questionate these trends. The research evaluated also the average minimum temperatures in summer for 405 weather stations over the peninsular <span class="hlt">region</span> of Spain since 1981 until 2007, time in which crop insurance data can be verified. This study doesn't confirm the results obtained in France that relate hail damage registered with the average minimum temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC33B..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC33B..07S"><span id="translatedtitle">Local and Remote <span class="hlt">Influences</span> on Vertical Wind Shear over the Northern Tropical Atlantic <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saravanan, R.; Zhu, X.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Vertical wind shear is one of the most important parameters controlling the frequency and intensity of Atlantic hurricanes. It has been argued that in global warming scenarios, the mechanical effect of changing vertical wind shear may even trump the thermodynamic effect of increasing Atlantic sea surface temperatures, when it comes to projected trends in Atlantic hurricane activity. Despite its importance, little is known about the connection between vertical shear in the north Atlantic <span class="hlt">region</span> and the global atmospheric circulation, apart from the well-known positive correlation with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we analyze the statistical relationship between vertical shear and features of the large-scale circulation such as the distribution of sea surface temperature and vertical motion. We examine whether this relationship is different on interannual timescales associated with ENSO as compared to the decadal timescales associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). We also investigate how well the global general circulation models manage to simulate the observed vertical shear in this <span class="hlt">region</span>, and its relationship to the large-scale circulation. Our analyses reveal an interesting sensitivity to air-sea coupling in model simulations of vertical shear. Another interesting property of vertical shear, as defined in the context of hurricane studies, is that it is positive definite, rather like precipitation. This means that it has a very nongaussian probability distribution on short timescales. We analyze how this nongaussianity changes when averaged over longer timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..TSS.B1028B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..TSS.B1028B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte <span class="hlt">region</span>. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This <span class="hlt">region</span> suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020008"><span id="translatedtitle">Stagnation <span class="hlt">Region</span> Heat Transfer: The <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Turbulence Parameters, Reynolds Number and Body Shape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanfossen, G. James; Simoneau, Robert J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The effect of velocity gradient on stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span> heat transfer augmentation by free stream turbulence was investigated. Heat transfer was measured in the stagnation <span class="hlt">region</span> of four models with elliptical leading edges with ratios of major to minor axes of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2.25:1, and 3:1. Four geometrically similar, square bar, square mesh, biplane grids were used to generate free stream turbulence with different intensities and length. Heat transfer measurements were made for the following ranges of parameters: Reynolds number, based on leading edge diameter, 37,000 to 228,000; dimensionless leading edge velocity gradient, 1.20 to 1.80; turbulence intensity, 1.1 to 15.9%; and length scale to leading edge diameter ratio, 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation point heat transfer augmentation by free stream turbulence can be predicted using a modified version of a previously developed correlation for a circular leading edge. Heat transfer augmentation was independent of body shape at the stagnation point. The heat transfer distribution down-stream from the stagnation point can be predicted using the normalized laminar heat transfer distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...585A.110K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...585A.110K"><span id="translatedtitle">Wave propagation in a solar quiet <span class="hlt">region</span> and the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the magnetic canopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kontogiannis, I.; Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aims: We seek indications or evidence of transmission/conversion of magnetoacoustic waves at the magnetic canopy, as a result of its impact on the properties of the wave field of the photosphere and chromosphere. Methods: We use cross-wavelet analysis to measure phase differences between intensity and Doppler signal oscillations in the Hα, Ca ii h, and G-band. We use the height of the magnetic canopy to create appropriate masks to separate internetwork (IN) and magnetic canopy <span class="hlt">regions</span>. We study wave propagation and differences between these two <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Results: The magnetic canopy affects wave propagation by lowering the phase differences of progressive waves and allowing the propagation of waves with frequencies lower than the acoustic cut-off. We also find indications in the Doppler signals of Hα of a response to the acoustic waves at the IN, observed in the Ca ii h line. This response is affected by the presence of the magnetic canopy. Conclusions: Phase difference analysis indicates the existence of a complicated wave field in the quiet Sun, which is composed of a mixture of progressive and standing waves. There are clear imprints of mode conversion and transmission due to the interaction between the p-modes and small-scale magnetic fields of the network and internetwork.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11471598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11471598"><span id="translatedtitle">Broadband ultrasound attenuation imaging: <span class="hlt">influence</span> of location of <span class="hlt">region</span> of measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Damilakis, J; Papadakis, A; Perisinakis, K; Gourtsoyiannis, N</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of three different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of interest (ROIs) varying in size and shape on broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) measurements of the calcaneus. Two hundred and sixty-five postmenopausal Caucasian women participated in this study. In 43 women osteoporotic fractures were documented on spinal radiographs. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine and the femur were made using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BUA measurements were obtained at a circular ROI automatically determined by the imaging system (ROIc), at a manually traced irregular ROI encompassing the posterior part of the calcaneus (ROIi), and at an anatomical square ROI located in the posterior part of the calcaneus (ROIs). Reproducibility was better in ROIc than in ROIi and ROIs. High correlations were found between BUA measurements with ROIc and ROIs (r = 0.981, P < 0.0001) as well as between those with ROIc and ROIi (r = 0.965, P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between the correlations of BUA with axial BMD at ROIc compared with ROIi and ROIs. No significant difference was found between the areas under the ROC curve at ROIi, ROIc, and ROIs for women with fractures. The results show that superior reproducibility makes ROIc the most appropriate <span class="hlt">region</span> of BUA measurement in a comparison with ROIi and ROIs. PMID:11471598</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25345054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25345054"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Influence</span> of green roof application on water quantity and quality in urban <span class="hlt">region</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shu-Min; Li, Xing-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Yu, Hui; Hao, You-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Yi</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Green roof is widely used in advanced stormwater management as a major measure now. Taking Huxi catchment in Chongqing University as the study area, the relationships between green roof installation with runoff volume and water quality in urban <span class="hlt">region</span> were investigated. The results showed that roof greening in the urban <span class="hlt">region</span> contributed to reducing the runoff volume and pollution load. In addition, the spatial distribution and area of green roof also had effects on the runoff water quality. With the conditions that the roof area was 25% of the total watershed area, rainfall duration was 15 min and rainfall intensity was 14.8 mm x h(-1), the peak runoff and total runoff volume were reduced by 5.3% and 31%, the pollution loads of total suspended solid (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 40.0%, 31.6% and 29.8%, their peak concentrations decreased by 21.0%, 16.0% and -12.2%, and the EMCs (event mean concentrations) were cut down by 13.1%, 0.9% and -1.7%, respectively, when all impervious roofs were greened in the research area. With the increase of roof greening rate, the reduction rates of TSS and TP concentrations increased, while the reduction rate of TN concentration decreased on the whole. Much more improvement could be obtained with the use of green roofs near the outlet of the watershed. PMID:25345054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4555267','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4555267"><span id="translatedtitle">Melanoma in the Italian Population and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Environmental <span class="hlt">Influences</span>: A National Retrospective Survey on 2001–2008 Hospitalization Records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Falco, Andrea; Rivezzi, Matteo; Agnello, Nadia; Argentiero, Alberto; Chitano, Giovanna; Distante, Chiara; Della Rosa, Giulia; Vinci, Giorgia; De Donno, Antonella; Distante, Alessandro; Romanini, Antonella</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To assess the burden of <span class="hlt">regional</span> environmental factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> the incidence of Melanoma in the Italian population and overcome the problem of partial population coverage by local cancer registries and thematic archives. Methods: We analyzed the Italian national hospitalization records from 2001 to 2008 provided by the Ministry of Health, excluding hospital re-admissions of the same patients, in order to assess the occurrence of Melanoma over a 8-year period. Data were presented by age groups (absolute number of cases from 20 to ≥80 years old) and per <span class="hlt">Region</span> (rates per 100,000 inhabitants) for each year. Results: The overall number of new hospitalizations due to malignant Melanoma increased by 16.8% from 2001 (n = 4846) to 2008 (n = 5823), with the rate per 100,000 inhabitants passing from 10.5 to almost 12.0 at a national level. The majority of new diagnoses of malignant Melanoma was observed in two age groups: 61–70 years old (from 979 in 2001 up to 1209 in 2008, corresponding to 15.1 and 18.1 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively) and 71–80 years old (from 954 in 2001 up to 1141 in 2008, corresponding to 19.5 and 21.8 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). The number of hospitalizations due to Melanoma increased in all age groups with the only exception of the youngest patients aged 20–30 years old. The highest increases over the 8-year period were observed in people aged ≥81 years old (+34%), 61–70 years old (+20%) and surprisingly in the age group 31–40 years old (+17%). Southern <span class="hlt">Regions</span> showed lower hospitalization rates compared to Northern Italy and <span class="hlt">Region</span> Lazio. The highest increases between 2001 and 2008 were observed in Trentino/Alto Adige, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Valla d’Aosta and Veneto <span class="hlt">Region</span>. Conclusions: Hospitalizations due to malignant Melanoma in Italy seem to be <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by environmental or population-related factors showing a decreasing incidence rate from the Northern to Southern <span class="hlt">Regions</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743699','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743699"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of CTX-M steady-state <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-life and protein production in various STs of Escherichia coli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Geyer, Chelsie N.; Fowler, Randal C.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Weissman, Scott J.; Hawkey, Peter; Hanson, Nancy D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives High levels of β-lactamase production can impact treatment with a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination. Goals of this study were to: (i) compare the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and protein levels of CTX-M-15- and CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from 18 different STs and 10 different phylotypes; (ii) evaluate the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-lives and establish a role for chromosomal- and/or plasmid-encoded factors; and (iii) evaluate the zones of inhibition for piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam. Methods Disc diffusion was used to establish zone size. RNA analysis was accomplished using real-time RT–PCR and CTX-M protein levels were evaluated by immunoblotting. Clinical isolates, transformants and transconjugants were used to evaluate <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-lives. Results <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels of CTX-M-15 were up to 165-fold higher compared with CTX-M-14. CTX-M-15 protein levels were 2–48-fold less than their respective transcript levels, while CTX-M-14 protein production was comparable to the observed transcript levels. Nineteen of 25 E. coli (76%) had extended CTX-M-15 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-lives of 5–15 min and 16 (100%) CTX-M-14 isolates had <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-lives of <2–3 min. Transformants had <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-lives of <2 min for both CTX-M-type transcripts, while transconjugant <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-lives corresponded to the half-life of the donor. Ceftolozane/tazobactam zone sizes were ≥19 mm, while piperacillin/tazobactam zone sizes were ≥17 mm. Conclusions CTX-M-15 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and protein production did not correlate. Neither E. coli ST nor phylotype <span class="hlt">influenced</span> the variability observed for CTX-M-15 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> or protein produced. <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-life is controlled by a plasmid-encoded factor and may <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcript levels, but not protein levels. PMID:26612874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1427459C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1427459C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">influences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions can exceed the contributions from traffic emissions, and have been identified as a major cause of exceedences of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or <span class="hlt">regional</span> contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction likely included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC using average source ratios from published data was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Black carbon (BC) data from 2 and 7 wavelength Aethalometers were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic, based upon the enhanced absorption of wood smoke at UV wavelengths compared to BC. While the source apportionment of BC using this approach found similar trends to that observed for EC, higher percentage contributions of wood burning to BC were estimated. Based on a wood smoke mass conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at the sites was found to range from 0.78-1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.3149C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.3149C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and <span class="hlt">regional</span> <span class="hlt">influences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or <span class="hlt">regional</span> contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Aethalometer-derived black carbon data were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic and showed trends similar to those observed for EC. Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m tower in London suggested a similar ratio of brown to black carbon (reflecting wood burning and traffic respectively) in <span class="hlt">regional</span> and London air. Peaks in the levoglucosan and K+ concentrations were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, consistent with domestic heating as a major contributing local source in London. Overall, the source of biomass smoke in London was concluded to be a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1150882','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1150882"><span id="translatedtitle">Npl3 is an antagonist of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3′ end formation by RNA polymerase II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bucheli, Miriam E; Buratowski, Stephen</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Proper 3′ end formation is critical for the production of functional mRNAs. Termination by RNA polymerase II is linked to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> cleavage and polyadenylation, but it is less clear whether earlier stages of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> production also contribute to transcription termination. We performed a genetic screen to identify mutations that decreased transcriptional readthrough of a defective GAL10 poly(A) terminator. A partial deletion of the GAL10 downstream <span class="hlt">region</span> leads to transcription through the downstream GAL7 promoter, resulting in the inability of cells to grow on galactose. Mutations in elongation factors Spt4 and Spt6 suppress the readthrough phenotype, presumably by decreasing the amount of polymerase transcribing through the downstream GAL7 promoter. Interestingly, mutations in the mRNA-binding protein Npl3 improve transcription termination. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that Npl3 can antagonize 3′ end formation by competing for RNA binding with polyadenylation/termination factors. These results suggest that elongation rate and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> packaging can <span class="hlt">influence</span> polyadenylation and termination. PMID:15902270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3716631','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3716631"><span id="translatedtitle">Health insurance in Ghana: evaluation of policy holders’ perceptions and factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> policy renewal in the Volta <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Health insurance is an important mechanism that succors individuals, states and the nation at large. The purpose of this study was to assess individual’s attitude towards health insurance policy and the factors that <span class="hlt">influence</span> respondents’ decision to renew their health insurance policy when it expires. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in the Volta <span class="hlt">region</span> of Ghana. A total of 300 respondents were randomly sampled and interviewed for the study. Data was collected at the household level and analyzed with STATA software. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the demographic characteristics of the respondents while Logistic regression model was used to assess factors that <span class="hlt">influence</span> respondents’ decision to take up health insurance policy and renew it. Results The study results indicate that 61.1% of respondents are currently being enrolled in the NHIS, 23.9% had not renewed their insurance after enrollment and 15% had never enrolled. Reasons cited for non-renewal of insurance included poor service quality (58%), lack of money (49%) and taste of other sources of care (23%). The gender, marital status, religion and perception of health status of respondents significantly <span class="hlt">influenced</span> their decision to enroll and remain in NHIS. Conclusion NHIS has come to stay with clients testifying to its benefits in keeping them strong and healthy. Efforts therefore must be put in by all stakeholders including the community to educate the individuals on the benefits of health insurance to ensure all have optimal access. PMID:23822579</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2b..64K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2b..64K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of meteorological storms on ionospheric parameters in Baltic <span class="hlt">region</span> in 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karpov, Ivan; Borchevkina, Olga; Dadashev, Ruslan; Ilminskaya, Aleksandra</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The paper presents observations of atmospheric and ionospheric parameters during strong meteorological disturbances (storms) in the Kaliningrad <span class="hlt">region</span>. The critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) and the total electron content (TEC) were observed at the station Kaliningrad (20 °E, 54.20 °N). Atmospheric pressure and wind were taken to be the atmospheric parameters under study. The analysis of ionospheric observations has shown that during meteorological storms the amplitude of diurnal variations in TEC decreases to 50 %; and in foF2, to 15 % as compared to quiet days. The revealed changes in ionospheric conditions during meteorological storms are regularly registered and represent a characteristic feature of the meteorological effect on the ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9444008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9444008"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of livestock husbandry on schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Yunnan Province.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Z; Zheng, Q S; Wang, X F; Hua, Z H</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted in the highly endemic areas of schistosomiasis japonica in Weishan and Eryuan counties, Yunnan Province. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of domestic animals was increasing annually; 2) the proportion of animal husbandry gains in the total agriculture income had a yearly escalating tendency; 3) the infection rate of inhabitants was upgrading as a result of the development of and the prevalence in domestic animals in the recent decades. Owing to frequent migration of domestic animals, serious spread of infection sources and high prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica occurred. It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the control of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous endemic <span class="hlt">regions</span> during the course of economic development, especially in the development of domestic animals. PMID:9444008</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..55.1705C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..55.1705C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of the lunar ambience on dynamic surface hydration on sunlit <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Califorrniaa, E.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The accepted paradigm of a dry Moon has been upset by the recent detection of a wet Moon. EPOXI, NASA's extended mission for the Deep Impact spacecraft, observed and quantified dynamic surface hydration on sunlit <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the Moon by infrared spectrometry in separate flybys. MIP CHACE, released from ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, detected H2O by mass spectrometry in orbit in the sunlit lunar ambience at a partial pressure exceeding Apollo inferences by over two orders of magnitude. Here it is shown CHACE and EPOXI are mutually supportive, suggesting the order of magnitude reported by CHACE is correct. With this confirmation in mind, it is shown the CHACE data imply H2O in the lunar ambience impinges upon near equatorial surfaces at an annual average of ∼400 g m-2 yr-1 by cursory estimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ebha.confE..97K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ebha.confE..97K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of stellar component on the conditions for thermal instability in the Galactic center Minispiral <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kunneriath, D.; Rozanska, A.; Czerny, B.; Adhikari, T.; Karas, V.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Previously we demonstrated that collisions between clumps of gas in the Circum-Nuclear Disc can reduce their angular momentum and set some of the clumps on a plunging trajectory towards the supermassive black hole. If the central luminosity is determined by the gas accretion mechanism, then there exists a certain range of accretion rate and efficiency that allow the thermal instability to sustain the mass inflow through the two-temperature medium. Here we explore the stellar component of the nuclear star cluster which acts as an additional source of heating and contributes an additional energy input into the gaseous environment in the Galactic center Minispiral <span class="hlt">region</span>. Under these conditions we discuss the values of relevant parameters that can support or suppress the thermal instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.125...45M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.125...45M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of land surface flux on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate of the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Weiqiang; Ma, Yaoming</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Land surface heat fluxes over the heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau can serve as boundary conditions for modeling the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate and the Asian monsoon system. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric modeling system has enabled us to model the land surface heat flux through sensitivity experiments that utilize in situ observation data and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are foundational to understanding the water and energy cycles present during the Asian monsoon period. A series of sensitivity experiments based on the WRF model and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving the land surface heat fluxes (surface net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) over a heterogeneous land surface. The sensitivity experiments were simulated over the field area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period Asia-Australia Monsoon Project on the Tibetan Plateau (CEOP-CAMP/Tibet), located on the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. A WRF modeling period from July to August 2007 was selected for the summer monsoon conditions. To validate the modeling results, the ground-measured or calculated variables (e.g., net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) were compared to the simulated values. The modeling results show that the derived model land surface heat fluxes are in agreement with the land surface observations over the study area in summer. Therefore, the WRF model sensitivity experiments were successful in simulating the land surface heat fluxes over the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..142M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..142M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of land surface flux on the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate of the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Weiqiang; Ma, Yaoming</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Land surface heat fluxes over the heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau can serve as boundary conditions for modeling the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate and the Asian monsoon system. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric modeling system has enabled us to model the land surface heat flux through sensitivity experiments that utilize in situ observation data and the <span class="hlt">regional</span> land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are foundational to understanding the water and energy cycles present during the Asian monsoon period. A series of sensitivity experiments based on the WRF model and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving the land surface heat fluxes (surface net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) over a heterogeneous land surface. The sensitivity experiments were simulated over the field area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period Asia-Australia Monsoon Project on the Tibetan Plateau (CEOP-CAMP/Tibet), located on the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. A WRF modeling period from July to August 2007 was selected for the summer monsoon conditions. To validate the modeling results, the ground-measured or calculated variables (e.g., net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) were compared to the simulated values. The modeling results show that the derived model land surface heat fluxes are in agreement with the land surface observations over the study area in summer. Therefore, the WRF model sensitivity experiments were successful in simulating the land surface heat fluxes over the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/11028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/11028"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span>-scale <span class="hlt">influences</span> on urban air quality : a field study in Phoenix, Arizona.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaffney, J. S.</p> <p>1998-10-12</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> air quality can play an important role in determining whether urban ozone or PM-2.5 standards are exceeded. Background levels of nitrogen oxide species (NO{sub x}) and their interactions with natural organics can generate secondary aerosol products via formation of nitric acid and its subsequent reaction with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. Natural organics and reactive anthropogenic organic compounds, particularly aromatic species and monoterpenes, can also lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols, contributing to the formation of PM-2.5. Long-range transport and chemical transformation of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} via both photochemical reactions and nighttime chemistry can yield significant <span class="hlt">regional</span> levels of ozone and other oxidants, such as peroxyacyl nitrates (R-C=O-O-O-NO{sub 2}; PANs). The PANs are key species in determining the apparent age of an air parcel (Gaffney et al., 1989, 1993, 1997). The most common member of the family is peroxyacetyl nitrate (R=CH3-; PAN), which typically accounts for more than 85% of the PANs found in an urban or rural site. The PANs are in equilibrium with NO{sub 2}. Peroxyacyl radicals (R-C=O-O-O) are typically produced by the photooxidation reactions of organics, particularly those of aldehyde oxidation products with OH radical during the daytime (photochemically active) periods. Proposed mechanisms for nighttime formation of PANs (Gaffney et al., 1989) include abstraction reactions of nitrate radical (NO{sub 3}) and the initiation of OH chemistry by olefin-ozone reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23911009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23911009"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of vortical flow structures on the glottal jet location in the supraglottal <span class="hlt">region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kniesburges, Stefan; Hesselmann, Christina; Becker, Stefan; Schlücker, Eberhard; Döllinger, Michael</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Within the fully coupled multiphysics phonation process, the fluid flow plays an important role for sound production. This study addresses phenomena in the flow downstream of synthetic self-oscillating vocal folds. An experimental setup consisting of devices for producing and conditioning the flow including the main test channel was applied. The supraglottal channel was designed to prevent an acoustic coupling to the vocal folds. Hence, the oscillations were aerodynamically driven. The cross-section of the supraglottal channel was systematically varied by increasing the distance between the lateral channel walls. The vocal folds consisted of silicone rubber of homogenous material distribution generating self-sustained oscillations. The airflow was visualized in the immediate supraglottal <span class="hlt">region</span> using a laser-sheet technique and a digital high-speed camera. Furthermore, the flow was studied by measuring the static pressure distributions on both lateral supraglottal channel walls. The results clearly showed different flow characteristics depending on the supraglottal configuration. In all cases with supraglottal channel, the jet was located asymmetrical and bent in medial-lateral direction. Furthermore, the side to which the jet was deflected changed in between the consecutive cycles showing a bifurcational behavior. Previously, this phenomenon was explained by the Coanda effect. However, the present data suggest that the deflection of the jet was mainly caused by large air vortices in the supraglottal channel produced by the flow field of previous oscillations. In contrast, for the case without supraglottal channel, the air jet was found totally symmetrical stabilized by the constant pressure in the ambient <span class="hlt">region</span>. The emitted sound signal showed additional subharmonic tonal peaks for the asymmetric flow cases, which are characteristics for diplophonia. PMID:23911009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014TCry....8..289P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014TCry....8..289P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu (DSP) Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the DSP and the ER ice core drilling sites is only ~ 125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD) of the DSP core is interpreted in previous studies as a temperature proxy, while the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of <span class="hlt">regional</span> precipitation patterns over the <span class="hlt">region</span>, we find that remarkable discrepancy in precipitation seasonality between the two sites may account for their disparate isotopic interpretations. At the ER core site, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation is dominating due to topographic blocking of the moisture from westerlies by the high ridges of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), which results in a negative correlation between the ER Δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas in response to the "amount effect". At the DSP core site, in comparison with the ISM precipitation, the wintertime precipitation associated with the westerlies is likely more important owing to its local favorable topographic conditions for interacting with the western disturbances. Therefore, the DSP stable isotopic record may be primarily controlled by the westerlies. Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1646650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1646650"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear estradiol binding in rat adipocytes. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> variations and regulatory <span class="hlt">influences</span> of hormones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pedersen, S B; Børglum, J D; Eriksen, E F; Richelsen, B</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>The nuclear estrogen receptor was characterised in isolated rat adipocytes. The binding reaction with [3H]estradiol was performed with intact isolated rat adipocytes and the radioactivity associated with the nucleus was subsequently determined after cell lysis. The nuclear uptake of [3H]estrogen in rat adipocytes was temperature dependent and steroid specific. The steady-state binding was achieved after 30 min at 37 degrees C and was constant for several hours. Estradiol was found to bind to a homogeneous class of nuclear receptors in epididymal adipocytes with an apparent Kd of 3.1 +/- 0.76 nM and a Bmax of 7.98 +/- 1.11 fmol/10(6) cells corresponding to about 4800 receptors per nucleus. The estradiol binding exhibited <span class="hlt">regional</span> variations in isolated adipocytes. In lean rats the highest receptor number was found in epididymal adipocytes, whereas there was a significantly lower number of nuclear binding sites in perirenal and subcutaneous adipocytes (P less than 0.05), unlike in older and more obese rats where the nuclear estradiol binding was greatest in adipocytes from the perirenal fat depot. Incubations with isoproterenol (10 microM) and dibutyryl-cAMP (2.5 mM) both reduced estradiol binding by 56% (P less than 0.005), while insulin (1 nM) enhanced the estradiol binding by 37% (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, a specific and high affinity nuclear estradiol receptor was demonstrated in rat adipocytes and <span class="hlt">regional</span> differences in nuclear estradiol binding were detected. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that nuclear estradiol binding could be modulated by other agents known to affect adipocyte metabolism. PMID:1646650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4056462','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4056462"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential protein occupancy profiling of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcriptome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) mediate <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> biogenesis, translation and decay. We recently developed an approach to profile transcriptome-wide RBP contacts on polyadenylated transcripts by next-generation sequencing. A comparison of such profiles from different biological conditions has the power to unravel dynamic changes in protein-contacted cis-regulatory <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> without a priori knowledge of the regulatory protein component. Results We compared protein occupancy profiles of polyadenylated transcripts in MCF7 and HEK293 cells. Briefly, we developed a bioinformatics workflow to identify differential crosslinking sites in cDNA reads of 4-thiouridine crosslinked polyadenylated RNA samples. We identified 30,000 differential crosslinking sites between MCF7 and HEK293 cells at an estimated false discovery rate of 10%. 73% of all reported differential protein-RNA contact sites cannot be explained by local changes in exon usage as indicated by complementary RNA-seq data. The majority of differentially crosslinked positions are located in 3′ UTRs, show distinct secondary-structure characteristics and overlap with binding sites of known RBPs, such as ELAVL1. Importantly, <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcripts with the most significant occupancy changes show elongated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-lives in MCF7 cells. Conclusions We present a global comparison of protein occupancy profiles from different cell types, and provide evidence for altered <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> metabolism as a result of differential protein-RNA contacts. Additionally, we introduce POPPI, a bioinformatics workflow for the analysis of protein occupancy profiling experiments. Our work demonstrates the value of protein occupancy profiling for assessing cis-regulatory RNA sequence space and its dynamics in growth, development and disease. PMID:24417896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11f4018M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11f4018M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of various water stressors on <span class="hlt">regional</span> water supply infrastructures and their embodied energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Water supply consumes a substantial amount of energy directly and indirectly. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of water stressors on the embodied energy of water supply (EEWS). To achieve this goal, the EEWS in 75 North Carolina counties was estimated through an economic input-output based hybrid life cycle assessment. Ten water stressor indicators related to population, economic development, climate, water source, and land use were obtained for the 75 counties. A multivariate analysis was performed to understand the correlations between water stressor indicators and the EEWS. A regression analysis was then conducted to identify the statistically significant indicators in describing the EEWS. It was found that the total amount of water supply energy varies significantly among selected counties. Water delivery presents the highest energy use and water storage presents the least. The total embodied energy was found to be highly correlated with total population. The regression analysis shows that the total embodied energy can be best described by total population and temperature indicators with a relatively high R square value of 0.69.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpSpR....R..21K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpSpR....R..21K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of tropical F <span class="hlt">region</span> in ionosphere on propagation of short radio waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kolomiytsev, O. P.; Savchenko, P. P.</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>Tropical ionospheric waveguides in the presence of stratification of the electron concentration maximum were studied. Under these conditions a specific form of vertical electron concentration profile is formed which to a great extent determines the nature and conditions of propagation of short radio waves in the low latitudes. The phase trajectories were computed for a spherically stratified ionosphere. Three approaches for description of the ionospheric waveguide were used: comparative, temporal, latitudinal. Examples of computations are given which show that in a wide spatial-temporal range in the tropical ionosphere there is an additional ionospheric waveguide in which radio waves can be propagated along ricochetting trajectories. At identical time there can be three types of phases trajectories or three types of adjacent channels, each of which is characterized by a definite working frequency and definite conditions for the propagation of radio waves in it. The computations presented give a qualitative representation of the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of stratification of the electron concentration on the formation, dynamics and degeneration of the additional ionospheric waveguides in the tropical latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030837','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030837"><span id="translatedtitle">Minding the gap: Frequency of indels in mtDNA control <span class="hlt">region</span> sequence data and <span class="hlt">influence</span> on population genetic analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pearce, J.M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Insertions and deletions (indels) result in sequences of various lengths when homologous gene <span class="hlt">regions</span> are compared among individuals or species. Although indels are typically phylogenetically informative, occurrence and incorporation of these characters as gaps in intraspecific population genetic data sets are rarely discussed. Moreover, the impact of gaps on estimates of fixation indices, such as FST, has not been reviewed. Here, I summarize the occurrence and population genetic signal of indels among 60 published studies that involved alignments of multiple sequences from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control <span class="hlt">region</span> of vertebrate taxa. Among 30 studies observing indels, an average of 12% of both variable and parsimony-informative sites were composed of these sites. There was no consistent trend between levels of population differentiation and the number of gap characters in a data block. Across all studies, the average <span class="hlt">influence</span> on estimates of ??ST was small, explaining only an additional 1.8% of among population variance (range 0.0-8.0%). Studies most likely to observe an increase in ??ST with the inclusion of gap characters were those with < 20 variable sites, but a near equal number of studies with few variable sites did not show an increase. In contrast to studies at interspecific levels, the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of indels for intraspecific population genetic analyses of control <span class="hlt">region</span> DNA appears small, dependent upon total number of variable sites in the data block, and related to species-specific characteristics and the spatial distribution of mtDNA lineages that contain indels. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..455R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..455R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> and large-scale <span class="hlt">influences</span> on seasonal to interdecadal variability in Caribbean surface air temperature in CMIP5 simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryu, Jung-Hee; Hayhoe, Katharine</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We evaluate the ability of global climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to reproduce observed seasonality and interannual variability of temperature over the Caribbean, and compare these with simulations from atmosphere-only (AMIP5) and previous-generation CMIP3 models. Compared to station and gridded observations, nearly every CMIP5, CMIP3 and AMIP5 simulation tends to reproduce the primary inter-<span class="hlt">regional</span> features of the Caribbean annual temperature cycle. In most coupled model simulations, however, boreal summer temperature lags observations by about 1 month, with a similar lag in the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature (SST), and a systematic cold bias in both climatological annual mean air temperature and SST. There is some improvement from CMIP3 to CMIP5 but the bias is still marked compared to AMIP5 and observations, implying that biases in the annual temperature cycle may originate in the ocean component of the coupled models. This also suggests a tendency for models to over-emphasize the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of SSTs on near-surface temperature, a bias that may be exacerbated by model tendency to over-estimate ocean mixed layer depth as well. In contrast, we find that both coupled and atmosphere-only models tend to reasonably simulate the response of observed temperature to global temperature, to <span class="hlt">regional</span> and large-scale variability across the Caribbean <span class="hlt">region</span> and the Gulf of Mexico, and even to more remote Atlantic and Pacific <span class="hlt">influences</span>. These findings contribute to building confidence in the ability of coupled models to simulate the effect of global-scale change on the Caribbean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495981"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Regulation and Function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Del Campo, Cristian; Bartholomäus, Alexander; Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> secondary structure, translation efficiency and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> with implications in translation and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and <span class="hlt">influence</span> translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> degradation. PMID:26495981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4619774','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4619774"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Regulation and Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> secondary structure, translation efficiency and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> with implications in translation and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and <span class="hlt">influence</span> translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> degradation. PMID:26495981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4751693','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4751693"><span id="translatedtitle">Snf1-Dependent Transcription Confers Glucose-Induced Decay upon the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Braun, Katherine A.; Dombek, Kenneth M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the switch from respiratory metabolism to fermentation causes rapid decay of transcripts encoding proteins uniquely required for aerobic metabolism. Snf1, the yeast ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been implicated in this process because inhibiting Snf1 mimics the addition of glucose. In this study, we show that the SNF1-dependent ADH2 promoter, or just the major transcription factor binding site, is sufficient to confer glucose-induced <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay upon heterologous transcripts. SNF1-independent expression from the ADH2 promoter prevented glucose-induced <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay without altering the start site of transcription. SNF1-dependent transcripts are enriched for the binding motif of the RNA binding protein Vts1, an important mediator of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> repression whose expression is correlated with decreased abundance of SNF1-dependent transcripts during the yeast metabolic cycle. However, deletion of VTS1 did not slow the rate of glucose-induced <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay. ADH2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> rapidly dissociated from polysomes after glucose repletion, and sequences bound by RNA binding proteins were enriched in the transcripts from repressed cells. Inhibiting the protein kinase A pathway did not affect glucose-induced decay of ADH2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Our results suggest that Snf1 may <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability by altering the recruitment activity of the transcription factor Adr1. PMID:26667037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...25I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...25I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of nanomirelal phases on development processes of oil reservoirs in Volga-Ural <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izotov, Victor; Sitdikova, Lyalya</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The optimisation of oil-field development by enhancing oil recovery is the most important target in further improvement of oil production processes. The resulting economic benefits often exceed those from discoveries of new fields, especially in hard-to-reach <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Despite the wide use of enhanced oil recovery methods, their efficiency is in many cases not as high as expected. For instance, in terrigenous reservoirs of the Volga-Ural <span class="hlt">region</span> oil recovery rarely exceeds 0.4, and in carbonate reservoirs with the complex structure, variability and high oil viscosity it can be as low as 0.15-0.20. In natural bitumen fields, the recovery factor is even lower. Analysis of the conducted EOR optimisation operations indicates that EOR methods mainly aim to change the hydrodynamic conditions in the reservoir under development or the physicochemical properties of oil, - for instance, to decrease its viscosity or to change its lyophilic behaviour. The impact of EOR methods on the reservoir's mineral component remains largely unstudied. It is generally believed that the mineral component of the reservoir, its matrix, is inert and remains unaffected by EOR methods. However, the analysis of oil-field development processes and the available studies allow the conclusion that natural hydrocarbon reservoirs are sensitive to any impact on both the near-wellbore zone and the whole reservoir. The authors' research in the reservoir's mineral phase dynamics has permitted the conclusion that the reservoir's fluid phases (including hydrocarbons) and the reservoir itself form a lithogeochemical system that remains in unstable equilibrium. Any external impact, such as the reservoir penetration or the use of EOR methods, disturbs this equilibrium and changes the filtration characteristics of the reservoir, the fluid chemistry and the reaction of the reservoir's mineral component to the impact. In order to characterise the processes in the reservoir in the course of its development, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.5063I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.5063I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of forest shelterbelts on 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas (Tula <span class="hlt">region</span>, Russia).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Maxim; Shamshurina, Eugeniya; Tatyana, Paramonova; Vladimir, Belyaev; Angelina, Gavruchenkova; Nikolai, Lugovoy; Konstantinov, Pavel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The radioactive fallout after Chernobyl accident caused serious contamination by 137Cs along extensive area of East-European plain.Cs137 fall down on earth surface in two ways: gravitational - "dry" and rainfall - "wet" way. "Dry" fallout is a result of direct deposition of radionuclides from atmosphere with average speed of about 0.1-1 mm/sec. The fate of "dry fall"is far less than rainfall mechanism. Erupted water steam of reactor zone full of radioactive material enriched precipitation with 137Cs. Therefore, the derived spatial structure of contamination was under control of rainfall pattern in May-June 1986. On the areas affected by rainfall fallout was the Southern part of Tula <span class="hlt">region</span> in Middle Russia. It got name as "Plava hot spot" by the town in the center of this area. Tula is a traditional rural <span class="hlt">region</span>, the vast areas covered by chernozem soils are cultivated for centuries. During cultivation forest cover was reduced that urged growth of wind erosion and loss of soil fertility. Hence, in the middle of 20 the century large arrangements for creation of forest shelterbelts were conducted. High efficiency of shelterbelts made them a widely provided part of new human-transformed landscape. Usually shelterbelts are set as a regular network across main direction of winds in particular <span class="hlt">region</span>. Such organization help to reduce speed of air steam in the lowest 20-30 m layer of atmosphere. In addition, shelterbelts are very good collectors of snow in winter time which increase total moisture of soil and its fertility. Represented investigation is conducted to find out any correlation between shelterbelts and fallout of radionuclides. If such correlation is significant, it has to be taken into account for further environmental surveys. Two shelterbelts on the interfluve positions were chosen for detailed examination. Both selected objects emerged before 1986 but have different width, floristic composition, orientation and type of construction. One of shelterbelts is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V22B..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V22B..03T"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> extensional tectonic stress on the eruptive behaviour of subduction-zone volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tost, M.; Cronin, S. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Regional</span> tectonic stress is considered a trigger mechanism for explosive volcanic activity, but the related mechanisms at depth are not well understood. The unique geological setting of Ruapehu, New Zealand, allows investigation on the effect of enhanced <span class="hlt">regional</span> extensional crustal tension on the eruptive behaviour of subduction-zone volcanoes. The composite cone is located at the southwestern terminus of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, one of the most active silicic magma systems on Earth, which extends through the central part of New Zealand's North Island. Rhyolitic caldera eruptions are limited to its central part where crustal extension is highest, whereas lower extension and additional dextral shear dominate in the southwestern and northeastern segments characterized by andesitic volcanism. South of Ruapehu, the intra-arc rift zone traverses into a compressional geological setting with updoming marine sequences dissected by reverse and normal faults. The current eruptive behaviour of Ruapehu is dominated by small-scaled vulcanian eruptions, but our studies indicate that subplinian to plinian eruptions have frequently occurred since ≥340 ka and were usually preceded by major rhyolitic caldera unrest in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Pre-existing structures related to the NNW-SSE trending subduction-zone setting are thought to extend at depth and create preferred pathways for the silicic magma bodies, which may facilitate the development of large (>100 km3) dyke-like upper-crustal storage systems prior to major caldera activity. This may cause enhanced extensional stress throughout the entire intra-arc setting, including the Ruapehu area. During periods of caldera dormancy, the thick crust underlying the volcano and the enhanced dextral share rate likely impede ascent of larger andesitic magma bodies, and storage of andesitic melts dominantly occurs within small-scaled magma bodies at middle- to lower-crustal levels. During episodes of major caldera unrest, ascent and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESSD...810151V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESSD...810151V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Walsum, P. E. V.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Climate change impact modelling of hydrologic responses is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. Reducing this dependency was one of the goals of extending the <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrologic modelling system SIMGRO with a two-way coupling to the crop growth simulation model WOFOST. The coupling includes feedbacks to the hydrologic model in terms of the root zone depth, soil cover, leaf area index, interception storage capacity, crop height and crop factor. For investigating whether such feedbacks lead to significantly different simulation results, two versions of the model coupling were set up for a test <span class="hlt">region</span>: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous simulation of the crop growth, the "dynamic" model WOFOST. The used parameterization methods of the static/dynamic vegetation models ensure that for the current climate the simulated long-term average of the actual evapotranspiration is the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios. Owing to the higher temperatures in combination with a higher CO2-concentration of the atmosphere, a forward time shift of the crop development is simulated in the dynamic model; the used arable land crop, potatoes, also shows a shortening of the growing season. For this crop, a significant reduction of the potential transpiration is simulated compared to the static model, in the example by 15% in a warm, dry year. In consequence, the simulated crop water stress (the unit minus the relative transpiration) is lower when the dynamic model is used; also the simulated increase of crop water stress due to climate change is lower; in the example, the simulated increase is 15 percentage points less (of 55) than when a static model is used. The static/dynamic models also simulate different absolute values of the transpiration. The difference is most pronounced for potatoes at locations with ample moisture supply; this supply can either come from storage release of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=race+AND+bottom&pg=2&id=ED549781','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=race+AND+bottom&pg=2&id=ED549781"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> the Improved Academic Success in Literacy at the Knowledge Is Power Program School in the Delta <span class="hlt">Region</span> According to Administrator, Teacher, and Student Perceptions: Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Kimberly Jonetta</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that have <span class="hlt">influenced</span> the literacy success of the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) students in the low-income, poverty stricken Delta <span class="hlt">Region</span> of a mid-south state. The study examined the progress made since the implementation of the KIPP Program and the <span class="hlt">influence</span> the program has made upon student…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1105745.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1105745.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> the Improved Academic Success in Literacy at the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) Schools in the Delta <span class="hlt">Region</span> According to Adult Perceptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Kimberly J.; Holt, Carleton R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative case study explored factors that have <span class="hlt">influenced</span> literacy success of Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) students in the low-income, poverty stricken Delta <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Arkansas. The study examined progress made since implementation of the KIPP Program and the <span class="hlt">influence</span> the program had made upon student achievement in literacy at the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRD..111.2205R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRD..111.2205R"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of aerosol components <span class="hlt">influencing</span> atmospheric transfer of UV radiation in Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reinart, A.; Kikas, Ü.; Tamm, E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Linking of atmospheric aerosol size distributions and optical properties via predefined aerosol components was investigated. The measured aerosol volume distributions were decomposed to Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) components, and aerosol optical properties were calculated for a mixture of those components. The obtained aerosol optical properties were then used for modeling the surface UV irradiances with the libRadtran radiative transfer code. The results were verified with the columnar aerosol characteristics obtained from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station Tõravere (58.26°N, 26.46°E) and clear-sky surface UV measurements in Pärnu, Estonia (58.38°N, 24.51°E). The best decomposition results were obtained with four OPAC components, when their lookup characteristics varied within ±10%. Variation of aerosol optical properties in 17 days was <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by the following aerosol components: soot, 1.2 ± 1.4%; insoluble, 23.1 ± 8.3%; water-soluble, 44.0 ± 10.8%; accumulation mode sea salt, 31.6 ± 6.2% of total aerosol volume. The average refractive index (for λ = 440 nm) of the component mixture was of 1.42 - 0.013i. Interpretation of the soot component was disputable, since similarly high soot concentrations corresponded to the secondary particles in polluted atmosphere and the nucleation bursts in clean atmosphere. The sea-salt component showed a correlation with the aerosol residence time over sea. The water-soluble component and the additional "biomass haze" component represented partly the same aerosol volume in the diameter range of 0.18-1.8 μm. The surface UV irradiances modeled with the AERONET data and the fitted aerosol components were highly correlated with each other, but both model results underestimated the UV extinction by aerosol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.A34E..04G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.A34E..04G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Large-scale Climate Modes on Atmospheric Rivers That Drive <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Precipitation Extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, B.; Molotch, N. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Neiman, P. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow channels of enhanced meridional water vapor transport between the tropics and extratropics that drive precipitation extremes in the west coast areas of North America and other continents. The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of large-scale climate modes on ARs is analyzed in terms of modulation on AR frequency and AR-related snow water equivalent (SWE) anomalies, with a focus on understanding the causes of the anomalously snowy winter season of 2010/2011 in California's Sierra Nevada. Mean SWE on 1 April 2011 was ~70% above normal averaged over 100 snow sensors. AR occurrence was anomalously high during the season, with 20 AR dates from November to March and 14 dates in the month of December 2010, compared to the mean occurrence of 9 dates per season. Most of the season's ARs occurred during negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. Analysis of all winter ARs in California during water years 1998-2011 indicates more ARs occur during the negative phase of AO and PNA, with the increase between positive and negative phases being ~90% for AO, and ~50% for PNA. The circulation pattern associated with concurrent negative phases of AO and PNA, characterized by cyclonic anomalies centered northwest of California, provides a favorable dynamical condition for ARs. The analysis suggests that the massive Sierra Nevada snowpack during the 2010/2011 winter season is primarily related to anomalously high frequency of ARs favored by the joint phasing of -AO and -PNA, and that a secondary contribution is from increased snow accumulation during these ARs favored by colder air temperatures associated with -AO, -PNA and La Niña. The results have implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal predictability of AR activities and related weather and water extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005IJCli..25..351D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005IJCli..25..351D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of topographic co-variables on the spatial variability of precipitation over small <span class="hlt">regions</span> of complex terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diodato, Nazzareno</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Precipitation variability results from atmospheric circulation and complex site-specific bio-geoclimatic characteristics; therefore, climatic variables are expected to be correlated in a scale-dependent way. This paper studies the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of topographic co-variables on the spatial variability of precipitation over small <span class="hlt">regions</span> of complex terrain. For this purpose, the mutual benefits of an integrated geographic information system (GIS) and a geostatistics approach was used for spatial precipitation interpolation from rainfall observations measured at 51 climatic stations in a mountainous <span class="hlt">region</span> of southern Italy (Benevento province). As no single method is optimal for all <span class="hlt">regions</span>, it is important to compare the results obtained using alternative methods applied to the same data set. Therefore, besides ordinary kriging examination, two auxiliary variables were added for ordinary co-kriging of annual and seasonal precipitation: terrain elevation data and a topographic index. Cross-validation indicated that the ordinary kriging yielded the largest prediction errors. The smallest prediction errors were produced by a multivariate geostatistical method. However, the results favour the ordinary co-kriging with inclusion of information on the topographic index. The application of co-kriging is particularly justified in areas where there are nearby stations and where landform is very complex. We conclude that ordinary co-kriging is a very flexible and robust interpolation method because it may take into account several properties (soft and hard data) of the landscape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5273613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5273613"><span id="translatedtitle">Processes for Identifying <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Influences</span> of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO sub 2 and Climate Change --- The MINK Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Lemon, K.M.</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The second report of a series Processes for Identifying <span class="hlt">Regional</span> <span class="hlt">Influences</span> of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and Climate Change -- The MINK Project is composed of two parts. This Report (IIB) deals with agriculture at the level of farms and Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs). The Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), a crop growth simulation model developed by scientists at the US Department of Agriculture, is used to study the impacts of the analog climate on yields of main crops in both the 1984/87 and the 2030 baselines. The results of this work with EPIC are the basis for the analysis of the climate change impacts on agriculture at the <span class="hlt">region</span>-wide level undertaken in this report. Report IIA treats agriculture in MINK in terms of state and <span class="hlt">region</span>-wide production and resource use for the main crops and animals in the baseline periods of 1984/87 and 2030. The effects of the analog climate on the industry at this level of aggregation are considered in both baseline periods. 41 refs., 40 figs., 46 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045467','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045467"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrology on nesting behavior and nest fate of the American alligator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ugarte, Cristina A.; Bass, Oron L.; Nuttle, William; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Whelan, Kevin R.T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Hydrologic conditions are critical to the nesting behavior and reproductive success of crocodilians. In South Florida, USA, growing human settlement has led to extensive surface water management and modification of historical water flows in the wetlands, which have affected <span class="hlt">regional</span> nesting of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Although both natural and anthropogenic factors are considered to determine hydrologic conditions, the aspects of hydrological patterns that affect alligator nest effort, flooding (partial and complete), and failure (no hatchling) are unclear. We deconstructed annual hydrological patterns using harmonic models that estimated hydrological matrices including mean, amplitude, timing of peak, and periodicity of surface water depth and discharge and examined their effects on alligator nesting using survey data from Shark Slough, Everglades National Park, from 1985 to 2005. Nest effort increased in years with higher mean and lesser periodicity of water depth. A greater proportion of nests were flooded and failed when peak discharge occurred earlier in the year. Also, nest flooding rates were greater in years with greater periodicity of water depth, and nest failure rate was greater when mean discharge was higher. This study guides future water management decisions to mitigate negative impacts on reproduction of alligators and provides wildlife managers with a tool for assessing and modifying annual water management plans to conserve crocodilians and other wetland species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6867898','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6867898"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of site of <span class="hlt">regional</span> ischemia on LV cavity shape change in dogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marino, P.; Kass, D.; Lima, J.; Maughan, W.L.; Graves, W.; Weiss, J.L. )</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>The authors assessed whether altering the location of acute ischemia produced differing and consistent changes in cavity shape in the canine left ventricle. Twenty anesthetized open-chest dogs underwent transient occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) or circumflex (Circ) artery, and cavity shape change was recorded in two-dimensional short-axis echocardiograms. The extent of injury was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. Shape was analyzed by converting digitized endocardial contours into polar form and expressing the results as a Fourier series. Series terms reflected specific shape deformations. Normal ventricular shape became more circular during ejection indicated by a reduction in the power in nearly all of the Fourier spectra components. During Circ occlusion, the chamber became more elongated and overall shape significantly less circular at end systole than at end diastole. LAD occlusion produced an entirely different pattern, one with no significant elongation but the development of a more triangular shape by end systole. They conclude that there are characteristic and contrasting shape deformations in LV short-axis contours that depend on the site of ischemic injury. These changes may relate to site-specific geometry and loading, and they point to potential limitations of left ventricular models that no not account for <span class="hlt">regional</span> inhomogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2237996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2237996"><span id="translatedtitle">Cultural <span class="hlt">influences</span> on health care use: two <span class="hlt">regional</span> groups in India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Basu, A M</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>While health care services are increasingly being seen as a major proximate determinant of decreased mortality in a population, it also seems to be the case that the mere provision of services does not lead to their better utilization. However, in general, it is difficult to explore differences in utilization because the availability of services itself varies so greatly. This report presents the results of a study in India of two distinct <span class="hlt">regional</span> groups of similar socioeconomic status, residing in the same locality and, therefore, theoretically exposed to the same health services. Both groups share a strong faith in modern medicine (especially if it is obtained from a private practitioner) for the treatment of most common illnesses. However, important cultural differentials exist in the medical services sought for childbirth and in the treatment of morbidity in children of different ages and sexes. These cultural commonalities and differentials are described, their possible causes--primary among these being the status of women--explored, and some policy recommendations made. PMID:2237996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070632"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, <span class="hlt">regional</span> policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032857','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032857"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic and anthropogenic factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> karst development in the Frederick <span class="hlt">region</span> of Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brezinski, D.K.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Karst features pervade the outcrop belts of Triassic, Ordovician, and Cambrian rocks in the Frederick Valley <span class="hlt">region</span> of Maryland's western Piedmont. Detailed stratigraphic analysis and geologic and karst mapping demonstrate that individual stratigraphic units have differing susceptibilities of karst feature creation. Although the Triassic Leesburg Member of the Bull Run Formation and Rocky Springs Station Member of the Cambrian Frederick Formation have many surface depressions within their outcrop belts, the Lime Kiln Member of the Frederick Formation and the Ceresville, Fountain Rock, and Woodsboro members of the Ordovician Grove Formation have the greatest potential for development of catastrophic collapse sinkholes. Although these four members have the highest relative susceptibility, human activity can increase the potential for sinkhole activation in all units. Rerouting of surface drainage patterns, unlined drainage, and storm-water management areas and removal of significant overburden deposits significantly increase sinkhole development, but mainly, these units are inherently more susceptible to begin with. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847072','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, <span class="hlt">regional</span> policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710634','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710634"><span id="translatedtitle">Cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover and ageing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borbolis, Fivos; Syntichaki, Popi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Messenger RNA (<span class="hlt">mRNA</span>) turnover that determines the lifetime of cytoplasmic mRNAs is a means to control gene expression under both normal and stress conditions, whereas its impact on ageing and age-related disorders has just become evident. Gene expression control is achieved at the level of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> clearance as well as <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability and accessibility to other molecules. All these processes are regulated by cis-acting motifs and trans-acting factors that determine the rates of translation and degradation of transcripts. Specific messenger RNA granules that harbor the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay machinery or various factors, involved in translational repression and transient storage of mRNAs, are also part of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> fate regulation. Their assembly and function can be modulated to promote stress resistance to adverse conditions and over time affect the ageing process and the lifespan of the organism. Here, we provide insights into the complex relationships of ageing modulators and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover mechanisms. PMID:26432921</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23877191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23877191"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel TaqI polymorphism in the coding <span class="hlt">region</span> of the ovine TNXB gene in the MHC class III <span class="hlt">region</span>: morphostructural and physiological <span class="hlt">influences</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ajayi, Oyeyemi O; Adefenwa, Mufliat A; Agaviezor, Brilliant O; Ikeobi, Christian O N; Wheto, Matthew; Okpeku, Moses; Amusan, Samuel A; Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; De Donato, Marcos; Peters, Sunday O; Imumorin, Ikhide G</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The tenascin-XB (TNXB) gene has antiadhesive effects, functions in matrix maturation in connective tissues, and localizes to the major histocompatibility complex class III <span class="hlt">region</span>. We hypothesized that it may <span class="hlt">influence</span> adaptive physiological response through an effect on blood vessel function. We identified a novel g.1324 A→G polymorphism at a TaqI recognition site in a 454 bp fragment of ovine TNXB and genotyped it in 150 Nigerian sheep using PCR-RFLP. The missense mutation changes glutamic acid (GAA) to glycine (GGA). Among SNP genotypes, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in body weight and fore cannon bone length. Interaction effects of breed, SNP genotype, and geographic location had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on chest girth. The SNP genotype was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with physiological traits of pulse rate and skin temperature. The observed effect of this novel polymorphism may be mediated through its role in connective tissue biology, requiring further association and functional studies. PMID:23877191</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2901395','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2901395"><span id="translatedtitle">Early menopausal hormone use <span class="hlt">influences</span> brain <span class="hlt">regions</span> used for visual working memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berent-Spillson, Alison; Persad, Carol C.; Love, Tiffany; Tkaczyk, Anne; Wang, Heng; Reame, Nancy K.; Frey, Kirk A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Objective Cognitive benefit of postmenopausal hormone use is controversial; however, timing treatment close to menopause may increase the likelihood of preserving cognitive function. We examined effects of early-initiation hormone use on visual working memory, hypothesizing that long-term hormone use is associated with greater brain activation during visual working memory. Methods This is a cross-sectional comparison of long-term early hormone users – current (n=13) and past (n=24, 2.1±1.0 years off hormones) – to never-users (n=18), using a visual memory task and functional MRI. We evaluated 55 women over age 60 at the University of Michigan’s General Clinical Research Center. Hormone users had completed at least ten continuous years of conjugated equine estrogens with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate, began within two years of menopause. Women were excluded for illness, medication, intermittent estrogen use, phytoestrogen use, recent smoking, and MRI contraindications. The primary outcome was functional MRI-detected brain activity during the visual memory task. Results Compared to never-users, both hormone-user groups had increased activation in the frontal and parietal cortices, insula, hippocampus, and cingulate; combined hormone-users also had increased activation in the putamen and raphe (corrected p<0.05 or uncorrected p<0.001 with a priori hypothesis). Across the entire sample, medial temporal cortex (p<0.000 right; p<0.018 left) and right hippocampus (p<0.000) positively correlated with task performance. Conclusions Hormone use was associated with increased brain activation during the visual memory task, in <span class="hlt">regions</span> used for visual working memory. A positive correlation between activation and task performance suggests that early-initiated long-term postmenopausal hormone use may benefit visual working memory. PMID:20300040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=231832','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=231832"><span id="translatedtitle">Posttranscriptional regulation of urokinase receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>: identification of a novel urokinase receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> binding protein in human mesothelioma cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shetty, S; Kumar, A; Idell, S</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Treatment of human pleural mesothelioma (MS-1) cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and cycloheximide results in 17- and 10-fold, respectively, increases in steady-state expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Studies of transcriptional inhibition by actinomycin D showed four- and sixfold extensions of uPAR <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> half-life in MS-1 cells treated with PMA and cycloheximide, respectively, suggesting that uPAR gene expression involves a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. Using gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, we identified a 50-kDa uPAR <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> binding protein (uPAR mRNABp) that selectively bound to a 51-nucleotide (nt) fragment of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> corresponding to the uPAR coding <span class="hlt">region</span>. We investigated the possibility that this 51-nt protein binding fragment of uPAR <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> contains regulatory information for message stability. Chimeric beta-globin/uPAR/beta-globin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> containing the 51-nt protein binding fragment was able to destabilize otherwise stable beta-globin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Conversely, a control chimeric beta-globin/uPAR/beta-globin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> containing a 51-nt fragment of the uPAR coding <span class="hlt">region</span> that does not bind uPAR mRNABp was stable under identical conditions. Binding of uPAR mRNABp to uPAR <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was abolished after treatment with cycloheximide and rapidly down-regulated by PMA. These data suggest that the 51-nt protein binding fragment of uPAR <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> may be involved in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover as well as in cycloheximide-induced uPAR message stabilization. Our results indicate a novel mechanism of uPAR gene regulation in which cis elements within a 51-nt coding <span class="hlt">region</span> interact with a uPAR mRNABp to regulate uPAR message stability. PMID:9032234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9734E..0SH&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9734E..0SH&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of 2.5 μm VECSEL: <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the QW active <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holl, P.; Rattunde, M.; Adler, S.; Bächle, A.; Diwo-Emmer, E.; Aidam, R.; Manz, C.; Köhler, K.; Wagner, J.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Using the (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material system, VECSELs covering the 2 - 3 μm wavelength range can be realized. The best laser performance of GaSb-based VECSELs was achieved so far at emission wavelengths around 2.0 μm with a slope efficiency of more than 30 %, a low threshold pump power density of 1.1 kW/cm2 at 20°C heatsink temperature and concomitant a high output power exceeding 7 W in CW operation (depending on the mounting technology). These parameters were degrading significantly for longer wavelength devices emitting around 2.5 μm and 2.8 μm. But for applications like the generation of MWIR light (3-8 μm) by pumping ZGP-OPOs, high-power VECSELs around 2.5 μm are required to suppress absorption losses, while for medical laser treatment, high-power operation near the water absorption peak at around 2.9 μm is desirable. We will present results of our ongoing research strand for further optimization of the semiconductor heterostructure design of >= 2.5 μm emitting GaSb-based VECSELs. By using a low quantum deficit design (i.e. optical pumping at around 1.5 μm) in combination with highly strained QWs (compressive strain 2.1 %) we were able to realize a 2.5 μm emitting VECSEL with a slope efficiency above 30 %, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency exceeding 50 %, and a low threshold pump power density of 0.8 kW/cm2. These values are as good as those for the best performing 2.0 μm VECSELs. With a frontside SiC heatspreader and operated in a standard linear cavity, over 7 W of CW output power were achieved for this 2.5 μm emitting VECSEL structure when operated at 20°C. Furthermore, we will compare laser structures with different emission wavelengths and discuss the role of the QW strain, band-offset and active <span class="hlt">region</span> composition on laser performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.7392H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.7392H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete <span class="hlt">Region</span>, SE Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha <span class="hlt">Region</span>, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25536665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25536665"><span id="translatedtitle">Osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is stabilized by binding to vimentin intermediary filaments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Yvonne; Biniossek, Martin; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter; Simunovic, Filip</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Vascularization is essential in bone tissue engineering and recent research has focused on interactions between osteoblasts (hOBs) and endothelial cells (ECs). It was shown that cocultivation increases the stability of osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. We investigated the mechanisms behind this observation, focusing on <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> binding proteins. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found that the 3'-untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (UTR) of ALP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is necessary for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-mediated stabilization of osteoblastic ALP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Using pulldown experiments and nanoflow-HPLC mass spectrometry, vimentin was identified to bind to the 3'-UTR of ALP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Validation was performed by Western blotting. Functional experiments inhibiting intermediate filaments with iminodipropionitrile and specific inhibition of vimentin by siRNA transfection showed reduced levels of ALP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and protein. Therefore, ALP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> binds to and is stabilized by vimentin. This data add to the understanding of intracellular trafficking of ALP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, its function, and have possible implications in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25536665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=219570','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=219570"><span id="translatedtitle">Helicobacter pylori cag Pathogenicity Island Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and Modulation of the IL-4δ2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Isoform in Human Gastric Mucosa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Orsini, Barbara; Ottanelli, Barbara; Amedei, Amedeo; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Capanni, Marco; Del Prete, Gianfranco; Amorosi, Andrea; Milani, Stefano; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Surrenti, Calogero</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4δ2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> gastric expression was evaluated in healthy subjects and patients who did not have ulcers but were infected with Helicobacter pylori with or without the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). IL-4 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was physiologically expressed by gastric epithelium and negatively <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by H. pylori. Also, nonepithelial cells in the lamina propria of H. pylori-infected patients expressed IL-4 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, whereas IL-4δ2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was found only in cag PAI-negative patients. Thus, gastric IL-4 takes part in the local immune response to H. pylori. PMID:14573693</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...134....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...134....1L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influences</span> of large- and <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale climate on fish recruitment in the Skagerrak-Kattegat over the last century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Linderholm, Hans W.; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Bartolino, Valerio; Chen, Deliang; Ou, Tinghai; Svedäng, Henrik</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Dynamics of commercial fish stocks are generally associated with fishing pressure and climate variability. Due to short time series, past studies of the relationships between fish stock dynamics and climate have mainly been restricted to the last few decades. Here we analyzed a century-long time series of plaice, cod and haddock from the Skagerrak-Kattegat, to assess the long-term <span class="hlt">influence</span> of climate on recruitment. Recruitment success (RS) was compared against sea-surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation indices on large (North Atlantic) and <span class="hlt">regional</span> (Skagerrak-Kattegat) scales. Our results show that the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of climate on RS was more pronounced on longer, than on shorter timescales. Over the century-long period, a shift from low to high climate sensitivity was seen from the early to the late part for plaice and cod, while the opposite was found for haddock. This shift suggests that the increasing fishing pressure and the climate change in the Skagerrak-Kattegat have resulted in an increased sensitivity of RS to climate for plaice and cod. The diminishing of climate sensitivity in haddock RS, on the other hand, may be linked to the early twentieth century collapse of the stock in the <span class="hlt">region</span>. While no long-term relationship between RS and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) could be found, large RS fluctuations during the positive phase of the AMO (1935-1960), relative to the cold phases, suggests a changed pattern in recruitment during warm periods. On the other hand, this could be due to the increased fishing pressure in the area. Thus, reported correlations between climate and fish may be caused by strong trends in climate in the late-twentieth century, and coincident reduction in fish stocks caused by intense fishing, rather than a stable relationship between climate and fish recruitment per se.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3305582','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3305582"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining evidence of selection with association analysis increases power to detect <span class="hlt">regions</span> <span class="hlt">influencing</span> complex traits in dairy cattle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Hitchhiking mapping and association studies are two popular approaches to map genotypes to phenotypes. In this study we combine both approaches to complement their specific strengths and weaknesses, resulting in a method with higher statistical power and fewer false positive signals. We applied our approach to dairy cattle as they underwent extremely successful selection for milk production traits and since an excellent phenotypic record is available. We performed whole genome association tests with a new mixed model approach to account for stratification, which we validated via Monte Carlo simulations. Selection signatures were inferred with the integrated haplotype score and a locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score that works with a folded frequency spectrum and provides a formal test of signifance to identify selection signatures. Results About 1,600 out of 34,851 SNPs showed signatures of selection and the locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score showed overall good accordance with the whole genome association study. Each approach provides distinct information about the genomic <span class="hlt">regions</span> that <span class="hlt">influence</span> complex traits. Combining whole genome association with hitchhiking mapping yielded two significant loci for the trait protein yield. These <span class="hlt">regions</span> agree well with previous results from other selection signature scans and whole genome association studies in cattle. Conclusion We show that the combination of whole genome association and selection signature mapping based on the same SNPs increases the power to detect loci <span class="hlt">influencing</span> complex traits. The locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score provides a formal test of significance in selection signature mapping. Importantly it does not rely on knowledge of ancestral and derived allele states. PMID:22289501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930318"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution patterns and possible <span class="hlt">influencing</span> factors of As speciation in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea <span class="hlt">region</span>, East Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lou, Chuangneng; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Wenqi; Wu, Libin; Nie, Yaguang; Emslie, Steven D</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Ornithogenic sediments are rich in toxic As (arsenic) compounds, posing a potential threat to local ecosystems. Here we analyzed the distribution of As speciation in three ornithogenic sediment profiles (MB6, BI and CC) collected from the Ross Sea <span class="hlt">region</span>, East Antarctica. The distributions of total As and total P (phosphorus) concentrations were highly consistent in all three profiles, indicating that guano input is a major factor controlling total As distribution in the ornithogenic sediments. The As found in MB6 and CC is principally As(V) (arsenate), in BI As(III) (arsenite) predominates, but the As in fresh guano is largely composed of DMA (dimethylarsinate). The significant difference of As species between fresh guano and ornithogenic sediment samples may be related to diagenetic processes after deposition by seabirds. Based on analysis of the sedimentary environment in the studied sediments, we found that the redox conditions have an obvious <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the As speciation distribution. Moreover, the distributions of As(III) and chlorophyll a in the MB6 and BI profiles are highly consistent, demonstrating that aquatic algae abundance may also <span class="hlt">influence</span> the distribution patterns of As speciation in the ornithogenic sediments. PMID:26930318</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.7145H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.7145H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A spatially explicit multi-isotope approach to map <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> of plant-plant interactions after exotic plant invasion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hellmann, Christine; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Exotic plant invasions impose profound alterations to native ecosystems, including changes of water, carbon and nutrient cycles. However, explicitly quantifying these impacts remains a challenge. Stable isotopes, by providing natural tracers of biogeochemical processes, can help to identify and measure such alterations in space and time. Recently, δ15N isoscapes, i.e. spatially continuous representations of isotopic values, derived from native plant foliage, enabled to accurately trace nitrogen introduced by the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia into a native Portuguese dune system. It could be shown that the area of the system which was altered by the invasive species exceeded the area which was covered by the invader by far. But still, definition of clear <span class="hlt">regions</span> of <span class="hlt">influence</span> is to some extent ambiguous. Here, we present an approach using multiple isoscapes derived from measured foliar δ13C and δ15N values of a native, non-fixing species, Corema album. By clustering isotopic information, we obtained an objective classification of the study area. Properties and spatial position of clusters could be interpreted to distinguish areas that were or were not <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by A. longifolia. Spatial clusters at locations where A. longifolia was present had δ15N values that were enriched, i.e. close to the atmospheric signal of 0 o compared to the depleted values of the uninvaded system (ca. -11 o). Furthermore, C. album individuals in these clusters were characterized by higher foliar N content and enriched δ13C. These results indicate that the N2-fixing A. longifolia added nitrogen to the system which originated from the atmosphere and was used by the native C. album, inducing functional changes, i.e. an increase in WUE. Additionally, clusters were identified that were presumably determined by inherent properties of the native system. Thus, combining isotope ecology with geostatistical methods is a promising approach for mapping <span class="hlt">regions</span> of <span class="hlt">influence</span> in multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13G0589M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13G0589M"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards integrating the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of erosion on within field variability of C input, stock and stability in <span class="hlt">regional</span> SOC estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meersmans, J.; Quine, T. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Improved management of the SOC pool has become an important issue for policymakers in order to maintain soil quality and reduce climate change. Hence, there exists an increased interest in accurate mapping of SOC at the <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. Most of these studies are limited to topsoil, consider only factors present at the landscape scale (e.g. climate, land use, soil type) and are at rather coarse resolution. Consequently, the variability of SOC at smaller scales in complex terrain driven by soil erosion, such as stable subsoil carbon buried in depositional areas, is still rather understudied and is not (well) presented in these estimates. Nevertheless, incorporating this smaller level of spatial detail will most probably have a major <span class="hlt">influence</span> on <span class="hlt">regional</span> SOC stock dynamics' calculations and mapping. In the present study we aim to unravel the variation in quantity and quality of SOC depth distributions along typical hillslope transects under cropland (Devon, UK) and relate these to soil redistribution rates and variations in C input, i.e. below and above ground biomass productivity. The radionuclide isotope Caesium-137 (137Cs) was used as proxy for erosion. The results show contrasting vertical patterns in SOC stock and stability depending on the rate and type of erosion. For example, sites characterized by deposition due to water erosion (i.e. foot slope) have much higher SOC values near the surface, but show a fast decline with depth, while sites characterized by deposition due to tillage erosion (i.e. most concave position) have moderated SOC surface values that stay constant until a depth of 50 cm, but with increasing stability with depth. The above ground biomass productivity is most linked to water erosion, since we found lowest above ground biomass at the steepest slope position and the highest above ground biomass at the foot slopes. Furthermore, root biomass in the most concave section is significantly higher as compared to any other topo-position. The present</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412362E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412362E"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> and local heterogeneities within a chalk karst aquifer based on nitrates and chlorides analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Janyani, S.; Dupont, J. P.; Massei, N.; Dörfliger, N.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In Upper Normandy, a <span class="hlt">region</span> located in the western Paris Basin, the main source of drinking water comes from the karst aquifer. Developing under the chalk plateaus, it is a covered aquifer overlaid by superficial formations of clay-with-flints and loess. Clay-with-flints result from chalk weathering whereas loess are wind periglacial deposits. The local geologic and hydrogelogic contexts are characterized by a mature development of sinkholes. The chalk karst is causing turbidity, often linked to the fast infiltration of surface water, carrying the products of river and slope erosion and associated contaminants into the aquifer through the sinkholes. Several authors have shown the potential of turbidity as a marker of suspended elements transport and karst conduits fast transport. In this study, we conducted monthly monitoring of 11 boreholes located in the upstream watershed near boreholes (surveyed by the French Geological Survey BRGM): Graveron-Semerville in the Southern department of Upper Normandy (Eure) and Rocquemont in the Norhtern department of Upper Normandy (Seine-Maritime). The monitoring carried out included water level and electrical conductivity (reflecting total water mineralization) measurements, and major elements analysis. In any case, the water levels are similar over time (in accordance with the reference borehole). High mineralizations are observed in the Eure boreholes with significant anomalies of nitrate (70 to 130 mg/l ) and chloride (35 to 90 mg/l). For the Seine Maritime boreholes, no anomalies in nitrates and chlorides were found. To explain such differences, the agricultural activities are not sufficiently different from the study site. The explanation would then come from different reservoirs involved in water storage: loessic formations, thicker and more spreaded in the Seine Maritime department and clay with flints, of significantly higher thickness on average in the Eure department. We also discuss the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the drainage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...37.2005P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...37.2005P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influences</span> of climate change on California and Nevada <span class="hlt">regions</span> revealed by a high-resolution dynamical downscaling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Lin-Lin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Cayan, Dan; Lin, Mei-Ying; Hart, Quinn; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Liu, Yubao; Wang, Jianzhong</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In this study, the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of climate change to California and Nevada <span class="hlt">regions</span> was investigated through high-resolution (4-km grid spacing) dynamical downscaling using the WRF (Weather Research & Forecasting) model. The dynamical downscaling was performed to both the GFS (Global forecast model) reanalysis (called GFS-WRF runs) from 2000-2006 and PCM (Parallel Climate Model) simulations (called PCM-WRF runs) from 1997-2006 and 2047-2056. The downscaling results were first validated by comparing current model outputs with the observational analysis PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) dataset. In general, the dominant features from GFS-WRF runs and PCM-WRF runs were consistent with each other, as well as with PRISM results. The <span class="hlt">influences</span> of climate change on the California and Nevada <span class="hlt">regions</span> can be inferred from the model future runs. The averaged temperature showed a positive trend in the future, as in other studies. The temperature increases by around 1-2°C under the assumption of business as usual over 50 years. This leads to an upward shifting of the freezing level (the contour line of 0°C temperature) and more rain instead of snow in winter (December, January, and February). More hot days (>32.2°C or 90°F) and extreme hot days (>37.8°C or 100°F) are predicted in the Sacramento Valley and the southern parts of California and Nevada during summer (June, July, and August). More precipitation is predicted in northern California but not in southern California. Rainfall frequency slightly increases in the coast <span class="hlt">regions</span>, but not in the inland area. No obvious trend of the surface wind was indicated. The probability distribution functions (PDF) of daily temperature, wind and precipitation for California and Nevada showed no significant change in shape in either winter or summer. The spatial distributions of precipitation frequency from GFS-WRF and PCM-WRF were highly correlated (r = 0.83). However, overall positive shifts were seen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmEn.103...66C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmEn.103...66C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change on meteorological characteristics and their subsequent effect on ozone dispersion in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Fang-Yi; Jian, Shan-Ping; Yang, Zhih-Min; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Tsuang, Ben-Jei</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to understand the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate change on local meteorological conditions and their subsequent effect on local ozone (O3) dispersion in Taiwan. The 33-year NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 (NNR2) data set (1979-2011) was analyzed to understand the variations in <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale atmospheric conditions in East Asia and the western North Pacific. To save computational processing time, two scenarios representative of past (1979-86) and current (2004-11) atmospheric conditions were selected but only targeting the autumn season (September, October and November) when the O3 concentrations were at high levels. Numerical simulations were performed using weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for the past and current scenarios individually but only for the month of October because of limited computational resources. Analysis of NNR2 data exhibited increased air temperature, weakened Asian continental anticyclone, enhanced northeasterly monsoonal flow, and a deepened low-pressure system forming near Taiwan. With enhanced evaporation from oceans along with a deepened low-pressure system, precipitation amounts increased in Taiwan in the current scenario. As demonstrated in the WRF simulation, the land surface physical process responded to the enhanced precipitation resulting in damper soil conditions, and reduced ground temperatures that in turn restricted the development of boundary layer height. The weakened land-sea breeze flow was simulated in the current scenario. With reduced dispersion capability, air pollutants would tend to accumulate near the emission source leading to a degradation of air quality in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. The conditions would be even worse in southwestern Taiwan due to the fact that stagnant wind fields would occur more frequently in the current scenario. On the other hand, in northern Taiwan, the simulated O3 concentrations are lower during the day in the current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512478M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512478M"><span id="translatedtitle">Crop and agrotechnology <span class="hlt">influence</span> on CO2 emission in case of representative agrolandscapes of Moscow <span class="hlt">region</span>, RF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Agroecosystems have a very important role in the <span class="hlt">regional</span> balance of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, the volume of existing data on the different crops and agrotechnologies <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the GHG emission sharply varies. The European territory of Russia (ETR) is one of <span class="hlt">regions</span> with strong deficit of this information. At the same time ETR is characterized by high heterogeneity of soil cover patterns, land-use technologies and land agroecological quality. Our research has been done in the fields of Precision farming experiment of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (RTSAU) that soil cover and landscape patterns are typical for Moscow <span class="hlt">region</span> of RF. The investigated fields include four 1-ha plots with winter wheat and potatoes with versions of traditional tillage and no-till. Each key plot comprises the representative sites for analysis the autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, and control ones. Carbon dioxide fluxes have been weekly measured in June - September 2012, by the portable infrared system gas analyzer LI-COR LI-6400XT. The carried out research has shown the crop strong <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the soil CO2 emission. In case of field with winter wheat in June - August it was in 1.5-2.5 times higher (2,93 μmol m-2 s-1) than in potatoes one. The maximum difference has been fixed at the first half of August after the wheat harvest. July is characterize by gradual decrease soil carbon dioxide emission from 1.56 μmol m-2 s-1 to 1.06 μmol m-2 s-1. Comparative analysis of the model sites with differentiation of the autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration showed the absolute dominance of microorganism contribution: 1.56 μmol m-2 s-1 (76.3% of the total respiration). It is especially important that no-till sites have CO2 "microbial" emission in 24.8% less the traditional tillage ones. The carried out in June-September comparative analysis of investigated sites with forest control ones has shown the following set with increasing soil CO2 emission: "winter wheat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2395644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2395644"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and in vitro localization of internal methylated adenine residues in dihydrofolate reductase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rana, A P; Tuck, M T</p> <p>1990-08-25</p> <p>A T7 RNA transcript coding for mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was utilized as a substrate for the N6-methyladenosine <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> methyltransferase isolated from HeLa cell nuclei. This transcript acted as a 3 fold better substrate than either prolactin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> or a synthetic RNA substrate which contained multiple methylation consensus sequences. Formation of internal N6-methyladenine (m6A) residues in the DHFR transcript was shown to increase slightly by the absence of a 7-methylguanine-2'-O-methyl cap structure. Using T7 transcripts from different <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the DHFR gene, the majority of the m6A residues were localized to the coding <span class="hlt">region</span> and a segment of the transcript just 3' to the coding <span class="hlt">region</span>. This data suggests that DHFR <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> contains multiple methylation sites with most of these sites concentrated in the coding <span class="hlt">region</span> of the transcript. PMID:2395644</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510331"><span id="translatedtitle">Prefrontal cortical-striatal dopamine receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simon, Nicholas W; Beas, Blanca S; Montgomery, Karienn S; Haberman, Rebecca P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in distinct brain <span class="hlt">regions</span> was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the insular cortex and low D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in these <span class="hlt">regions</span> was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3973541','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3973541"><span id="translatedtitle">Prefrontal cortical–striatal dopamine receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simon, Nicholas W.; Beas, Blanca S.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in distinct brain <span class="hlt">regions</span> was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the insular cortex and low D2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in these <span class="hlt">regions</span> was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620012"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-amplifying <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> vaccines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. PMID:25620012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16204451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16204451"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> from specific tissues of Drosophila by <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> tagging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhiyong; Edenberg, Howard J; Davis, Ronald L</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>To study the function of specific cells or tissues using genomic tools like microarray analyses, it is highly desirable to obtain <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> from a homogeneous source. However, this is particularly challenging for small organisms, like Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We have optimized and applied a new technique, <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> tagging, to isolate <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> from specific tissues of D.melanogaster. A FLAG-tagged poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) is expressed in a specific tissue and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> from that tissue is thus tagged by the recombinant PABP and separated from <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in other tissues by co-immunoprecipitation with a FLAG-tag specific antibody. The fractionated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is then amplified and used as probe in microarray experiments. As a test system, we employed the procedures to identify genes expressed in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. We found that most known photoreceptor cell-specific mRNAs were identified by <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> tagging. Furthermore, at least 11 novel genes have been identified as enriched in photoreceptor cells. <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> tagging is a powerful general method for profiling gene expression in specific tissues and for identifying tissue-specific genes. PMID:16204451</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=50626','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=50626"><span id="translatedtitle">Circadian oscillations in period gene <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels are transcriptionally regulated.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hardin, P E; Hall, J C; Rosbash, M</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The period (per) gene is involved in regulating circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster. The per gene is expressed in a circadian manner, where fluctuations in per <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> abundance are <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by its own translation product, which also cycles in abundance. Since per gene expression is necessary for circadian rhythmicity, we sought to determine how certain features of this feedback loop operate. The results of this study reveal that fluctuations in per <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> are primarily controlled by fluctuations in per gene transcription, that per <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has a relatively short half-life, and that sequences sufficient to drive per <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> cycling are present in 1.3 kilobases of 5' flanking sequences. These and other results indicate that the per feedback loop has all of the basic properties necessary to be a component of a circadian oscillator. Images PMID:1465387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP23C1502S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP23C1502S"><span id="translatedtitle">Teasing Apart <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate and Meltwater <span class="hlt">Influences</span> on Florida Straits Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity over the past 40 kyr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Recent reconstructions of North Atlantic salinity variability over the last glacial cycle show that abrupt climate events are linked to major reorganizations in the low-latitude hydrologic cycle, affecting large-scale changes in evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) patterns. Although there is general agreement that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) migrates southward during cold stadials, it remains unclear how this shift affects the net E-P budget in the North Atlantic. In order to reconstruct a high resolution record of past sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) in the Florida Straits across abrupt climate events of the last 40 kyr, we combine Mg/Ca paleothermometry and δ18O measurements in shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber in cores KNR166-2-JPC29 (24°17'N, 83°16'W; 648 m depth; 8-20 cm/kyr sed. rate) and JPC26 (24°19.61'N, 83°15.14'W; 546 m depth; 18-240 cm/kyr sed. rate) and calculate δ18OSEAWATER (δ18OSW) variability. Removal of the δ18OSW signal due to continental ice volume variation results in the ice volume-free (IVF) δ18OSW record (a proxy for SSS variability). Although most waters flowing through the Florida Straits today originate in the tropical western Atlantic, major meltwater discharges from the Mississippi River across the last deglacial period also <span class="hlt">influenced</span> SST and SSS in the Florida Straits. To constrain periods of increased meltwater discharge, we measured Ba/Ca ratios in G. ruber from select intervals. Because riverine waters have a much higher dissolved Ba+2 concentration relative to seawater, foraminifera Ba/Ca ratios can be used as an additional proxy to constrain periods of increase riverine discharge. Initial results suggest the hydrographic history of the Florida Straits is <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by both meltwater discharge and <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate variability linked to the high-latitude North Atlantic. Both the IVF- δ18OSW and Ba/Ca records reveal a prolonged period from 16.0-13.0 kyr</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036131"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of GLI1 Expression by Targeting the CRD-BP-GLI1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Interaction Using a Specific Oligonucleotide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehmood, Kashif; Akhtar, Daud; Mackedenski, Sebastian; Wang, Chuyi; Lee, Chow H</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The stabilization of glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> by coding <span class="hlt">region</span> determinant binding protein (CRD-BP) through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is implicated in the proliferation of colorectal cancer and basal cell carcinoma. Here, we set out to characterize the physical interaction between CRD-BP and GLI1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> so as to find inhibitors for such interaction. Studies using CRD-BP variants with a point mutation in the GXXG motif at each KH domain showed that KH1 and KH2 domain are critical for the binding of GLI1 RNA. The smallest <span class="hlt">region</span> of GLI1 RNA binding to CRD-BP was mapped to nucleotides (nts) 320-380. A 37-nt S1 RNA sense oligonucleotide, containing two distinct stem-loops present in nts 320-380 of GLI1 RNA, was found to be effective in blocking CRD-BP-GLI1 RNA interaction. Studies using various competitor RNAs with modifications to S1 RNA oligonucleotide further displayed that both the sequences and the structure of the two stem-loops are important for CRD-BP-GLI1 RNA binding. The role of the two-stem-loop motif in <span class="hlt">influencing</span> CRD-BP-RNA interaction was further investigated in cells. The 2'-O-methyl derivative of the S1 RNA oligonucleotide significantly decreased GLI1, c-myc, and CD44 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels, in a panel of colon and breast cancer cells. The results from this study demonstrate the potential importance of the two-stem-loop motif as a target <span class="hlt">region</span> for the inhibition of the CRD-BP-GLI1 RNA interaction and Hedgehog signaling pathway. Such results pave the way for the development of novel inhibitors that act by destabilizing the CRD-BP-GLI1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> interaction. PMID:27036131</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407248"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression of GABA A receptor alpha1 subunit <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and protein in rat neocortex following photothrombotic infarction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kharlamov, Elena A; Downey, Kathy L; Jukkola, Peter I; Grayson, Dennis R; Kelly, Kevin M</p> <p>2008-05-19</p> <p>Photothrombotic infarcts of the neocortex result in structural and functional alterations of cortical networks, including decreased GABAergic inhibition, and can generate epileptic seizures within 1 month of lesioning. In our study, we assessed the involvement and potential changes of cortical GABA A receptor (GABA AR) alpha1 subunits at 1, 3, 7, and 30 days after photothrombosis. Quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and semi-quantitative Western blot analysis were used to investigate GABA AR alpha1 subunit <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and protein levels in proximal and distal <span class="hlt">regions</span> of perilesional cortex and in homotopic areas of young adult Sprague-Dawley rats. GABA AR alpha1 subunit <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were decreased ipsilateral and contralateral to the infarct at 7 days, but were increased bilaterally at 30 days. GABA AR alpha1 subunit protein levels revealed no significant change in neocortical areas of both hemispheres of lesioned animals compared with protein levels of sham-operated controls at 1, 3, 7, and 30 days. At 30 days, GABA AR alpha1 subunit protein expression was significantly increased in lesioned animals within proximal and distal <span class="hlt">regions</span> of perilesional cortex compared with distal neocortical areas contralaterally (Student's t-test, p<0.05). Short- and long-term alterations of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and protein levels of the GABA AR alpha1 subunit ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion may <span class="hlt">influence</span> alterations in cell surface receptor subtype expression and GABA AR function following ischemic infarction and may be associated with formative mechanisms of poststroke epileptogenesis. PMID:18407248</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=179548','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=179548"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of decay of the cry1Aa <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in Bacillus subtilis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vázquez-Cruz, C; Olmedo-Alvarez, G</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We undertook the study of the decay process of the cry1Aa <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> of Bacillus thuringiensis expressed in B. subtilis. The cry1Aa transcript is a 3.7-kb <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expressed during sporulation whose transcriptional control has previously been studied in both B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis. We found that the cry1Aa <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has a half-life of around 9 min and that its decay occurs through endoribonucleolytic cleavages which result in three groups of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> intermediates ranging in size from 2.7 to 0.5 kb. A comparative study carried out with Escherichia coli showed a similar pattern of degradation intermediates. Primer extension analysis carried out on RNA from B. subtilis revealed that most cleavages occur within two <span class="hlt">regions</span> located toward the 5' and 3' ends of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The most prominent processing site observed for the cry1Aa <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> isolated from B. subtilis is only two bases away from that occurring on RNA isolated from E. coli. Most cleavage sites occur at seemingly single-stranded RNA segments rich in A and U nucleotides, suggesting that a common and conserved mechanism may process the cry1Aa <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. PMID:9335281</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.8462Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.8462Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of precipitating energetic ions caused by EMIC waves on the subauroral ionospheric E <span class="hlt">region</span> during a geomagnetic storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Zhigang; Xiong, Ying; Li, Haimeng; Huang, Shiyong; Qiao, Zheng; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Meng; Wang, Dedong; Deng, Xiaohua; Raita, Tero; Wang, Jingfang</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, we have presented the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of precipitating energetic ions caused by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on the subauroral ionospheric E <span class="hlt">region</span> during a geomagnetic storm on 8 March 2008 with observations of the Meteorological Operational (METOP-02) of the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), a GPS receiver in Vaasa of Finland and Finnish network of search coil magnetometers. Conjugate observations of the POES METOP-02 satellite and Finnish network of search coil magnetometers have demonstrated that enhancements of the precipitating energetic ion flux within the proton anisotropic zone are attributed to the interaction between ring current (RC) ions and EMIC waves. With enhancements of the intensity of Pc1 waves observed by search coil magnetometers, the total electron content observed by the GPS receiver accordingly increased, meaning that the enhancement of the ionospheric electron density is attributed to the precipitation of RC ions caused by EMIC waves. The electron density profiles derived by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model and with precipitating energetic protons observed by the POES METOP-02 satellite show that the energetic proton precipitation can cause the E layer peak electron density to increase from 1.62 × 109 m-3 to 5.05 × 1011 m-3 by 2.49 orders of magnitude. In comparison with the height-integrated conductivities derived by the IRI-2007 model, the height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities derived with precipitating energetic protons increase by 2.4 and 2.34 orders of magnitude, respectively. Our result suggests that precipitating energetic ions caused by EMIC waves can lead to an obvious enhancement of the electron density and conductivities in the subauroral ionospheric E <span class="hlt">region</span> during geomagnetic storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4962167','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4962167"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Anti-Malarial Prophylaxis and Iron Supplementation Non-Compliance among Pregnant Women in Simiyu <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sambili, Benatus; Kimambo, Ronald; Peng, Yun; Ishunga, Elison; Matasha, Edna; Matumu, Godfrey; Noronha, Rita; Ngilangwa, David P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Malaria and iron-deficient anemia during pregnancy pose considerable risks for the mother and newborn. Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and iron supplement to prevent anemia to all pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) services is highly recommended. However, their compliance remains low. This study aimed at identifying factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> non-compliance of medications among pregnant women. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Simiyu <span class="hlt">region</span> in northwest Tanzania using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 430 women who were pregnant or gave birth 12 months prior to data collection. Data were analyzed using non-parametric statistical analysis with STATA 10. Overall, 284 (66%) and 195 (45%) of interviewed women received IPTp-SP and iron supplementation during their ANC visits, respectively. The majority (85%) of women whom received medications were aware if they had received IPTp-SP or iron supplementation. Of those received IPTp-SP, only 11% took all the three doses, while the remaining 89% took only two doses or one dose. For women who received iron supplementation, 29% reported that they did not take any dose at all. Reasons given for not complying with regiments included not liking the medications and disapproval from male partners. Our findings suggest that IPTp-SP and iron supplement compliance among pregnant women in Simiyu <span class="hlt">region</span> is low. Intensification of community education, further qualitative research and administration of medication through directly-observed therapy (DOT) are recommended to address the problem. PMID:27347981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1511201P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1511201P"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of synoptic weather regimes on UK air quality: <span class="hlt">regional</span> model studies of tropospheric column NO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pope, R. J.; Savage, N. H.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Ordóñez, C.; Neal, L. S.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Synoptic meteorology can have a significant <span class="hlt">influence</span> on UK air quality. Cyclonic conditions lead to the dispersion of air pollutants away from source <span class="hlt">regions</span>, while anticyclonic conditions lead to their accumulation over source <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Meteorology also modifies atmospheric chemistry processes such as photolysis and wet deposition. Previous studies have shown a relationship between observed satellite tropospheric column NO2 and synoptic meteorology in different seasons. Here, we test whether the UK Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model (AQUM) can reproduce these observations and then use the model to explore the relative importance of various factors. We show that AQUM successfully captures the observed relationships when sampled under the Lamb weather types, an objective classification of midday UK circulation patterns. By using a range of idealized NOx-like tracers with different e-folding lifetimes, we show that under different synoptic regimes the NO2 lifetime in AQUM is approximately 6 h in summer and 12 h in winter. The longer lifetime can explain why synoptic spatial tropospheric column NO2 variations are more significant in winter compared to summer, due to less NO2 photochemical loss. We also show that cyclonic conditions have more seasonality in tropospheric column NO2 than anticyclonic conditions as they result in more extreme spatial departures from the wintertime seasonal average. Within a season (summer or winter) under different synoptic regimes, a large proportion of the spatial pattern in the UK tropospheric column NO2 field can be explained by the idealized model tracers, showing that transport is an important factor in governing the variability of UK air quality on seasonal synoptic timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27347981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27347981"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Anti-Malarial Prophylaxis and Iron Supplementation Non-Compliance among Pregnant Women in Simiyu <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Tanzania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sambili, Benatus; Kimambo, Ronald; Peng, Yun; Ishunga, Elison; Matasha, Edna; Matumu, Godfrey; Noronha, Rita; Ngilangwa, David P</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Malaria and iron-deficient anemia during pregnancy pose considerable risks for the mother and newborn. Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and iron supplement to prevent anemia to all pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) services is highly recommended. However, their compliance remains low. This study aimed at identifying factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> non-compliance of medications among pregnant women. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Simiyu <span class="hlt">region</span> in northwest Tanzania using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 430 women who were pregnant or gave birth 12 months prior to data collection. Data were analyzed using non-parametric statistical analysis with STATA 10. Overall, 284 (66%) and 195 (45%) of interviewed women received IPTp-SP and iron supplementation during their ANC visits, respectively. The majority (85%) of women whom received medications were aware if they had received IPTp-SP or iron supplementation. Of those received IPTp-SP, only 11% took all the three doses, while the remaining 89% took only two doses or one dose. For women who received iron supplementation, 29% reported that they did not take any dose at all. Reasons given for not complying with regiments included not liking the medications and disapproval from male partners. Our findings suggest that IPTp-SP and iron supplement compliance among pregnant women in Simiyu <span class="hlt">region</span> is low. Intensification of community education, further qualitative research and administration of medication through directly-observed therapy (DOT) are recommended to address the problem. PMID:27347981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4523843','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4523843"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Translation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009988','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009988"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Ozone Precursor Emissions from Four World <span class="hlt">Regions</span> on Tropospheric Composition and Radiative Climate Forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fry, Meridith; Naik, Vaishali; West, J. Jason; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Fiore, Arlene M.; Collins, William J.; Dentener, Frank J.; Shindell, Drew T.; Atherton, Cyndi; Bergmann, Daniel; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hess, Peter; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Marmer, Elina; Schultz, Martin G.; Szopa, Sophie; Wild, Oliver; Zeng, Guang</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ozone (O3) precursor emissions <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">regional</span> and global climate and air quality through changes in tropospheric O3 and oxidants, which also <span class="hlt">influence</span> methane (CH4) and sulfate aerosols (SO4 (sup 2-)). We examine changes in the tropospheric composition of O3, CH4, SO4 (sup 2-) and global net radiative forcing (RF) for 20% reductions in global CH4 burden and in anthropogenic O3 precursor emissions (NOx, NMVOC, and CO) from four <span class="hlt">regions</span> (East Asia, Europe and Northern Africa, North America, and South Asia) using the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, assessing uncertainty (mean plus or minus 1 standard deviation) across multiple CTMs. We evaluate steady state O3 responses, including long-term feedbacks via CH4. With a radiative transfer model that includes greenhouse gases and the aerosol direct effect, we find that <span class="hlt">regional</span> NOx reductions produce global, annually averaged positive net RFs (0.2 plus or minus 0.6 to 1.7 2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg N yr(sup -1), with some variation among models. Negative net RFs result from reductions in global CH4 (-162.6 plus or minus 2 mWm(sup -2) for a change from 1760 to 1408 ppbv CH4) and <span class="hlt">regional</span> NMVOC (-0.4 plus or minus 0.2 to 0.7 plus or minus 0.2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg C yr(sup -1) and CO emissions (-0.13 plus or minus 0.02 to -0.15 plus or minus 0.02 mWm(sup-2)/Tg CO yr(sup-1). Including the effect of O3 on CO2 uptake by vegetation likely makes these net RFs more negative by -1.9 to- 5.2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg N yr(sup -1), -0.2 to -0.7 mWm(sup -2)/Tg C yr(sup -1), and -0.02 to -0.05 mWm(sup -2)/ Tg CO yr(sup -1). Net RF impacts reflect the distribution of concentration changes, where RF is affected locally by changes in SO4 (sup -2), <span class="hlt">regionally</span> to hemispherically by O3, and globally by CH4. Global annual average SO4 2 responses to oxidant changes range from 0.4 plus or minus 2.6 to -1.9 plus or minus 1.3 Gg for NOx reductions, 0.1 plus or minus 1.2 to -0.9 plus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22506031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22506031"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex control of GABA(A) receptor subunit <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression: variation, covariation, and genetic regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mulligan, Megan K; Wang, Xusheng; Adler, Adrienne L; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>GABA type-A receptors are essential for fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are critical in brain function. Surprisingly, expression of receptor subunits is highly variable among individuals, but the cause and impact of this fluctuation remains unknown. We have studied sources of variation for all 19 receptor subunits using massive expression data sets collected across multiple brain <span class="hlt">regions</span> and platforms in mice and humans. Expression of Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabrb2, Gabrb3, and Gabrg2 is highly variable and heritable among the large cohort of BXD strains derived from crosses of fully sequenced parents--C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Genetic control of these subunits is complex and highly dependent on tissue and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> <span class="hlt">region</span>. Remarkably, this high variation is generally not linked to phenotypic differences. The single exception is Gabrb3, a locus that is linked to anxiety. We identified upstream genetic loci that <span class="hlt">influence</span> subunit expression, including three unlinked <span class="hlt">regions</span> of chromosome 5 that modulate the expression of nine subunits in hippocampus, and that are also associated with multiple phenotypes. Candidate genes within these loci include, Naaa, Nos1, and Zkscan1. We confirmed a high level of coexpression for subunits comprising the major channel--Gabra1, Gabrb2, and Gabrg2--and identified conserved members of this expression network in mice and humans. Gucy1a3, Gucy1b3, and Lis1 are novel and conserved associates of multiple subunits that are involved in inhibitory signaling. Finally, proximal and distal <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the 3' UTRs of single subunits have remarkably independent expression patterns in both species. However, corresponding <span class="hlt">regions</span> of different subunits often show congruent genetic control and coexpression (proximal-to-proximal or distal-to-distal), even in the absence of sequence homology. Our findings identify novel sources of variation that modulate subunit expression and highlight the extraordinary capacity of biological networks to buffer 4-100 fold</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=309946','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=309946"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Infectious Adenovirus in Cell Culture by <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Reverse Transcription-PCR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ko, Gwangpyo; Cromeans, Theresa L.; Sobsey, Mark D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We have developed and evaluated the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in cell culture to assay infectious adenoviruses (Ads) by using Ad type 2 (Ad2) and Ad41 as models. Only infectious Ads are detected because they are the only ones able to produce <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> during replication in cell culture. Three primer sets for RT-PCR amplification of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity: a conserved <span class="hlt">region</span> of late <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcript encoding a virion structural hexon protein and detecting a wide range of human Ads and two primer sets targeting a <span class="hlt">region</span> of an early <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcript that specifically detects either Ad2 and Ad5 or Ad40 and Ad41. The mRNAs of infected A549 and Graham 293 cells were recovered from cell lysates with oligo(dT) at different time periods after infection and treated with RNase-free DNase to remove residual contaminating DNA, and then Ad <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was detected by RT-PCR assay. The <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> of Ad2 was detected as early as 6 h after infection at 106 infectious units (IU) per cell culture and after longer incubation times at levels as low as 1 to 2 IU per cell culture. The <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> of Ad41 was detected as soon as 24 h after infection at 106 IU per cell culture and at levels as low as 5 IU per cell culture after longer incubation times. To confirm the detection of only infectious viruses, it was shown that no <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was detected from Ad2 and Ad41 inactivated by free chlorine or high doses of collimated, monochromatic (254-nm) UV radiation. Detection of Ad2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> exactly coincided with the presence of virus infectivity detected by cytopathogenic effects in cell cultures, but <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> detection occurred sooner. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> detection by RT-PCR assay in inoculated cell cultures is a very sensitive, specific, and rapid method by which to detect infectious Ads in water and other environmental samples. PMID:14660388</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4816656','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4816656"><span id="translatedtitle">Does the mutant CAG expansion in huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> interfere with exonucleolytic cleavage of its first exon?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Wanzhao; Pfister, Edith L.; Kennington, Lori A.; Chase, Kathryn O.; Mueller, Christian; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Silencing mutant huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> by RNA interference (RNAi) is a therapeutic strategy for Huntington’s disease. RNAi induces specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the target HTT <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, followed by exonucleolytic processing of the cleaved <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> fragments. Objectives We investigated the clearance of huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> cleavage products following RNAi, to find if particular huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> sequences persist. We especially wanted to find out if the expanded CAG increased production of a toxic <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> species by impeding degradation of human mutant huntingtin exon 1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Methods Mice expressing the human mutant HTT transgene with 128 CAG repeats (YAC128 mice) were injected in the striatum with self-complementary AAV9 vectors carrying a miRNA targeting exon 48 of huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> (scAAV-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP). Transgenic huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were measured in striatal lysates after two weeks. For qPCR, we used species specific primer-probe combinations that together spanned 6 positions along the open reading frame and untranslated <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the human huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Knockdown was also measured in the liver following tail vein injection. Results Two weeks after intrastriatal administration of scAAV9-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP, we measured transgenic mutant huntingtin in striatum using probes targeting six different sites along the huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Real time PCR showed a reduction of 29% to 36% in human HTT. There was no significant difference in knockdown measured at any of the six sites, including exon 1. In liver, we observed a more pronounced HTT <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> knockdown of 70% to 76% relative to the untreated mice, and there were also no significant differences among sites. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that degradation is equally distributed across the human mutant huntingtin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> following RNAi-induced cleavage. PMID:27003665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771531"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of heavy metal transfer and their <span class="hlt">influencing</span> factors in different soil-crop systems of the industrialization <span class="hlt">region</span>, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Hongyan; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Tianyuan; Hu, Sun; Ji, Junfeng; Wang, Cheng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Soil heavy metals and their bioaccumulation in agricultural products have attracted widespread concerns, yet the transfer and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in different soil-crop systems was rarely investigated. Soil and crop samples were collected from the typical agricultural areas in the Yangtze River Delta <span class="hlt">region</span>, China. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg in the soils, roots and grains of rice (Oryza Sativa L.), wheat (Triticum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) were determined in this study. Transfer ability of heavy metals in soil-rice system was stronger than those in soil-wheat and soil-canola systems. The wheat showed a strong capacity to transfer Zn, Cu and Cd from root to the grain while canola presented a restricting effect to the intake of Cu and Cd. Soil pH and total organic matter were major factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> metal transfer from soil to rice, whereas soil Al2O3 contents presented a negative effect on heavy metal mobility in wheat and canola cultivation systems. The concentration of Zn and Cd in crop grains could well predicted according to the stepwise multiple linear regression models, which could help to quantitatively evaluate the ecologic risk of heavy metal accumulation in crops in the study area. PMID:26771531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198188-investigating-influence-anthropogenic-forcing-observed-mean-extreme-sea-level-pressure-trends-over-mediterranean-region','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198188-investigating-influence-anthropogenic-forcing-observed-mean-extreme-sea-level-pressure-trends-over-mediterranean-region"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Anthropogenic Forcing on Observed Mean and Extreme Sea Level Pressure Trends over the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Barkhordarian, Armineh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We investigate whether the observed mean sea level pressure (SLP) trends over the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">region</span> in the period from 1975 to 2004 are significantly consistent with what 17 models projected as response of SLP to anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, GS). Obtained results indicate that the observed trends in mean SLP cannot be explained by natural (internal) variability. Externally forced changes are detectable in all seasons, except spring. The large-scale component (spatial mean) of the GS signal is detectable in all the 17 models in winter and in 12 of the 17 models in summer. However, the small-scalemore » component (spatial anomalies about the spatial mean) of GS signal is only detectable in winter within 11 of the 17 models. We also show that GS signal has a detectable <span class="hlt">influence</span> on observed decreasing (increasing) tendency in the frequencies of extremely low (high) SLP days in winter and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability. While the detection of GS forcing is robust in winter and summer, there are striking inconsistencies in autumn, where analysis points to the presence of an external forcing, which is not GS forcing.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024340"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Scholl, M.A.; Gingerich, S.B.; Tribble, G.W.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Stable isotopes of precipitation, ground water and surface water measured on the windward side of East Maui from 0 to 3055 m altitude were used to determine recharge sources for stream flow and ground water. Correct interpretation of the hydrology using rainfall ??18O gradients with altitude required consideration of the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of fog, as fog samples had isotopic signatures enriched by as much as 3??? in ??18O and 21??? in ??D compared to volume-weighted average precipitation at the same altitude. The isotopic analyses suggested that fog drip was a major component of stream flow and shallow ground water at higher altitudes in the watershed. 18O/altitude gradients in rainfall were comparable for similar microclimates on Maui (this study) and Hawaii Island (1990-1995 study), however, East Maui ??18O values for rain in trade-wind and high-altitude microclimates were enriched compared to those from Hawaii Island. Isotopes were used to interpret <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrology in this volcanic island aquifer system. In part of the study area, stable isotopes indicate discharge of ground water recharged at least 1000 m above the sample site. This deep-flowpath ground water was found in springs from sea level up to 240 m altitude, indicating saturation to altitudes much higher than a typical freshwater lens. These findings help in predicting the effects of ground water development on stream flow in the area. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3356723','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3356723"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Anthropogenic Forcing on Observed Mean and Extreme Sea Level Pressure Trends over the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barkhordarian, Armineh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We investigate whether the observed mean sea level pressure (SLP) trends over the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">region</span> in the period from 1975 to 2004 are significantly consistent with what 17 models projected as response of SLP to anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, GS). Obtained results indicate that the observed trends in mean SLP cannot be explained by natural (internal) variability. Externally forced changes are detectable in all seasons, except spring. The large-scale component (spatial mean) of the GS signal is detectable in all the 17 models in winter and in 12 of the 17 models in summer. However, the small-scale component (spatial anomalies about the spatial mean) of GS signal is only detectable in winter within 11 of the 17 models. We also show that GS signal has a detectable <span class="hlt">influence</span> on observed decreasing (increasing) tendency in the frequencies of extremely low (high) SLP days in winter and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability. While the detection of GS forcing is robust in winter and summer, there are striking inconsistencies in autumn, where analysis points to the presence of an external forcing, which is not GS forcing. PMID:22654622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5140/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5140/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Conditions that <span class="hlt">Influence</span> Streamflow Losses in a Karst <span class="hlt">Region</span> of the Upper Peace River, Polk County, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Metz, P.A.; Lewelling, B.R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The upper Peace River from Bartow to Fort Meade, Florida, is described as a groundwater recharge area, reflecting a reversal from historical groundwater discharge patterns that existed prior to the 1950s. The upper Peace River channel and floodplain are characterized by extensive karst development, with numerous fractures, crevasses, and sinks that have been eroded in the near-surface and underlying carbonate bedrock. With the reversal in groundwater head gradients, river water is lost to the underlying groundwater system through these karst features. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the hydrologic conditions that <span class="hlt">influence</span> streamflow losses in the karst <span class="hlt">region</span> of the upper Peace River. The upper Peace River is located in a basin that has been altered substantially by phosphate mining and increases in groundwater use. These alterations have changed groundwater flow patterns and caused streamflow declines through time. Hydrologic factors that have had the greatest <span class="hlt">influence</span> on streamflow declines in the upper Peace River include the lowering of the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer beneath the riverbed elevation due to below-average rainfall (droughts), increases in groundwater use, and the presence of numerous karst features in the low-water channel and floodplain that enhance the loss of streamflow. Seepage runs conducted along the upper Peace River, from Bartow to Fort Meade, indicate that the greatest streamflow losses occurred along an approximate 2-mile section of the river beginning about 1 mile south of the Peace River at Bartow gaging station. Along the low-water and floodplain channel of this 2-mile section, there are about 10 prominent karst features that <span class="hlt">influence</span> streamflow losses. Losses from the individual karst features ranged from 0.22 to 16 cubic feet per second based on measurements made between 2002 and 2007. The largest measured flow loss for all the karst features was about 50 cubic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3049244','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3049244"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative splicing of parathyroid hormone-related protein <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>: expression and stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sellers, R S; Luchin, A I; Richard, V; Brena, R M; Lima, D; Rosol, T J</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a multifunctional protein that is often dysregulated in cancer. The human PTHrP gene is alternatively spliced into three isoforms, each with a unique 3′-untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (3′-UTR), encoding 139, 173 and 141 amino acid proteins. The regulation of PTHrP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> isoform expression has not been completely elucidated, but it may be affected by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In this study, we examined differences in the PTHrP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> isoform expression in two squamous carcinoma cell lines (SCC2/88 and HARA), an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), and spontaneous human lung cancer with adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the effect of TGF-β1 on PTHrP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> isoform expression and stability was examined. Cell-type specific expression of PTHrP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> isoforms occurred between the various cell lines, normal human lung, and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). PTHrP isoform expression pattern was significantly altered between normal lung tissue and the adjacent lung cancer. In vitro studies revealed that TGF-β1 differentially altered the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> steady-state levels and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability of the PTHrP isoforms. Protein–RNA binding studies identified different proteins binding to the 3′-UTR of the PTHrP isoforms (139) and (141), which may be important in the differential <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability and response to cytokines between the PTHrP isoforms. The data demonstrate that there is cell-type specific expression of PTHrP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> isoforms, and disruption of the normal regulation during cancer progression may in part be associated with TGF-β1-induced changes in PTHrP <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> isoform expression and stability. PMID:15291755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812751G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812751G"><span id="translatedtitle">40 shades of black: <span class="hlt">regional</span> differences in vegetation response to a changing human <span class="hlt">influence</span> in the Low Countries during the Dark Ages (AD 300-1000).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T. I. J.; Donders, Timme H.; Hoek, Wim Z.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>During the Dark Ages, which includes the Late Roman Period (LRP, AD 300-500) and the Early Middle Ages (EMA, AD 500-1000), large scale vegetation development in Northwestern Europe is generally characterized by a forest regeneration. This forest redevelopment phase was not uniformous across the Netherlands. A comparison between existing pollen records shows that forest redevelopment started earlier and was more severe in the southern part of the Netherlands than in the northeastern Netherlands. The prevailing view advocates that the forest redevelopment is the result of a diminishing human <span class="hlt">influence</span> on the landscape due to the collapse of the Roman Empire. Following this view, <span class="hlt">regional</span> changes in forest regeneration are explained by varying population densities. However, existing climate-records indicate a colder and wetter climate during the Dark Ages and the geomorphological record points to a changing landscape. How and to what extent these climatic and environmental changes contributed to the changes in vegetation development or even to the decline of the Roman Empire is largely unknown. To understand the relative importance of the factors (climate, environment, economy and demography) <span class="hlt">influencing</span> vegetation development it is important to accurately map <span class="hlt">regional</span> differences in vegetation both on a <span class="hlt">regional</span> and extra-<span class="hlt">regional</span> scale. For an extra-<span class="hlt">regional</span> overview all available pollen records in the Netherlands from this period are compiled to show differences in amplitude of the vegetation development during the Dark Ages. On a <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale, vegetation reconstruction maps have been produced reflecting the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of geological/geomorphological factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086387.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086387.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of the PTTC Principal's Competency in ICT on the Teachers' Integration of ICT in Teaching Science in PTTCs in Nyanza <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Omwenga, Ezekiel; Nyabero, Charles; Okioma, Lazarous</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The study was conducted to assess the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of Primary Teacher Training College (PTTC) principal's competency in ICT on the teacher's integration of ICT in teaching science in PTTC's in Nyanza <span class="hlt">region</span> in Kenya. The one research question and one research hypothesis guided the study. The population comprised of 21 principals and 159 tutors. Data…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bs+AND+standard&id=ED516631','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bs+AND+standard&id=ED516631"><span id="translatedtitle">Idaho <span class="hlt">Region</span> IV Fourth-Grade Teachers' Perceptions about the Educational <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Idaho State Achievement Standards and the Idaho State Achievement Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wiggins, Annette Marie</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore Idaho <span class="hlt">Region</span> IV fourth-grade teachers' perceptions regarding the educational <span class="hlt">influence</span> of Idaho State Achievement Standards and the Idaho Standards Achievement Tests (ISAT) in language usage, reading, and math. Differences between subgroups based on teacher/school demographics, specifically, teachers'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MAP...125..159A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MAP...125..159A"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration in the Brazilian northeast semi-arid <span class="hlt">region</span>: the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of local circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Almeida, Gerson P.; Borrmann, Stephan; Leal Junior, João B. V.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Ground-based aerosol instrumentation covering particle size diameters from 25 nm to 32 µm was deployed to determine aerosol concentration and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)-activation properties at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S = 0.20-1.50 % in the remote Brazilian northeast semi-arid <span class="hlt">region</span> (NEB) in coastal (maritime) and continental (inland) regimes. The instruments measured aerosol number concentration and activation spectra for CCN and revealed that aerosol properties are sensitive with respect to the sources as a function of the local wind circulation system. The observations show that coastal aerosol total number concentrations are above 3,000 cm-3 on average, exhibiting concentration peaks depending on the time of the day in a consistent daily pattern. The variation on aerosol concentration has also <span class="hlt">influences</span> on the fraction of particles active as CCN. At 1.0 % water vapor supersaturation, the fraction can reach as high as 80 %. Inland aerosol total concentrations were about 1,800-1,900 cm-3 and did not show much diurnal variation. The fraction of particles active as CCN observed inland depend on the history of the air masses, and was much higher when air masses were originated over the sea. It was found that (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl are the major soluble inorganic fraction of the aerosols at the coast. The major fraction of NaCl was present in the coarse mode, while ammonium sulfate dominates the inorganic fraction at the submicron range, with about 10 % of the total aerosol mass at 0.32 µm. Inorganic compounds are almost absent in particles with sizes around 0.1 μm. The study suggests that the air masses with high concentration of CCN originate at the sea. The feasible explanation lies in the fact that the NEB's beaches have a particular morphology that produces a wide surf zone and creates a large load of aerosols when combined with strong and permanent winds of the <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2664189','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2664189"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Indicators of Child Development in the Capitals of Nine Brazilian States: The <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Cultural Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Carvalho, André Laranjeira; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; de Ulhôa Escobar, Ana Maria</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE Evaluating the interaction between mother or caregiver and infant through the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development and investigating whether local and cultural <span class="hlt">influences</span> during infant development affect these clinical indicators. INTRODUCTION The Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development was created in order to fully assess infants’ development and the subjective relationship between the babies and their caregivers. The absence of two or more Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Developments suggests a possibly inadequate mental development. Given the continental size of Brazil and its accentuated cultural differences, one might question how trustworthy these indicators can be when applied to each of the geographical <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the country. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study with 737 infants from the capitals of 9 Brazilian states. The size of the initial sample population was based on a pilot study carried out in the cities of São Paulo and Brasília. The ages of children were grouped: 0–3 months, 4–7 months, 8–11 months and 12–18 months. The chi-square test was used together with analyses by the statistical software SPSS 13.0. RESULTS Statistical analysis of results from the different municipalities against the total sample did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Municipalities represented were Belém (p=0.486), Brasília (p=0.371), Porto Alegre (p=0.987), Fortaleza (p=0.259), Recife (p=0.630), Salvador (0.370), São Paulo (p=0.238), Curitiba (p=0.870), and Rio de Janeiro (p= 0.06). DISCUSSION Care for mental development should be considered a public health issue. Its evaluation and follow-up should be part of the already available mother-child assistance programs, which would then be considered to provide “full” care to children. CONCLUSIONS Local habits and culture did not affect the results of the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development indicators. Clinical Indicators of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4441251','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4441251"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of Cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Translation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26151337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26151337"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Trans-Pacific and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lafontaine, Scott; Schrlau, Jill; Butler, Jack; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Harding, Anna; Simonich, Staci L Massey</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The relative <span class="hlt">influences</span> of trans-Pacific and <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant's contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522493Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522493Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible <span class="hlt">influence</span> of atmospheric circulations on winter hazy pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei <span class="hlt">region</span>, northern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter hazy pollutions (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) <span class="hlt">region</span> during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship to the atmospheric circulations in middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter hazy pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. Both the visibility and number of hazy days can be estimated well by using the six indices and fitting and the cross-validation with leave-N-out method, respectively. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter hazy pollutions in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. However, we also noted that the statistic estimation models would be largely <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by the artificial control of a pollutant discharge. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take actions in advance in dealing with probably severe hazy pollutions in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1518577P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1518577P"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of synoptic weather regimes on UK air quality: <span class="hlt">regional</span> model studies of tropospheric column NO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pope, R. J.; Savage, N. H.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Ordóñez, C.; Neal, L. S.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Synoptic meteorology can have a significant <span class="hlt">influence</span> on UK air quality. Cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions lead to the dispersion (accumulation) of air pollutants away from (over) source <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Meteorology also modifies atmospheric chemistry processes such as photolysis and wet deposition. Previous studies have shown a relationship between observed satellite tropospheric column NO2 and synoptic meteorology in different seasons. Here, we test whether the UK Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model (AQUM) can reproduce these observations and then use the model to determine the controlling factors. We show that AQUM successfully captures the observed relationships, when sampled under the Lamb Weather Types, an objective classification of midday UK circulation patterns. By using a range of idealised NOx-like tracers with different e-folding lifetimes, we show that under different synoptic regimes the NO2 lifetime in AQUM is approximately 6 h in summer and 12 h in winter. The longer lifetime can explain why synoptic spatial column NO2 variations are more significant in winter compared to summer, due to less NO2 photochemical loss. We also show that cyclonic conditions have more seasonality in column NO2 than anticyclonic conditions as they result in more extreme spatial departures from the wintertime seasonal average. Within a season (summer or winter) under different synoptic regimes, a large proportion of the spatial pattern in the UK column NO2 field can be explained by the idealised model tracers, showing that transport is an important factor in governing the variability of UK air quality on seasonal synoptic timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.V53E3162B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.V53E3162B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of pore to <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale variations in authigenic composition and texture on anthropogenically <span class="hlt">influenced</span> fluid-rock interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowen, B. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Diagenetic history plays a dominant role in determining the suitability of subsurface rock units as hosts for fluids that have societal importance. The performance of subsurface aquifers and storage facilities for CO2, natural gas, and liquid waste, is largely tied to the evolution of pore space and distribution and composition of authigenic minerals. While geoscientists may be well aware of the importance and nuances of diagenesis, project managers and decision-makers are unlikely to have a geologic understanding of determining factors such as burial history, fluid flow, and mineral thermodynamics. Thus, if falls to the geoscientists to effectively communicate meaningful conceptual models that adequately capture diagenetic heterogeneity and the potential for temporal changes with anthropogenically-induced changes in subsurface chemistry. This can be particularly difficult in subsurface systems that are sparsely sampled. Here, we look at the example of the basal Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone and overlying Eau Claire Formation in the Illinois Basin, the respective reservoir and seal for the largest ongoing demonstration of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the United States. Relatively few cores are available to study the pore-scale composition and structure of these units, and those that are available show a complex and spatially variable diagenetic history. Compilation of past studies and new analyses from the Illinois Basin are combined to illustrate the burial history and fluid flow record that will <span class="hlt">influence</span> how these units respond to the massive volumes of supercritical CO2 injected into the subsurface. Pore to <span class="hlt">regional</span> scale differences in authigenic mineral composition and texture result in significantly different predicted fluid-rock interactions and various potential consequences of injection. This project provides examples of both successes and challenges associated with communicating the diagentic complexity to stakeholders and the potential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26295154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26295154"><span id="translatedtitle">How Rainfall Variation <span class="hlt">Influences</span> Reproductive Patterns of African Savanna Ungulates in an Equatorial <span class="hlt">Region</span> Where Photoperiod Variation Is Absent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ogutu, Joseph O; Owen-Smith, Norman; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Dublin, Holly T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In high temperate latitudes, ungulates generally give birth within a narrow time window when conditions are optimal for offspring survival in spring or early summer, and use changing photoperiod to time conceptions so as to anticipate these conditions. However, in low tropical latitudes day length variation is minimal, and rainfall variation makes the seasonal cycle less predictable. Nevertheless, several ungulate species retain narrow birth peaks under such conditions, while others show births spread quite widely through the year. We investigated how within-year and between-year variation in rainfall <span class="hlt">influenced</span> the reproductive timing of four ungulate species showing these contrasting patterns in the Masai Mara <span class="hlt">region</span> of Kenya. All four species exhibited birth peaks during the putative optimal period in the early wet season. For hartebeest and impala, the birth peak was diffuse and offspring were born throughout the year. In contrast, topi and warthog showed a narrow seasonal concentration of births, with conceptions suppressed once monthly rainfall fell below a threshold level. High rainfall in the previous season and high early rains in the current year enhanced survival into the juvenile stage for all the species except impala. Our findings reveal how rainfall variation affecting grass growth and hence herbivore nutrition can govern the reproductive phenology of ungulates in tropical latitudes where day length variation is minimal. The underlying mechanism seems to be the suppression of conceptions once nutritional gains become insufficient. Through responding proximally to within-year variation in rainfall, tropical savanna ungulates are less likely to be affected adversely by the consequences of global warming for vegetation phenology than northern ungulates showing more rigid photoperiodic control over reproductive timing. PMID:26295154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4666789','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4666789"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Trans-Pacific and <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The relative <span class="hlt">influences</span> of trans-Pacific and <span class="hlt">regional</span> atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010–2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant’s contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4546645','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4546645"><span id="translatedtitle">How Rainfall Variation <span class="hlt">Influences</span> Reproductive Patterns of African Savanna Ungulates in an Equatorial <span class="hlt">Region</span> Where Photoperiod Variation Is Absent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ogutu, Joseph O.; Owen-Smith, Norman; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Dublin, Holly T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In high temperate latitudes, ungulates generally give birth within a narrow time window when conditions are optimal for offspring survival in spring or early summer, and use changing photoperiod to time conceptions so as to anticipate these conditions. However, in low tropical latitudes day length variation is minimal, and rainfall variation makes the seasonal cycle less predictable. Nevertheless, several ungulate species retain narrow birth peaks under such conditions, while others show births spread quite widely through the year. We investigated how within-year and between-year variation in rainfall <span class="hlt">influenced</span> the reproductive timing of four ungulate species showing these contrasting patterns in the Masai Mara <span class="hlt">region</span> of Kenya. All four species exhibited birth peaks during the putative optimal period in the early wet season. For hartebeest and impala, the birth peak was diffuse and offspring were born throughout the year. In contrast, topi and warthog showed a narrow seasonal concentration of births, with conceptions suppressed once monthly rainfall fell below a threshold level. High rainfall in the previous season and high early rains in the current year enhanced survival into the juvenile stage for all the species except impala. Our findings reveal how rainfall variation affecting grass growth and hence herbivore nutrition can govern the reproductive phenology of ungulates in tropical latitudes where day length variation is minimal. The underlying mechanism seems to be the suppression of conceptions once nutritional gains become insufficient. Through responding proximally to within-year variation in rainfall, tropical savanna ungulates are less likely to be affected adversely by the consequences of global warming for vegetation phenology than northern ungulates showing more rigid photoperiodic control over reproductive timing. PMID:26295154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714929F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714929F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> estimation of soil C stocks and CO2 emissions as <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by cropping systems and soil type</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farina, Roberta; Marchetti, Alessandro; Di Bene, Claudia</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Soil organic matter (SOM) is of crucial importance for agricultural soil quality and fertility. At global level soil contains about three times the carbon stored in the vegetation and about twice that present in the atmosphere. Soil could act as source and sink of carbon, <span class="hlt">influencing</span> the balance of CO2 concentration and consequently the global climate. The sink/source ratio depends on many factors that encompass climate, soil characteristics and different land management practices. Thus, the relatively large gross exchange of GHGs between atmosphere and soils and the significant stocks of carbon in soils, may have significant impact on climate and on soil quality. To quantify the dynamics of C induced by land cover change and the spatial and temporal dynamics of C sources and sinks at <span class="hlt">regional</span> and, potentially, at national and global scales, we propose a methodology, based on a bio-physical model combined with a spatial explicit database to estimate C stock changes and emissions/removals. The study has been conducted in a pilot <span class="hlt">region</span> in Italy (Apulia, Foggia province), considering the typical cropping systems of the area, namely rainfed cereals, tomato, vineyard and olives. For this purpose, the model RothC10N (Farina et al., 2013), that simulates soil C dynamics, has been modified to work directly in batch using data of climate, soil (over 290 georeferenced soil profiles), annual agriculture land use (1200 observations) The C inputs from crops have been estimated using statistics and data from literature. The model was run to equilibrium for each point of soil, in order to make all the data homogeneous in terms of time. The obtained data were interpolate with geostatisical procedures, obtaining a set of 30x30 km grid with the initial soil C. The new layer produced, together with soil and land use layers, were used for a long-term run (12 years). Results showed that olive groves and vineyards were able to stock a considerable amount of C (from 0.4 to 1.5 t ha-1 y</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177816','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177816"><span id="translatedtitle">Conceptual Modeling of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Decay Provokes New Hypotheses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Somekh, Judith; Haimovich, Gal; Guterman, Adi; Dori, Dov; Choder, Mordechai</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Biologists are required to integrate large amounts of data to construct a working model of the system under investigation. This model is often informal and stored mentally or textually, making it prone to contain undetected inconsistencies, inaccuracies, or even contradictions, not much less than a representation in free natural language. Using Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a formal yet visual and humanly accessible conceptual modeling language, we have created an executable working model of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the import of its components to the nucleus following <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay. We show how our model, which incorporates knowledge from 43 articles, can reproduce outcomes that match the experimental findings, evaluate hypotheses, and predict new possible outcomes. Moreover, we were able to analyze the effects of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay model perturbations related to gene and interaction deletions, and predict the nuclear import of certain decay factors, which we then verified experimentally. In particular, we verified experimentally the hypothesis that Rpb4p, Lsm1p, and Pan2p remain bound to the RNA 3′-untralslated <span class="hlt">region</span> during the entire process of the 5′ to 3′ degradation of the RNA open reading frame. The model has also highlighted erroneous hypotheses that indeed were not in line with the experimental outcomes. Beyond the scientific value of these specific findings, this work demonstrates the value of the conceptual model as an in silico vehicle for hypotheses generation and testing, which can reinforce, and often even replace, risky, costlier wet lab experiments. PMID:25255440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336214"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-wide probing of RNA structure reveals active unfolding of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> structures in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rouskin, Silvi; Zubradt, Meghan; Washietl, Stefan; Kellis, Manolis; Weissman, Jonathan S</p> <p>2014-01-30</p> <p>RNA has a dual role as an informational molecule and a direct effector of biological tasks. The latter function is enabled by RNA's ability to adopt complex secondary and tertiary folds and thus has motivated extensive computational and experimental efforts for determining RNA structures. Existing approaches for evaluating RNA structure have been largely limited to in vitro systems, yet the thermodynamic forces which drive RNA folding in vitro may not be sufficient to predict stable RNA structures in vivo. Indeed, the presence of RNA-binding proteins and ATP-dependent helicases can <span class="hlt">influence</span> which structures are present inside cells. Here we present an approach for globally monitoring RNA structure in native conditions in vivo with single-nucleotide precision. This method is based on in vivo modification with dimethyl sulphate (DMS), which reacts with unpaired adenine and cytosine residues, followed by deep sequencing to monitor modifications. Our data from yeast and mammalian cells are in excellent agreement with known messenger RNA structures and with the high-resolution crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosome. Comparison between in vivo and in vitro data reveals that in rapidly dividing cells there are vastly fewer structured <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> in vivo than in vitro. Even thermostable RNA structures are often denatured in cells, highlighting the importance of cellular processes in regulating RNA structure. Indeed, analysis of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> structure under ATP-depleted conditions in yeast shows that energy-dependent processes strongly contribute to the predominantly unfolded state of mRNAs inside cells. Our studies broadly enable the functional analysis of physiological RNA structures and reveal that, in contrast to the Anfinsen view of protein folding whereby the structure formed is the most thermodynamically favourable, thermodynamics have an incomplete role in determining <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> structure in vivo. PMID:24336214</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293374"><span id="translatedtitle">Brain cytokine and chemokine <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in mice induced by intranasal instillation with ultrafine carbon black.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Ahmed, Sohel; Kakeyama, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Fujimaki, Hidekazu</p> <p>2006-05-25</p> <p>Ambient air ultrafine particles (UFPs) have gained enormous attention to many researchers with recent evidence showing them to have more hazardous effects on human health than larger ambient particles. Studies focusing the possibility of effects on brain are quite limited. To examine the effect of ultrafine carbon black (ufCB) on mice brain, we instilled 125 microg of 14 nm or 95 nm CB into the nostrils of 8-week-old male BALB/c mice, once a week for 4 weeks. Four hours after the last instillation, we collected olfactory bulb and hippocampus and detected the expression of cytokine and chemokine <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> by quantitative real-time PCR method. In this study, we found the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3), and monokine induced interferon-gamma/CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL9) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in brain olfactory bulb, not in the hippocampus of mice instilled with 14 nm ufCB intranasally. We suggest that the intranasal instillation of ufCB may <span class="hlt">influence</span> the brain immune function depending on their size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate <span class="hlt">region</span>-specific brain cytokine and chemokine mRNA-induction in mice triggered by intranasal instillation of specific-sized ufCB, in a physiologically relevant condition. PMID:16293374</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782049','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782049"><span id="translatedtitle">SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> export</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M.; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D.; Steiner, Michaela C.; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> to the cytoplasm after recruitment to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1–7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1–7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3′ untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3′ ends. PMID:26944680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681690"><span id="translatedtitle">Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding <span class="hlt">region</span> is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. PMID:26681690</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838341','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838341"><span id="translatedtitle">Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Lehtonen, Jukka Y.A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3′-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding <span class="hlt">region</span> is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. PMID:26681690</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26944680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26944680"><span id="translatedtitle">SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> export.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D; Steiner, Michaela C; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> to the cytoplasm after recruitment to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1-7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1-7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3' ends. PMID:26944680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17928403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17928403"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidermal growth factor increases the interaction between nucleolin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K/poly(C) binding protein 1 complex to regulate the gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Pin-Tse; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chang, Wen-Chang; Tseng, Joseph T</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Gastrin, a gastrointestinal hormone responsible for gastric acid secretion, has been confirmed as a growth factor for gastrointestinal tract malignancies. High expression of gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was observed in pancreatic and colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism is unclear. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was found to increase gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability, indicating <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover regulation mechanism is involved in the control of gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression. Using biotin-labeled RNA probe pull-down assay combined with mass spectrometry analysis, we identified the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and poly(C) binding protein 1 (PCBP1) bound with the C-rich <span class="hlt">region</span> in gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span>. Nucleolin bound with the AGCCCU motif and interacted with hnRNP K were also demonstrated. Under EGF treatment, we observed the amount of nucleolin interacting with hnRNP K and gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> increased. Using small interfering RNA technology to define their functional roles, we found hnRNP K, PCBP1, and nucleolin were all responsible for stabilizing gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Moreover, nucleolin plays a crucial role in mediating the increased gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability induced by EGF signaling. Besides, we also observed hnRNP K/PCBP1 complex bound with the C-rich <span class="hlt">region</span> in the gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> increased nucleolin binding with gastrin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Finally, a novel binding model was proposed. PMID:17928403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828201"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype, and Ca2+ Signaling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Márkus, Nóra M; Hasel, Philip; Qiu, Jing; Bell, Karen F S; Heron, Samuel; Kind, Peter C; Dando, Owen; Simpson, T Ian; Hardingham, Giles E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix controls cellular metabolism and survival-death pathways. Several genes are implicated in controlling mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (mitochondrial calcium regulatory genes, MCRGs), however, less is known about the factors which <span class="hlt">influence</span> their expression level. Here we have compared MCRG <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression, in neural cells of differing type (cortical neurons vs. astrocytes), differing neuronal subtype (CA3 vs. CA1 hippocampus) and in response to Ca2+ influx, using a combination of qPCR and RNA-seq analysis. Of note, we find that the Mcu-regulating Micu gene family profile differs substantially between neurons and astrocytes, while expression of Mcu itself is markedly different between CA3 and CA1 <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, dynamic control of MCRG <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in response to membrane depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx is also apparent, resulting in repression of Letm1, as well as Mcu. Thus, the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression profile of MCRGs is not fixed, which may cause differences in the coupling between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+, as well as diversity of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake mechanisms. PMID:26828201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734683','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734683"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype, and Ca2+ Signaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Márkus, Nóra M.; Hasel, Philip; Qiu, Jing; Bell, Karen F. S.; Heron, Samuel; Kind, Peter C.; Dando, Owen; Simpson, T. Ian; Hardingham, Giles E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix controls cellular metabolism and survival-death pathways. Several genes are implicated in controlling mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (mitochondrial calcium regulatory genes, MCRGs), however, less is known about the factors which <span class="hlt">influence</span> their expression level. Here we have compared MCRG <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression, in neural cells of differing type (cortical neurons vs. astrocytes), differing neuronal subtype (CA3 vs. CA1 hippocampus) and in response to Ca2+ influx, using a combination of qPCR and RNA-seq analysis. Of note, we find that the Mcu-regulating Micu gene family profile differs substantially between neurons and astrocytes, while expression of Mcu itself is markedly different between CA3 and CA1 <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, dynamic control of MCRG <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in response to membrane depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx is also apparent, resulting in repression of Letm1, as well as Mcu. Thus, the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression profile of MCRGs is not fixed, which may cause differences in the coupling between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+, as well as diversity of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake mechanisms. PMID:26828201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21261956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21261956"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of phosphorus on the reduction of silicon in <span class="hlt">regions</span> characterized by droplet flow of the smelting products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>V.A. Kim; N.V. Chainikova</p> <p>2008-08-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of phosphorus on the thermodynamics of silicon reduction in Fe-Si-C melts is considered. The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the theoretical combustion temperature of coke in the tuyeres on the silicon content is studied in the blast-furnace smelting of low-phosphorus hot metal at AO Arcelor Mittal Temirtau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6103A"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of <span class="hlt">regional</span> urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This work is a further development in the study of weather pathogenic index (WPI) and negative <span class="hlt">influence</span> of urbanization processes on the state of people's health with adaptation disorder. This problem is socially significant. According to the data of the WHO, in the world there are from 20 to 45% of healthy people and from 40 to 80% of people with chronic diseases who suffer from the raised meteosensitivity. As a result of our researches of meteosensitivity of people during their short-duration on mountain resorts there were used negative adaptive reactions (NAR) under 26 routine tests, stress-reactions under L.H. Garkavi's hemogram, vegetative indices, tests of neuro-vascular reactivity, signs of imbalance of vegetative and neurohumoral regulation according to the data of biorhythm fractal analysis and sudden aggravations of diseases (SAD) as an indicator of negative climatic and urbanization <span class="hlt">influence</span>. In 2010-2011 the Caucasian mountain resorts were having long periods of climatic anomalies, strengthening of anthropogenic emissions and forest fires when record-breaking high waves of NAR and SAD were noticed. There have also been specified indices ranks of weather pathogenicity from results of comparison of health characteristics with indicators of synoptico-dynamic processes according to Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF); air ionization N+, N-, N+/N- spectra of aerosol particles (the size from 500 to 20000 nanometers) and concentrations of chemically active gases (O3, NO, NO2, ), volatile phytoorganic substances in the surface atmosphere, bactericidal characteristics of vegetation by criterion χ2 (not above 0,05). It has allowed us to develop new physiological optimum borders, norm and pessimum, to classify emergency ecologo-weather situations, to develop a new techniques of their forecasting and prevention of meteopathic reactions with meteosensitive patients (Method of treatment and the early (emergency) and planned prevention meteopatic reactions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..244F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..244F"><span id="translatedtitle">A multi-model analysis of the resolution <span class="hlt">influence</span> on precipitation climatology in the Gulf Stream <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Xuelei; Huang, Bohua; Kirtman, Ben P.; Kinter, James L.; Chiu, Long S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Using climate simulations from coupled and uncoupled general circulation models, this study investigates the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of horizontal resolution in both atmospheric and oceanic model components on the mean precipitation over the Gulf Stream (GS) <span class="hlt">region</span>. For this purpose, three sets of model experiments are analyzed. The first two examine the effects of increasing horizontal resolution of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) gradually from 100 to 10 km under fixed oceanic settings. Specifically, the AGCM is either forced with prescribed observed sea surface temperature (SST) (the first case) or coupled to a non-eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) at a fixed horizontal resolution near 100 km (the second case). The third set of experiments examines the effects of the oceanic resolution with a pair of long-term simulations by another coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM), in which the OGCM is run respectively at non-eddy-resolving (100 km) and eddy-resolving (10 km) resolutions, while the AGCM resolution remains fixed at 50 km for both runs. In general, all simulations qualitatively reproduce the gross features of the mean GS precipitation and its annual cycle. At similar AGCM resolutions, the uncoupled models produce a GS rain band that is more realistic in both structure and strength compared to the coupled models with non-eddy-resolving oceans. This is because the prescribed observed SST better represents the gradient near the oceanic front than the non-eddy-resolving OGCMs simulate. An increase from the baseline AGCM resolution produces enhanced climatological GS precipitation, both large-scale and convective, with the latter more tightly confined to the oceanic front. The enhancement, however, is moderate and further increases in resolution achieves diminishing results. On the other hand, an increase in oceanic resolution from non-eddy-resolving to eddy resolving scheme results in more consistent simulations with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12314064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12314064"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of infant and child mortality on fertility in selected countries of the Asian and Pacific <span class="hlt">region</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Data from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) on 10 countries are used to measure the strength of 1 of 3 types of behavior (insurance behavior, breastfeeding and replacement behavior) <span class="hlt">influencing</span> the relationship between infant mortality and fertility. 2 variables, the use of contraception at the time of the survey and the stated desire to stop bearing children, are cross-classified by the parity of women, whether they had experienced the death of a child, and if so, whether it was the last or an earlier child. Other tabulations measure the effect of the death of sons, as opposed to daughters, on the decision to have another child. Demographic and socioeconomic controls are introduced using multiple classification analysis. The 10 countries surveyed in the <span class="hlt">region</span> are Bangladesh, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Results indicate that the replacement effect operated most strongly in countries such as Fiji and Korea which have relatively low fertility rates and high contraceptive practice. In countries with high mortality, e.g., Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan, the effect of replacement behavior on the practice of contraception was minimal. However, where the desire to have no more children was studied, women who had lost a child were far less likely to say they wanted no more children. The direct experience of losing a child tended to make women, especially low parity women, more pronatalist. While the measurable effects of child mortality on fertility were small, the findings about attitudes were highly suggestive. They support the belief that population which are pronatalist are so in part because high mortality causes concern about the ultimate chances of the survival of their children. It is thus not difficult to believe that people insure against the deaths of their children by trying to have more children than they need. Of the 10 countries surveyed, the evidence for such insurance behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP51C..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP51C..04G"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution <span class="hlt">regional</span> paleoclimate simulations of Lake Bonneville and its <span class="hlt">influence</span> on geomorphic processes in the Uinta Mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galewsky, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) for alpine glaciers in the Uinta Mountains at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) increase with distance from the shoreline of pluvial Lake Bonneville, an effect that has been linked at least in part to enhanced precipitation derived from Lake Bonneville. While this result is broadly consistent with relatively large-scale climate modeling studies, the precise meteorological mechanisms by which Lake Bonneville may have <span class="hlt">influenced</span> the glacial geomorphology of the Uinta Mountains remain poorly understood. New, high resolution (4km grid spacing) quasi-idealized <span class="hlt">regional</span> paeoclimate simulations of the LGM computed with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model provide new insights into these processes. Preliminary results indicate that moisture derived from Lake Bonneville likely would not have exerted a significant impact on <span class="hlt">regional</span> precipitation unless the lake temperature exceeded about 4 degrees C. However, an ice-free Lake Bonneville would have likely exerted a modest (at least 1-2C) local warming, with associated impacts on precipitation and snowpack development. While the overall snowfall amounts do not appear to be greatly affected by the presence of a cold, ice-free lake, the presence of such a lake does appear to <span class="hlt">influence</span> precipitation extremes throughout the <span class="hlt">region</span>. These results suggest that the local temperature <span class="hlt">influence</span> of pluvial lakes on <span class="hlt">regional</span> glaciation may be of similar magnitude to the effects of enhanced evaporation from those lakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.177..275B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.177..275B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature and altitudinal <span class="hlt">influence</span> on karst dripwater chemistry: Implications for <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale palaeoclimate reconstructions from speleothems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borsato, Andrea; Johnston, Vanessa E.; Frisia, Silvia; Miorandi, Renza; Corradini, Flavio</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The reconstruction of robust past climate records from speleothems requires a prior understanding of the environmental and hydrological conditions that lead to speleothem formation and the chemical signals encoded within them. On <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scales, there has been little quantification of the dependency of cave dripwater geochemistry on meteorology (net infiltration, temperature), environmental and geographical factors (elevation, latitude, soil activity, vegetation cover, atmospheric aerosol composition) and geological properties of the aquifer (lithology, porosity and thickness). In the present study, we analysed over 200 karst waters collected in 11 caves of the Trentino <span class="hlt">region</span> (NE Italy). The caves span sub-humid Mediterranean to cold-humid temperate climates and infiltration elevations (Zinf) ranging from 355 to 2400 m a.s.l., corresponding to infiltration mean annual temperatures (MATinf) between 12 and 0 °C. Since all the caves developed in pure carbonate rocks, soil pCO2 is found to be the main factor controlling the carbonate dissolution. For this reason, the parameters controlling the carbonate-carbonic acid system and calcite saturation state (SICC) are directly correlated with the MATinf, which <span class="hlt">influences</span> the vegetation zones and eventually the production of CO2 in the soil. SICC linearly depends on MATinf (SICC = 0.09 MATinf - 0.4) and SICC = 0 is reached at Zinf = 1.66 km a.s.l., corresponding to a MATinf = 4.4 °C. This point identifies the "speleothem limit" defined here as the elevation (or corresponding MATinf) above which no sparitic speleothem precipitation usually occurs. We demonstrate that due to temperature-forced changes in the soil and vegetation and subsequently SICC, the speleothem limit shifts to higher altitudes during maximum interglacial conditions. Speleothems from high altitude caves (1.5-2.5 km a.s.l.) thus can identify optimum interglacial periods. By contrast, speleothems formed at lower altitudes are better suited as archives of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4428876','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4428876"><span id="translatedtitle">A Ribonucleoprotein Complex Protects the Interleukin-6 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> from Degradation by Distinct Herpesviral Endonucleases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Muller, Mandy; Hutin, Stephanie; Marigold, Oliver; Li, Kathy H.; Burlingame, Al; Glaunsinger, Britt A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>During lytic Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (<span class="hlt">mRNA</span>). However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3’ untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (UTR) that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL) most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3’ UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3’ UTR was also protected against <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the IL-6 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. PMID:25965334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25965334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25965334"><span id="translatedtitle">A ribonucleoprotein complex protects the interleukin-6 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> from degradation by distinct herpesviral endonucleases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muller, Mandy; Hutin, Stephanie; Marigold, Oliver; Li, Kathy H; Burlingame, Al; Glaunsinger, Britt A</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>During lytic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (<span class="hlt">mRNA</span>). However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (UTR) that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL) most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3' UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3' UTR was also protected against <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the IL-6 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. PMID:25965334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2864715','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2864715"><span id="translatedtitle">The life of an <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in space and time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ben-Ari, Ya'ara; Brody, Yehuda; Kinor, Noa; Mor, Amir; Tsukamoto, Toshiro; Spector, David L.; Singer, Robert H.; Shav-Tal, Yaron</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Nuclear transcribed genes produce <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcripts destined to travel from the site of transcription to the cytoplasm for protein translation. Certain transcripts can be further localized to specific cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">regions</span>. We examined the life cycle of a transcribed β-actin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> throughout gene expression and localization, in a cell system that allows the in vivo detection of the gene locus, the transcribed mRNAs and the cytoplasmic β-actin protein that integrates into the actin cytoskeleton. Quantification showed that RNA polymerase II elongation progressed at a rate of 3.3 kb/minute and that transactivator binding to the promoter was transient (40 seconds), and demonstrated the unique spatial structure of the coding and non-coding <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the integrated gene within the transcription site. The rates of gene induction were measured during interphase and after mitosis, demonstrating that daughter cells were not synchronized in respect to transcription initiation of the studied gene. Comparison of the spatial and temporal kinetics of nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transport showed that the β-actin-localization response initiates from the existing cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> pool and not from the newly synthesized transcripts arising after gene induction. It was also demonstrated that mechanisms of random movement were predominant in mediating the efficient translocation of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in the eukaryotic cell. PMID:20427315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=247877','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=247877"><span id="translatedtitle">RNA editing by G-nucleotide insertion in mumps virus P-gene <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcripts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paterson, R G; Lamb, R A</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A guanine nucleotide insertion event has been shown to occur at a specific site within mumps virus P-gene <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcripts. The <span class="hlt">region</span> of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> containing the site expected to be used for RNA editing and the complementary portion of the genomic RNA were cloned, and their nucleotide sequences were obtained. The genomic RNA was found to possess six C residues at the insertion site, whereas 63% of the P-gene-specific <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcripts were found to have from two to five G residues inserted at this position in the RNA. An unedited <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was shown to encode the mumps virus cysteine-rich protein V, and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcripts containing two and four inserted G residues were translated to yield the mumps virus P and I proteins, respectively. Images PMID:2166809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21725008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21725008"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential accumulation of nif structural gene <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in Azotobacter vinelandii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Northern analysis was employed to investigate <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth. PMID:21725008</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1909119','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1909119"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression of beta 3-adrenoceptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in rat brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Summers, R. J.; Papaioannou, M.; Harris, S.; Evans, B. A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate beta 3-adrenoceptor <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in rat brain <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Levels were highest in hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum and lower in hypothalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Images Figure 1 PMID:8590968</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661964"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of water level on schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake <span class="hlt">region</span> before and after the construction of Three Gorges Dam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Zeng, Guangming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Schistosomiasis is a severe public health problem in the Dongting Lake <span class="hlt">region</span>, and its distribution, prevalence, and intensity of infection are particularly sensitive to environmental changes. In this study, the human and bovine schistosomiasis variations in the Dongting Lake <span class="hlt">region</span> were studied from 1996 to 2010, and the relationships between schistosomiasis and water level were examined. Furthermore, based on these results, the potential effects of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis were investigated. Results showed an increase in human schistosomiasis and in the scope of seriously affected <span class="hlt">regions</span>, along with a decrease in bovine schistosomiasis. Human schistosomiasis was negatively correlated with water level during wet season (from May to October), particularly the average water level in October. This finding indicated that the decreasing water level may be highly related to the increasing of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake <span class="hlt">region</span>. Based on this result and the variation of schistosomiasis before and after the construction and operation of TGD, the impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir is believed to decrease the water level and increase the contact between people and schistosomiasis. Therefore, the TGD, which is operated by regulating water and scheduling water operations, is not good for the control of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake <span class="hlt">region</span>. Although the extent of the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the TGD on schistosomiasis remains unclear, the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of the TGD on preventing and controlling schistosomiasis should not be ignored. PMID:26661964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017002','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017002"><span id="translatedtitle">A HTAP Multi-Model Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Influence</span> of <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Anthropogenic Emission Reductions on Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and the Role of Intercontinental Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; West, J. Jason; Atherton, Cynthia S.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Forberth, Gerd; Hess, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tan, Qian</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we assess changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and direct radiative forcing (DRF) in response to the reduction of anthropogenic emissions in four major pollution <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the northern hemisphere by using results from 10 global chemical transport models in the framework of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP). The multi-model results show that on average, a 20% reduction of anthropogenic emissions in North America, Europe, East Asia and South Asia lowers the global mean AOD and DRF by about 9%, 4%, and 10% for sulfate, organic matter, and black carbon aerosol, respectively. The impacts of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> emission reductions on AOD and DRF extend well beyond the source <span class="hlt">regions</span> because of intercontinental transport. On an annual basis, intercontinental transport accounts for 10-30% of the overall AOD and DRF in a receptor <span class="hlt">region</span>, with domestic emissions accounting for the remainder, depending on <span class="hlt">regions</span> and species. While South Asia is most <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by import of sulfate aerosol from Europe, North America is most <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by import of black carbon from East Asia. Results show a large spread among models, highlighting the need to improve aerosol processes in models and evaluate and constrain models with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954809','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954809"><span id="translatedtitle">Somatic Point Mutations in mtDNA Control <span class="hlt">Region</span> Are <span class="hlt">Influenced</span> by Genetic Background and Associated with Healthy Aging: A GEHA Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rose, Giuseppina; Romeo, Giuseppe; Dato, Serena; Crocco, Paolina; Bruni, Amalia C.; Hervonen, Antti; Majamaa, Kari; Sevini, Federica; Franceschi, Claudio; Passarino, Giuseppe</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Tissue specific somatic mutations occurring in the mtDNA control <span class="hlt">region</span> have been proposed to provide a survival advantage. Data on twins and on relatives of long-lived subjects suggested that the occurrence/accumulation of these mutations may be genetically <span class="hlt">influenced</span>. To further investigate control <span class="hlt">region</span> somatic heteroplasmy in the elderly, we analyzed the segment surrounding the nt 150 position (previously reported as specific of Leukocytes) in various types of leukocytes obtained from 195 ultra-nonagenarians sib-pairs of Italian or Finnish origin collected in the frame of the GEHA Project. We found a significant correlation of the mtDNA control <span class="hlt">region</span> heteroplasmy between sibs, confirming a genetic <span class="hlt">influence</span> on this phenomenon. Furthermore, many subjects showed heteroplasmy due to mutations different from the C150T transition. In these cases heteroplasmy was correlated within sibpairs in Finnish and northern Italian samples, but not in southern Italians. This suggested that the genetic contribution to control <span class="hlt">region</span> mutations may be population specific. Finally, we observed a possible correlation between heteroplasmy and Hand Grip strength, one of the best markers of physical performance and of mortality risk in the elderly. Our study provides new evidence on the relevance of mtDNA somatic mutations in aging and longevity and confirms that the occurrence of specific point mutations in the mtDNA control <span class="hlt">region</span> may represent a strategy for the age-related remodelling of organismal functions. PMID:20976236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739942','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739942"><span id="translatedtitle">Ustilago maydis natural antisense transcript expression alters <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability and pathogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Donaldson, Michael E; Saville, Barry J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ustilago maydis infection of Zea mays leads to the production of thick-walled diploid teliospores that are the dispersal agent for this pathogen. Transcriptome analyses of this model biotrophic basidiomycete fungus identified natural antisense transcripts (NATs) complementary to 247 open reading frames. The U. maydis NAT cDNAs were fully sequenced and annotated. Strand-specific RT-PCR screens confirmed expression and identified NATs preferentially expressed in the teliospore. Targeted screens revealed four U. maydis NATs that are conserved in a related fungus. Expression of NATs in haploid cells, where they are not naturally occurring, resulted in increased steady-state levels of some complementary mRNAs. The expression of one NAT, as-um02151, in haploid cells resulted in a twofold increase in complementary <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels, the formation of sense–antisense double-stranded RNAs, and unchanged Um02151 protein levels. This led to a model for NAT function in the maintenance and expression of stored teliospore mRNAs. In testing this model by deletion of the regulatory <span class="hlt">region</span>, it was determined that alteration in NAT expression resulted in decreased pathogenesis in both cob and seedling infections. This annotation and functional analysis supports multiple roles for U. maydis NATs in controlling gene expression and <span class="hlt">influencing</span> pathogenesis. PMID:23650872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16394137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16394137"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability regulation of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and the control of gene expression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheadle, Chris; Fan, Jinshui; Cho-Chung, Yoon S; Werner, Thomas; Ray, Jill; Do, Lana; Gorospe, Myriam; Becker, Kevin G</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. Standard techniques measure changes in total cellular poly(A) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels. The assumption that changes in gene expression as measured by these techniques are directly and well correlated with changes in rates of new gene synthesis form the basis of attempts to connect coordinated changes in gene expression with shared transcription regulatory elements. Yet systematic attempts at this approach remain difficult to demonstrate convincingly. One reason for this difficulty may result from the intricate convergence of both transcriptional and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> turnover events which, together, directly <span class="hlt">influence</span> steady-state <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels. Recent technical advances have led to the successful scale-up and application of nuclear run-on procedures directly to microarrays. This development has allowed a gene-by-gene comparison between new gene synthesis in the nucleus and measured changes in total cellular polyA <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Results from these studies have begun to challenge the strict interpretation of changes in gene expression measured by conventional microarrays as being closely correlated with changes in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcription rate, but rather they tend to support the significant expansion of the role played by changes in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability regulation to standard analyses of gene expression. Gene expression profiles obtained from both polyA <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> (whole-cell) and nuclear run-on (newly transcribed) RNA across a time course of one hour following the activation of human Jurkat T cells with PMA plus ionomycin revealed that regulation of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability may account for as much as 50% of all measurements of changes in total cellular polyA <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in this system. Stability regulation was inferred by the absence of corresponding regulation of nuclear gene transcription activity for groups of genes strongly regulated at the whole cell level and which were also resistant to inhibition by Actinomycin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=318858','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=318858"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of xanthine dehydrogenase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels in mutants affecting the expression of the rosy locus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Covington, M; Fleenor, D; Devlin, R B</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were measured in a number of mutants and natural variants affecting XDH gene expression. Two variants, ry+4 and ry+10, contain cis-acting elements which map to a <span class="hlt">region</span> flanking the 5' end of the XDH gene. Ry+4, which has 2-3 times more XDH protein than a wild type strain, has 3.2 times more XDH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Ry+10 has 50% of the wild type XDH level and 54% of the wild type XDH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> level. Three rosy mutants which map within the structural gene were also examined. Two of these had little if any XDH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, but the third mutant had 1.3 times more XDH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> than wild type flies. Another mutant, ry2 , which contains no XDH protein and has a 9KB transposable element inserted into the XDH gene, has normal levels of XDH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcripts which are also the same size as those found in the wild type strain. Changes in XDH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were measured during Drosophila development and found to parallel changes in the amount of XDH protein. In addition, there were no large changes in the size of XDH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> during development. Images PMID:6588363</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22199682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22199682"><span id="translatedtitle">hnRNP L binds to CA repeats in the 3'UTR of bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Lim, Mi-Hyun; Youn, Dong-Ye; Jung, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Soo; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Lee, Jeong-Hwa</p> <p>2009-05-08</p> <p>We previously reported that the CA-repeat sequence in the 3'-untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (3'UTR) of bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is involved in the decay of bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. However, the trans-acting factor for the CA element in bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> remains unidentified. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L), an intron splicing factor, has been reported to bind to CA repeats and CA clusters in the 3'UTR of several genes. We reported herein that the CA repeats of bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> have the potential to form a distinct ribonuclear protein complex in cytoplasmic extracts of MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays (REMSA). A super-shift assay using the hnRNP L antibody completely shifted the complex. Immunoprecipitation with the hnRNP L antibody and MCF-7 cells followed by RT-PCR revealed that hnRNP L interacts with endogenous bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in vivo. Furthermore, the suppression of hnRNP L in MCF-7 cells by the transfection of siRNA for hnRNP L resulted in a delay in the degradation of RNA transcripts including CA repeats of bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in vitro, suggesting that the interaction between hnRNPL and CA repeats of bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> participates in destabilizing bcl-2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3535187','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3535187"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of the Valine Zipper <span class="hlt">Region</span> on the Structure and Aggregation of the Basic Leucine Zipper (bZIP) Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 (ATF5)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ciaccio, Natalie A.; Reynolds, T. Steele; Middaugh, C. Russell; Laurence, Jennifer S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Protein aggregation is a major problem for biopharmaceuticals. While the control of aggregation is critically important for the future of protein pharmaceuticals, mechanisms of aggregate assembly, particularly the role that structure plays, are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that partially folded intermediates critically <span class="hlt">influence</span> the aggregation pathway. We have previously reported the use of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 (ATF5) as a partially folded model system to investigate protein aggregation. This domain contains three <span class="hlt">regions</span> with differing structural propensity: a N-terminal polybasic <span class="hlt">region</span>, a central helical leucine zipper <span class="hlt">region</span>, and a C-terminal extended valine zipper <span class="hlt">region</span>. Additionally, a centrally positioned cysteine residue readily forms an intermolecular disulfide bond that reduces aggregation. Computational analysis of ATF5 predicts that the valine zipper <span class="hlt">region</span> facilitates self-association. Here we test this hypothesis using a truncated mutant lacking the C-terminal valine zipper <span class="hlt">region</span>. We compare the structure and aggregation of this mutant to the wild-type (WT) form under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. Our data indicate that removal of this <span class="hlt">region</span> results in a loss of alpha-helical structure in the leucine zipper and a change in the mechanism of self-association. The mutant form displays increased association at low temperature but improved resistance to thermally induced aggregation. PMID:23067245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7026435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7026435"><span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid hormones regulate levels of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in the paraventricular nucleus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koller, K.J.; Wolff, R.S.; Warden, M.K.; Zoeller, R.T.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>Cellular levels of messenger RNA encoding thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were measured in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the reticular nucleus of the thalamus in male rats after chemical thyroidectomy and thyroid hormone, replacement. TRH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were measured by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry using a /sup 35/S-labeled synthetic 48-base oligodeoxynucleotide probe and quantitative autoradiography. Chemical thyroidectomy, produced by the administration of 6-(n-propyl)-2-thiouracil (PrSur), reduced plasma thyroxine below detection limits and significantly increased TRH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in the paraventricular nucleus. Treatments with exogenous L-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) reduced TRH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> to the same level in both hypothyroid and euthyroid animals. Neither PrSur treatment nor T/sub 3/ replacement <span class="hlt">influenced</span> TRH <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated total RNA from pituitaries of these animals indicated that thyrotropin-..beta.. <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were elevated after thyroidectomy and reduced by T/sub 3/ treatment, showing that the pituitary-thyroid axis was indeed stimulated by PrSur treatment. These results suggest that thyroid hormones are involved, either directly or indirectly, in regulating the biosynthesis of TRH in the thyrotropic center of the hypothalamus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147543','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=147543"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay in conditional mutants of yeast <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> capping enzyme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwer, B; Mao, X; Shuman, S</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Current models of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay in yeast posit that 3' deadenylation precedes enzymatic removal of the 5' cap, which then exposes the naked end to 5' exonuclease action. Here, we analyzed gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells bearing conditional mutations of Ceg1 (capping enzyme), a 52 kDa protein that transfers GMP from GTP to the 5' end of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> to form the GpppN cap structure. Shift of ceg1 mutants to restrictive temperature elicited a rapid decline in the rate of protein synthesis, which correlated with a sharp reduction in the steady-state levels of multiple individual mRNAs. ceg1 mutations prevented the accumulation of SSA1 and SSA4 mRNAs that were newly synthesized at the restrictive temperature. Uncapped poly(A)+ SSA4 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> accumulated in cells lacking the 5' exoribonuclease Xrn1. These findings provide genetic evidence for the long-held idea that the cap guanylate is critical for <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability. The deadenylation-decapping-degradation pathway appears to be short-circuited when Ceg1 is inactivated. PMID:9547258</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014Nanos...6.7715P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014Nanos...6.7715P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Messenger RNA (<span class="hlt">mRNA</span>) nanoparticle tumour vaccination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> tumour vaccination show that the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>'s biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6849627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6849627"><span id="translatedtitle">Functions of maternal <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> as a cytoplasmic factor responsible for pole cell formation in Drosophila embryos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Togashi, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Okada, M.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> extracted from Drosophila cleavage embryos or mature oocytes restored pole cell-forming ability to embryos that had been deprived of this ability by uv irradiation. However, <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> extracted from blastoderms did not show the restoration activity. Pole cells thus formed in uv-irradiated embryos bear similarities to normal pole cells both in their morphology and their ability to migrate to the gonadal rudiments. But this <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> does not appear to be capable of rescuing uv-induced sterility, or inducing pole cells in the anterior polar <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=232371','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=232371"><span id="translatedtitle">Posttranscriptional regulation of collagen alpha1(I) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in hepatic stellate cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stefanovic, B; Hellerbrand, C; Holcik, M; Briendl, M; Aliebhaber, S; Brenner, D A</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the primary cell responsible for the dramatic increase in the synthesis of type I collagen in the cirrhotic liver. Quiescent HSCs contain a low level of collagen alpha1(I) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, while activated HSCs contain about 60- to 70-fold more of this <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The transcription rate of the collagen alpha1(I) gene is only two fold higher in activated HSCs than in quiescent HSCs. In assays using actinomycin D or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside collagen alpha1(I) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> has estimated half-lives of 1.5 h in quiescent HSCs and 24 h in activated HSCs. Thus, this 16-fold change in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> stability is primarily responsible for the increase in collagen alpha1(I) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> steady-state level in activated HSCs. We have identified a novel RNA-protein interaction targeted to the C-rich sequence in the collagen alpha1(I) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (UTR). This sequence is localized 24 nucleotides 3' to the stop codon. In transient transfection experiments, mutation of this sequence diminished accumulation of an <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> transcribed from a collagen alpha1(I) minigene and in stable transfections decreased the half-life of collagen alpha1(I) minigene <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Binding to the collagen alpha1(I) 3' UTR is present in cytoplasmic extracts of activated but not quiescent HSCs. It contains as a subunit alphaCP, which is also found in the complex involved in stabilization of alpha-globin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The auxiliary factors necessary to promote binding of alphaCP to the collagen 3' UTR are distinct from the factors necessary for binding to the alpha-globin sequence. Since alphaCP is expressed in both quiescent and activated HSCs, these auxiliary factors are responsible for the differentially expressed RNA-protein interaction at the collagen alpha1(I) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3' UTR. PMID:9271398</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26584866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26584866"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional <span class="hlt">influences</span> of the brain and cognitive reserve factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Persson, Ninni; Ghisletta, Paolo; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We examined relationships between <span class="hlt">regional</span> brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the <span class="hlt">influence</span> of chronological age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. <span class="hlt">Regional</span> brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six <span class="hlt">regions</span> of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal <span class="hlt">influences</span> among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one <span class="hlt">region</span> (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development. PMID:26584866</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9891091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9891091"><span id="translatedtitle">Thymidylate synthase protein and p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> form an in vivo ribonucleoprotein complex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, E; Copur, S M; Ju, J; Chen, T M; Khleif, S; Voeller, D M; Mizunuma, N; Patel, M; Maley, G F; Maley, F; Allegra, C J</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>A thymidylate synthase (TS)-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex composed of TS protein and the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> of the tumor suppressor gene p53 was isolated from cultured human colon cancer cells. RNA gel shift assays confirmed a specific interaction between TS protein and the protein-coding <span class="hlt">region</span> of p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, and in vitro translation studies demonstrated that this interaction resulted in the specific repression of p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation. To demonstrate the potential biological role of the TS protein-p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> interaction, Western immunoblot analysis revealed nearly undetectable levels of p53 protein in TS-overexpressing human colon cancer H630-R10 and rat hepatoma H35(F/F) cell lines compared to the levels in their respective parent H630 and H35 cell lines. Polysome analysis revealed that the p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was associated with higher-molecular-weight polysomes in H35 cells compared to H35(F/F) cells. While the level of p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression was identical in parent and TS-overexpressing cell lines, the level of p53 RNA bound to TS in the form of RNP complexes was significantly higher in TS-overexpressing cells. The effect of TS on p53 expression was also investigated with human colon cancer RKO cells by use of a tetracycline-inducible system. Treatment of RKO cells with a tetracycline derivative, doxycycline, resulted in 15-fold-induced expression of TS protein and nearly complete suppression of p53 protein expression. However, p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were identical in transfected RKO cells in the absence and presence of doxycycline. Taken together, these findings suggest that TS regulates the expression of p53 at the translational level. This study identifies a novel pathway for regulating p53 gene expression and expands current understanding of the potential role of TS as a regulator of cellular gene expression. PMID:9891091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=116086','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=116086"><span id="translatedtitle">Thymidylate Synthase Protein and p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Form an In Vivo Ribonucleoprotein Complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chu, Edward; Copur, Sitki M.; Ju, Jingfang; Chen, Tian-men; Khleif, Samir; Voeller, Donna M.; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Patel, Mahendra; Maley, Gladys F.; Maley, Frank; Allegra, Carmen J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A thymidylate synthase (TS)-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex composed of TS protein and the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> of the tumor suppressor gene p53 was isolated from cultured human colon cancer cells. RNA gel shift assays confirmed a specific interaction between TS protein and the protein-coding <span class="hlt">region</span> of p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, and in vitro translation studies demonstrated that this interaction resulted in the specific repression of p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation. To demonstrate the potential biological role of the TS protein-p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> interaction, Western immunoblot analysis revealed nearly undetectable levels of p53 protein in TS-overexpressing human colon cancer H630-R10 and rat hepatoma H35(F/F) cell lines compared to the levels in their respective parent H630 and H35 cell lines. Polysome analysis revealed that the p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> was associated with higher-molecular-weight polysomes in H35 cells compared to H35(F/F) cells. While the level of p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression was identical in parent and TS-overexpressing cell lines, the level of p53 RNA bound to TS in the form of RNP complexes was significantly higher in TS-overexpressing cells. The effect of TS on p53 expression was also investigated with human colon cancer RKO cells by use of a tetracycline-inducible system. Treatment of RKO cells with a tetracycline derivative, doxycycline, resulted in 15-fold-induced expression of TS protein and nearly complete suppression of p53 protein expression. However, p53 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were identical in transfected RKO cells in the absence and presence of doxycycline. Taken together, these findings suggest that TS regulates the expression of p53 at the translational level. This study identifies a novel pathway for regulating p53 gene expression and expands current understanding of the potential role of TS as a regulator of cellular gene expression. PMID:9891091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6592581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6592581"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping of N6-methyladenosine residues in bovine prolactin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horowitz, S; Horowitz, A; Nilsen, T W; Munns, T W; Rottman, F M</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) residues, which are found internally in viral and cellular <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> populations at the sequences Apm6ApC and Gpm6ApC, have been proposed to play a role in <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> processing and transport. We have developed a sensitive approach to analyze the level and location of m6A in specific purified cellular mRNAs in an attempt to correlate m6A location with function. Polyadenylylated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is hybridized to cDNA clones representing the full size <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> under study or fragments of it, and the protected RNA is digested and labeled with polynucleotide kinase in vitro. After enrichment for m6A with anti-m6A antibody, the [32P]-pm6A is separated on TLC plates, and compared with the total amount of radiolabeled nucleotides. Using this combination of in vitro RNA labeling and antibody selection, we were able to detect m6A in purified stable mRNAs that cannot be readily labeled in cells with greater sensitivity than was possible by previous techniques. We applied this technique to bovine prolactin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and showed that this <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> contains m6A. Moreover, all of the m6A residues in this message are found within the 3' two-thirds of the molecule and are highly concentrated (61%) within a sequence of 108 nucleotides at the 3' noncoding <span class="hlt">region</span> of the message. The nonrandom distribution of m6A in a specific cellular <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, as demonstrated for bovine prolactin, will have to be taken into account when designing a model for m6A function. PMID:6592581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5226662','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5226662"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of neurotensin/neuromedin N <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in rat forebrain: Unexpected abundance in hippocampus and subiculum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alexander, M.J.; Miller, M.A.; Dorsa, D.M.; Bullock, B.P.; Helloni, R.H. Jr.; Dobner, P.R.; Leeman, S.E. )</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>The authors have used in situ hybridization to determine the <span class="hlt">regional</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> encoding the neurotensin/neuromedin N (NT/N) precursor in the forebrain of the adult male rat. Cells containing NT/N <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> are widely distributed in the forebrain. These areas include the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, hypothalamus, amygdala, accumbens nucleus, caudate-putamen, and piriform and retrosplenial cortex. In general, the <span class="hlt">regional</span> distribution of NT/N <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> corresponds to the previously determined distribution of neurotensin-immunoreactive cell bodies; however, several notable exceptions were observed. The most striking difference occurs specifically in the CA1 <span class="hlt">region</span> of the hippocampus, where intense labeling is associated with the pyramidal cell layer despite the reported absence of neurotensin-immunoreactive cells in this <span class="hlt">region</span>. A second major discrepancy between NT/N <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> abundance and neurotensin-immunoreactivity occurs in the intensely labeled subiculum, a <span class="hlt">region</span> that contains only scattered neurotensin-immunoreactive cells in the adult. These results suggest that, in specific <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the forebrain, NT/N precursor is processed to yield products other than neurotensin. In addition, these results provide an anatomical basis for studying the physiological regulation of NT/N <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels in the forebrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=50793&keyword=titration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67536785&CFTOKEN=68006749','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=50793&keyword=titration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67536785&CFTOKEN=68006749"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">INFLUENCE</span> OF VERTICAL RESOLUTION ON THE DIURNAL OZONE CONCENTRATIONS IN A <span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span> PHOTOCHEMICAL MODEL: A PRELIMINARY STUDY WITH WINDOW RADM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Evaluation studies of the <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Acid Deposition Model (RADM) with surface measurement have revealed positive bias (overprediction) of surface ozone (O3) concentration during nighttime hours and negative bias (underprediction) during daytime hours by the model, especially in ru...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836415','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836415"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">mRNA</span> quality control goes transcriptional</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kilchert, Cornelia; Vasiljeva, Lidia</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Eukaryotic mRNAs are extensively processed to generate functional transcripts, which are 5′ capped, spliced and 3′ polyadenylated. Accumulation of unprocessed (aberrant) mRNAs can be deleterious for the cell, hence processing fidelity is closely monitored by QC (quality control) mechanisms that identify erroneous transcripts and initiate their selective removal. Nucleases including Xrn2/Rat1 and the nuclear exosome have been shown to play an important role in the turnover of aberrant mRNAs. Recently, with the growing appreciation that <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> processing occurs concomitantly with polII (RNA polymerase II) transcription, it has become evident that QC acts at the transcriptional level in addition to degrading aberrant RNAs. In the present review, we discuss mechanisms that allow cells to co-transcriptionally initiate the removal of RNAs as well as down-regulate transcription of transcripts where processing repeatedly fails. PMID:24256272</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660458"><span id="translatedtitle">Glucose induces FGF21 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression through ChREBP activation in rat hepatocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iizuka, Katsumi; Takeda, Jun; Horikawa, Yukio</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has beneficial effects of improving the plasma glucose and lipid profiles in diabetic rodents. Here, we investigated carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) involvement in the regulation of FGF21 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in liver. Glucose stimulation and adenoviral overexpression of dominant active ChREBP increased FGF21 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Consistently, adenoviral expression of dominant negative Mlx inhibited glucose induction of FGF21 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Furthermore, deletion studies of mouse FGF21 gene promoter (-2000 to +65 bp) revealed a glucose responsive <span class="hlt">region</span> between -74 and -52 bp. These findings suggest that FGF21 expression is regulated by ChREBP. PMID:19660458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578575"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoter-bound trinucleotide repeat <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> drives epigenetic silencing in fragile X syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colak, Dilek; Zaninovic, Nikica; Cohen, Michael S; Rosenwaks, Zev; Yang, Wang-Yong; Gerhardt, Jeannine; Disney, Matthew D; Jaffrey, Samie R</p> <p>2014-02-28</p> <p>Epigenetic gene silencing is seen in several repeat-expansion diseases. In fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic form of mental retardation, a CGG trinucleotide-repeat expansion adjacent to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene promoter results in its epigenetic silencing. Here, we show that FMR1 silencing is mediated by the FMR1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The FMR1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> contains the transcribed CGG-repeat tract as part of the 5' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span>, which hybridizes to the complementary CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene to form an RNA·DNA duplex. Disrupting the interaction of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> with the CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene prevents promoter silencing. Thus, our data link trinucleotide-repeat expansion to a form of RNA-directed gene silencing mediated by direct interactions of the trinucleotide-repeat RNA and DNA. PMID:24578575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4357282','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4357282"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoter-Bound Trinucleotide Repeat <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> Drives Epigenetic Silencing in Fragile X Syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Colak, Dilek; Zaninovic, Nikica; Cohen, Michael S.; Rosenwaks, Zev; Yang, Wang-Yong; Gerhardt, Jeannine; Disney, Matthew D.; Jaffrey, Samie R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Epigenetic gene silencing is seen in several repeat-expansion diseases. In fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic form of mental retardation, a CGG trinucleotide–repeat expansion adjacent to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene promoter results in its epigenetic silencing. Here, we show that FMR1 silencing is mediated by the FMR1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. The FMR1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> contains the transcribed CGG-repeat tract as part of the 5′ untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span>, which hybridizes to the complementary CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene to form an RNA·DNA duplex. Disrupting the interaction of the <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> with the CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene prevents promoter silencing. Thus, our data link trinucleotide-repeat expansion to a form of RNA-directed gene silencing mediated by direct interactions of the trinucleotide-repeat RNA and DNA. PMID:24578575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CTE&pg=5&id=ED519377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CTE&pg=5&id=ED519377"><span id="translatedtitle">High School Students' Perception of Career Technical Education and Factors that <span class="hlt">Influence</span> Enrollment in Programs at a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Occupational Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>St. Gean, Laurie M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to learn about the demographic profile of South Bay-area high school Career Technical Education (CTE) students (those who enroll in CTE courses outside the school day), their perceptions related to CTE, the people and other factors that <span class="hlt">influence</span> them to enroll in CTE courses, and students' opinions on which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060184.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060184.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Public and Private School Distinction, <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Development Differences, and Other Factors <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> the Success of Primary School Students in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sulku, Seher Nur; Abdioglu, Zehra</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the factors <span class="hlt">influencing</span> the success of students in primary schools in Turkey. TIMSS 2011 data for Turkey, measuring the success of eighth-grade students in the field of mathematics, were used in an econometric analysis, performed using classical linear regression models. Two hundred thirty-nine schools participated in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017851','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017851"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Regional</span> nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human <span class="hlt">influences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 <span class="hlt">regions</span> in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic <span class="hlt">region</span> of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all <span class="hlt">regions</span>. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate <span class="hlt">regions</span> (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, <span class="hlt">regional</span> nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many <span class="hlt">regions</span>, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911097"><span id="translatedtitle">Gemin5 Binds to the Survival Motor Neuron <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> to Regulate SMN Expression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Workman, Eileen; Kalda, Caitlin; Patel, Aalapi; Battle, Daniel J</p> <p>2015-06-19</p> <p>Reduced expression of SMN causes spinal muscular atrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Despite the importance of maintaining SMN levels, relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which SMN levels are regulated. We show here that Gemin5, the snRNA-binding protein of the SMN complex, binds directly to the SMN <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> and regulates SMN expression. Gemin5 binds with high specificity, both in vitro and in vivo, to sequence and structural elements in the SMN <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 3'-untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> that are reminiscent of the snRNP code to which Gemin5 binds on snRNAs. Reduction of Gemin5 redistributes the SMN <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> from heavy polysomes to lighter polysomes and monosomes, suggesting that Gemin5 functions as an activator of SMN translation. SMN protein is not stoichiometrically present on the SMN <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> with Gemin5, but the mRNA-binding activity of Gemin5 is dependent on SMN levels, providing a feedback mechanism for SMN to regulate its own expression via Gemin5. This work both reveals a new autoregulatory pathway governing SMN expression, and identifies a new mechanism through which SMN can modulate specific <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression via Gemin5. PMID:25911097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24056942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24056942"><span id="translatedtitle">mRNA-mRNA duplexes that autoelicit Staufen1-mediated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Chenguang; Tang, Yalan; Maquat, Lynne E</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We report a new mechanism by which human mRNAs cross-talk: an Alu element in the 3' untranslated <span class="hlt">region</span> (3' UTR) of one <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> can base-pair with a partially complementary Alu element in the 3' UTR of a different <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>, thereby creating a Staufen1 (STAU1)-binding site (SBS). STAU1 binding to a 3'-UTR SBS was previously shown to trigger STAU1-mediated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay (SMD) by directly recruiting the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, which is also a key factor in the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> decay (NMD) pathway. In the case of a 3'-UTR SBS created by mRNA-mRNA base-pairing, we show that SMD targets both mRNAs in the duplex, provided that both mRNAs are translated. If only one <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is translated, then it alone is targeted for SMD. We demonstrate the functional importance of mRNA-mRNA-triggered SMD in cell migration and invasion. PMID:24056942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7896700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7896700"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic organization and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression of enolase genes of Candida albicans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Postlethwait, P; Sundstrom, P</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>In previous work, we cloned a Candida albicans cDNA for the glycolytic enzyme enolase and found a single, abundant enolase transcript on Northern (RNA) blots and a single protein on immunoblots, using antiserum raised against a recombinant enolase fusion protein. Because C. albicans enolase is abundantly produced during infection and elicits strong host immune responses, the mechanisms regulating enolase production are important for understanding the growth of C. albicans in vivo. To obtain more information on enolase gene expression by C. albicans, we used the enolase cDNA clone to investigate the genetic organization of enolase genes and the steady-state levels of enolase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> under several growth conditions. Gene disruption techniques in combination with Southern blot analyses of genomic DNA showed the presence of two enolase gene loci that could be distinguished by the locations of ClaI and Mn/I sites in their 3' flanking <span class="hlt">regions</span>. Enolase steady-state <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were greatest during the middle phase of the logarithmic growth curve and were low during stationary phase. Minimal differences in enolase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels between yeast cells and hyphae were found. Propagation of C. albicans in glucose did not cause increased enolase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels compared with growth in a nonfermentable carbon source (pyruvate). It was concluded that two gene loci exist for C. albicans enolase and that enolase <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> is constitutively produced at high levels during active metabolism. PMID:7896700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4130533','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4130533"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative Forms of Y-Box Binding Protein 1 and YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lyabin, Dmitry N.; Doronin, Alexander N.; Eliseeva, Irina A.; Guens, Gelena P.; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Ovchinnikov, Lev P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The multifunctional eukaryotic protein YB-1 (Y-box binding protein 1) plays a role in DNA reparation, transcription regulation, splicing, and <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> translation, thereby participating in many crucial events in cells. Its effect is dependent mostly on its amount, and hence, on regulation of its synthesis. Published data on regulation of synthesis of YB-1 mediated by its <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> 5′ UTR, and specifically on the 5′ UTR length and the presence of TOP-like motifs in this <span class="hlt">region</span>, are contradictory. Here we report that 5′ UTRs of major forms of human, rabbit, and mouse YB-1 mRNAs are about 140 nucleotides long and contain no TOP-like motifs mentioned in the literature. Also, we have found that YB-1 specifically interacts with the 5′ UTR of its own <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> within a <span class="hlt">region</span> of about 100 nucleotides upstream from the start codon. Apart from YB-1, translation of YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> in a cell free system gives an additional product with an extended N-terminus and lower electrophoretic mobility. The start codon for synthesis of the additional product is AUC at position –(60–58) of the same open reading frame as that for the major product. Also, in the cell there is an alternative YB-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> with exon 1 replaced by a part of intron 1; YB-1 synthesized in vitro from this <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> contains, instead of its N-terminal A/P domain, 10–11 amino acids encoded by intron 1. PMID:25116735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19303193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19303193"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of an atmospheric dispersion model to determine <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> in the Prince George, B.C. airshed from the burning of open wood waste piles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ainslie, B; Jackson, P L</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>A means of determining air emission source <span class="hlt">regions</span> adversely <span class="hlt">influencing</span> the city of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada from potential burning of isolated piles of mountain pine beetle-killed lodge pole pine is presented. The analysis uses the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to identify safe burning <span class="hlt">regions</span> based on atmospheric stability and wind direction. Model results show that the location and extent of <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> is sensitive to wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability and a threshold used to quantify excessive concentrations. A concentration threshold based on the Canada Wide PM(2.5) Standard is used to delineate the <span class="hlt">influence</span> <span class="hlt">regions</span> while Environment Canada's (EC) daily ventilation index (VI) is used to quantify local atmospheric stability. Results from the analysis, to be used by air quality meteorologists in assessing daily requests for burning permits, are presented as a series of maps delineating acceptable burning locations for sources placed at various distances from the city center and under different ventilation conditions. The results show that no burning should be allowed within 10 km of the city center; under poor ventilation conditions, no burning should be allowed within 20 km of the city center; under good ventilation conditions, burning can be allowed within 10-15 km of the city center; under good to fair ventilation conditions, burning can be allowed beyond 15 km of the city center; and if the wind direction can be reliably forecast, burning can be allowed between 5 and 10 km downwind of the city center under good ventilation conditions. PMID:19303193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..89..633W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..89..633W"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">influence</span> of future non-mitigated road transport emissions on <span class="hlt">regional</span> ozone exceedences at global scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, J. E.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Berntsen, T. K.; Dessens, O.; Gauss, M.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Olivié, D.; Prather, M. J.; Tang, Q.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Road Transport emissions (RTE) are a significant anthropogenic global NOx source responsible for enhancing the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower troposphere. Here we analyse a multi-model ensemble which adopts the realistic SRES A1B emission scenario and a “policy-failure” scenario for RTE (A1B_HIGH) for the years 2000, 2025 and 2050. Analysing the <span class="hlt">regional</span> trends in RTE NOx estimates shows by 2025 that differences of 0.2-0.3 Tg N yr-1 occur for most of the world <span class="hlt">regions</span> between the A1B and A1B_HIGH estimates, except for Asia where there is a larger difference of ˜1.4 Tg N yr-1. For 2050 these differences fall to ˜0.1 Tg N yr-1, with shipping emissions becoming as important as RTE. Analysing the seasonality in near-surface O3 from the multi-model ensemble monthly mean values shows a large variability in the projected changes between different <span class="hlt">regions</span>. For Western Europe and the Eastern US although the peak O3 mixing ratios decrease by ˜10% in 2050, there is an associated degradation during wintertime due to less direct titration from nitric oxide. For <span class="hlt">regions</span> such as Eastern China, although total anthropogenic NOx emissions are reduced from 2025 to 2050, there is no real improvement in peak O3 levels. By normalizing the seasonal ensemble means of near-surface O3 (0-500 m) with the recommended European Commission (EC) exposure limit to derive an exceedence ratio (ER), we show that ER values greater than 1.0 occur across a wide area in the Northern Hemisphere for boreal summer using the year 2000 emissions. When adopting the future A1B_HIGH estimates, the Middle East exhibits the worst <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality, closely followed by Asia. For these <span class="hlt">regions</span> the area of exceedence (ER > 1.0) for 2025 is ˜40% and ˜25% of the total area of each <span class="hlt">region</span>, respectively. Comparing simulations employing the various scenarios shows that unmitigated RTE increases the area of exceedence in the Middle East by ˜6% and, for Asia, by ˜2% of the total</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1369661','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1369661"><span id="translatedtitle">Cis-acting elements are required for selenium regulation of glutathione peroxidase-1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weiss, S L; Sunde, R A</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Classical glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels can decrease to less than 10% in selenium (Se)-deficient rat liver. The cis-acting nucleic acid sequence requirements for Se regulation of GPX1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were studied by transfecting Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with GPX1 DNA constructs in which specific <span class="hlt">regions</span> of the GPX1 gene were mutated, deleted, or replaced by comparable <span class="hlt">regions</span> from unregulated genes such as phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX4). For each construct, stable transfectants were pooled two weeks after transfection, divided into Se-deficient (2 nM Se) or Se-adequate (200 nM Se) medium, and grown for an additional four days. On day of harvest, Se-deficient GPX1 and GPX4 activities averaged 13 +/- 2% and 15 +/- 2% of Se adequate levels, confirming that cellular Se status was dramatically altered by Se supplementation. RNA was isolated from replicate plates of cells and transfected <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels were specifically determined by RNase protection assay. Analysis of chimeric GPX1/GPX4 constructs showed that the GPX4 3'-UTR can completely replace the GPX1 3'-UTR in Se regulation of GPX1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. We did not find any GPX1 coding <span class="hlt">regions</span> that could be replaced by the corresponding GPX4 coding <span class="hlt">regions</span> without diminishing or eliminating Se regulation of the transfected GPX1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span>. Further analysis of the GPX1 coding <span class="hlt">region</span> demonstrated that the GPX1 Sec codon (UGA) and the GPX1 intron sequences are required for full Se regulation of transfected GPX1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels. Mutations that moved the GPX1 Sec codon to three different positions within the GPX1 coding <span class="hlt">region</span> suggest that the mechanism for Se regulation of GPX1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> requires a Sec codon within exon 1. Lastly, we found that addition of the GPX1 3'-UTR to beta-globin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> can convey significant Se regulation to beta-globin <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> levels when a UGA codon is placed within exon 1. We conclude that Se regulation of GPX1 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> requires a functional selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) in the 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308383&keyword=NO2&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76274420&CFTOKEN=33289555','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308383&keyword=NO2&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76274420&CFTOKEN=33289555"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the MACC reanalysis and its <span class="hlt">influence</span> as chemical boundary conditions for <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality modeling in AQMEII-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) has now reached its second phase which is dedicated to the evaluation of online coupled chemistry-meteorology models. Sixteen modeling groups from Europe and five from North America have run <span class="hlt">regional</span> air quality m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChJOL..32.1414S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChJOL..32.1414S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on <span class="hlt">regional</span> sea level rise in the Pacific Ocean from 1993 to 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Si, Zongshang; Xu, Yongsheng</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The rate of <span class="hlt">regional</span> sea level rise (SLR) provides important information about the impact of human activities on climate change. However, accurate estimation of <span class="hlt">regional</span> SLR can be severely affected by sea surface height (SSH) change caused by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO-SSH). Here, the PDO-SSH signal is extracted from satellite altimeter data by multi-variable linear regression, and <span class="hlt">regional</span> SLR in the altimeter era is calculated, before and after removing that signal. The results show that PDO-SSH trends are rising in the western Pacific and falling in the eastern Pacific, with the strongest signal confined to the tropical and North Pacific. Over the past 20 years, the PDO-SSH accounts for about 30%-40% of altimeter-observed SLR in the <span class="hlt">regions</span> 8°-15°N, 130°-160°E and 30°-40°N, 170°-220°E. Along the coast of North America, the PDO-SSH signal dramatically offsets the coastal SLR, as the sea level trends change sign from falling to rising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10193718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10193718"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale soil-moisture deficits on mesoscale atmospheric dynamics that <span class="hlt">influence</span> fire severity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fast, J.D.</p> <p>1994-09-30</p> <p>This study employs a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic mesoscale model to evaluate the effects of horizontally heterogeneous soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere during two periods in which wildland fires occurred. Numerical sensitivity simulations demonstrate that evapotranspiration significantly affects the boundary-layer structure embedded in the synoptic-scale circulations. In <span class="hlt">regions</span> with sufficiently moist soils, evapotranspiration increases the humidity and modifies the diurnally varying temperature near the surface. Occasionally, changes in the humidity and temperature fields can also be seen a significant distance downwind of the moist soil <span class="hlt">regions</span>. The perturbations in the temperature fields ultimately affect the wind speed and direction over or at the boundaries of the moist-soil <span class="hlt">regions</span>, but only at certain times during the simulation period. The higher humidity also increases the cloudiness and changes the precipitation amounts, indicating that soil moisture and vegetation may play an important role in modifying the spatial distribution and intensity of precipitation. A lower atmospheric stability index, that is an indicator of the potential for wildland fire, is also calculated from the model results. This index is also sensitive to the horizontal distribution of soil moisture and vegetation, especially in <span class="hlt">regions</span> with relatively moist soils. While only two periods are examined in this study, the impact of surface inhomogeneities in soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere is expected to be highly dependent on the particular synoptic conditions and upon the distribution of soil moisture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3314312','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3314312"><span id="translatedtitle">Hox transcription factors <span class="hlt">influence</span> motoneuron identity through the integrated actions of both homeodomain and non-homeodomain <span class="hlt">regions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Misra, Mala; Sours, Emily; Lance-Jones, Cynthia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Hox transcription factors play a critical role in the specification of motoneuron subtypes within the spinal cord. Our previous work showed that two orthologous members of this family, Hoxd10 and Hoxd11, exert opposing effects on motoneuron development in the lumbosacral (LS) spinal cord of the embryonic chick: Hoxd10 promotes the development of lateral motoneuron subtypes that project to dorsal limb muscles, while Hoxd11 represses the development of lateral subtypes in favor of medial subtypes that innervate ventral limb muscles and axial muscles. The striking degree of homology between the DNA-binding homeodomains of Hoxd10 and Hoxd11 suggested that non-homeodomain <span class="hlt">regions</span> mediate their divergent effects. In the present study, we investigate the relative contributions of homeodomain and non-homeodomain <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Hoxd10 and Hoxd11 to motoneuron specification. Results Using in ovo electroporation to express chimeric and mutant constructs in LS motoneurons, we find that both the homeodomain and non-homeodomain <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Hoxd10 are necessary to specify lateral motoneurons. In contrast, non-homeodomain <span class="hlt">regions</span> of Hoxd11 are sufficient to repress lateral motoneuron fates in favor of medial fates. Conclusions Together, our data demonstrate that even closely related Hox orthologues rely on distinct combinations of homeodomain-dependent and -independent mechanisms to specify motoneuron identity. PMID:22411553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51C1621H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51C1621H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Tropical Cyclones Period 1970 TO 2010 IN the <span class="hlt">Region</span> of Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit-Jalisco Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez, J. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the impacts of tropical cyclones (TC) that made landfall in populated areas along the Pacific coast of Mexico, especially in the <span class="hlt">region</span> of Bahia de Banderas. During the period of 1970-2010 and used a database of international natural disasters to identify impacts. Were more than 13 events during the reporting period, of which 10 are examined more precipitation accumulated and 6 that caused further damage to the affected population in these cases ranged from 5000 to more than 15 000 inhabitants. Strong winds and heavy rainfall in periods of one to three days were associated with property damage and loss of life. The results of the study indicate that excessive accumulations of rain and daily intensity are important factors connected with the occurrence of disasters in densely populated areas. Six of the first 10 Tropical Cyclone associated with major disasters occurred in conditions of El Niño and four neutral conditions. With the analysis of satellite images using GOES-10 in the IDV software maps were obtained in the coastal impacts of Banderas Bay and describes the main features of each meteorological phenomena. In which concludes that no tropical cyclone entered directly to the Banderas Bay <span class="hlt">region</span>, but its effects were very relevant, taking into account the topography, land use change and the vulnerability of the <span class="hlt">region</span>. Tropical Cyclones that have affected the <span class="hlt">region</span> of Bay of Banderas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=245513','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=245513"><span id="translatedtitle">Dryland cropping systems <span class="hlt">influence</span> microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a sandy soil in a semiarid <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In dryland ecosystems, crop establishment is not always guaranteed because precipitation may not be sufficient at planting. Sandy soils under dryland agriculture in the Texas High Plains <span class="hlt">region</span> of USA have extremely low organic matter (OM) content (< 1%) and thus, hold low water and nutrients to su...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3887953','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3887953"><span id="translatedtitle">TM6, a Novel Nuclear Matrix Attachment <span class="hlt">Region</span>, Enhances Its Flanking Gene Expression through <span class="hlt">Influencing</span> Their Chromatin Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ji, Lusha; Xu, Rui; Lu, Longtao; Zhang, Jiedao; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nuclear matrix attachment <span class="hlt">regions</span> (MARs) regulate the higher-order organization of chromatin and affect the expression of their flanking genes. In this study, a tobacco MAR, TM6, was isolated and demonstrated to remarkably increase the expression of four different promoters that drive gusA gene and adjacent nptII gene. In turn, this expression enhanced the transformation frequency of transgenic tobacco. Deletion analysis of topoisomerase II-binding site, AT-rich element, and MAR recognition signature (MRS) showed that MRS has the highest contribution (61.7%) to the TM6 sequence-mediated transcription activation. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) accessibility assay showed that 35S and NOS promoter <span class="hlt">regions</span> with TM6 are more sensitive than those without TM6. The analysis also revealed that TM6 reduces promoter DNA methylation which can affect the gusA expression. In addition, two tobacco chromatin-associated proteins, NtMBP1 and NtHMGB, isolated using a yeast one-hybrid system, specifically bound to the TM6II-1 <span class="hlt">region</span> (761 bp to 870 bp) and to the MRS element in the TM6II-2 (934 bp to 1,021 bp) <span class="hlt">region</span>, respectively. We thus suggested that TM6 mediated its chromatin opening and chromatin accessibility of its flanking promoters with consequent enhancement of transcription. PMID:23852133</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105401&keyword=brown+AND+trout&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63959679&CFTOKEN=89290309','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105401&keyword=brown+AND+trout&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63959679&CFTOKEN=89290309"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REGIONAL</span>, WATERSHED, AND SITE-SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">INFLUENCES</span> ON FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR TRIBUTARIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The relative importance of <span class="hlt">regional</span>, watershed, and in-stream environmental factors on stream fish assemblage structure and function was investigated as part of a comparative watershed project in the western Lake Superior basin. We selected 48 second and third order watersheds fr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8822L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8822L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Amazonian deforestation on the future evolution of <span class="hlt">regional</span> surface fluxes, circulation, surface temperature and precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lejeune, Quentin; Davin, Edouard; Guillod, Benoit; Seneviratne, Sonia</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The extent of the Amazon rainforest is projected to drastically decrease in future decades because of land-use changes. Previous climate modelling studies have found that the biogeophysical effects of future Amazonian deforestation will likely increase surface temperatures and reduce precipitation locally. However, the magnitude of these changes and the potential existence of tipping points in the underlying relationships is still highly uncertain. Using a <span class="hlt">Regional</span> Climate Model at a resolution of about 50 km over the South American continent, we perform four ERA-interim-driven simulations with prescribed land cover maps corresponding to present-day vegetation, two deforestation scenarios for the 21st century, and a totally-deforested Amazon case. In response to projected land cover changes for 2100, we find an annual mean surface temperature increase of 0.5°C over the Amazonian <span class="hlt">region</span> and an annual mean decrease in rainfall of 0.17 mm/day compared to present-day conditions. These estimates reach 0.75°C and 0.22 mm/day in the total-deforestation case. However, the mean decrease in precipitation hides the fact that there also is a redistribution in rainfall amounts within the <span class="hlt">region</span>, with central and western Amazon getting drier and eastern Amazon getting wetter. This results from <span class="hlt">regional</span> variations in the changes of surface energy and water fluxes, which lead to a reorganisation of the <span class="hlt">regional</span>-scale circulation. We also compare our results to those from 28 previous modelling studies. We show that the historical development of climate models did not modify the median estimate of the Amazonian climate sensitivity to deforestation, but led to a reduction of its uncertainty. Our results suggest that the biogeophysical effects of deforestation alone are unlikely to lead to a tipping point in the evolution of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate under present-day climate conditions. However, the conducted synthesis of the literature reveals that this behaviour may be model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5589787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5589787"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of tectonic terranes adjacent to Precambrian Wyoming province of petroleum source and reservoir rock stratigraphy in northern Rocky Mountain <span class="hlt">region</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tonnsen, J.J.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The perimeter of the Archean Precambrian Wyoming province can be generally defined. A Proterozoic suture belt separates the province from the Archean Superior province to the east. The western margin of the Precambrian rocks lies under the western Overthrust belt, but the Precambrian province extends at least as far west as southwest Montana and southeast Idaho. The province is bounded on the north and south by more <span class="hlt">regionally</span> extensive Proterozoic mobile belts. In the northern belt, Archean rocks have been remobilized by Proterozoic tectonic events, but the southern belt does not appear to contain rocks as old as Archean. The tectonic response of these Precambrian terranes to cratonic and continental margin vertical and horizontal forces has exerted a profound <span class="hlt">influence</span> on Phanerozoic sedimentation and stratigraphic facies distributions. Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock stratigraphy of the Northern Rocky Mountain <span class="hlt">region</span> has been correlated with this structural history. In particular, the Devonian, Permian, and Jurassic sedimentation patterns can be shown to have been <span class="hlt">influenced</span> by articulation among the different terranes comprising the ancient substructure. Depositional patterns in the Chester-Morrow carbonate and clastic sequence in the Central Montana trough are also related to this substructure. Further, a correlation between these tectonic terranes and the localization of <span class="hlt">regional</span> hydrocarbon accumulations has been observed and has been useful in basin analyses for exploration planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2769L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2769L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Influence</span> of Amazonian deforestation on the future evolution of <span class="hlt">regional</span> surface fluxes, circulation, surface temperature and precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lejeune, Quentin; Davin, Edouard L.; Guillod, Benoit P.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The extent of the Amazon rainforest is projected to drastically decrease in future decades because of land-use changes. Previous climate modelling studies have found that the biogeophysical effects of future Amazonian deforestation will likely increase surface temperatures and reduce precipitation locally. However, the magnitude of these changes and the potential existence of tipping points in the underlying relationships is still highly uncertain. Using a <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate model at a resolution of about 50 km over the South American continent, we perform four ERA-interim-driven simulations with prescribed land cover maps corresponding to present-day vegetation, two deforestation scenarios for the twenty-first century, and a totally-deforested Amazon case. In response to projected land cover changes for 2100, we find an annual mean surface temperature increase of over the Amazonian <span class="hlt">region</span> and an annual mean decrease in rainfall of 0.17 mm/day compared to present-day conditions. These estimates reach and 0.22 mm/day in the total-deforestation case. We also compare our results to those from 28 previous (<span class="hlt">regional</span> and global) climate modelling experiments. We show that the historical development of climate models did not modify the median estimate of the Amazonian climate sensitivity to deforestation, but led to a reduction of its uncertainty. Our results suggest that the biogeophysical effects of deforestation alone are unlikely to lead to a tipping point in the evolution of the <span class="hlt">regional</span> climate under present-day climate conditions. However, the conducted synthesis of the literature reveals that this behaviour may be model-dependent, and the greenhouse gas-induced climate forcing and biogeochemical feedbacks should also be taken into account to fully assess the future climate of this <span class="hlt">region</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26763849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26763849"><span id="translatedtitle">The angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, enhances regulator of G protein signaling 2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in vascular smooth muscle cells of Wistar rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Yaqiong; Nakagawa, Suguru; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kawabata, Yukari; Suzuki, Etsu; Uehara, Yoshio</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2), thus making a negative feedback loop for Ang II signal transduction. However, few studies have reported whether Ang II receptor (ATR) antagonists <span class="hlt">influence</span> RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression. We investigated RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression when Ang II binding to ATR was blocked with Ang II subtype-1 receptor (AT1R) blockers using vascular smooth muscle cells from the thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats. RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression significantly increased with Ang II stimulation, and this increase was almost completely abolished by olmesartan, a potent AT1R-specific blocker. Ang II subtype-2 receptor (AT2R) was not involved in Ang II-mediated RGS expression. In contrast, the AT1R blocker, losartan, partially decreased Ang II-mediated RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression because this antagonist directly stimulated RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression in Ang II-free medium. EXP3174, which is an active metabolite of losartan, almost completely blunted Ang II-mediated RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression without direct stimulation of RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression. Moreover, pretreatment with olmesartan abolished Ang II-mediated RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression. Treatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor partially decreased losartan-mediated RGS2 <span class="hlt">mRNA</span> expression. These results suggest that AT1