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Sample records for region southern italy

  1. Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-15

    The qualitative characteristics of four monovarietal olive oils produced in Calabria region (Southern Italy) were evaluated. The aim of this work was to evidence the differences on chemical parameters due to variety and to growing environment. Results demonstrated a large variability in qualitative indexes according to the variety. Most of the Grossa di Gerace oils sampled in Ionian Southern coast revealed a high total acidity (percentage upper 0.8% of oleic acid). Fatty acid composition showed some varietal characters: in Grossa di Gerace oils possessed a low content of oleic acid and many Carolea oils showed a heptadecenoic acid level higher than 0.3% as European Rules requires for the extra virgin olive oil category. Carolea cultivar is widely grown in different sites of Calabria and so it is influenced by the different climatic conditions: the obtained oils strongly differed according to the production area. PMID:27451186

  2. Analysis of daily and monthly rainfall concentration in Southern Italy (Calabria region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscarelli, R.; Caloiero, T.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryHigh percentages of the yearly total precipitation concentration in a few very rainy days can increase the risks of floods and soil instability. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of daily and monthly precipitation concentration in Calabria (Southern Italy) has been carried out by means of a homogenous daily precipitation data set. The results show that a very dishomogeneous temporal distribution of the daily rainfall characterizes the eastern side of the region with rain gauges in which one quarter of the rainiest days represents almost three quarters of the total pluviometric amount, and a western side which presents a more homogenous temporal distribution of the rainfall. Moreover, the application of the Mann-Kendall test has shown a clear tendency toward a weaker seasonality of the rainfall distribution.

  3. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means

  4. Allergy in urban elderly population living in Campania region (Southern Italy). A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Baldi, G; Berra, A; Ciccarelli, A; Cutajar, M; D'Amato, M; D'Angelo, R; Gargano, D; Giannattasio, D; Leone, G; Lo Schiavo, M; Madonna, F; Montera, C; Monti, R; Parente, R; Pedicini, A; Pio, A; Russo, M; Salzillo, A; Stanziola, A; Vatrella, A; Manzi, F; Bilò, M B

    2016-07-01

    Given the increasing life expectancy observed in Western countries, there is a marked interest to know more about how aging could influence respiratory health. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics and age of onset of allergic sensitization and clinical symptoms in a sample of atopic elders living in Campania region area (Southern Italy). Fourteen Allergy units or Centres examined a total of 462 patients. In this context 215 (46.53%) had positive skin prick tests (SPTs) to at least one allergen and were diagnosed with respiratory allergy. Parietaria represents the most common sensitizing agent in elders living in Campania region, followed by dust mites, grass pollen and Olea europaea. A relatively high percentage of atopic subjects suffered from respiratory symptoms at a fairly advanced age, namely 8.3% at 60-64 years, 10.2% at 65-70 and 5.7% at > 70 years. In conclusion, the prevalence and clinical significance of airway allergic sensitization in the elderly living in Campania region is more significant than expected in latter stages of life. Physicians should not neglect the role of atopy as a risk factor for the onset of allergic respiratory symptoms even in elderly patients. PMID:27425174

  5. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    De Natale, Antonino; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries. PMID:19228384

  6. Contribution to the knowledge of the folk plant medicine in Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, N G; Guarrera, P M; De Fine, G

    2007-01-01

    A series of research on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the folk plant medicine was carried out in the last twenty years. The use of 104 taxa distributed into 42 families are described. Among the major findings: Ceterach officinarum as hypotensive; Heliotropium europaeum in the case of urinary inflammations; Silybum marianum for haemorrhoids; Arundo donax for pertussis and cystitis; Allium cepa for sties and flu; Laurus nobilis as galactagogue; Passiflora incarnata for burns, haemorrhoids and skin inflammations; Scrophularia canina for rhagas and wounds; Urtica membranacea for tussis and tonsillitis. PMID:17084993

  7. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  8. Local Earthquakes Tomography in the Southern Tyrrhenian Region (Italy): Geophysical and Petrological Inferences on Subducting Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Dorbath, C.; Luzio, D.; Rotolo, S. G.; D'Anna, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy, is characterised by the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere -since Middle Miocene- beneath the Tyrrhenian basin. The related Benioff zone is seismically active to a depth > 500 km. The tomoDD code [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was adopted to perform the tomography, using a set of 2463 earthquakes located in the window 14°30' E - 17°E and 37°N - 41°N, and recorded by seismic networks of the INGV in the period 1981-2005. Several inversions were performed using different selections of absolute and differential data obtained varying the maximum RMS and the threshold of the inter-event distance. Various synthetic and experimental tests were executed to evaluate the resolution and stability of the tomographic inversion. The inversions carried out for the synthetic and the restoration-resolution test [Zhao et al., 1992] were repeated several times with the same procedure used in the inversion of experimental data. The lack of bias in the models, related to the different grid- node positions, was tested performing inversions rotating, translating and deforming the original grid. To evaluate the dependence on the initial model, several inversions were also done using different 1D and 3D models simulating slab features. Finally, 35 models resulting from the inversions were synthesized in an average model obtained by interpolating each velocity model into a fixed grid. Each velocity value interpolated was weighted with a corresponding DWS (Derivative Weight Sum) resulting thus a Weighted Average Velocity model. The highly resolved sections through the average Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models allowed us to image several relevant features of the structure of the subducting Ionian slab and of the Southern Tyrrhenian mantle: -the hypocenters are localized in the NW dipping fast area (Vp>8.2 km/s), 50-60 km thick, most likely composed litospheric mantle. Just below, an aseismic low Vp zone (6.6 - 7.7 km/s) 20-25 km thick, is assigned to the partially

  9. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  10. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  11. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  12. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  13. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  14. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  15. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  16. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety. PMID:24453016

  17. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas. PMID:22083403

  18. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  19. High-resolution investigation of the crustal structure of the Sicilian region (southern Italy) by local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Kukarina, E.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Neri, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Sicily (Southern Italy) and surrounding areas, obtained by local earthquake tomography. The Sicilian region represents a portion of the Apennine-Maghrebide fold-and-thrust belt developed in an area dominated by both the convergence between the European and Nubia plates and the extensional processes linked to the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin (Malinverno and Ryan, 1986; Faccenna et al., 1996). Four major seismogenic domains characterize the region: (I) the Southern Tyrrhenian E-W striking domain undergoing N-S compression; (II) the northern Sicily domain presenting extensional regimes that vary from N-S, to the west, to WNW-ESE to the east; (III) the mainland Sicily domain comprising the Etna area and showing a mainly transpressional regime; (IV) the Hyblean Foreland domain (southeastern Sicily) with primarily strike-slip deformation. To perform the tomographic inversion, we selected ca. 7100 earthquakes that have occurred between 1990 and 2012 in the depth range 0-100km. Data and recordings have been derived by the Italian recording networks (www.ingv.it). By using the LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009), we computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio in the study area. In order to increase the detail of our analysis with respect to previous study carried out in the same sector, we tested several spacing for the inversion grid and performed synthetic tests to estimate a possible effect of noise on the resolution as well as the optimal values of inversion parameters. The obtained velocity models, jointly evaluated with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, give us new constraints to geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. Main results evidence (i) the presence of a clear discontinuity in the P-wave velocity pattern between the Tyrrhenian off-shore of Sicily, characterized by high velocity anomalies, and the northern Sicilian on-shore, where a

  20. Regional deformation analysis in the Sannio-Matese area (Southern Apennines, Italy) by GPS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrizzo, Francesco; Sepe, Vincenzo; Brandi, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Andrea; de Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Tammaro, Umberto; Pingue, Folco

    2010-05-01

    The central-southern Apennines and the Calabrian arc are among the most actively deforming zones of the Mediterranean basin connected with the motion of Africa and Aegean-Anatolian systems with respect to Eurasia. The tectonic stress, caused in this area by the convergence of the confining blocks, is elastically accumulated and periodically released along crustal discontinuities (faults) during earthquakes. A detailed knowledge of the ongoing crustal strain rates is fundamental to constrain geodynamical models of the Italian peninsula and to understand the characteristics of the active tectonic stress release. Given the low deformation rates in the Central Mediterranean area, only a long-term monitoring can yield the necessary data set to model and understand the ongoing tectonic processes. The Matese carbonatic massive occupies a surface of beyond 1000 km2 between the Campania Apennine northernmost part while Monti del Sannio, consisting primarily of quaternary deposits. It is located to the East of massive and represent the area of Apennine chain which degrades to East towards the Bradanica foredeep and it's delimited, in its complex, from Volturno, Biferno, Tammaro and Calore rivers. The area was interested in historical events by several destructive earthquakes with an Intensity I greater or equal than IX MCS (1456, 1688, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1962), besides by seismic sequences of low energy (1885, 1903, 1905, 1990, 1992, 1997). The first studies surveying the area started from 1990-2000 with the definition of geodetic networks, covering all or part of the massive Matese, with the aim of the evaluation of seismogenic sources responsible for the seismicity of the area. A preliminary study from the geological and structural point of view was focused on the area extending among Benevento, Campobasso, Caserta, Isernia and L'Aquila provinces, in order to accurately define the sites in which the vertices of the network could be installed. After a careful inspection of

  1. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  2. Toward an integrated regional and on-site Earthquake Early Warning System for Southern Italy: test and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Colombelli, S.; Festa, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2011-12-01

    We present an approach to Earthquake Early Warning for Southern Italy that integrates regional and on-site systems. The regional approach is based on the PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) software platform. PRESTo processes the 3C acceleration data streams from the stations of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet) for P-waves arrival detection and, once an event has been detected, provides location and magnitude estimations, and peak ground motion predictions at target sites. The earthquake location is obtained through an evolutionary, real-time probabilistic approach based on an equal differential time formulation profiting of information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations. The magnitude is estimated by an empirical relation that correlates it with the peak displacement measured on the first 2-4s of signal, starting at the detected P-wave. The peak ground motion parameters at a site of interest can be finally estimated by specific ground motion prediction equations once that the location and magnitude are known. All estimates are provided as a probability density functions with an uncertainty that typically decreases with time. Alarm messages can thus reach vulnerable structures before the destructive waves. PRESTo has been under continuous real-time testing during the past two years using data streaming from ISNet and has produced a bulletin of about a hundred low-magnitude events. Meanwhile, PRESTo has been tested off-line playing back in the system both real and synthetic seismograms for moderate-to-large events. The tests performed have shown that a stable solution is generally reached within 10s from the origin time when a dense seismic network is deployed in the source area. The on-site system is based on the real-time measurement, at near-source stations located at increasing distances from the earthquake epicenter, of the peak displacement and P-wave dominant period, measured on a 3s window after the first P arrival

  3. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  4. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy. PMID:27189127

  6. Characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal system in the Campania region (southern Italy): from geological data to resource modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Inversi, B.; Scrocca, D.; Livani, M.; Petracchini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the VIGOR project, a characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal resources have been carried out in the Campania region (southern Italy), with a focus on the "Guardia dei Lombardi" area (province of Avellino). The VIGOR project began on the basis of an agreement between the Ministry of Economic Development and the Italian National Research Council, and it deal with the exploitation of innovative uses of geothermal energy in the so-called "regions of convergence"(Campania, Calabria, Puglia and Sicilia). Thanks to the intense hydrocarbon exploration, carried out particularly during the 1956-1996 period, an extensive data set made up by deep wells and seismic reflection profiles exist in the study area. The previous exploration demonstrated the presence of a fractured carbonate reservoir, mainly belonging to the Cretaceous section of the Apulian shallow water carbonate platform (e.g. Scrocca 2010 and references therein), which is deformed to shape a buried antiformal stack. The culmination of the uppermost thrust unit reaches a depth of about 200 m SSL (i.e., about 1100 m below the ground level). The reservoir fluids are made up by a CO2 gas cap, which rests above an accumulation of fresh water in the central and upper part of the culmination of the deep carbonatic acquifer (e.g., Monte Forcuso 1 and 2 wells), and a saline water along the flank of the buried anticline (e.g., Bonito 1 Dir, Ciccone 1 wells). Medium enthalpy geothermal resources with a reservoir fluid temperature up to 100°C have been estimated in previous assessments at depth of 2000 m below ground level (ENEL 1987; 1994). However, the presence of thermal springs (e.g. Terme di S. Teodoro) in the area suggests the presence of an active hydraulic circuit and provide further constraints about the geochemical characteristics of the reservoir waters, and the geothermometers investigation (Duchi et al. 1995) give a possible reservoir fluid temperature up to about 124 °C. In this

  7. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  8. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain. PMID:26951697

  9. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  10. Probabilistic seismic hazard from historical macroseismic data: an application at the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, R.; D'Amico, S.; Tuvè, T.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquakes are, by far, the most relevant source of hazard for the densely urbanised areas of Mt. Etna region. Local communities living in the eastern and southern flanks of the volcano continuously suffer social and economic losses due to the very high occurrence of damaging earthquakes, which produce intensities up to degree X EMS despite of low energy (M<5.0). Nevertheless, the assessment of seismic hazard at Etna is neglected in the practice at a national scale, being aimed to evaluate the areas more exposed to large crustal earthquakes in the perspective of improving seismic building codes. The state of art on the recent studies devoted to a detailed assessment of seismic hazard in the Etna region, is presented. The seismic hazard is performed following probabilistic approach (PSHA) by using macroseismic data (D’Amico and Albarello, 2007) as an alternative to the Cornell-McGuire methodology. The input dataset is the CMTE earthquake catalogue (Azzaro et al. 2000), covering a time-span of ca. 180 yrs, from which the site seismic histories, i.e. the database of intensity data available for a given locality, are derived. When historical information is missing, the completeness of the site seismic history is improved by integrating observed data with values calculated according to the decay of the intensity with distance from the epicenter. This step is faced with a procedure based on the Bayesian statistics (Zonno et al., 2009), which provides the probabilistic mode of binomial distribution of the intensity at a given site. Then, by a probability distribution considering the completeness of the catalogue and the uncertainty of intensity data, the seismic hazard is expressed in terms of the maximum expected intensity characterised by a 10% probability of exceedance over different exposure times (10 to 50 yrs). The results shows that if shorter exposure times are considered, the expected intensity due to local very frequent earthquakes reaches the same values

  11. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  12. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  13. Rainstorms in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O.; Gariano, S. L.; Iaquinta, P.

    2012-04-01

    Many regions belonging to the Mediterranean basin are subject to a large number of catastrophic geo-hydrological events with high economic and social impact. Calabria, composed of several small basins with steep slopes and erodible soils, is frequently subject to rainfall-induced natural processes that cause dramatic consequences on the population (i.e. flash floods, intense soil erosion, fast slope movements). Proper understanding, interpreting and forecasting of rainfall events is a prerequisite for the adoption of appropriate mitigation measures and reducing the connected risk. This information is rarely available at the appropriate time scale (at the order of minutes) and does not have sufficient coverage in space. Thanks to the availability of observations with high temporal detail related to 155 sites in Calabria, a considerable amount of data were analysed in order to contribute to the quantitative and qualitative characterization of extreme rainfall events affecting the Calabrian territory. In particular, the study considers more than 152 thousands storms having different durations that took place in different seasons between 1989 and 2008. In order to classify rainfall events as "significant" with regard to their contribution to soil erosion, flooding and/or other geo-hydrological processes, 45534 storms were selected and analyzed. First, the analysis was carried out to characterize, in simple but effective, the rainfall events with regard to: i) magnitude; ii) locations with high frequency per year; iii) locations where they are most severe; iv) within-storm temporal patterns; vi) the season in which they occur, even in relation to their temporal structure and severity. As concerns the structure of the storm, the use of standardized rainfall profiles (SRP) to compare them, by simplifying analyses and presentation of data, is adopted in this study. In addition, the regional statistical analysis of the total rainfall of the events, due to its major

  14. Finite element modelling of stress field perturbations and interseismic crustal deformation in the Val d'Agri region, southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Stefania; Mazzoli, Stefano; Megna, Antonella; Santini, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The Val d'Agri area provides the opportunity to analyse active structures in a seismic region for which a large amount of subsurface data is available. This area, which was struck in 1857 by one of the most destructive earthquakes in Italy (MW = 7.03), represents a unique natural laboratory to gain new insights into geometry, modes and rates of faulting controlling crustal deformation in an actively extending orogen. In this study, a crustal geological section through the southern Apennines is discretized into a finite element model (FEM). We present a 2D elastoplastic FEM that reproduces stress perturbations and strain field around the Val d'Agri active fault system. The influence of fault strand activity on interseismic crustal deformation is tested by a series of computer models, whose predictions are compared with the horizontal velocity components of continuous GPS sites in the region and with stress directions and geological data. The best fit with available geological and geophysical constraints is obtained with a 300 km long, 29 km deep model formed by a multilayer including three components having different rheological characteristics and including several shallow, locked fault segments, which branch into a freely slipping major basement fault at depth. Finite element modelling provides new insights into the controversial and widely debated active tectonic setting of the study area, pointing out the fundamental role played by a structural reactivation process involving inherited, long-lived, mature fault systems at depth. Our FEM, reconciling apparently contrasting geological and geophysical constraints from the study area, points to maximum stress build up and strain accumulation at a depth of 15 ± 5 km. Such a depth range is suggested as the most likely one for the nucleation of large events such as the 1857 Val d'Agri earthquake.

  15. Raised Marine Terraces in the Sibari Plain (Calabria, Southern Italy): the Geological Record of Fast Regional Uplift and Local Fault Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, L.

    2002-12-01

    Raised Upper Pleistocene marine terraces testifying rapid regional uplift are a prominent characteristic of the coastal landscape of Calabria (southern Italy). In particular, in the Sibari Plain, located at the boundary between the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, the combination of Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and uplift caused the progressive filling of a wide embayment of the Ionian Sea and originated a spectacular flight of marine terraces. Aerial photo interpretation, field observations and morphological correlation of inner edge fragments and wavecut platforms led to the identification of six marine terraces at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~650 m. Some characteristic geomorphic properties of the emerged cliff-platform systems such as the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage were used to better correlate remote terrace remnants and to discriminate between the identified strandlines. Two comparable lower age boundaries for the marine terraces in the area can be inferred by geological observations: 1) in some areas, the terraces are cut into and therefore postdate 1.0 Ma Gilbert-type fan deltas; 2) marine deposits of the terraces at the northern end of the study area contain magnetite derived from the Vulture volcano (located about 150 km NW), which started activity around 0.73 Ma. Merging ad hoc aminostratigraphy datings with datings coming from literature permitted to correlate each terrace in the sequence with a highstand of the paleosea-level, thus reconstructing the evolution of this section of the Ionian coast. Typical average uplift rates of 1.0-1.1 millimeters per year affect the area since Middle Pleistocene, with a presumable time of inception of 0.6-0.7 million years ago; the uplift is still active during the Holocene, possibly at a similar rate. The flight of terraces shows a long wavelength increase of the rate of uplift moving southward along the coast, due to large-scale geodynamic processes. At a more local scale

  16. An improved 1-D seismic velocity model for seismological studies in the Campania-Lucania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; De Matteis, Raffaella; Satriano, Claudio; Amoroso, Ortensia; Zollo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    We present a 1-D velocity model of the Earth's crust in Campania-Lucania region obtained by solving the coupled hypocentre-velocity inverse problem for 1312 local earthquakes recorded at a dense regional network. The model is constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates 1-D `minimum' velocity model from body wave traveltimes, together with station corrections, which account for deviations from the simple 1-D structure. The spatial distribution of station corrections correlates with the P-wave velocity variations of a preliminary 3-D crustal velocity model that has been obtained from the tomographic inversion of the same data set of P traveltimes. We found that station corrections reflect not only inhomogeneous near-surface structures, but also larger-scale geological features associated to the transition between carbonate platform outcrops at Southwest and Miocene sedimentary basins at Northeast. We observe a significant trade-off between epicentral locations and station corrections, related to the existence of a thick low-velocity layer to the NE. This effect is taken into account and minimized by re-computing station corrections, fixing the position of a subset of well-determined hypocentres, located in the 3-D tomographic model.

  17. Damage caused by hydrological extremes in a region of southern Italy: comparison between the period 2002-2012 and the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora

    2013-04-01

    The concept of extreme hydrological event should be seen in a relative way, depending on the region for which it is defined, the parameters and the type of data utilized to assess it, and mainly taking into account the length of the period basing on which it is assessed. Measured data concerning rainfall and river flow, which allow statistical analysis of numerical values and assessment of events frequency, can be available for different periods, according to both the study area and the country; nevertheless, the length of the measurement series rarely exceeds 100 years. Thus, the extrapolation to the future of events trend, frequency, seasonality are based on a relatively short and recent period and even the "magnitude" and the classification of "extreme events" can be biased by the length of the observation period. Thus these characteristics may substantially change if their assessment is based on a wider temporal window. Especially in un-gauged basins and concerning severest events, historical data cannot provide systematically measured parameters but they can supply proxy data which allow enlarging the observation period, permitting a better weighing of both recent and old events. The present research is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning phenomena as floods, flash floods and landslides triggered by extreme meteorological events in Calabria (Southern Italy) since 19th century. This database is made of approximately 11,000 records and it includes data coming from different sources as newspapers, archives of national and regional agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. The recent uploading of data concerning the effects caused in Calabria by these phenomena during the decade 2002-2012 allowed us to analyse a long and updated historical series of events. The aim is to compare -both in terms triggering rainfall and their

  18. Molecular and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented sausages of Basilicata region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Bonomo, M G; Ricciardi, A; Zotta, T; Parente, E; Salzano, G

    2008-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional fermented sausages of the Basilicata region were investigated by ARDRA-PCR and RAPD-PCR for taxonomic identification at species and strain level and characterized on the basis of the growth and acidification at different temperatures, incubation times, levels of NaCl and KNO(2), hydrolysis of sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar proteins and antimicrobial, peptide/amino acid release and nitrate reductase activities. Lactobacillus sakei was the predominant species (67%) followed by Pediococcus pentosaceus (16%), Leuconostoc carnosum (8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (4%), Lactobacillus brevis (2%) and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (2%). The technological characterization revealed that most of the isolates had good acidifying and proteolytic properties. Moreover, Lb. sakei strains showed antimicrobial ability, while Leuconostoc strains the highest reduction of nitrates. This work was a preliminary study in the formulation of autochthonous starter cultures in order to standardize the production process of sausages, to preserve their typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics and to improve the quality of final product. PMID:22063864

  19. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    . More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Basso et al., 2012; Lonigro et al., 2013) References Basso A., Lonigro T. and Polemio M. (2012) "The improvement of historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in the case of Apulia (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 21: 379-380; Lonigro T., Basso A. and Polemio M. (2013) "Historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in Apulia region (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 24: 196-198; Polemio M. (2010) "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  20. A System Dynamic Analysis approach to deal with complexity in water resources management: the case of groundwater protection in the Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Pluchinotta, Irene; Brugnach, Marcela; Pagano, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity and uncertainty of water resources management is claiming changes in the role of tools and methods aiming to support decision makers. Complexity due to the densely interconnected networks in which decision-actors operate. Uncertainty arises because of the fact that whatever action other decision agents involved in the network are going to do is largely unknown. In these complex and uncertain environments, it is very difficult to determine how effective a policy will be. Part of the difficulty resides in the fact that any action choice will influence and be influenced by the actions choices of the other actors. While these interactions among a diversity of actors may contribute to the development of beneficial adaptive behaviours, they can also result in dysfunctional dynamics, often leading to policy resistance. Action choices are not neutral, but commensurate with the problem frames held by the actors making the decisions. Our research hypothesis is that neglecting differences in problem framings leads decision makers to oversimplify the complexity of the interactions within the system to be managed, and to act as if the system is as simple as the decision makers presume it to be. Therefore, decision tools and methodologies should support the decision makers to become aware of the complexity of the interaction space, to disclose and analyse the existing interconnections, and to govern those interactions. In these circumstances, decision makers could take advantage from the interactional nature of the knowledge creation process. In order to demonstrate the research hypothesis, a methodology based on System Dynamic Modelling (SDM) was implemented in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy) to support the implementation of the groundwater (GW) protection policy. Due to the increasing of GW withdrawal for irrigation purposes, several phenomena are drastically reducing the quality of the GW resources. In order to protect the quality of GW, the

  1. Development of Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Siliquini, Roberta; Tozzi, Quinto; Pizzuti, Renato; Rizzo, Liliana; Scondotto, Salvatore; Bux, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary method aimed at assessing the health effects of policies, plans, and projects using quantitative, qualitative, and participatory techniques. In many European countries, such as in Italy, there is a lack of implementation of HIA procedures and it would be necessary to develop instruments and protocols in order to improve the specific skills of professionals involved in the assessment process. This article aims to describe the development and implementation of HIA guidelines, promoted by the Italian National Agency for Regional Health Services (AGENAS), in 4 Southern Italian regions. Public health search engine and institutional Web sites were consulted to collect international data existing in this field. Monthly workshops were then organized with regional representatives to discuss the scientific literature and to identify the guidelines' contents: source of data, stakeholders, screening- and scoping-phase checklist tools, priority areas, monitoring, and reporting plans. Four regions (Calabria, Campania, Puglia, and Sicilia) took part in the project. This article describes the methodology of development and implementation of HIA guidelines in the Italian context. The tools created to collect data and assess health consequences (such as screening and scoping grids) are reported. This project represents the first structured initiative proposed and supported by the Ministry of Health aiming to introduce HIA in Italy. HIA should be considered a priority in the public health agenda, as a fundamental instrument in helping decision makers to make choices about alternatives to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health. PMID:26125232

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Radon-222 Degassing Phenomenon from the Investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in Shallow Turbulent Rivers in Campania region, Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Paschke, A.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in different water bodies typologies, the use of Environmental Tracers, like Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, have been proven to be an extremely reliable and powerful tool. In particular, among them the (short-lived) radionuclide Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), occurring in the gaseous phase in normal conditions of temperature and pressure, has the advantages to be almost chemically inert, easily detectable on site and its physical signal is not disturbed by any kind of anthropically produced "noise". Therefore, differently from other tracers of artificial nature, it can be safely and successfully employed especially in natural environments, like Natural Parks and Wildlife Protected Areas, because it does not contaminate the surrounding environments being a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. Radon, produced in every mineral matrix through the spontaneous decay of Radium, turns out to be rather soluble in water, even though depending on the temperature of the water body, and, therefore, it occurs ubiquitously in all kinds of natural waters. In particular, Radon activity concentrations values, measured in groundwater, are typically some (from three to four) orders of magnitude higher than those ones detected, instead, in surface waters. For such reasons Radon turns out to be a remarkable tool for the Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes and a good indicator for the localization and the semi-quantitative assessment of groundwater discharges into different kinds of water bodies like lakes, rivers and sea. This work summarizes some outcomes from a series of experimental measurements campaigns performed in relevant river basins of Campania region, southern Italy, where interdisciplinary investigations about Groundwater-River Interactions have been carried on using Radon as a Natural Tracer. The experimental measurement campaigns have been performed using the Radon

  3. Paleoceanographic Changes in the Lagonegro Basin (Southern Italy) during the Late Triassic Linked to Oceanic Rifting in the Western Tethyan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacci, M.; Algeo, T. J.; Bertinelli, A.; Rigo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lagonegro Basin was part of the southwestern branch of the western Tethys, an actively spreading young ocean during the Late Triassic (Ciarapica and Passeri, 2002, 2005). The sedimentary environment was a deepening-upward basin, bordered to the north by the Apenninic and Apulian carbonate platforms. Paleoseismic activity is evidenced by frequent debris flows on the basin margins (Passeri et al., 2005). The Lagonegro succession is characterized by Permian to Miocene formations deposited in shallow to deep basinal environments. The Upper Triassic is comprised of deep-marine sediments belonging to the Calcari con Selce ("Cherty Limestone") Formation of late Ladinian to late Norian-early Rhaetian age and the Scisti Silicei ("Siliceous Shale") Formation of late Norian-early Rhaetian to Late Jurassic age. The "Transitional Interval" between these two formations is gradational over a 20- to 40-m interval (Miconnet, 1983). The Transitional Interval was investigated in three sections (Pignola-Abriola, Monte Volturino, and Madonna del Sirino) in the Southern Apennines (southern Italy), representing a proximal-to-distal transect across the Lagonegro Basin. The transition from mainly calcareous to mainly siliceous sedimentation may have been influenced by rapid, post-rift subsidence of the Lagonegro Basin. It also coincided with a shift to warmer or more humid conditions around the Norian/Rhaetian boundary, as reflected in a pronounced increase in the chemical index of alteration (CIA), a weathering proxy (Young and Nesbitt, 1998). Redox proxies indicate mainly oxic conditions in the deep basin, although organic-rich shale beds are present at multiple levels in the otherwise organic-poor succession. The abruptness of the transitions between organic-poor and -rich sediment layers suggests major changes in paleoceanographic conditions, possibly related to switches from lagoonal circulation (linked to a net negative water balance) to estuarine circulation (linked to a net

  4. A survey of yeasts in traditional sausages of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gardini, F; Suzzi, G; Lombardi, A; Galgano, F; Crudele, M A; Andrighetto, C; Schirone, M; Tofalo, R

    2001-07-01

    The evolution of the yeast population during manufacturing and ripening of 'salsiccia sotto sugna', a typical salami of the Lucania region (southern Italy), was investigated. Four different batches, produced in four farms in Lucania, were studied. Each batch showed a specific yeast population, and the most frequently isolated yeasts belonged to Debaryomyces hansenii and its anamorph Candida famata, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Yarrowia lipolytica was isolated from three sausage batches. The Y. lipolytica isolates were further characterised, in particular for their lipolytic activity on pork fat. Lipolytic activity was maximal at pH 5.5, with oleic and palmitic acids as major free fatty acids produced. The use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction allowed the detection of a high genetic heterogeneity among the isolates phenotypically assigned to the species Y. lipolytica. PMID:12702361

  5. Evidences of increasing risk of dirofilarioses in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, A; Marangi, M; Latrofa, M S; Martinelli, D; Traversa, D; Otranto, D; Genchi, C

    2013-03-01

    Given the spread of Aedes albopictus from northern to southern Italy, and the lack of updated data on Dirofilaria infections, this study was carried out to assess the infection risk for dogs and cats in Apulia region. During a 2-year study, 175 A. albopictus female specimens and samples of blood from 427 dogs (309 privately owned dogs and 118 shelter dogs) and 12 cats were collected. All blood samples were subjected to a modified Knott method, to a test for the detection of circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and to a Dirofilaria species-specific real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens, targeting on partial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and internal transcribed spacer-2, respectively. Two abdomen and one thorax pools from A. albopictus were positive for D. immitis, with minimum infection rates of 1.14 and 0.51, respectively, and a probability of a single positive specimen to be infected of P = 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-1.73). Out of 439 examined subjects, 22 (5.0 %) tested positive for Dirofilaria spp. in at least one diagnostic test. A specific D. immitis infestation rate of 3.5 % was found among the privately owned dogs, while shelter dogs tested positive only for D. repens with a prevalence of 3.4 %; one cat tested molecularly positive for D. immitis. There was a significantly higher rate of positivity among guard dogs for D. immitis (odds ratio, 6.24, 95 % CI, 1.26-25.28; P < 0.05). The increasing risk of D. immitis infection in southern Italy is supported by the noteworthy positivity of A. albopictus populations and the cat. Our data highlight the usefulness to include filarioid infestation in routine diagnosis. PMID:23224639

  6. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented. PMID:26257970

  7. Soil properties, strontium isotopic signatures and multi-element profiles to authenticate the origin of vegetables from small-scale regions: illustration with early potatoes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Quétel, Christophe R; Paredes, Eduardo; Goitom Asfaha, Daniel; Vingiani, Simona; Adamo, Paola

    2011-10-15

    We propose a method for the authentication of the origin of vegetables grown under similar weather conditions, in sites less than 10 km distance from the sea and distributed over a rather small scale area (58651 km(2)). We studied how the strontium (Sr) isotopic signature and selected elemental concentrations ([Mn], [Cu], [Zn], [Rb], [Sr] and [Cd]) in early potatoes from three neighbouring administrative regions in the south of Italy were related to the geological substrate (alluvial sediments, volcanic substrates and carbonate rocks) and to selected soil chemical properties influencing the bioavailability of elements in soils (pH, cation exchange capacity and total carbonate content). Through multiple-step multivariate statistics (PLS-DA) we could assign 26 potatoes (including two already commercialised samples) to their respective eight sites of production, corresponding to the first two types of geological substrates. The other 12 potatoes from four sites of production had similar characteristics in terms of the geological substrate (third type) and these soil properties could be grouped together. In this case, more discriminative parameters would be required to allow the differentiation between sites. The validation of our models included external prediction tests with data of potatoes harvested the year before and a study on the robustness of the uncertainties of the measurement results. Annual variations between multi-elemental and Sr isotopic fingerprints were observed in potatoes harvested from soils overlying carbonate rocks, stressing the importance of testing long term variations in authentication studies. PMID:21913249

  8. Geodetic surveys across the Messina Straits (southern Italy) seismogenetic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Bonini, C.; Casula, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Riguzzi, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Messina Straits, southern Italy, unfortunately became famous after the occurrence of the great earthquake of December 28, 1908, Ms = 7.5, that caused thousands of deaths and severe destruction over a wide area along the Sicilian and Calabrian coasts. After that time many geophysical and geological studies were performed to evaluate the seismic characteristics of the 1908 earthquake, the seismic risk and the geological evolution of this region in the framework of Mediterranean geodynamics. In 1970, a geodetic network was set up across the Straits and was repeatedly measured with terrestrial techniques until 1980, showing a northward displacement of the Sicilian sites with respect to the Calabrian ones, between 1970 and 1971. In 1987, the old terrestrial network was surveyed again for the first time by the GPS technique, improving the accuracy of the coordinate determinations. Finally, in 1994, a wider network was established and surveyed again to collect additional GPS observations from a larger area across the Straits. In this paper, an analysis of the results obtained from the two GPS surveys with respect to those achieved by the terrestrial surveys (from 1970 to 1980) is given. This analysis shows there has not been significant crustal horizontal deformation across the Straits in the last 15 years. Although this crustal tectonic 'quiescence' corresponds to a low seismic activity level in the Straits area, terrestrial and GPS geodetic results would agree with Straits geophysical models excluding any aseismic deformations acting perpendicular to the Straits axis.

  9. Stochastic analysis of long dry spells in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2015-10-01

    A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, streamflow, groundwater and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to investigate this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this study, a non-homogeneous Poisson model has been applied to a set of high-quality daily rainfall series, recorded in southern Italy (Calabria region) during the period 1981-2010, for the stochastic analysis of dry spells. Firstly, some statistical details of the Poisson models were presented. Then, the proposed model has been applied to the analysis of long dry spells. In particular, a Monte Carlo technique was performed to reproduce the characteristics of the process. As a result, the main characteristics of the long dry spells have shown patterns clearly related to some geographical features of the study area, such as elevation and latitude. The results obtained from the stochastic modelling of the long dry spells proved that the proposed model is useful for the probability evaluation of drought, thus improving environmental planning and management.

  10. Three-model ensemble wind prediction in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Federico, Stefano; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Drofa, Oxana; Landi, Tony Christian; Malguzzi, Piero; Buzzi, Andrea; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Quality of wind prediction is of great importance since a good wind forecast allows the prediction of available wind power, improving the penetration of renewable energies into the energy market. Here, a 1-year (1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013) three-model ensemble (TME) experiment for wind prediction is considered. The models employed, run operationally at National Research Council - Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System), BOLAM (BOlogna Limited Area Model), and MOLOCH (MOdello LOCale in H coordinates). The area considered for the study is southern Italy and the measurements used for the forecast verification are those of the GTS (Global Telecommunication System). Comparison with observations is made every 3 h up to 48 h of forecast lead time. Results show that the three-model ensemble outperforms the forecast of each individual model. The RMSE improvement compared to the best model is between 22 and 30 %, depending on the season. It is also shown that the three-model ensemble outperforms the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) for the surface wind forecasts. Notably, the three-model ensemble forecast performs better than each unbiased model, showing the added value of the ensemble technique. Finally, the sensitivity of the three-model ensemble RMSE to the length of the training period is analysed.

  11. DEMETER In The Context Of The Irrigation And Reclamation Consortia In Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, A.

    2006-08-01

    About 75% of agricultural production in Southern Italy depends on irrigation. Water is therefore a vital element, required by farmers timely, at a reasonable price and in the requested quantities. In Southern Italy water is relatively scarce and is not uniformly distributes: regions or areas with the most intensive agricultural irrigated crops have limited water availability. Furthermore, there is a very strong competition between irrigation and other uses of water (urban areas, industries and tourist resorts). Water management is highly fragmented, among over 60 local reclamation consortia, regional governments, organisms in charge of dams' maintenance and regulation. In this framework DEMETER could play a key role in water use optimization, but defining an operative level approach, and an agreement with the local water governance in financial supporting DEMETER services and technological tools up-take.

  12. Miocene phosphate-rich sediments in Salento (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Hofmann, Hélène; Chiaradia, Massimo; de Kaenel, Eric; Frijia, Gianluca; Parente, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    The upper Middle to lower Upper Miocene (Serravallian to Tortonian) sedimentary succession in Salento (southern Italy) includes glauconite- and phosphate-rich deposits, which are associated with pelagic micrite. In Baia del Ciolo and Marittima (southern Salento), the succession is composed of shallow-water platform carbonates of Late Oligocene age (Chattian; Porto Badisco Formation), which are overlain by a 20- to 30-cm-thick level of glauconite-rich micrite with abundant reworked particles and fossils of the underlying Porto Badisco Formation. This interval is in turn covered by an up to 15 cm thick phosphatic crust ("Livello ad Aturia"), which itself is overlain either by a hemipelagic chalk-like carbonate of Middle to Late Miocene age ("Pietra Leccese"; Marittima) or directly by a micrite of Late Miocene age (Messinian; Novaglie Formation; Baia del Ciolo), which shallows upwards into a shallow-water platform carbonate. A large hiatus is present in this succession, which likely includes the Lower and lower Middle Miocene. In the region of Lecce, two discrete levels enriched in glauconite and phosphate-each associated with a major discontinuity-occur within the Pietra Leccese. The strontium-isotope ages derived on phosphate nodules and phosphatized and non-phosphatized fossils and calcareous nannofossil ages indicate a time interval of phosphogenesis between 13.5 and 7.5 Ma, with two clusters at 12 and 10.5 Ma. The glauconite and phosphate-rich sediments resulted from a current-dominated regime, which was characterized by low overall sedimentation rates, erosion and sediment reworking, and authigenesis. This regime was likely related to a generally westward-directed bottom current, which was forced to upwell once it arrived at the western border of the eastern Mediterranean basin. The timing of the principal phosphogenic phases can only partly be correlated to those of other occurrences in this part of the Mediterranean (Malta, Gozo, southern Sicily, Matese

  13. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  14. Anisotropy and Attenuation in a Retreating Subduction Zone: Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccheschi, P.; Margheriti, L.; Steckler, M. S.; de Gori, P.; Boschi, E.

    2010-12-01

    We present a collection of high quality S-wave splitting measurements in the Southern Italy subduction system. We analyzed deep earthquakes that occurred within the descending slab to determine the splitting parameters φ and δt. The local deep earthquakes allowed us to analyze ray-paths primarily sampling the slab and the wedge above it. Mainland Calabria is a forearc high, enabling us to sample rays that propagate up the slab. S splitting parameters show a complex pattern of anisotropy with variable fast directions across the subduction zone and delay times ranging from 0.1 sec to 2.2 sec. Measurements at single stations are quite variable excluding the overriding plate as main source of anisotropy. The S wave splitting parameters also show frequency-dependent behaviour that we attribute to the presence of small-scale anisotropic heterogeneities. Comparison of the S splitting measurements to the P-wave velocity anomaly at 100-200 km depth shows that where the rays primarily sample the slab the delay times are small. In contrast, where the S rays sample the mantle wedge, the delay times are quite high. This δt pattern depicts the slab as a weakly anisotropic region and suggests that the main source of anisotropy in the subduction zone is the surrounding asthenosphere. We also determined the attenuation structure of the slab and of the surrounding regions by the inversion of high quality S-waves t* from slab earthquakes. We obtained high-resolution Qs model down to 300 km depth. The results indicate low values of Qs (values down to 200) corresponding to crustal layers (down to 25 km depth), while the slab is characterized by higher but heterogeneous Qs structure (Qs values up to 1100). At 100 km depth the high Qs body is well reconstructed beneath the Calabrian Arc and at 200 km depth it is extended offshore the Southern Tyrrhenian Basin beneath the Aeolian Islands. These preliminary attenuation results allowed us to better define the geometry and the boundary of

  15. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  16. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  17. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  18. Mapping Soil Water-Holding Capacity Index to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation Protocols and ExposureRisk to Contaminated Soils in a National Interest Priority Site of the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important state variable that influences water flow and solute transport in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, and plays a key role in securing agricultural ecosystem services for nutrition and food security. Especially when environmental studies should be carried out at relatively large spatial scales, there is a need to synthesize the complex interactions between soil, plant behavior, and local atmospheric conditions. Although it relies on the somewhat loosely defined concepts of "field capacity" and "wilting point", the soil water-holding capacity seems a suitable indicator to meet the above-mentioned requirement, yet easily understandable by the public and stakeholders. This parameter is employed in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation protocols funded by the EU-Life project EcoRemed and being implemented to remediate and restore contaminated agricultural soils of the National Interest Priority Site Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano. The study area is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 hectares. A high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on groundwater quality. With the availability of soil and land systems maps for this study area, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at two different soil depths to determine basic soil physico-chemical properties for the subsequent application of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions were determined for a number of soil cores, in the laboratory with the evaporation experiments, and used to calibrate the PTFs. Efficient mapping of the soil hydraulic properties benefitted greatly from the use of the PTFs and the physically-based scaling procedure developed by Nasta et al. (2013, WRR, 49:4219-4229).

  19. Regional uplift and local tectonic deformation recorded by the Quaternary marine terraces on the Ionian coast of northern Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Luigi; Cinti, Francesca R.

    1998-06-01

    The setting of a flight of marine terraces along a 65-km-long section of the Ionian coast of northern Calabria is the result of the interaction between interglacial sea levels, regional uplift, and local fault-related elevation changes. Seven terraces with corresponding palaeoshoreline angles at elevations ranging from 12 m to ˜420 m were recognised by aerial photo interpretation and field surveying. The terraces were correlated to the oxygen isotope stages 1, 5a, 5c, 5e, 7, 9, 15, which correspond to the 7, 81, 102, 124, 215, 330 and ˜600 ka highstands of the palaeosea-level curve. The ˜600-ka-long regional ascent of the terraces took place at an average uplift rate of 0.67 mm/yr; this value slightly but progressively increases southward along the coastline. The elevation of the strandlines is related to the activity of tectonic structures. Three cases were analysed, allowing us: (1) to recognise the height anomalies of the terraces on the Sibari plain as the result of cumulated coseismic deformation caused by the normal Castrovillari fault, and on this basis calculate a minimum slip rate and a mean recurrence time for a single event of deformation; (2) to exclude the presence of significant vertical deformations and consequently activity on the easternmost section of the normal Pollino fault; and (3) to hypothesise the presence of an hitherto unknown active fault responsible for the strong vertical displacements of the flight of terraces near the river Avena. Finally, we find the ratio of the rate of regional uplift to the average rates of local tectonic deformation to be 2 to 3 : 1.

  20. Occurrence of mycotoxin in Farro samples from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Castoria, Raffaello; Lima, Giuseppe; Ferracane, Rosalia; Ritieni, Alberto

    2005-02-01

    The occurrence of nine mycotoxins and of contamination by pre- and postharvest fungal pathogens of cereals was investigated in samples of stored Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccon Schrank (emmer), and Triticum spelta L. (spelt). In Italy, all three species are collectively referred to as farro. The samples examined were harvested in summer 2000 from eight different sites in southern Italy. Conventional fluorimetric and diode array-based high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and HPLC-mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify fumonisin B1 in five samples (up to 70.00 microg/ kg), ochratoxin A in seven samples (up to 4.07 microg/kg), and beauvericin in three samples (up to 4.44 mg/kg). Enniatin B was detected in one sample (30.00 microg/kg), but no zearalenone or fusaproliferin was found. Deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins were not evaluated. The potentially mycotoxigenic fungal species detected were Alternaria alternata, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium tricinctum, Penicillium verrucosum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in farro samples. PMID:15726990

  1. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547

  2. Stable isotope ratios in meteoric recharge and groundwater at Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paternoster, M.; Liotta, M.; Favara, R.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA rain gauge network consisting of five sites located at different altitudes, ranging from 320 to 1285 m.a.s.l., was installed at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Rain water samples were collected monthly over a two-year period and their isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) was analyzed. During the same period, circulating groundwater was sampled from 24 springs and wells distributed throughout the study area. Monthly isotopic composition values were used to determine the local meteoric water line (LMWL). Its slope is slightly lower than the relationship defined by Longinelli and Selmo (Longinelli, A., Selmo, E., 2003. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Italy: a first overall map. J. Hydrol. 270, 75-88) for southern Italy. The groundwater samples analyzed were distributed essentially along the LMWL. The weighted local meteoric water line (WLMWL), defined through the mean values weighted by the rainfall amount, however, may define in a short range the meteoric end-member in the local hydrological cycle more precisely. Since most of the groundwater sampling locations do not show seasonal variations in their stable isotope values, the flow system appears to be relatively homogeneous. The mean altitude of the recharge by rainfall infiltration was estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient δ 18O. A few springs, which show anomalous isotopic values, reveal more regional circulation systems, associated with tectonic structures responsible for the ascent of deeper water.

  3. A unique lower mantle source for Southern Italy volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoux, Anita; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pinti, Daniele L.; Albarède, Francis

    2007-07-01

    The Southern Italy volcanism is characterized by the unusual occurrence of volcanic rocks with ocean-island basalt (OIB)-like characteristics, in particular at Etna and Iblean Mts in Sicily. The geochemical properties of the source of the Italian magmatism are usually explained by a north-south binary mixing between a mantle- and a crustally-derived end-members. The nature of the mantle end-member is, however, not agreed upon. One type of interpretation invokes a mixture of depleted mantle (DMM) and high U/Pb (HIMU) end-members [Gasperini, D., Blichert-Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albarède, F., 2002. Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: Evidence from the geochemistry of Italian basaltic volcanics, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2367-2386], whereas an alternative view holds that the mantle end-member is unique and homogeneous, and similar to the FOZO- or C-type end-member identified in oceanic basalts [Bell, K., Castorina, F., Lavecchia, G., Rosatelli, G., Stoppa, F., 2004. Is there a mantle plume below Italy? EOS 85, 541-547]. Because mixing does not produce linear relationships between the isotopic compositions of different elements, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the Pb isotope compositions of the Italian volcanics inclusive 36 of Sicily volcanoes. We demonstrate that HIMU cannot be an end-member of the Italian volcanics, but rather that the common component C (˜FOZO), which we interpret as reflecting the lower mantle, best represents the mantle source of the Italian magmatism. Our PCA calculation shows that the first principal component alone, which we take to be a mixture of two geochemical end-members, C and a crustally-derived component, explains 99.4% of the whole data variability. In contrast, the DMM end-member (the second principal component) is only present in the volcanics from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor. The C-like end-member, well represented by the Etna and Iblean Mts (Sicily), has relatively low 3He/ 4

  4. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  5. Geophysical approach for emergency management of landslide: the experience of Basilicata Civil Protection (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, G.; Lapenna, V.; Perrone, A.; Loperte, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Basilicata region (Southern Italy), being dissected by numerous and often significant rivers and characterized by the outcrop of terrains with bad mechanical properties, is one of the more exposed regions of the southern Apennine chain to hydrogeologic hazard and shows a complete panorama of mass movements. During the last years, after strong precipitations, this region has been affected by the reactivation of many quiescent landslides that involved buildings and infrastructures constructed on the slopes. The risk for people and assets needed the intervention of the end users involved in the risk management and, in particular, the inspection of Regional Department of Infrastructure and Civil Protection (RDICP). In many involved areas and for many families evacuation decrees have been issued in order to allow the damage valuation. An important contribution has been provided by the geophysical data and, in particular, by the 2D electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) that have been carried out in the areas some days after the event by IMAA-CNR. In this work we present the results regarding the application of unconventional geoelectrical techniques used for the emergency management of landslide in Basilicata Region (southern Italy). The information obtained by the application of indirect surveys appeared to be particularly useful for the end users involved in the risks management. In particular, taking into account the cycle of landslides emergency, the obtained data could give a valid contribution during the post-event phase which mainly regards the damage valuation. Indeed, only a corrected assessment of the damage and a precise geometric reconstruction of the landslide body, can direct the intervention actions of the end users. The results represent a valid cognitive support to choose the most appropriate technical solution for strengthening of the slopes and an example of best practice for the cooperation between the research activity (IMAA-CNR) and field

  6. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  7. Using Radon-222 as a Naturally Occurring Tracer to investigate the streamflow-groundwater interactions in a typical Mediterranean fluvial-karst landscape: the interdisciplinary case study of the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Michele; Guida, Domenico; Villani, Paolo; Guadagnuolo, Davide; Longobardi, Antonia; Siervo, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. This paper describes the preliminary findings from Radon-222 activity concentration measurement data collected in streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns, performed from September 2007 to December 2008, in a typical Mediterranean karst river: the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general aim is to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. In fact, the study area is located inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park and, therefore, the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological modelling for planning tasks, in application of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), a Bussento River Monitoring System (BRMS) has been built, at basin, segment and reach scale. Experimental data about 222Rn concentrations, in addition to physical-chemical and streamflow rate, have been acquired and managed from BRMS selected stations, sampling the streamflow and inflow spring waters by means of the Radon-in-Air analyzer, RAD7, together with the Radon-in-water accessories, Radon Water Probe and RAD7H2O (DURRIDGE Co. Inc.), for continuous and batch sampling measurements, respectively. During preliminary surveys, appropriate sampling procedures and measurement protocols have been tested, taking into account the different local hydrogeological and hydrological situations occurring

  8. Retrospective Study of Hemoparasites in Cattle in Southern Italy by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    CECI, Luigi; IARUSSI, Fabrizio; GRECO, Beatrice; LACINIO, Rosanna; FORNELLI, Stefania; CARELLI, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604

  9. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  10. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; De Giglio, Osvalda; Iatta, Roberta; Barbuti, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking. PMID:19330096

  11. Magnetotelluric investigation in the High Agri Valley (southern Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasco, M.; Giocoli, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Romano, G.; Siniscalchi, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Tripaldi, S.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present the result of a magnetotelluric (MT) investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV), southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer associated with the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units; and a deeper high resistivity layer related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.

  12. Magnetotelluric investigation in the High Agri Valley (southern Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasco, M.; Giocoli, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Romano, G.; Siniscalchi, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Tripladi, S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present the result of a Magnetotelluric (MT) investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV), southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer, associated to the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units, and a deeper high resistivity layer, related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.

  13. I-AMICA: infrastructure of high technology for environmental and climate monitoring in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasoni, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    I-AMICA (Infrastruttura di Alta tecnologia per il Monitoraggio Climatico Ambientale - Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring -) is a three years Italian National Operative Program (PON) project co-founded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is devoted to strengthen the environmental monitoring in Southern Italy with the aim to support the integration among research, high training, and innovation also providing synergies among public and private research organizations. The activities are focused on actions addressed to strengthen the observational infrastructures for atmosphere, forest and coastal areas in the regions of Southern Italy, whose economic growth and social well-being are strongly related to the environment quality. In such Convergence Regions (Campania, Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), instrumental networks (e.g. advanced sensors, software tools, integrated platforms and mobile laboratory and stations) dedicated to the environmental and climatic monitoring in the Mediterranean area, in terms of air quality, forest and agriculture, coastal marine ecosystems are promoted and developed. In order to increase the competitive capacity at national and international level, four "pillar" activities are aimed to (1) strengthen observing infrastructures for climate and environment and data processing systems, (2) promote innovation, technological development and industrial transfer, (3) integrate these observational activities into international programs (i.e. GAW-WMO, ACTRIS, EARLINET, GMOS, ICOS, FLUXNET, SHARE, NEXT DATA) that will allow I-AMICA to effectively be integrated with important networks. Finally, (4) through the implementation of observations, networking, technological applications and territorial services in the Convergence Regions, I-AMICA provides an important support to the local and regional communities.

  14. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  15. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  16. A critical review of seismotectonic setting of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) in GIS environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Luiso, Paola; Nappi, Rosa; Ricciolino, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Campanian Plain is a structural depression of the Southern Italy located between the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Southern Apennine chain. It is surrounded to the North, East and South by the Mesozoic carbonate massifs of the Apennine chain and, to the West, by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The graben origin is similar to other peri-Tyrrhenian regions and is related to a stretching and thinning of the continental crust by the counterclockwise rotation of the Italian peninsula and the contemporaneous opening of the Tyrrhenian sea. The consequent subsidence of the Campanian carbonate platform took place along the Tyrrhenian coast during the Plio-Pleistocene with a maximum vertical extent of 5 km. The plain is filled by volcanic and clastic, continental and marine deposits. Voluminous volcanic activity of Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Procida and Vesuvio occurred in the Plain during the Quaternary. In the middle of the plain lies the city of Naples, bordered by the two active volcanoes of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio. It is a very densely inhabited area that is exposed to high potential volcanic risk. The stress field acting in the Campanian area is poorly known. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW- SE-trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW-trending structures. These movements are consistent with those of the structures affecting the inner margin of the Southern Apennines. The Campanian Plain is characterized by seismicity of energy lower than the seismic activity of the Southern Apennine chain. The earthquakes mainly occur along the margin of the plain, in the volcanic areas and a minor seismicity spreads out inside the Plain. The aim of this paper is an attempt to identify active, outcropping and buried fault systems of the Campanian plain through the correlation between seismicity and tectonic structures. Seismic, geologic and geomorphologic data have been

  17. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): insights from new seismic reflection data.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  18. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  19. An evaluation of Landsat 3 RBV imagery for an area of complex terrain in Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Williams, D. F.; Justice, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Return Beam Videcon imagery from Landsat 3 was obtained in August, 1978 for part of Southern Italy in the regions of Basilicata and Apulia. The resolution of this imagery for medium contrast objects is approximately 40 meters and is shown to provide significant information concerning land cover and fluvial morphometry. Because of the wide spectral band width which is sensed (0.505-0.750 microns) by the RBV cameras, discrimination is only possible for spectrally distinct cover types, especially oak woodland. Fluvial morphometry can be readily described using the imagery. Because of the intense dissection of the area, the lowest order streams cannot be consistently mapped, but the rank order of the measured values of properties such as drainage density and link frequency for different lithologies corresponds closely to the actual ranking.

  20. Soil moisture monitoring in Candelaro basin, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, C.; Gigante, V.; Iacobellis, V.

    2012-04-01

    The signature of the hydrologic regime can be investigated, in principle, by recognizing the main mechanisms of runoff generation that take place in the basin and affect the seasonal behavior or the rainfall-driven events. In this framework, besides the implementation of hydrological models, a crucial role should be played by direct observation of key state variables such as soil moisture at different depths and different distances from the river network. In fact, understanding hydrological systems is often limited by the frequency and spatial distribution of observations. Experimental catchments, which are field laboratories with long-term measurements of hydrological variables, are not only sources of data but also sources of knowledge. Wireless distributed sensing platforms are a key technology to address the need for overcoming field limitations such as conflicts between soil use and cable connections. A stand-alone wireless network system has been installed for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths along a transect located in Celone basin (sub-basin of Candelaro basin in Puglia, Southern Italy). The transect consists of five verticals, each one having three soil water content sensors at multiple depths: 0,05 m, 0,6 m and 1,2 m below the ground level. The total length of the transect is 307 m and the average distance between the verticals is 77 m. The main elements of the instrumental system installed are: fifteen Decagon 10HS Soil Moisture Sensors, five Decagon Em50R Wireless Radio Data Loggers, one Rain gauge, one Decagon Data Station and one Campbell CR1000 Data Logger. Main advantages of the system as described and presented in this work are that installation of the wireless network system is fast and easy to use, data retrieval and monitoring information over large spatial scales can be obtained in (near) real-time mode and finally other type of sensors can be connected to the system, also offering wide potentials for future

  1. Morphological and kinematic evolution of a large earthflow: the Montaguto landslide, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; Manconi, Andrea; Baldo, Marco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Corazza, Angelo; Albanese, Vincenzo; Lollino, Giorgio; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    We present the results obtained from the use of complementary monitoring techniques, which allowed us to investigate the long (multi-decadal) and the short (seasonal) term geomorphological evolution of the Montaguto earthflow, a 3 km long earthflow in the southern Apennines of Italy. Following an analysis of the different methods and techniques available to measure the surface deformation caused by large earthflows, we selected a combination of monitoring techniques ranging from in-situ to remote sensing, including aerial and satellite optical imagery, multitemporal airborne LiDAR surveys, and three-dimensional topographic measurements captured by three Robotized Total Stations. The examination of the available aerial, satellite and hill-shade images revealed a cyclic, long-term behavior of mass movements of different types in the Rio Nocelle catchment occupied by the recent Montaguto earthflow in the 58-year period 1954 - 2011. The combined analysis of six DEMs generated from LiDAR surveys allowed measuring the material eroded from the landslide crown area (Volume ~ 1.4 Million cubic meters) and deposited in the landslide toe area (Volume ~1.2 Million cubic meters), in the period from 2004 to June 2011. The analysis of a large set of high-accuracy topographic measurements revealed the kinematical characteristics of different sectors of the active earthflow, and allowed for the reconstruction of the temporal and spatial surface deformation of the moving failure. The insights obtained studying the Montaguto earthflow are significant for the geo-mechanical modeling of similar earthflows in the same geographical area, for geomorphological regional landslide mapping, and for the evaluation of the hazard and the risk posed by large earthflows in southern Italy and in similar physiographic regions.

  2. Seismic Imaging for Geothermal Exploration in Southern Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Riedel, M.; Dutsch, C.; Dini, I.; Ciuffi, S.; Buske, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Mt. Amiata area in southern Tuscany is well known for its geothermal power generation which at present provides about 26% of the region's total energy needs. The exploration of new potential reservoirs is a challenging process that requires integrated geological and geophysical investigations for finding the best location of a future production well.In this study, we perform seismic depth imaging on reflection seismic profiles, which provides the starting point for geological interpretation and three-dimensional model building. For this purpose, we start with first-arrival traveltime tomography for resolving the near-surface velocity model, and then proceed with analyzing the migration velocities for deeper layers using Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration. Finally, we apply Fresnel volume migration which increases the resolution of the reflectivity images and enables a better characterization of the predominant geological structures in this area. At that point, we are particularly interested in a strong reflective marker, the so-called "K-horizon", which is associated with the regional heat sources. We image this important reflector and quantify its depth uncertainty in relation to the velocity model.The seismic imaging results provide the base for geologic modeling and a hydrothermal assessment of the potential reservoir area which contribute to optimizing the geothermal exploration in that region.

  3. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  4. The ethnic minorities of southern Italy and Sicily: relationships through surnames.

    PubMed

    Vienna, A; Peña Garcia, J A; Mascie-Taylor, C G; Biondi, G

    2001-01-01

    Surnames of grandparents were collected from children in the primary schools of the Albanian-Italian, Croat-Italian and Greek-Italian villages of southern Italy and Sicily. The coefficients of relationships by isonymy show almost no relationship with ethnicity. Ethnolinguistic minorities of southern Italy and Sicily are geographically subdivided into two main clusters: the first cluster comprises the Albanian, Croat and Greek communities of the Adriatic area; and the second cluster comprises the Albanian and Greek communities of the Ionian, Thirrenian and Sicilian areas. PMID:11316393

  5. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Stefania M.; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S.; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-01-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  6. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Mang, Stefania M; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-04-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  7. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  8. REE in karst bauxites: the Campania example (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Balassone, G.; Rollinson, G.

    2012-04-01

    Global production of Rare Earth Element (REE) has dramatically increased in the last years, hence the strong interest to identify new deposits and to understand the processes responsible for their formation. Among REE concentrations related to weathering, the current targets are represented by the ion-adsorption deposit-types, occurring in China, in which REEs are adsorbed onto the surface of clays. Laterites have been also intensively investigated since the discovery of the secondary deposit of Mount Weld (Australia). Most REEs behave as immobile elements in laterites, and tend to be enriched compared to the underlying parent rocks. Many authors debate on a possible REE fractionation along the laterite profiles, resulting in the formation of supergene LREE-minerals. Bauxites are economic Al accumulations, derived from the weathering of alumosilicate-rich parent rocks resulting in the development of laterite profiles. Components as Ca, Mg, K, Si are leached and residual Fe, Al and Ti precipitate in form of hematite>>goethite, gibbsite [Al(OH)3] or amorphous Al hydroxides and anatase. Metabauxites can contain boehmite or diaspore [AlO(OH)]. Chemical composition (including REEs content) of lateritic bauxites generally mirrors the original composition of the parent rock. Geochemistry of REEs in karst bauxites, which lay on carbonate bedrocks and may be also allochthonous to them, is not so straightforward. Cretaceous karst bauxite deposits in the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) are presently uneconomic. A full mineralogical and geochemical study has been performed on several deposits of the Campania district, and three representative profiles have been sampled. In all deposits the bauxite ore has an oolitic-pisolitic texture, but contains also detrital intervals. The mineral association consists of boehmite, kaolinite and hematite, with less goethite and anatase. The main REE-bearing mineral is detrital monazite. In detail, we could detect (SEM) other LREE

  9. Ionian marine terraces of southern Italy: Insights into the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, R.; Bianca, M.; D'Onofrio, R.

    2010-08-01

    New detailed morphotectonic analyses of a well exposed flight of marine terraces along the Ionian coast of southern Italy has been carried out. The area represents a key transect for investigating the middle-late Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines chain-foredeep-foreland geodynamic system. A major result of the research is the reconstruction of a virtually complete 3D geometry of the marine surfaces along a coastal sector of ca. 70 km, which (1) documents the occurrence of 18 paleo-shorelines and (2) provides evidence for a strong regional uplift affecting the investigated area. Following a systematic critical review of literature relating to geochronological data, integrated with a morphogenetic model based on the interaction between tectonic uplift and eustatic sea level changes, the different terraces are correlated to as many highstand sea level peaks, dating the highest/oldest terrace to ca. 600 ka (MIS 15). The vertical and horizontal distribution of the terraces show a general convergence of the paleo-shorelines toward NNE, which indicates a decreasing trend in differential uplift in that direction ranging from almost 2 mm/a in the southwestern sector to about 0.2 mm/a in the northeastern sector. Detailed mapping and 3D reconstruction also emphasize the partitioning of the area into three distinct sectors characterized by different tilting rates. This behavior is likely caused by the combined role and activity of three major tectonic structures working at different scales and rates including (1) the reactivation of an out-of-sequence thrust, (2) sliding along the basal detachment of the external Apennines wedge and (3) a lithospheric-scale duplexing (crustal or deeper). As a major conclusion, within the external sector of the Southern Apennines chain and its foredeep, regional shortening and a contractional tectonic regime persisted throughout the whole Quaternary and it is probably still active.

  10. Students' Perception of School Violence and Math Achievement in Middle Schools of Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy.…

  11. [Internal migration and rural society in southern Italy (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries)].

    PubMed

    Sinisi, A

    1993-01-01

    The author examines migration in rural populations in southern Italy from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Migrations specific to rural populations, such as transhumance and seasonal migration are examined, as well as labor migration and rural-urban migration. Particular attention is given to migration trends in the nineteenth century. PMID:12319597

  12. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF A CLOSTEROVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH APRICOT STEM PITTING IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrophoretic analysis of cortical and leaf tissue extracts from apricot trees of cv. 'Tyrinthos' from Apulia (southern Italy) affected by stem pitting, contained multiple double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) species, the largest with an estimated size of 15 kbp. A segment of 590 nucleotides, showing seque...

  13. Human responses to the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Kilburn, Christopher; Sangster, Heather; Solana, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    , for instance, insisted in taking refuge in a church and this led to over 100 fatalities when the roof collapsed. Intervention by the State included: the effective deployment of troops to handle evacuation, to re-open lines of communication and to distribute food and other relief. Management of the disaster was enhanced when prefectural commissioners were given executive powers. We argue that increased State intervention appears to have reduced self-reliance. In the short-term recovery was supported by regional/state aid and by charitable donations particularly from other governments and members of Neapolitan diaspora in other parts of Italy and abroad. This enabled land clearance, agriculture was re-established and roads/rail links were restored. Long-term recovery was slow with affected local-authorities (i.e., comuni) showing low rates of population growth for more than 15 years.

  14. An application of a multi model approach for solar energy prediction in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, Elenio; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Contini, Daniele; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Tiriolo, Luca; Montesanti, Stefania; Transerici, Claudio; Federico, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of the short and medium range forecast of solar irradiance is very important for solar energy integration into the grid. This issue is particularly important for Southern Italy where a significant availability of solar energy is associated with a poor development of the grid. In this work we analyse the performance of two deterministic models for the prediction of surface temperature and short-wavelength radiance for two sites in southern Italy. Both parameters are needed to forecast the power production from solar power plants, so the performance of the forecast for these meteorological parameters is of paramount importance. The models considered in this work are the RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) and they were run for the summer 2013 at 4 km horizontal resolution over Italy. The forecast lasts three days. Initial and dynamic boundary conditions are given by the 12 UTC deterministic forecast of the ECMWF-IFS (European Centre for Medium Weather Range Forecast - Integrated Forecasting System) model, and were available every 6 hours. Verification is given against two surface stations located in Southern Italy, Lamezia Terme and Lecce, and are based on hourly output of models forecast. Results for the whole period for temperature show a positive bias for the RAMS model and a negative bias for the WRF model. RMSE is between 1 and 2 °C for both models. Results for the whole period for the short-wavelength radiance show a positive bias for both models (about 30 W/m2 for both models) and a RMSE of 100 W/m2. To reduce the model errors, a statistical post-processing technique, i.e the multi-model, is adopted. In this approach the two model's outputs are weighted with an adequate set of weights computed for a training period. In general, the performance is improved by the application of the technique, and the RMSE is reduced by a sizeable fraction (i.e. larger than 10% of the initial RMSE

  15. Estimating annual groundwater recharge coefficient for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; De Vita, P.

    2014-02-01

    To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in the southern Apennines (Italy), the estimation of the mean annual groundwater recharge coefficient (AGRC) was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. Starting from the hydrological budget equation, the coefficient was conceived as the ratio between the net groundwater outflow and the precipitation minus actual evapotranspiration (P - ETR) for a karst aquifer. A large part of the southern Apennines, which is covered by a meteorological network containing 40 principal karst aquifers, was studied. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926-2012, the mean annual P - ETR was estimated, and its distribution was modelled at a regional scale by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennine chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AGRC. The resulting values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst rocks, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A multiple linear regression between the AGRC, lithology and the summit plateau and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model was used to assess the AGRC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The coefficient was calculated as ranging between 50 and 79%, thus being comparable with other similar estimations carried out for karst aquifers of European and Mediterranean countries. The mean annual groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines was assessed by these characterizations and validated by a comparison with available groundwater outflow measurements. These results represent a deeper understanding of an

  16. A plastic flow model for the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide in Senerchia, Southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.; Wasowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A previously developed model for stress and velocity fields in two-dimensional Coulomb plastic materials under self-weight and pore pressure predicts that long, shallow landslides develop slip surfaces that manifest themselves as normal faults and normal fault scarps at the surface in areas of extending flow and as thrust faults and thrust fault scarps at the surface in areas of compressive flow. We have applied this model to describe the geometry of slip surfaces and ground stresses developed during the 1995 reactivation of the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide in Senerchia, southern Italy. This landslide is a long and shallow slide in which regions of compressive and extending flow are clearly identified. Slip surfaces in the main scarp region of the landslide have been reconstructed using surface surveys and subsurface borehole logging and inclinometer observations made during retrogression of the main scarp. Two of the four inferred main scarp slip surfaces are best constrained by field data. Slip surfaces in the toe region are reconstructed in the same way and three of the five inferred slip surfaces are similarly constrained. The location of the basal shear surface of the landslide is inferred from borehole logging and borehole inclinometry. Extensive data on material properties, landslide geometries, and pore pressures collected for the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide give values for cohesion, friction angle, and unit weight, plus average basal shear-surface slopes, and pore-pressures required for modelling slip surfaces and stress fields. Results obtained from the landslide-flow model and the field data show that predicted slip surface shapes are consistent with inferred slip surface shapes in both the extending flow main scarp region and in the compressive flow toe region of the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide. Also predicted stress distributions are found to explain deformation features seen in the toe and main scarp regions of the landslide. ?? 2005 Elsevier

  17. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease. PMID:25772632

  18. The Earthquake Early Warning System for Southern Italy: Concepts, Capabilities and Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, C.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Lancieri, M.; Zollo, A.; Iannaccone, G.

    2009-12-01

    In the framework of earthquake early warning (EEW) experimentation in Southern Italy, we have developed an integrated software platform called PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem). PRESTo is a methodology for regional EEW applications, based on a fully probabilistic and evolutionary approach. This means that probability density functions of source parameters and ground shaking levels are computed , which make possible to evaluate the uncertainties, and to set an appropriate level of reliability of the issued warning. Moreover, the estimates of earthquake location, size and expected ground motion are continuously updated, as new data is available in real-time from the network. The earthquake location algorithm is based on an equal differential time formulation, and a probabilistic framework for describing the hypocenter solution. The algorithm, at each time step, relies on both the information from triggered arrivals and not-yet-triggered stations. The magnitude estimation is based on a Bayesian approach, and exploits an empirical relationship that correlates the final event magnitude with the logarithm of the distance-corrected, peak ground displacement, measured over the first 2÷4 seconds of P- and S-signals. Finally, a ground motion prediction equation valid at regional scale is used to predict the peak velocities and accelerations at the target sites. The core infrastructure of the EEW system in Southern Italy is the high density, wide dynamic-range seismic network ISNet (Irpinia Seismic Network), deployed along the Apennine chain, which is frequently stricken by moderate to large magnitude damaging earthquakes. For earthquakes originating inside the ISNet seismic network, a first alarm can be issued within 4-6 seconds from the origin time, and a stable estimate with relatively small error on location (less than 5 km) and magnitude (about 0.5 magnitude units) is achieved within 10 seconds after the origin time. PRESTo can easily be

  19. National and regional rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Rossi, Mauro; Luciani, Silvia; Valigi, Daniela; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2010-05-01

    Landslides are frequent and widespread geomorphological phenomena in Italy. A nationwide investigation completed by the Italian National Geological Survey has identified approximately 5×105 landslides, an average of 1.6 slope failures per square kilometre. Most of the mapped slope failures are known - or considered - to be triggered by intense or prolonged rainfall. Determining the amount of rainfall that, when reached or exceeded, can result in landslides is important to forecast the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy. The Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC) is implementing a national landslide warning system based on rainfall thresholds, rainfall measurements, and quantitative rainfall forecasts. We are working with the DPC to define new rainfall thresholds to be implemented in the national system. For the purpose, we have compiled a catalogue of 875 rainfall events that have resulted in documented landslides in Italy since 1841, including 77 rainfall events in the Abruzzo Region (central Italy) in the period 2002-2009, and 145 rainfall events in the Calabria Region (southern Italy) in the period 2001-2009. For each event in the catalogue, we have collected information on: (i) the total amount of rainfall, (ii) the rainfall duration, (iii) the day and (when available) the time or period of the failure, (iv) the geographical location of the landslide, (v) the number of landslides, when more than a single failure was reported, and (vi) climatic information, including the mean annual precipitation (MAP) and the average number of rainy days in a year (RDs). We have experimented with two methods to define objective intensity-duration (ID) national rainfall thresholds for Italy, and regional rainfall the rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo and the Calabria Regions. The first method exploits Bayesian statistical inference, and the second method adopts a Frequentist probabilistic approach. This is an improvement over existing methods that

  20. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where ‘islands’ of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  1. An operational real-time flood forecasting system in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; Coccia, Gabriele; Todini, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    A real-time flood forecasting system has been operating since year 2012 as a non-structural measure for mitigating the flood risk in Campania Region (Southern Italy), within the Sele river basin (3.240 km2). The Sele Flood Forecasting System (SFFS) has been built within the FEWS (Flood Early Warning System) platform developed by Deltares and it assimilates the numerical weather predictions of the COSMO LAM family: the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I2, the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I7 and the ensemble numerical weather predictions COSMO-LEPS (16 members). Sele FFS is composed by a cascade of three main models. The first model is a fully continuous physically based distributed hydrological model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended (Idrologia&Ambiente s.r.l., Naples, Italy), simulating the dominant processes controlling the soil water dynamics, runoff generation and discharge with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The second module is a set of Neural-Networks (ANN) built for forecasting the river stages at a set of monitored cross-sections. The third component is a Model Conditional Processor (MCP), which provides the predictive uncertainty (i.e., the probability of occurrence of a future flood event) within the framework of a multi-temporal forecast, according to the most recent advancements on this topic (Coccia and Todini, HESS, 2011). The MCP provides information about the probability of exceedance of a maximum river stage within the forecast lead time, by means of a discrete time function representing the variation of cumulative probability of exceeding a river stage during the forecast lead time and the distribution of the time occurrence of the flood peak, starting from one or more model forecasts. This work shows the Sele FFS performance after two years of operation, evidencing the added-values that can provide to a flood early warning and emergency management system.

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

    PubMed

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  3. Numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the coastal aquifer system of Taranto (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a strong development of coastal areas with a high concentration of water-demanding human activities, resulting in weakly controlled withdrawals of groundwater which accentuate the saltwater intrusion phenomenon. The worsening of groundwater quality is a huge problem especially for those regions, like Salento (southern Italy), where a karst aquifer system represents the most important water resource because of the deficiency of a well developed superficial water supply. In this frame, the first 2D numerical model describing the groundwater flow in the karst aquifer of Salento peninsula was developed by Giudici et al. [1] at the regional scale and then improved by De Filippis et al. [2]. In particular, the estimate of the saturated thickness of the deep aquifer highlighted that the Taranto area is particularly sensitive to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion, both for the specific hydrostratigraphic configuration and for the presence of highly water-demanding industrial activities. These remarks motivate a research project which is part of the research program RITMARE (The Italian Research for the Sea), within which a subprogram is specifically dedicated to the problem of the protection and preservation of groundwater quality in Italian coastal aquifers and in particular, among the others, in the Taranto area. In this context, the CINFAI operative unit aims at providing a contribution to the characterization of groundwater in the study area. The specific objectives are: a. the reconstruction of the groundwater dynamic (i.e., the preliminary identification of a conceptual model for the aquifer system and the subsequent modeling of groundwater flow in a multilayered system which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphical point of view); b. the characterization of groundwater outflows through submarine and subaerial springs and the water exchanges with the shallow coastal water bodies (e.g. Mar Piccolo) and the off

  4. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  5. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  6. Assessment of Multi-Mycotoxin Exposure in Southern Italy by Urinary Multi-Biomarker Determination

    PubMed Central

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Gambacorta, Lucia; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure assessment to deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) can be performed by measuring their urinary biomarkers. Suitable biomarkers of exposure for these mycotoxins are DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), FB1, ZEA + α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) + β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and OTA, respectively. An UPLC-MS/MS multi-biomarker method was used to detect and measure incidence and levels of these biomarkers in urine samples of 52 volunteers resident in Apulia region in Southern Italy. The presence of ZEA + ZOLs, OTA, DON, FB1 and AFM1 were detected in 100%, 100%, 96%, 56% and 6%, of samples, respectively. All samples contained biomarkers of two or more mycotoxins. The mean concentrations of biomarkers ranged from 0.055 ng/mL (FB1) to 11.89 ng/mL (DON). Urinary biomarker concentrations were used to estimate human exposure to multiple mycotoxin. For OTA and DON, 94% and 40% of volunteers, respectively exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these mycotoxins. The estimated human exposure to FB1 and ZEA was largely below the TDI for these mycotoxins for all volunteers. PMID:24476712

  7. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes in a Southern Italy population.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Fiore; Tozza, Stefano; Pisciotta, Chiara; Bellone, Emilia; Iodice, Rosa; Nolano, Maria; Geroldi, Alessandro; Capponi, Simona; Mandich, Paola; Santoro, Lucio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the genetic distribution of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in Campania, a region of Southern Italy. We analyzed a cohort of 197 index cases and reported the type and frequency of mutations for the whole CMT population and for each electrophysiological group (CMT1, CMT2, and hereditary neuropathy with susceptibility to pressure palsies [HNPP]) and for familial and isolated CMT cases. Genetic diagnosis was achieved in 148 patients (75.1%) with a higher success rate in HNPP and CMT1 than CMT2. Only four genes (PMP22, GJB1, MPZ, and GDAP1) accounted for 92% of all genetically confirmed CMT cases. In CMT1, PMP22 duplication was the most common mutation while the second gene in order of frequency was MPZ in familial and SH3TC2 in isolated cases. In CMT2, GJB1 was the most frequent mutated gene and GJB1 with GDAP1 accounted for almost 3/4 of genetically defined CMT2 patients. The first gene in order of frequency was GJB1 in familial and GDAP1 in isolated cases. In HNPP, the majority of patients harbored the PMP22 gene deletion. The novelty of our data is the relatively high frequency of SH3TC2 and GDAP1 mutations in demyelinating and axonal forms, respectively. These epidemiological data can help in panel design for our patients' population. PMID:25429913

  8. Geological and geophysical characterization of the southeastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results obtained by the joint analysis of in situ geophysical surveys, aerial photos interpretation, morphotectonic investigation, geological field survey and borehole data. The joint analysis of different data allowed us (1) to show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) to detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) to image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) to characterize the geometry of an active landslide affecting the study area.

  9. Mapping, cluster detection and evaluation of risk factors of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Condoleo, Roberto; Musella, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, is responsible for significant economic losses to the ovine industry worldwide. Moreover, ovine meat contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is considered as a common source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to develop point and risk profiling maps of T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep bred in Campania Region (Southern Italy) and analyse risk factors associated at the flock-level. We used serological data from a previous survey of 117 sheep flocks, while environmental and farm management information were obtained from an analysis based on geographical information systems and a questionnaire purveyance, respectively. An univariate Poisson regression model revealed that the type of farm production (milk and meat vs only meat) was the only independent variable associated with T. gondii positivity (P<0.02); the higher within-flock seroprevalence in milking herds suggests that milking practices might influence the spread of the infection on the farm. Neither environmental nor other management variables were significant. Since a majority of flocks were seasonally or permanently on pasture, the animals have a high exposure to infectious T. gondii oocysts, so the high within-flock seroprevalence might derive from this management factor. However, further studies are needed to better assess the actual epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in sheep and to clarify the factors that influence its presence and distribution. PMID:27245805

  10. Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Tonarini, Sonia; Doglioni, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    We report here, for the first time, on the new finding of extrusive calciocarbonatite (alvikite) rocks from the Pleistocene Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). These volcanic rocks, which represent an outstanding occurrence in the wider scenario of the Italian potassic magmatism, form lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and feeder dikes exposed on the northern slope of the volcano. The petrography, mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry attest the genuine carbonatitic nature of these rocks, that are characterized by high to very high contents of Sr, Ba, U, LREE, Nb, P, F, Th, high Nb/Ta and LREE/HREE ratios, and low contents of Ti, Zr, K, Rb, Na and Cs. The O-C isotope compositions are close to the "primary igneous carbonatite" field and, thus, are compatible with an ultimate mantle origin for these rocks. The Sr-Nd-Pb-B isotope compositions, measured both in the alvikites and in the silicate volcanic rocks, indicate a close genetic relationship between the alvikites and the associated melilitite/nephelinite rocks. Furthermore, these latter products are geochemically distinct from the main foiditic-phonolitic association of Mt. Vulture. We propose a petrogenetic/geodynamic interpretation which has important implications for understanding the relationships between carbonatites and orogenic activity. In particular, we propose that the studied alvikites are generated through liquid unmixing at crustal levels, starting from nephelinitic or melilititic parent liquids. These latter were produced in a hybrid mantle resulting from the interaction through a vertical slab window, between a metasomatized mantle wedge, moving eastward from the Tyrrhenian/Campanian region, and the local Adriatic mantle. The occurrence of carbonatite rocks at Mt. Vulture, that lies on the leading edge of the Southern Apennines accretionary prism, is taken as an evidence for the carbonatation of the mantle sources of this volcano. We speculate that mantle carbonatation is related to the introduction of

  11. Assessing the role of Climate Variability in the recent evolution of coastlines in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paola, Gianluigi; Atkinson, David; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Walker, Ian

    2016-04-01

    During the last century, Climatic Variability (CV) and change effects have generated a discernable impact on the world's coasts, most notably through changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of storm surges, flooding, coastal erosion and sea-level rise. This study explores CV signals and coastal responses along a 36 km stretch of coast in the Molise region of southern Italy on the Central Adriatic Sea. Two dominant signals of CV in the Mediterranean region of Europe are characterized by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) patterns. The NAO is the leading mode of CV in the North Atlantic region and periods with positive NAO index values are typically associated with above average wind speeds across the mid-latitudes of the Atlantic and western Europe, with anomalously northerly flows across the Mediterranean region and enhanced trade winds over the sub-tropical North Atlantic. Although NAO is one of the most prominent patterns in all seasons, its relative role in regulating the variability of the European climate during non-winter months is not as clear as for the winter season. In contrast, the EAWR exerts strong influence on precipitation in the Mediterranean region such that, during the negative phase of EAWR, wetter conditions prevail across central Europe and the Mediterranean region, with precipitation extremes often occurring during these periods. This study examines the effects of NAO and EAWR on coastline response in the Molise region, which has a microtidal regime (ordinary tidal excursions of 30-40 cm). GIS analysis of shoreline changes from historical aerial photography from 1954-2011 was performed and 20 years (1989-2008) of wave data were analysed from the nearby Ortona buoy to define trends and extreme event occurrence in the wave climate in the study area. Finally, statistical associations between NAO, EAWR, and other CV indices of possible influence (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, Scandinavia Pattern, or the East

  12. Calibration and validation of rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide forecasting in Sicily, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariano, S. L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Melillo, M.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Vennari, C.; Guzzetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical rainfall thresholds are tools to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. Accurate prediction of landslide occurrence requires reliable thresholds, which need to be properly validated before their use in operational warning systems. We exploited a catalogue of 200 rainfall conditions that have resulted in at least 223 shallow landslides in Sicily, southern Italy, in the 11-year period 2002-2011, to determine regional event duration-cumulated event rainfall (ED) thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence. We computed ED thresholds for different exceedance probability levels and determined the uncertainty associated to the thresholds using a consolidated bootstrap nonparametric technique. We further determined subregional thresholds, and we studied the role of lithology and seasonal periods in the initiation of shallow landslides in Sicily. Next, we validated the regional rainfall thresholds using 29 rainfall conditions that have resulted in 42 shallow landslides in Sicily in 2012. We based the validation on contingency tables, skill scores, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for thresholds at different exceedance probability levels, from 1% to 50%. Validation of rainfall thresholds is hampered by lack of information on landslide occurrence. Therefore, we considered the effects of variations in the contingencies and the skill scores caused by lack of information. Based on the results obtained, we propose a general methodology for the objective identification of a threshold that provides an optimal balance between maximization of correct predictions and minimization of incorrect predictions, including missed and false alarms. We expect that the methodology will increase the reliability of rainfall thresholds, fostering the operational use of validated rainfall thresholds in operational early warning system for regional shallow landslide forecasting.

  13. Tephra layers along the southern Tyrrhenian coast of Italy: Links to the X-5 & X-6 using volcanic glass geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, P.; Albert, P. G.; Crocitti, M.; De Rosa, R.; Menzies, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the geochemistry of glass fragments from three visible tephra layers outcropping in Southern Italy. Two tephra deposits (LeS1 and LeS2), outcropping in the Palinuro area (Cilento, Southern Italy), correspond stratigraphically to the CIL1 and CIL2 tephra units (Giaccio et al., 2012), respectively; in turn these are correlated with the X-5 (ca. 105 ka) and X-6 (ca. 108 ka) marine tephra markers on the basis of their major element glass compositions. In order to reinforce these tephra correlations we examine both their major and trace element glass compositions. LeS1 compositions were compared with other correlatives of the X-5 tephra layer (POP3 [Sulmona basin], TM-25 [Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGdM)], CIL1 [Palinuro]) from the central Mediterranean. Our data validate a correlation of the Palinuro tephra layer, LeS1, to the X-5 correlatives. The Palinuro tephra deposit, LeS2, has glass compositions which correspond precisely with correlatives of the X-6 marker tephra (CIL2 [Palinuro], TM-27 [LGdM], I-9 [Ionian Sea] and PRAD 2812 [PRAD1-2, Adriatic Sea]). A tephra in the Valle del Crati (Calabria) appears to overlap in composition with the LeS2 tephra, indicating a probable correlation with the X-6 marker. These new data provide a detailed geochemical characterisation of two widespread marker horizons and are crucial for establishing precise correlations of sedimentary archives across the central Mediterranean region.

  14. The Earthquake Early Warning System In Southern Italy: Performance Tests And Next Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Colombelli, S.; Emolo, A.; Festa, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2011-12-01

    PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is the software platform for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) in Southern Italy, that integrates recent algorithms for real-time earthquake location, magnitude estimation and damage assessment, into a highly configurable and easily portable package. The system is under active experimentation based on the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet). PRESTo processes the live streams of 3C acceleration data for P-wave arrival detection and, while an event is occurring, promptly performs event detection and provides location, magnitude estimations and peak ground shaking predictions at target sites. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, real-time probabilistic approach based on an equal differential time formulation. At each time step, it uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations. Magnitude estimation exploits an empirical relationship that correlates it to the filtered Peak Displacement (Pd), measured over the first 2-4 s of P-signal. Peak ground-motion parameters at any distance can be finally estimated by ground motion prediction equations. Alarm messages containing the updated estimates of these parameters can thus reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. Using the real-time data streaming from the ISNet network, PRESTo has produced a bulletin for about a hundred low-magnitude events occurred during last two years. Meanwhile, the performances of the EEW system were assessed off-line playing-back the records for moderate and large events from Italy, Spain and Japan and synthetic waveforms for large historical events in Italy. These tests have shown that, when a dense seismic network is deployed in the fault area, PRESTo produces reliable estimates of earthquake location and size within 5-6 s from the event origin time (To). Estimates are provided as probability density functions whose uncertainty typically decreases with time

  15. Depth-weighted Inverse and Imaging methods to study the Earth's Crust in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Inversion means solving a set of geophysical equations for a spatial distribution of parameters (or functions) which could have produced an observed set of measurements. Imaging is instead a transformation of magnetometric data into a scaled 3D model resembling the true geometry of subsurface geologic features. While inversion theory allows many additional constraints, such as depth weighting, positivity, physical property bounds, smoothness, focusing, imaging methods of magnetic data derived under different theories are all found to reduce to either simple upward continuation or a depth-weighted upward continuation, with weights expressed in the general form of a power law of the altitude, with the half of the structural index as exponent. Note however that specifying the appropriate level of depth weighting is not just a problem in these imaging techniques but should also be considered in standard inversion methods. We will also investigate the relationship between imaging methods and multiscale methods. A multiscale analysis is well suitable to study potential fields because the way potential fields convey source information is strictly related to the scale of analysis. The stability of multiscale methods results from mixing, in a single operator, the wavenumber low-pass behaviour of the upward continuation transformation of the field with the enhancement high-pass properties of n-order derivative transformations. So, the complex reciprocal interference of several field components may be efficiently faced at several scales of the analysis and the depth to the sources may be estimated together with the homogeneity degrees of the field. We will describe the main aspects of both the kinds of interpretation under the study of multi-source models and apply either inversion or imaging techniques to the magnetic data of complex crustal areas of Southern Italy, such as the Campanian volcanic district and the Southern Apennines. The studied area includes a Pleistocene

  16. Natural and anthropogenic phenomena affecting the historical landslide trend in the Subappennino Dauno (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Santaloia, Francesca; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a methodology, based both on the use methods of time series analyses and of geospatial analyses of monthly climatic data (rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), annual maximum of short-duration rainfall (from 1 hour to 5 days), historical modification of land use, and population variations in order to characterise the effects of these variables on the occurrence of landsliding in Daunia area, located on the eastern margin of the Southern Apennines thrust belt (southern Italy). Rock strata (mainly) interbedded with clayey marls, clays and silty-clays outcrop in this area. Due to the intense strain history, these successions are found to be from stratified to deeply fractured, up to be disrupted and floating as blocks in a clayey matrix. In turn, the clay units are laminated to intensely fissured and characterised by very poor mechanical properties (Santaloia et al., 2012). The statistical analyses deal with data coming from published databases, integrated by public and private documents, referring to a wide time span. Climate data records from 1877 to 2008 were elaborated, in particular the data coming from sixteen rainfall gauges, ten of which were also thermometric. Moreover, some monthly indices of rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, temperature, and landslide occurrence were introduced to simplify the analysis of parameters, characterised by spatial and temporal variability. The population records are from the 19th century up to now while the time period of reference for the land use data is from 1930 up to now. As concerns the landslide events, they were collected from 1918 to 2006. The main source of these records is the AVI database, an existing Italian database that collects data about damaging floods and landslides from 1918 to 1996. This dataset was integrated up to 2006 by consulting newspapers, scientific publications, technical reports, written by the researchers of the CNR-IRPI for the Civil

  17. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  18. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  19. Orographic barriers GIS-based definition of the Campania-Lucanian Apennine Range (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Domenico

    2010-05-01

    The presence of mountains on the land surfaces plays a central role in the space-time dynamics of the hydrological, geomorphic and ecological systems (Roe G. H., 2005). The aim of this paper is to identify, delimitate and classify the orographic relief in the Campania - Lucanian Apennine (Southern Italy) to investigate the effects of large-scale orographic and small-scale windward-leeward phenomena on distribution, frequency and duration of rainfall. The scale-dependent effects derived from the topographic relief favor the utilization of a hierarchical and multi-scale approach. The approach is based on a GIS procedure applied on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 20 meters cell size and derived from Regional Technical Map (CTR) of Campania region (1:5000). The DEM has been smoothed from data spikes and pits and we have then proceed to: a) Identify the three basic landforms of the relief (summit, hillslope and plain) by generalizing a previous 10-type landforms using the TPI method (Weiss A. 2001) and by simplifying the established rules of the differential geometry on topographic surface; b) Delimitate the mountain relief by modifying the method proposed by O. Z. Chaudhry and W. A. Mackaness (2008). It is based on three concepts: prominence , morphological variability and parent-child relationship. Graphical results have shown a good spatial correspondence between the digital definition of mountains and their morpho-tectonic structure derived from tectonic geomorphological studies; c) Classify, by using a set rules of spatial statistics (Cluster analysis) on geomorphometric parameters (elevation, curvature, slope, aspect, relative relief and form factor). Finally, we have recognized three prototypal orographic barriers shapes: cone, tableland and ridge, which are fundamental to improve the models of orographic rainfall in the Southern Apennines. References Chaudhry O. Z.and Mackaness W. A. (2008). Creating Mountains out of Mole Hills: Automatic Identification of

  20. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  1. Modifications of natural hazard impacts and hydrological extremes in previous centuries (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, Aurora Angela; Polemio, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    The present work is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning floods and landslides which occurred in Calabria, a region of southern Italy, since the seventeenth century, and including more than 11,000 records. This database has been built by collecting data coming from different information sources as newspapers, archives of regional and national agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. This database has been continuously updated by both the results of local historical research and data coming from the daily survey of regional newspapers. Similarly, a wide archive of rainfall data for the same period and the same region has been implemented. In this work, basing on the abovementioned archives, a comparative analysis of floods that occurred in a regional sector over a long period and the climatic data characterizing the same period has been carried out, focusing on the climate trend and aiming to investigate the potential effect of climate variation on the damaging floods trend. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be related to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In order to assess anthropogenic modifications, the evolution of urbanized sectors of the study area in the last centuries has been reenacted by mean of comparisons, in GIS environment, of historical maps of different epochs. The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours and daily rainfall. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favorable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications. Moreover, the long historical series

  2. Influence of climate variability and urban areas on the flood events in Bari (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    rainfall intensity and an increasing trend of wet days and temperatures) does not show favourable conditions for the increase of the annual number of damaging floods, its trend is increasing. The role of anthropogenic modifications and the mismanagement of risk-prone areas should be considered to justify the increasing occurrences of floods. A validation of this hypothesis comes from the study of land use modifications, carried out comparing different temporal levels of land use (from 1959 to 2006). The analysis shows, starting from 1959 to 2006, a significant increase in urban areas (of about 50%) on the entire regional territory. The municipality of Bari, the regional main town, has undergone a remarkable development of its urban areas, from 12.45 Km2 in 1959 to 58.82 Km2 in 2006. The consequent increased vulnerability of this area has been highlighted during the recent flood event occurred in 2005, which caused six casualties, numerous injuries and damages to roads, buildings, industries, agriculture, livestock and services. More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Polemio and Lonigro, 2012). References Polemio M. (2010): Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219. Polemio M., Lonigro T. (2012): Variabilità climatica e ricorrenza delle calamità idrogeologiche in Puglia. Geologia dell'Ambiente, 2/2012: 262-266.

  3. DDF-curves updating in climate change scenarios for Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzoa, L.; Freni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently trends in extreme rainfall were investigated on the global, regional and local scales. On the global scale, there is robust observational evidence that the frequency and intensity of extreme events significantly changed over the last decades. For this reason, climate change effects on extreme rainfall should be accounted in the design of hydraulics infrastructures, in particular in the definition of rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves. The purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of the effects of statistically significant trends in extreme rainfall on the rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves for the return periods typically used in the design of urban drainage systems. The methodology proposed in this study was applied in Southern Italy, specifically in Sicily. Firstly, the detection and quantification of trends in the annual maximum rainfall series of different durations, recorded in 65 rain gauges over the 1950-2008 period, were carried out. For each duration, the moving averages were computed and then the Mann-Kendall test was applied. Results showed that, for all the durations, increasing and decreasing trends occurred over the examined period. The generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) has been employed to compute extreme rainfall with return periods equal to 5, 10 and 20 years. The magnitude of statistically significant trends were used in order to modify the GEV parameters and define the DDF curves in some climate scenarios. The study highlighted the need to revise and update design criteria to account for potential future variations of extreme rainfall due to climate change.

  4. Geohazard assessment through the analysis of historical alluvial events in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo

    2015-04-01

    The risk associated with extreme water events such as flash floods, results from a combination of overflows and landslides hazards. A multi-hazard approach have been utilized to analyze the 1773 flood that occurred in conjunction with heavy rainfall, causing major damage in terms of lost lives and economic cost over an area of 200 km2, including both the coastal strip between Salerno and Maiori and the Apennine hinterland, Campania region - Southern Italy. This area has been affected by a total of 40 flood events over the last five centuries, 26 of them occurred between 1900 and 2000. Streamflow events have produced severe impacts on Cava de' Tirreni (SA) and its territory and in particular four catastrophic floods in 1581, 1773, 1899 and 1954, caused a pervasive pattern of destruction. In the study area, rainstorm events typically occur in small and medium-sized fluvial system, characterized by small catchment areas and high-elevation drainage basins, causing the detachment of large amount of volcaniclastic and siliciclastic covers from the carbonate bedrock. The mobilization of these deposits (slope debris) mixed with rising floodwaters along the water paths can produce fast-moving streamflows of large proportion with significant hazardous implications (Violante et al., 2009). In this context the study of 1773 historical flood allows the detection and the definition of those areas where catastrophic events repeatedly took place over the time. Moreover, it improves the understanding of the phenomena themselves, including some key elements in the management of risk mitigation, such as the restoration of the damage suffered by the buildings and/or the environmental effects caused by the floods.

  5. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  6. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  7. Tectonics of the Dolomites (southern alps, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo

    In post-Variscan times the Dolomites underwent a number of tectonic events, which may be summarized as follows: Permian and Triassic rifting phases broke the area into NS trending basins with different degrees of subsidence. A Middle Triassic transpressive event then deformed the region along a N70°E axis, generating flower structures within the basement. Volcano-tectonic domal uplift and subsequent caldera formation occurred at the same time as the Late Ladinian magmatism. Early Jurassic rifting also controlled the subsidence which increased eastward. This long period of deformation was followed by a pre-Neogene (Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene ?) EW (ENE-WSW) compression which generated a W-vergent belt, possibly equivalent to the folded foreland of the Dinaric chain. A 70 km EW section of the Dolomites indicates shortening of at least 10 km. During the Neogene the Dolomites, as far north as the Insubric Lineament, were the innermost part of a S-vergent thrust belt: the basement of the Dolomites was thrust southwards along the Valsugana Line onto the sedimentary cover of the Venetian Prealps for at least 10 km. This caused a regional uplift of 3-5 km. The Valsugana Line and its backthrusts on the northern side of the central Dolomites generated a 60 km wide pop-up in the form of a synclinorium within which the sedimentary cover adapted itself mainly by flexural-slip often forming triangle zones. The shortening linked to this folding is about 5 km with Neogene thrusts faulting and folding pre-existing thrust-planes. On the north-eastern side of the Dolomites, Neogene deformation is apparently more strictly controlled by the transpressive effects of the Insubric Lineament and shortening of the sedimentary cover may be greater than in the central Dolomites. Minor deformation linked to the Giudicarie belt is present in the western Dolomites. The present structure of the Dolomites is thus the result of a number of tectonic events of different significance and

  8. Thrusting and wedge growth, Southern Alps of Lombardia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Dietrich

    1992-06-01

    A south-vergent fold-thrust belt of Miocene-Recent age accompanies the south slope of the Lombardian Alps and is partly buried beneath Plio-Pleistocene Po Valley basin fill. The belt is probably detached along a trans-crustal thrust, named Main South Alpine Thrust (MSAT), with an estimated dip slip of 70-100 km. Transport on this thrust piggybacks the Adamello pluton of Late Eocene age, pre-Adamello folds, and Oligocene-Miocene Insubric strike-slip structures, by ramping up through 12-15 km of Austro-Alpine (Adria) crust and through 8-10 km of Triassic to Eocene sediments. Folds in the Front Ranges are ascribed to MSAT ramping, not to pre-Adamello compression. The MSAT soles upward in a blind thrust beneath 3-4 km of Oligocene-Pliocene foredeep fill. Initial regional failure along the MSAT implies substantial and pre-existing topographic relief near the Insubric line. An average of 25% wedge thickening during MSAT transport is consistent with the requirement of Coulomb critical taper. Progression of the south-Alpine detachment from the MSAT to the base of the foreland sediments has added a thickness of 6-12 km in footwall imbrications to the base and the toe of the thrust wedge. This addition in wedge volume is consistent with wedge dynamics only if a mid-Miocene or younger spike of excess Alpine topography is admitted.

  9. Renifer aniarum (Digenea: Reniferidae), an introduced North American parasite in grass snakes Natrix natrix in Calabria, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Tkach, Vasyl V; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Kinsella, John M; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2011-07-12

    Over the past decades, as a result of various human activities involving intentional or unintentional movement of animals, many helminth species have been introduced to new regions with several ecological and epidemiological implications for the native species. A high prevalence of infection with an introduced digenean Renifer aniarum, previously known only from North America, was found in the grass snake Natrix natrix in the Calabria region, southern Italy. Morphological and molecular comparison with North American R. aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection. Of 24 snakes sampled between 2009 and 2010, 22 were positive for this parasite. In contrast, all 17 snakes sampled from museum collections between 1983 and 1994 were negative. Our results support the hypothesis that R. aniarum was perhaps introduced into this area during the 1990s by the translocation of the American bullfrog Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus, a normal second intermediate host of the digenean in its native range in North America. Although the life cycle of R. aniarum is complex and includes 3 host stages, this parasite has found suitable first and second intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts in Italy. Renifer aniarum was second only to the very common grass snake tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea in both prevalence and abundance among 9 species of helminths recovered in our study. PMID:21932535

  10. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID

  11. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. PMID:27054385

  12. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  13. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  14. Late Pleistocene differential uplift inferred from the analysis of fluvial terraces (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Salvatore Ivo; Giannandrea, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The stratigraphic architecture and morphological assemblage of the Pleistocene fluvial terraces contained in two contiguous fluvial valleys are used to understand the spatial distribution and the timing of the differential uplift that affected two different geological and geomorphological settings of an active orogen. The study areas, both placed in the eastern sector of the southern Apennines of Italy, are the Sant'Arcangelo sedimentary basin and the Valsinni Ridge anticline. Pleistocene uplift rate of 0.7-0.9 mm y- 1 and historical earthquakes affecting those areas suggest active tectonics. Based on the synthem units used to classify the fluvial deposits in the field, several strath, fill, and fill-cut terraces have been mapped in the middle valleys of the Agri and Sinni rivers. Four Middle Pleistocene high terraces (Qes) are found in the Sant'Arcangelo Basin and cut its infill, and three Late Pleistocene low terraces (Qt) are found at both the Agri and Sinni valley flanks. The Agri and Sinni rivers cross-cut the NW-SE-oriented fold-and-thrust belt of the southern Apennines from W to E, producing a transverse drainage. As a result, ten- to hundred-metre deep gorges and wide floodplains were created in the middle reach of the river valleys. Computation of the bedrock incision rates from the Qes1, Qes4, and SQt1 terraces, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.2 mm y- 1 at 400-240 ka and 0.8 ± 0.2 mm y- 1 in the last 240 ka, together with the terrace profile arrangements in the Agri and Sinni valleys, allow for the documentation of i) the differential uplift of the study area and ii) the age of terrace abandonment corresponding to the beginning age of the vertical incision in the valley floor sediments to form the Qt terraces. The differential uplift is subsequently discussed in a space and time-sequence evolution of the Late Pleistocene to assess the complex morphotectonic development that occurred in the eastern threshold of the basin. The differential uplift of both the

  15. Gas Hazard from Natural CO2 Emissions in Central and Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Costa, A.; Avino, R.; Baldini, A.; Caliro, S.; Frondini, F.; Granieri, D.; Minopoli, C.; Morgantini, N.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies at regional scale showed that the central and southern Italy are affected by an active and intense process of CO2 Earth degassing. Considering the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater of large regional aquifers, Chiodini et al. (2004) elaborated a regional map of CO2 Earth degassing, pointing out the presence of two large CO2 degassing structures (62000 km2) a northern one, the tuscan roman degassing structure (TRDS) and a southern one, the campanian degassing structure (CDS). The deeply derived CO2 released by these two structures was estimated in ~ 9.2 Mt/y (Chiodini et al., 2004). This amount, which is globally relevant being ~ 10% of the present-day total CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes of the Earth, is of low magnitude with respect to the amount of CO2 that is estimated to be injected in the storage sites. TRDS and CDS are characterized by the presence of many vents of cold CO2 rich gases and areas of anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2. The gas manifestations are generally fed by buried carbonate reservoirs, covered by low permeability formations, where the gas produced at depth accumulates before the expulsion at the surface. More than 100 gas emissions are located in the Italian territory and represent a serious hazard for humans and animals. Gas flow rates are very high. For example, the biggest gas emissions daily release into atmosphere hundreds of tons of CO2, amounts similar to those released by diffuse degassing from active volcanoes (CO2 fluxes from 6 t/d to 2800 t/d, mean of 430 t/d, Morner and Etiope, 2002). Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 air concentration can reach high values resulting in lethal effects to humans or animals. The last lethal accident occurred in 2003 in Tuscany, at Mt. Amiata. However, the most dangerous gas emission is Mefite d'Ansanto, located in the Southern Apennine, where three persons were killed during 1990's and historical

  16. An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  17. Negative effects of land-use changes in the karst setting of Apulia, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Apulia is an almost entirely carbonate region in south-eastern Italy, representing the heel of the boot-shaped Italian peninsula. Due to its location in the heart of the Mediterranean basin, and its geographical configuration, which in some way connects the Italian territory to the eastward lands, it had a long history of human settlements, as shown by the many remarkable prehistoric findings that have been recorded in this area during the last century. The flatness of the region, derived from the geologic origin of Apulia as the undeformed foreland of the Southern Apenninic Chain of Italy, together with its NW-SE oriented peninsula configuration and the long coastlines, are at the origin of the good-continuity occupation by man during the different phases of human history. The original karst landscape, characterized by absence of surface runoff, due to rapid infiltration of surface water into the network of karst conduits and fissures within the carbonate rock mass, was with time modified by man. Agriculture initially developed in the narrow strips of land where the presence of residual deposits (terre rosse) allowed the establishment of thin soil layers, and/or in small depressions where water was able to be kept for a longer time within the epikarst. Outside of these sites, the karst landscape typically consisted of stony plateaus and subdued rounding hills. To gain further space to agricultural practices, part of the surrounding stony areas was cleared of rocks: the latter were extracted by hand, and used to build dry stone walls to delimitate the properties, and/or to act as a barrier to soil erosion or to work as terrace walls in the sectors with higher gradients. At the same time, extraction and re-use of carbonate rocks originated some of the typical rural architecture common in Apulia, from "trulli" to "pagliare" and, later on, to "masserie" (the old countryside mansions). In the last decades of XX century, thanks to the use of modern technologies and

  18. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Trey; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; Bania, Thomas M.; Balser, Dana S.; Dawson, Joanne; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass (OB-type) stars. They are among the brightest objects in the sky at radio wavelengths. HII regions provide a useful tool in constraining the Galactic morphological structure, chemical structure, and star formation rate. We describe the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), an Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) survey that discovered ~80 new HII regions (so far) in the Galactic longitude range 230 degrees to 360 degrees. This project is an extension of the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS), Arecibo HRDS, and GBT Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) HRDS, which together discovered ~800 new HII regions in the Galactic longitude range -20 degrees to 270 degrees. Similar to those surveys, candidate HII regions were chosen from 20 micron emission (from WISE) coincident with 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (SGPS) emission. By using the ATCA to detect radio continuum and radio recombination line emission from a subset of these candidates, we have added to the population of known Galactic HII regions.

  19. Upper Messinian conglomerates in Calabria, southern Italy: Response to orogenic wedge adjustment following Mediterranean sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decelles, P. G.; Cavazza, W.

    1995-09-01

    Widespread uppermost Miocene conglomerate and sandstone along the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean region cannot be explained as a result of the Messinian base-level falls. Along the Ionian coast of Calabria, southern Italy, these rocks were deposited in marine fan deltas and rest in angular unconformity or disconformity upon the internal part of the Calabrian accretionary wedge. We propose that the upper Messinian deposits were produced by internal shortening of the Calabrian accretionary wedge as it compensated for the decrease in upper surface slope caused by flexural rebound as the ˜3.4-km-thick Ionian water mass evaporated. Latest Miocene-Pliocene marine inundation reloaded the basin, restored the wedge to a critical state, and caused the rear part of the wedge again to become tectonically stable. This isostatically driven mechanism could explain widespread latest Messinian thrust faults and coarse siliciclastic deposits along much of the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen.

  20. Continental collision, slab detachment and K-rich magmatism: central-southern Italy as a type example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortel, M. J. R.; van Bergen, M. J.; van de Zedde, D. M. A.; Spakman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Central-southern Italy offers a unique opportunity to investigate the relation between subduction zone evolution and post-collisional, K-rich volcanism. In our recent model for the geodynamic evolution of the region the process of slab detachment plays an important role (see Wortel and Spakman, Science, vol. 290, p. 1910-1917, 2000). The primary evidence for relatively recent (Late Miocene to Present) slab detachment in central Italy comes from seismic tomography studies but other geological, and numerical modeling studies have substantiated the inferences. We use our geodynamical model as a basis for the analysis of the relation between terminal stage subduction and post-collisional volcanism in central-southern Italy. In particular, we address the question to which extent the inferred geodynamic framework is capable of generating the typical characteristics of volcanism in the Roman Province. Slab detachment is not uniform along the plate boundary. Where it occurred, and where it occurred at mid-lithospheric depths, it strongly affected the thermal evolution of the plate boundary and it exposed crustal and lithospheric mantle to temperatures characteristic for upper mantle depths (> 100 km) . In addition, decompression of the asthenospheric material filling the gap upon shallow slab detachment contributed to the magma generation. As a whole, it is a naturally short-lived phenomenon. We conclude that the K-rich signature, the compositional diversity, and the spatial-temporal variations of the region’s magmatism are a natural consequence of the geodynamics as represented in our shallow slab detachment model. For several other regions (e.g. Northern Africa) suggestions have been made concerning the possible or likely relevance of the slab detachment (slab breakoff) process for the generation of post-collisional, K-rich volcanism. Our approach applied in this active region, where slab detachment is inferred to have taken place recently, has the advantage of

  1. Tectonic controls on the genesis of ignimbrites from the Campanian Volcanic Zone, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolandi, G.; Bellucci, F.; Heizler, M.T.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Campanian Plain is an 80 x 30 km region of southern Italy, bordered by the Apennine Chain, that has experienced subsidence during the Quaternary. This region, volcanologically active in the last 600 ka, has been identified as the Campanian Volcanic Zone (CVZ). The products of three periods of trachytic ignimbrite volcanism (289-246 ka, 157 ka and 106 ka) have been identified in the Apennine area in the last 300 ka. These deposits probably represent distal ash flow units of ignimbrite eruptions which occurred throughout the CVZ. The resulting deposits are interstratified with marine sediments indicating that periods of repeated volcano-tectonic emergence and subsidence may have occurred in the past. The eruption, defined as the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), with the largest volume (310 km3), occurred in the CVZ 39 ka ago. The products of the CI eruption consist of two units (unit-1 and unit-2) formed from a single compositionally zoned magma body. Slightly different in composition, three trachytic melts constitute the two units. Unit-1 type A is an acid trachyte, type B is a trachyte and type C of unit-2 is a mafic trachyte. The CI, vented from pre-existing neotectonic faults, formed during the Apennine uplift, Initially the venting of volatile-rich type A magma deposited the products to the N-NE of the CVZ. During the eruption, the Acerra graben already affected by a NE-SW fault system, was transected by E-W faults, forming a cross-graben that extended to the gulf of Naples. E-W faults were then further dislocated by NE-SW transcurrent movements. This additional collapse significantly influenced the deposition of the B-type magma of unit-1, and the C-type magma of unit-2 toward the E-SE and S, in the Bay of Naples. The pumice fall deposit underlying the CI deposits, until now thought to be associated with the CI eruption, is not a strict transition from plinian to CI-forming activity. It is derived instead from an independent source probably located near the

  2. Long-term variation of rainfall erosivity in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, A.; Porto, P.; La Spada, C.

    2015-12-01

    The changes in rainfall erosivity have been investigated using the rainfall erosivity factor (R) proposed for USLE by Wischmeier and Smith (R W-S ) and some simplified indexes (the Fournier index modified by Arnoldus, F, a regional index spatial independent, R Fr , and a regional index spatial dependent, R Fs ) estimated by indirect approaches. The analysis has been carried out over 48 rainfall stations located in Calabria (Southern Italy) using data collected in the period 1936-2012 and divided in three sub-periods. The series of the erosivity indexes and of some precipitation variables have been analyzed for evidence of trends using standard methods. The simplified indexes suggested a general underestimation of the rainfall erosivity with respect to R W-S . The mean underestimation ranged between 23 and 54 % for R Fr and from 10 to 15 % for R Fs . Both the sign and the magnitude of the trends were different for the different stations depending on the variable and sub-period considered. In general, the erosivity increased during the period 1936-1955 (1st sub-period) and during the more recent sub-period (1992-2012, 3rd sub-period), whereas it decreased during 1958-1977 (2nd sub-period). The evidence of trends was generally higher for R W-S than for R Fr and R Fs . Focusing on the most recent sub-period (3rd sub-period), all the variables analyzed showed mainly increasing trends but with different magnitude. More particularly, R W-S showed a mean increment of 29 %; F, R Fr and R Fs increased by 11, 15 and 18 %, respectively; the maximum intensity of 0.5-h precipitation increased by 5 %; and the annual precipitation increased by 22 %. Consequently, it remains difficult to define which precipitation variable plays the dominant role in the temporal variation of rainfall erosivity in the region. However, the overall results suggest that the indexes estimated by indirect procedures (F, R Fr , and R Fs ) should be used with caution for climate change analysis, despite

  3. Asthma problems in southern Italy: A statistical study of 2362 asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cocco, G; Melillo, G

    1979-01-01

    In this report we have described the statistical results of a clinical study on 2362 asthmatic patients living mostly in the Naples area and observed in our Division of Respiratory Allergy from January 1976 to May 1978. All data have been analyzed by a computerized method using an Univac 1100 Computer. We have studied some aspects of the atopic syndrome in this population of Southern Italy: frequency of allergic sensitization according to endogenous and extrinsic factors (particularly Parietaria officinalis, a characteristic pollen of the Southern Italian Flora), etc. Finally we have presented the first results of our allergological investigation in Naples concerning the distribution of allergic sensitization according to air pollution of the patient's home. PMID:525607

  4. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  5. [Malaria and memory in the Veneto region of Italy].

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Manuela; Crotti, Daniele

    2009-09-01

    Malaria and emigration are two terms deeply embedded in Veneto history, related to images far back in the past, unknown to younger generations. Losing one's own collective historical memory is a source of personal and cultural impoverishment and inevitably compromises one's awareness of the present, possibly leading to superficial judgements and hastily formed opinions. Such a situation is all the more serious in a geographical area, north-eastern Italy, where immigration is so abundant. In this paper the authors seek to retrieve, at least in part, this memory, especially in terms of history (to what extent malaria afflicted residents in Veneto and migrants from the region) and biology (how much imprinting from malaria has remained in the native population's genetic make-up). PMID:19838093

  6. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  7. Wind speed and temperature trends impacts on reference evapotranspiration in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the impacts of both temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration have been assessed using as a case study the Southern Italy, which present a wide variety of combination of such climatic variables trends in terms of direction and magnitude. The existence of statistically significant trends in wind speed and temperature from observational datasets, measured in ten stations over Southern Italy during the period 1968-2004, has been investigated. Time series have been examined using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric statistical test in order to detect possible evidences of wind speed and temperature trends at different temporal resolution and significance level. Once trends have been examined and quantified, the effects of these trends on seasonal reference evapotranspiration have been evaluated using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation. Results quantified the effects of extrapolated temperature and wind speed trends on reference evapotranspiration. Where these climatic drivers are on the same direction, reference evapotranspiration generally increases during the growing season due to a nonlinear overlapping of effects. Whereas wind speed decreases and temperature increases, there is a sort of counterbalancing effect between the two considered climatic forcing in determining future reference evapotranspiration.

  8. Ancient pottery from archaeological sites in Southern Italy: first evidence of red grape products markers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Granafei, Sara; Colivicchi, Fabio; Catald, Tommaso; Buchicchio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The chemical analysis of tartaric acid (TA) and syringic acid (SA), as grape product markers in ancient ceramic vessels from the sites of Manduria and Torre di Satriano (southern Italy), was successfully performed. Firstly, the fragmentation behaviour of TA and SA as deprotonated molecules, [M-H](-), obtained by collision-induced dissociation, was investigated. Then, reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode, using a quadrupole linear ion trap in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), was employed. A binary mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid enabled the optimum ESI efficiency of SA, greatly improving its identification when it occurs in trace amounts. Chemical analysis of ancient pottery fragments is a valid method for establishing the existence of preserved organic residues, which is valuable new evidence for the culture and customs of ancient populations, in this case those of southern Italy. The proposed RPLC-ESI-MRM method allowed a systematic investigation of ceramic fragments of both archaeological sites, thus providing positive evidence for the presence of TA and SA as grape product markers in storage vessels dating back to the ninth to third centuries BC. PMID:26353991

  9. Late Matuyama climate forcing on sedimentation at the margin of the southern Alps (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardia, Giancarlo; Donegana, Marta; Muttoni, Giovanni; Ravazzi, Cesare; Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2010-04-01

    The Pleistocene history of climate control on sedimentation in the Southern Alps-Po Plain system, northern Italy, was reconstructed using an integrated magnetostratigraphic, palynological, and petrographical approach on a 47-m-deep core. The core mainly consists of lacustrine sediments pertaining to the Bagaggera sequence, deposited at the foothills of the Southern Alps during the late Matuyama subchron (0.99-0.78 Ma). At that time, climate worsened globally and locally it caused the progradation of an alluvial fan unit onto the nearby Po Plain, triggering lake formation by damming of a tributary valley. These new data are used in conjunction with data from the literature to highlight and track the effects of climate forcing on sedimentation during the late Matuyama subchron in different orographic and geodynamic settings of the Southern Alps-Po Plain system as part of the greater Alpine area. We found that the episodes of alluvial fan and braidplain progradation observed in the southern foreland of the Alps during the late Matuyama global cooling seem broadly synchronous with the deposition of most of the so-called Günz and Älterer Deckenschotter deposits in the northern forelands of the Alps as well as with the first major waxing of the Alpine valley glaciers, possibly around the Marine Isotope Stage 22 (˜0.87 Ma).

  10. Investigation on sediment erosion and water runoff by means of simulated rainfall in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antronico, L.; Terranova, O.; Torri, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is a severe and extended issue affecting all European countries, although with different intensities. In particular, Calabria (southern Italy) is one of the Italian regions mainly affected by intense water erosion; in fact Calabrian soils are highly erodible due to soil composition and slope morphology; moreover climatic regimes display marked seasonality and intense rainfalls also in areas subject to water scarcity. Simulated rainfall experiments, aimed at studying the interaction between rainfall and slope processes, were carried out in small watersheds of Calabria, characterized by different geological and climatic conditions. The experiments were mainly carried out by means of rainfall simulators and laboratory analyses. The rain simulator consisted of a pole 3 m in height, with an arm at the top which protruded 1.5 m and supported a nozzle (Fulljet HH50 and HH30, Spraying Systems Co.) which can sprinkle 6 m2. Inside of the plots rainfall distribution was monitored with 5-6 manual gauges; discharge and sediment concentration were measured at 3 min intervals at terminal troughs and laboratory determinations of sediment concentration were made. Two tests were conducted on all plots: the first in dry antecedent moisture condition and the second, several hours later, in wet antecedent condition. The vegetal coverage of soil and the artificial rains intensities were such as to simulate the conditions typical of the dry season and summer storms. More in detail, experiments were designed to obtain rainfall intensities of approximately 85 mm hour-1 (corresponding to a return time of 100 years) but, in some experiments, wind disturbance caused a change (from 70 to 120 mm hour-1) in the whished rainfall intensity. The rock types of the experimental plots are representative of wide areas inside the Calabria region. In particular, the influence of lithology, aspect, slope and vegetation on both surface runoff and soil erosion was investigated. The

  11. The flood event of November 2013 in Calabria (southern Italy): damage and hydrogeological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Caloiero, Tommaso; Aurora Pasqua, Angela

    2014-05-01

    On November 19th, 2013, Calabria region (southern Italy) has been affected by a flood event which caused numerous damages in particular in the Ionian side of the region. In this work, the event is analyzed in terms of damage and hydrologic features. Beside rainfall, the event has been characterized by intense sea storms which, increased by Sirocco gusts, obstructed the outlet of the floods toward the sea. As a result, river overflowing was amplified and caused the breaking of either natural or artificial embankments. Damage affected 49 municipalities located in the mid-east sector, on a surface of 1898 km2 (12.6% of the Calabrian area). Roads (damaged in 86% of the affected municipalities) and private buildings (39%) were the most heavily damaged elements: in many cases the water level reached 1m. People were directly involved in risky situations but they managed to save their lives: only two people were injured. Return periods of daily rain can be classified as ordinary (between 2 and 13 years) with the only exception of a gauge located in the northern east sector, which showed a return period of more than 100 years. On the contrary, 3-hour rain shows peak values of 160 mm and return period higher than 200 years. As a result, the event can be considered an "impulsive" one, powered by intense hourly rain, and its dangerousness was mainly related to the "flash" character of the triggered floods. The analysis of circumstances in which people were directly threatened confirms floods as the main source of risk, both indoors (65% of cases) and outdoors (35%); in the latter case, the majority of people involved were on board of vehicles (26%). Differently from the past Calabrian damaging hydrogeological events, people did not adopt unnecessary risky behaviors, and in 26% of cases they managed to save their life without any help. Probably this is the factor that lead to low damage to people, since only two people were slightly injured. These results could be proficiently

  12. The northward tectonic transport in the southern Apennines: examples from the Capri Island and western Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Tramparulo, Francesco D'Assisi; Ciarcia, Sabatino; Amore, Filomena Ornella; Prinzi, Ernesto Paolo; Laiena, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed a thrust fault system located in the western Sorrento Peninsula and Capri Island (southern Italy) where several mesoscale structures related to the main thrusts, such as Riedel shear planes, overturned folds, minor thrust and back-thrust faults, suggest a dominant northward tectonic transport. Major and minor thrust faults, generally characterized by a ramp-flat geometry, involved the Mesozoic Apennine carbonates, the Middle Miocene foredeep, and the unconformable thrust-top basin deposits. The biostratigraphic analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages on the thrust-top basin sediments indicates an age not older than late Tortonian. We propose that this out-of-sequence thrusting stage was related to a regional tectonic event widespread in the entire southern Apennines, probably occurred in the Pliocene time simultaneously with the activity of deep-seated thrust faults that involved the buried carbonates of the Apulian platform. These out-of-sequence thrust faults, here referred to as "envelopment thrusts," were enucleated in a lower structural level with respect to the allochthonous wedge, representing the W-E segments of large regional arcuate structures.

  13. P-wave tomography of the Calabrian Arc region (South Italy) using a new 'a priori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Totaro, Cristina; Guerra, Ignazio; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    A recently published tomographic investigation of the Calabrian Arc, South Italy (Neri et al., SRL, 2009) has shown that the Ionian subducting slab appears in-depth continuous only beneath the central part of the Arc (southern Calabria), while it has already undergone detachment at the edges of the arcuate structure (northern Calabria and northeastern Sicily). Starting from this result we tried to better define the features of the slab by performing a new tomographic inversion of crust and upper lithosphere in the Calabrian Arc region. The starting velocity model was derived from the integration of a new crustal velocity model obtained applying the method proposed by Waldhauser et al. (GJI, 1998 and 2002) and a deep model used by Neri et al. (SRL, 2009). We merged these two models into an averaged regional one, ranging between the surface and 300km depth. Then we used it to perform a new P-wave tomographic inversion of shallow and deep earthquakes occurred between 1981 and 2008 in Southern Italy. We selected all the events with a minimum of 12P+S and 8 P+S readings for shallow and deep earthquakes respectively. The quality of the readings was, in the majority of cases, checked directly on the recordings. The final inversion dataset consists of 75141 P and 40118 S arrival times relative to 7050 earthquakes recorded at a total of 591 stations. All the data available from the national and local networks, including the CAT-SCAN and UniCal network, have been used for inversion. This new model reduced significantly the RMS parameter and allowed us to enlarge the inversion zone. The investigation, together with a detailed analysis of seismicity, allows us to propose an improved and more complete view of the subduction system with respect to the previous works, including Neri et al. (SRL, 2009).

  14. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  15. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  16. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO. PMID:12177926

  17. Ar-Ar investigations on Quarternary volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, A.; Principe, C.; Villa, I. M.

    2003-04-01

    Volcanic sanidines and phlogopites from feldspathoid- or sanidine-bearing volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy) were analysed using Ar-Ar stepwise heating. In all samples phlogopite and sanidine are internally inhomogeneous as observed in a plot of Cl/K ratio vs step-age. At least two phases that are degassed during different temperature steps can be distinguished, resulting in internal discordance. Hence, all samples are affected by impurities and have to be treated as heterochemical mixtures. These effects are strongest in phlogopite. The high uncertainty of the calculated ages mirrors the statistically significant age discordance. The calculation of average ages was focused on isochemical steps. Isochron calculations necessarily give less precise ages because of the excessive scatter of datapoints. Moreover, most coarse grained phlogopites could contain excess 40Ar (as suggested by non-atmospheric intercepts in isochron plots) which could be of mantle origin. The analysed phlogopites from carbonatitic and melilite-foiditolite rocks of the upper stratigraphical sequence of Monte Vulture are Mg-rich, which indicates a mantle provenance (Stoppa and Woolley, 1997). All calculated phlogopite ages have, therefore, to be considered with caution. One sample, PG5, contains both sanidine and matrix phlogopite. This offers the possibility to directly compare the analytical results and further decipher possible inconsistencies. Ages were calculated as the average of isochemical steps, and errors are indicated at the 95% confidence level. Sanidine gives a weighted average age of 752±13 ka in agreement with the phlogopite age of 801±88 ka. In comparison to these average step ages, an isochron over five sanidine-steps yields an age of 737±35 ka (MSWD=1.5) and an atmospheric intercept of 295±49. The eruptive time-span covered by the analysed samples is 75±20 ka, confirming that the eruption history of Monte Vulture has been organised in clusters of activity

  18. Unravelling the competing influence of regional uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant regional uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven regional signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both regional uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the region, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess regional seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and regional uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw

  19. Tomographic models and seismotectonics of the Reggio Emilia region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaccio, M. G.; Chiarabba, C.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study is to define the Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the fault zone ruptured by the M L 5.1 earthquake of October 15, 1996 which occurred near Reggio Emilia (central-northern Italy). A 1-month-long seismic sequence followed the mainshock and occurred in a small region along the outer border of the northern Apenninic belt, at depth ranging between 10 and 17 km. P- and S-wave arrival times from 304 aftershocks recorded by two local dense seismic arrays installed in the epicentral region have been inverted to obtain one- and three-dimensional velocity models by using state of the art local earthquake tomographic techniques. Velocity models and aftershock relocation help us to infer the seismotectonic of the region. Earthquakes originated along a NW-dipping backthrust of a NE-trending main thrust, composing the western part of the broad Ferrara Arc. A main high Vp and high Vp/Vs region delineates a pop-up structure in the center of the area. The high Vp/Vs within the pop-up structure supports the presence of a zone with increased pore pressure. The hypocentral depth of both mainshock and aftershocks is greater than those usually found for the main seismogenic regions of the Apenninic belt. P-wave velocity values in the seismogenic area, obtained by tomography, are compatible with rocks of the Mesozoic cover and suggest that seismicity occurred within the Mesozoic units stack at present by compressional tectonics.

  20. Using faults for PSHA in a volcanic context: the Etna case (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Gee, Robin; Pace, Bruno; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    At Mt. Etna volcano (Southern Italy), recurrent volcano-tectonic earthquakes affect the urbanised areas, with an overall population of about 400,000 and with important infrastructures and lifelines. For this reason, seismic hazard analyses have been undertaken in the last decade focusing on the capability of local faults to generate damaging earthquakes especially in the short-term (30-5 yrs); these results have to be intended as complementary to the regulatory seismic hazard maps, and devoted to establish priority in the seismic retrofitting of the exposed municipalities. Starting from past experience, in the framework of the V3 Project funded by the Italian Department of Civil Defense we performed a fully probabilistic seismic hazard assessment by using an original definition of seismic sources and ground-motion prediction equations specifically derived for this volcanic area; calculations are referred to a new brand topographic surface (Mt. Etna reaches more than 3,000 m in elevation, in less than 20 km from the coast), and to both Poissonian and time-dependent occurrence models. We present at first the process of defining seismic sources that includes individual faults, seismic zones and gridded seismicity; they are obtained by integrating geological field data with long-term (the historical macroseismic catalogue) and short-term earthquake data (the instrumental catalogue). The analysis of the Frequency Magnitude Distribution identifies areas in the volcanic complex, with a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship representative of different dynamic processes. Then, we discuss the variability of the mean occurrence times of major earthquakes along the main Etnean faults estimated by using a purely geologic approach. This analysis has been carried out through the software code FISH, a Matlab® tool developed to turn fault data representative of the seismogenic process into hazard models. The utilization of a magnitude-size scaling relationship

  1. Database for the degradation risk assessment of groundwater resources (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, M.; Dragone, V.; Mitolo, D.

    2003-04-01

    The risk characterisation of quality degradation and availability lowering of groundwater resources has been pursued for a wide coastal plain (Basilicata region, Southern Italy), an area covering 40 km along the Ionian Sea and 10 km inland. The quality degradation is due two phenomena: pollution due to discharge of waste water (coming from urban areas) and due to salt pollution, related to seawater intrusion but not only. The availability lowering is due to overexploitation but also due to drought effects. To this purpose the historical data of 1,130 wells have been collected. Wells, homogenously distributed in the area, were the source of geological, stratigraphical, hydrogeological, geochemical data. In order to manage space-related information via a GIS, a database system has been devised to encompass all the surveyed wells and the body of information available per well. Geo-databases were designed to comprise the four types of data collected: a database including geometrical, geological and hydrogeological data on wells (WDB), a database devoted to chemical and physical data on groundwater (CDB), a database including the geotechnical parameters (GDB), a database concering piezometric and hydrological (rainfall, air temperature, river discharge) data (HDB). The record pertaining to each well is identified in these databases by the progressive number of the well itself. Every database is designed as follows: a) the HDB contains 1,158 records, 28 of and 31 fields, mainly describing the geometry of the well and of the stratigraphy; b) the CDB encompasses data about 157 wells, based on which the chemical and physical analyses of groundwater have been carried out. More than one record has been associated with these 157 wells, due to periodic monitoring and analysis; c) the GDB covers 61 wells to which the geotechnical parameters obtained by soil samples taken at various depths; the HDB is designed to permit the analysis of long time series (from 1918) of piezometric

  2. Erosional flux from tectonically active landscapes: Case studies from Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; Allen, Philip; Gheorghiu, Delia; Rodes, Angel

    2016-04-01

    Erosion and sediment supply are fundamentally important controls on landscape evolution, governing the denudation of relief, the stratigraphy deposited in basins, and the ultimate destruction of orogens. However, quantifying the rates, timescales, and predominant processes of erosion remains a major challenge in many tectonically active areas. Here, we use Southern Italy as a case study to demonstrate how these challenges can be overcome. We present 15 new 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates, for systems distributed along 5 active normal faults for which we have excellent constraints on throw rates along strike and uplift history. These footwall catchments have a total relief of up to 1800 m and throw rates up to 1.4 mm/yr. We show that sediment supply estimates based on the 10Be erosion rates agree well with sediment supply predictions based on the fault throw profiles. Our results suggest that about 80% of the material uplifted by the faults is being eroded at a similar magnitude to the fault throw rates, offering new insights into the topographic balance of uplift and erosion in this area. These findings imply that active normal faulting is the primary control on sediment supply in Southern Italy. Our field observations suggest that landslides are an important source of sediment in our study area, and are largely driven by incision in response to fault activity. Using a field-calibrated landslide inventory, we estimate landslide-derived sediment flux for our sampled catchments. These estimates correlate well with total sediment flux estimates, demonstrating quantitatively that landslides must be a major source of sediment. Their erosional signal is adequately captured by the 10Be analyses most likely because of the high frequency of small landslides and their high spatial density in these catchments (typically >10% of the total area), which ensures sufficient sediment mixing. Finally, we use our results to calibrate the BQART model of sediment supply, enabling

  3. Natural and anthropogenic phenomena affecting the historical landslide trend in the Subappennino Dauno (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Santaloia, Francesca; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a methodology, based both on the use methods of time series analyses and of geospatial analyses of monthly climatic data (rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), annual maximum of short-duration rainfall (from 1 hour to 5 days), historical modification of land use, and population variations in order to characterise the effects of these variables on the occurrence of landsliding in Daunia area, located on the eastern margin of the Southern Apennines thrust belt (southern Italy). Rock strata (mainly) interbedded with clayey marls, clays and silty-clays outcrop in this area. Due to the intense strain history, these successions are found to be from stratified to deeply fractured, up to be disrupted and floating as blocks in a clayey matrix. In turn, the clay units are laminated to intensely fissured and characterised by very poor mechanical properties (Santaloia et al., 2012). The statistical analyses deal with data coming from published databases, integrated by public and private documents, referring to a wide time span. Climate data records from 1877 to 2008 were elaborated, in particular the data coming from sixteen rainfall gauges, ten of which were also thermometric. Moreover, some monthly indices of rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, temperature, and landslide occurrence were introduced to simplify the analysis of parameters, characterised by spatial and temporal variability. The population records are from the 19th century up to now while the time period of reference for the land use data is from 1930 up to now. As concerns the landslide events, they were collected from 1918 to 2006. The main source of these records is the AVI database, an existing Italian database that collects data about damaging floods and landslides from 1918 to 1996. This dataset was integrated up to 2006 by consulting newspapers, scientific publications, technical reports, written by the researchers of the CNR-IRPI for the Civil

  4. Projected climate change and the role of water availability on weed-induced losses in processing tomato for Southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of water availability on crop and weed interactions and weed-induced crop losses for processing tomato grown in Southern Italy. Field experiments were carried out during 2008 and 2009, for a two year period. Two levels of water availability (rainfed an...

  5. Preparation for Life in a Democratic Society in Five Countries in Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuente, Carmen

    The aim of this report is to identify and explain the relevant experiences that are being undertaken in some Southern European schools to prepare young people for living in a democracy. To prepare the report, the authors visited schools in five countries: Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, and Spain. They also obtained information from ad hoc reports…

  6. Tephrochronology of a late quatternary lacustrine record from the monticchio maar (vulture volcano, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria

    With the aim of defining the chronological framework of the 51 m deep sedimentary sequence (core D) from Lago Grande di Monticchio (Mt Vulture volcano), macroscopic, microscopic and geochemical investigations have been carried out on the 14 thickest (at least 3 cm) tephra layers recorded in the core. The results indicate that the tephras are related to the main late Quaternary explosive events from Ischia, Vesuvius and the Phlegrean Fields districts of the Campanian area. Following these results, a usable time scale has been obtained, according to which the sequence spans the last 70 ka. Beyond the chronological information, this investigation has made it possible: (a) to identify widespread time-parallel markers for reliable correlations in the Central Mediterranean; (b) to collect useful data about past powerful eruptions, particularly from Vesuvius, for a better assessment of volcanic hazards in Central and Southern Italy.

  7. Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331

  8. Multi-temporal maps of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy from 1954 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, Luigi; Revellino, Paola; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Focareta, Mariano; Grelle, Gerardo; Albanese, Vincenzo; Corazza, Angelo; Guadagno, Francesco M.

    2013-01-01

    Historical movement of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy has periodically destroyed residences and farmland, and damaged the Italian National Road SS90 and the Benevento-Foggia National Railway. This paper provides maps from an investigation into the evolution of the Montaguto earth flow from 1954 to 2010. We used aerial photos, topographic maps, LiDAR data, satellite images, and field observations to produce multi-temporal maps. The maps show the spatial and temporal distribution of back-tilted surfaces, flank ridges, and normal, thrust, and strike-slip faults. Springs, creeks, and ponds are also shown on the maps. The maps provide a basis for interpreting how basal and lateral boundary geometries influence earth-flow behavior and surface-water hydrology.

  9. Synanthropy and temporal variability of Calliphoridae living in Cosenza (Calabria, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Greco, Silvia; Brandmayr, Pietro; Bonacci, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synanthropy of Diptera: Calliphoridae, insects of forensic importance, in Calabria (southern Italy). The study lasted 2 years, from February 2010 to January 2012, and was carried out in three areas of Cosenza province representing "urban", "rural", and "wild" environments. Bottle traps baited with pork were used to catch Calliphoridae. Six species were identified, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, Calliphora vomitoria (L.), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819), Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve 1922, Lucilia caesar (L.), and Lucilia sericata (Meigen 1826). Data on phenologies in the study areas are reported for these species and the Synanthropy Index was calculated to evaluate their relationship with the human environment. PMID:25527571

  10. Small angle neutron scattering as fingerprinting of ancient potteries from Sicily (Southern Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Teixeira, J.

    2009-09-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been carried out in order to investigate, in microdestructive way, the mesoscopic structure of a variety of potteries of relevance to cultural heritage coming from different Sicilian (Southern Italy) archeological sites belonging to the 'Strait of Messina' area and dated back to 7th-3rd century B.C. Data have been compared with the mesoscopic parameters extracted for two series of clayey sediments typical of the Strait of Messina area and fired under controlled conditions. The observed agreement between the features of reference and archeological samples allowed us to estimate the maximum firing temperature of the latter. Information on the pore sizes was obtained by the use of the concept of fractal surface, and compared with porosimetry results.

  11. Characterization of the Cystoid Nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae (Nemata: Sphaeronematidae) from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, N.; Landa, B.B.; Liébanas, G.; Handoo, Z.A.; Subbotin, S.A.; Castillo, P.

    2006-01-01

    A population of the cystoid nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae was detected parasitizing water mint (Mentha aquatica) in southern Italy. The morphological identification of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 5.8S gene sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which clearly separated it from the closely related species Meloidoderita polygoni. A phylogenetic analysis of M. kirjanovae with species of related genera was conducted using sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. The resulting phylogenetic tree was congruent with trees from an extended dataset for Criconematina and Tylenchida. The basal position of the genus Meloidoderita together with Sphaeronema within the Criconematina clade in this tree may indicate their close relationships. The anatomical changes induced by M. kirjanovae population from Italy in water mint were similar to those reported for a nematode population infecting roots of M. longifolia in Israel. Nematode feeding caused the formation of a stellar syncytium that disorganized the pericycle and vascular root tissues. PMID:19259543

  12. From Extension to Transcurrence: Regime Transition as a new key to Interpret Seismogenesis in the Southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fracassi, U.; Vannoli, P.; Burrato, P.; Basili, R.; Tiberti, M. M.; di Bucci, D.; Valensise, G.

    2006-12-01

    The backbone of the Southern Apennines is perhaps the largest seismic moment release area in Italy. The region is dominated by an extensional regime dating back to the Middle Pleistocene, with maximum extension striking SW-NE (i.e. orthogonal to the mountain belt). The full length (~ 200 km) of the mountain range has been the locus of several destructive earthquakes occurring in the uppermost 10-12 km of the crust. This seismicity is due to a well documented normal faulting mechanism. Instrumental earthquakes (e.g. 5 May 1990, 31 Oct 2002, 1 Nov 2002; all M 5.8) that have occurred in the foreland, east of the Southern Apennines, have posed new questions concerning seismogenic processes in southern Italy. Although of moderate magnitude, these events unveiled the presence of E-W striking, deeper (13-25 km) strike-slip faults. Recent studies suggest that these less known faults belong to inherited shear zones with a multi-phase tectonic history, the most recent phase being a right-lateral reactivation. The direction of the maximum horizontal extension of these faults (in a transcurrent regime) coincides with the maximum horizontal extension in the core of the Southern Apennines (in an extensional regime) and both are compatible with the general framework provided by the Africa-Europe convergence. However, the regional extent along strike of the E-W shear zones poses the issue of their continuity from the foreland towards the thrust-belt. The 1456 (M 6.9) and 1930 (M 6.7) earthquakes, that occurred just east of the main extensional axis, were caused by faults having a strike intermediate between the E-W, deeper strike-slip faults in the foreland and the NW-SE-trending, shallower normal faults in the extensional belt. Hence, the location and geometry of these seismogenic sources suggests that there could be a transition zone between the crustal volumes affected by the extensional and transcurrent regimes. To image such transition, we built a 3D model that incorporates

  13. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  14. The late Barremian Halimedides horizon of the Dolomites (Southern Alps, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Lukeneder, Alexander; Uchman, Alfred; Gaillard, Christian; Olivero, Davide

    2012-01-01

    A new trace fossil marker level, the Halimedides horizon, is proposed for the Lower Cretaceous pelagic to hemipelagic succession of the Puez area (Southern Alps, Italy). The horizon occurs in the middle part of the late Barremian Gerhardtia sartousiana Zone (Gerhardtia sartousiana Subzone). It is approximately 20 cm thick and restricted to the uppermost part of the Puez Limestone Member (marly limestones; Hauterivian–Barremian; Puez Formation). It is fixed to the top 20 cm of bed P1/204. The grey–whitish limestone bed of the G. sartousiana Zone is penetrated by Aptian red marls–siltstones of the Redbed Member. The horizon is documented for the first time from the Southern Alps, including the Dolomites, and can be correlated with other Mediterranean localities. The trace fossil assemblage of this marker bed with the co-occurrence of Halimedides, Spongeliomorpha and Zoophycos sheds light on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentological history and current system of the Puez area within the Dolomites. It also highlights the palaeoenvironmental evolution of basins and plateaus and provides insights into the late Barremian interval. PMID:27087717

  15. Olive cultivars adaptability in Southern Italy in present and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, M.; Alfieri, S.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Menenti, M.; De Lorenzi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops is very significant and likely to provide the single major opportunity to cope with the effects of the changing climate on agricultural ecosystems. Assessment of adaptive capacity must rely on quantitative descriptions of plant responses to environmental factors (e.g. soil water availability, temperature). Moreover climate scenario needs to be downscaled to the spatial scale relevant to crop and farm management. Distributed models of crop response to environmental forcing might be used for this purpose, but severely constrained by the very scarce knowledge on variety-specific values of model parameters, thus limiting the potential exploitation of intra-specific biodiversity towards adaptation. We have developed an approach towards this objective that relies on two complementary elements: a)a distributed model of the soil plant atmosphere system to downscale climate scenarios to landscape units, where generic model parameters for each species are used; b)a data base on climatic requirements of as many varieties as feasible for each species relevant to the agricultural production system of a given region. By means of this approach, the adaptability of some olive cultivars was evaluated in a composite (hills and plains) area of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, Campania Region, about 20.000 ha). The yearly average temperature is 22.5 °C and rainfall ranges between 600 and 900 mm. Two different climate scenarios were considered: current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios at low spatial resolution were generated with general circulation models (AOGCM) and down-scaled by means of a statistical model (Tomozeiu et al., 2007). The climate was represented by daily observations of minimum, maximum temperature and precipitation on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km; 50 realizations were used for future climate. The soil water regime of 45 soil units was described for

  16. 77 FR 15994 - Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Forest Service Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting via teleconference. SUMMARY: The Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory... other items of interest related to the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act of 2004. A final...

  17. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-24

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  18. Coexisting shortening and extension along the "Africa-Eurasia" plate boundary in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffaro, M.; Riguzzi, F.; Scrocca, D.; Doglioni, C.

    2009-04-01

    We performed geodetic strain rate field analyses along the "Africa (Sicily microplate)"-"Eurasia (Tyrrhenian microplate)" plate boundary in Sicily (southern Italy), using new GPS velocities from a data set spanning maximum ten years (1998-2007). Data from GPS permanent stations maintained from different institutions and the recent RING network, settled in Italy in the last five years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, were included into the analysis. Two dimensional strain and rotation rate fields were estimated by the distance weighted approach on a regularly spaced grid (30*30km), estimating the strain using all stations, but data from each station are weighted by their distance from the grid node by a constant a=70km that specifies how the effect of a station decays with distance from the node grid interpolation. Results show that most of the shortening of the Africa-Eurasia relative motion is distributed in the northwestern side offshore Sicily, whereas the extension becomes comparable with shortening on the western border of the Capo d'Orlando basin, and grater in the northeastern side, offshore Sicily, as directly provided by GPS velocities which show a larger E-ward component of sites located in Calabria with respect to those located either in northern Sicily or in the Ustica-Aeolian islands. Moreover, where shortening and extension have mostly a similar order of magnitude, two rotation rate fields can be detected, CCW in the northwestern side of Sicily, and CW in the northeastern one respectively. Also, 2-D dilatation field records a similar pattern, with negative values (shortening) in the northwestern area of Sicily close to the Ustica island, and positive values (extension) in the northeastern and southeastern ones, respectively. Principal shortening and extension rate axes are consistent with long-term geological features: seismic reflection profiles acquired in the southern Tyrrhenian seismogenic belt show active extensional faults

  19. Changes in precipitation regime in Tuscany Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Enrica; Manetti, Simona; Chiarello, Valentina; Fatichi, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the rainfall patterns cause relevant effects on ecosystems, on water resource availability and on human activities. In the last decades, research on precipitation trend analysis has become a topic of particular interest to guide water resources planning and management, as well as a signal of climate change. The first step of the analysis is the accurate validation and quality control procedure of the available rainfall data, recorded from 1916 to 2010, by rain gauges with at least 30 years of measurements, located in the Tuscany Region, over an area of about 23.000 km2, in Central Italy. The time series of annual daily rainfall maxima recorded in 348 stations and of annual rainfall maxima of short duration (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours) recorded in 149 stations are analyzed. In order to assess changes and possible presence of a trend in the precipitation patterns, three different statistical tests (Mann-Kendall, Spearman Rho and Cox-Stuart) for three different confidence levels (α=0.1, 0.05, 0.01) are applied. The analysis on the whole 1916-2010 period is carried out. However, with the aim to estimate whether trends appear mainly critical during a particular time interval, rainfall time series are also subdivided and analyzed over three partially overlapping 35-years periods: 1916-1950, 1945-1980 and 1975-2010. The proposed statistical analysis does not show strong evidence of nonstationarity, a slight trend appears in a certain number of stations and only few stations show a significant trend. Particularly, there is a prevalence of trends absence in the precipitation regime in Tuscany Region for the period 1916-2010 and during the 35 years overlapping sub-periods, except in the period 1945-1980 where the presence of a slight higher percent of "significant negative trend" is observed. Afterward, in order to investigate the presence of geographic patterns or correlation with topography or other morphologic characteristics, the trends over the whole study

  20. Nowcasting and assessing thunderstorm risk on the Lombardy region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, P.; Marcacci, P.; Bertolotti, E.; Collino, E.; Stella, G.

    2011-06-01

    The problem of severe thunderstorm risk in the Lombardy region (Italy) is serious. In fact during the warm season many thunderstorms (TS) occur in high density populated area located between the river Po and the Alps. In the year 2003, about 90 TS caused damage to people, houses, cars, agriculture and electrical lines. About 30 municipalities undergo damage by tornadoes. The 2003 summer was not particularly anomalous with respect to others for TS activity. In this region storms are well detected by some C-band radars and the Meteosat satellites, but the study of the correlation between these variables and the TS severity needs the collection of many met-data at the ground. Unfortunately the lack of a fine mesh met-station network forces the use of local press news or subjective reports to identify the impact of TS. Since 2006 ERSE has been collaborating with the Lombardy Region - Civil Protection Service/Office - in developing and testing a system to detect and nowcast severe thunderstorms, STAF (Storm Track Alert and Forecast). STAF is a nowcasting tool based on Radar and MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) data that selects only severe TS, tracks them and produces alert messages to users. In order to evaluate the severity of a TS, a crucial issue for STAF is the correlation between variables detected by the remote-sensing instruments and the effects at the ground. The paper describes a method to classify the severity of a TS by computing an index named "probability of damage" (PD). The index has been carried out by means of a storm archive, where radar and satellite data are stored together with damages reports from newspapers, all collected in 2003 summer. The index has been verified during the 2009 summer, when STAF was applied in a field test involving a group of Civil Protection observers and users. The results of this test are reported in the paper. The test has been also an occasion for verifying the effectiveness of information provided by STAF to selected

  1. [Migration from Southern Italy to Argentina: Calabrians and Sicilians (1880-1930)].

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1990-06-01

    "The study analyzes Italian emigration to Argentina from Sicily and Calabria between 1880-1930, compared with out-migration flows from Piedmont. The concepts of cultural patrimony and of migratory strategy are used to measure the different potentials and job opportunities in the Argentinean labor market as well as in the Italian context for those returning home. Considering the high proportion of returnees, a positive or negative correlation between region of origin and of destination can be proposed. Southern Italians indicate a more permanent settlement. The authors conclude that the Argentinean society in its Italian component is the result of Southern rather than Northern influences." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12342955

  2. Changing pattern of natural hazards due to extreme hydro-meteorological conditions (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Lonigro, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    series approach is completed by tools to analyse simultaneously all data types. The methodology was tested considering a selected Italian region (Apulia, southern Italy). The data were collected in two databases: a damaging hydrogeological event database (1186 landslides and floods since 1918) and a climate database (from 1877; short-duration rainfall from 1921). A statistically significant decreasing trend of rainfall intensity and an increasing trend of temperature, landslides, and DHEs were observed. A generalised decreasing trend of short-duration rainfall was observed. If there is not an evident relationship between climate variability and the variability of DHE occurrences, the role of anthropogenic modifications (increasing use or misuse of flood- and landslide-prone areas) could be hypothesized to justify the increasing occurrences of floods and landslides.. This study identifies the advantages of a simplifying approach to reduce the intrinsic complexities of the spatial-temporal analysis of climate variability, permitting the simultaneous analysis of the modification of flood and landslide occurrences.

  3. Variations in a LF radio-signal on the occasion of the recent seismic and volcanic activity in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, P. F.; Piccolo, R.; Ermini, A.; Martellucci, S.; Bellecci, C.; Perna, G.; Capozzi, V.; Molchanov, O. A.; Hayakawa, M.

    2003-04-01

    Low Frequency (LF) radio signals lie in the band 30-300 kHz. The electric field strength of three LF broadcasting stations - CLT (f=189 kHz, Sicily, Italy), MCO (f=216 kHz, France) and CZE (f=270 kHz, Czech Republic) - has been monitored since 1997 with a sampling frequency of ten minutes at a site named AS and located in central Italy. During September-November 2002, we observed significant decreases in the electric field strength of the CLT broadcasting station. A similar effect does not seem to be present on the MCO and CZE radio signals. On September 6 an earthquake (M=5.6) occurred offshore, about 40km far from Palermo city (Sicily), starting a seismic crisis for more than one month; the strongest (M=4.6) aftershock occurred on September 27. On October 27, the Etna volcano (Sicily) started an eruption that in December was still active. Nearby several earthquakes occurred, the main ones with M=4.1-4.3. On October 31, an earthquake with M=5.4 occurred at the border between Molise and Puglia regions (Southern Italy) and under a collapsed school several children died. The CLT radio-signal decreases we observed appear clearly related to the previous seismic and volcanic activity with some possible premonitory behaviour. The LF signals are characterised by the ground-wave and the skywave propagation modes. The daytime electric field strength is lower than at night because the skywave is greatly attenuated by the lower ionosphere and the ground-wave alone is providing the signal which is faint. At night-time the low attenuation of the lower ionosphere permits an increase of 10-15 dB in the skywave signal such that the received signal is practically all due to the skywave propagation. The decreases in CLT radio-signal we mentioned previously seem to be related mainly to a reduction of the electric field strength of the ground wave. So changes in the ground conductivity seem to be the main candidates to justify the phenomenology we observed.

  4. Survey of zoonotic dermatoses in client-owned exotic pet mammals in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Santoro, D

    2015-03-01

    Several 'exotic' mammalian species (e.g. rabbits, rodents, ferrets and hedgehogs) live in close proximity to humans as companion pets. Skin diseases (SD) are frequent causes of morbidity in exotic pet mammals, and most of those SDs have a zoonotic potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies and types of zoonotic dermatosis (ZD) in client-owned, exotic pet mammals in Southern Italy. Six-hundred and fifty-five medical records of exotic pet mammals examined between 2011 and 2012, across twenty private practice veterinary clinics around the Naples area (Italy), were retrospectively evaluated and screened for animals diagnosed with SDs (rabbits n = 455, guinea pigs n = 93, ferrets n = 64, hedgehogs n = 19, chinchillas n = 13 and rats n = 11). The records of animals diagnosed with SD, whose causative agents had a zoonotic potential, were selected for analysis. The Mann-Whitney independent test was used for statistical analysis. A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eighty-two records (12.5%) of animals with ZD were identified. Of those, 56.1% (46/82) were affected by fungal infections and 42.7% (35/82) by parasitic infections. No zoonotic bacterial or viral infections were diagnosed. Dermatophytosis was significantly diagnosed more frequently in younger animals. The results of this survey indicate that exotic pet mammals may serve as active carriers for many highly contagious pathogens with zoonotic potential. Awareness and vigilance by the veterinary practitioner is crucial in the prevention of occurrences of ZDs. Children frequently come in close contact with exotic pets. To prevent the unplanned transmission of pathogen from pet to human, an active routine screening examination and preventative treatments are strongly recommended for every newly purchased pet mammal. PMID:24506806

  5. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  6. Flood History In Karst Environments: The Case of Castellana-grotte (apulia, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.

    Karst environments are characterized by peculiar hydrologic features, and in particular by a very limited, if not absent, surface hydrography. Cropping out of carbonate rocks, whose permeability is generally related to fracturing in the rock mass, further enhanced by the development of karst conduits and cavities, force the water to penetrate in depth, with a very limited surface runoff. Nevertheless, on the occasion of clustered rainfall, as well as in case of prolonged precipitations, the network of fracture and conduits may not be able to allow flowing of large amounts of water in the rock mass. Thus, floods may occur. This contribution illustrates the flood history in a classical karst area of Southern Italy, the town of Castellana-Grotte, in Apulia . Castellana-Grotte is worldwide famous due to the marvellous, more than 3-km long, caves, which were explored for the first time in 1938, and soon after that became one of the most visited show caves in Italy. The oldest part of the town lies at the bottom of a karst valley, which was hit by many flood events in the last centuries. At least thirteen of them are documented, and their analysis is the main object of this paper, aimed at reconstructing the flood history at Castellana-Grotte, and the main factors which played a role in distribution and gravity of the related damage. During the first decades of the last century, in order to avoid further catastrophic floods, complex and expensive drainage and channel works, that will also be described in the article, were realized at the site.

  7. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  8. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were

  9. Characterization of active fault scarps from medium to high resolution DEM: case studies from Central and Southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunori, C.; Cinti, F. R.; Ventura, G.

    2013-12-01

    We identify geo-morphometric features of active fault scarps in Italy through a semiautomatic processing using GIS. Medium to high resolution DEM was used to characterize the geometry, structural, and erosive elements of two seismogenic normal faults in Central and Southern Apennines. The Pettino fault in L'Aquila area was detected using a 1 m pixel DEM derived from airborne LiDAR survey (Friuli Venezia Giulia Civil Protection). For the Castrovillari fault in northern Calabria region was used a 4 m pixel DEM (Regional Cartography Office of Regione Calabria). Scarp segments are region of planar discontinuities identified by selected values of DEM-derived Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). These planar discontinuities corresponds to landscape features such as, river terraces, roads scarps, and other natural or human features. The discrimination between these features have been accomplished overlaying extracted features on aerial photograph, geological and geomorphologic maps and in situ survey. After that, we perform the quantitative and statistical analysis of these areas identified as "fault scarps". The identification of elements relative to the scarps (e.g. base, crest, slope) is then obtained to derive the estimate of parameters describing the fault: altitude, height of the scarp, length, slope and aspect, Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). The spatial distribution of the extracted values was obtained through their statistical analysis. We analyze scarp parameters variations along the whole scarp extent, such as strike value from aspect variations, slope and profile curvature differences as indicators of tectonic and/or erosion activity. The combined analysis of the DEM-derived parameters allows us to (a) define aspects of three-dimensional scarp geometry, (b) decipher its geomorphological significance, and (c) estimate the long-term slip rate.

  10. [Skeleton or mummy: practices and structures for secondary burial in southern Italy in modern and contemporary age].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial,first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of existence to another. Recent archeological research documents the persistence of secondary burial rites in Southern Italy during the Modern Age. A survey conducted in the province of Messina in Eastern Sicily has identified two surviving architectural structures appointed for the treatment of the bodies: the 'sitting colatoio' aimed at favoring the skeletonisation and the 'horizontal colatoio' used to obtain mummification by dehydration. Both these structures controlled the corpse's decay and transformed the body in a stable and durable simulacra of the dead. PMID:25807706

  11. Active degassing of mantle-derived fluid: A geochemical study along the Vulture line, southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, A.; Martelli, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Paternoster, M.; Stuart, F. M.

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a geochemical study of gas emissions along a NE-SW transect in southern Italy in order to test the hypothesis that the region around Monte Vulture is affected by degassing of mantle-derived fluids through a lithospheric discontinuity. We also investigated lavas from the Monte Vulture volcano displaying 3He/4He (up to ~ 6.0 Ra) and Sr isotopes that are consistent with an origin in mantle that has had minimal pollution from subducted Adriatic slab. Similar 3He/4He in fluids from around Mt. Vulture indicate that the deep volcanic system is still degassing. Mantle-derived He occurs in fluids along the length of the Vulture line, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is a deep tectonic discontinuity along which mantle fluids and/or melts advect to the surface. The CO2/3He ratios are highly variable (2.7 × 108-2.15 × 1011) in response to processes such as gas dissolution into aquifers, addition of crustal gases and degassing fractionation.

  12. Assessment of Impacts Produced by Anthropogenic Sources in a Little City near an Important Industrial Area (Modugno, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches. PMID:23476120

  13. Geological and geophysical characterization of the south-eastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the south-eastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results of the in situ geophysical investigation. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) by earthquakes and ambient noise measurements were carried out in the study area. The results were supported by interpretation of aerial photos, geological field surveys, morphotectonic investigation and borehole data. The joint analysis of geological, ERT and HVSR data allowed us to (1) show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) characterize the geometry of an active landslide that caused damages to structures and infrastructures.

  14. AMS fabric and tectonic evolution of Quaternary intramontane extensional basins in the Picentini Mountains (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porreca, M.; Mattei, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we report the results of combined geological, structural, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies carried out on Quaternary deposits in the Picentini Mountains, southern Apennines (Italy). The study concerns four small continental basins, Acerno, Tizzano, Iumaiano, and Piano del Gaudo, related to fluvial-lacustrine depositional environments, ranging in altitude from 600 to 1,200 m a.s.l. and strongly incised during recent time. Stratigraphic and structural analyses, integrated by low- and high-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), show that the formation of these basins has been controlled by extensional and transtensional tectonics. Most of the AMS sites exhibit a well-defined magnetic foliation parallel to the bedding planes. A well-defined magnetic lineation has also been measured within the foliation planes. In the Iumaiano, Tizzano, and Piano del Gaudo basins, magnetic lineations cluster around NNE-SSW trend and are parallel to the stretching directions inferred by structural analysis of faults and fractures. On the basis of structural, sedimentological, and high-field AMS data, we suggest a tectonic origin for the magnetic lineation, analogously to what has been observed in other weakly deformed sediments from Neogene and Quaternary extensional basins of the Mediterranean region. Our results demonstrate that onset and the evolution of the investigated basins have been mainly controlled since lower Pleistocene by NW-SE normal and transtensional faults. This deformation pattern is consistent with a prevalent NE-SW extensional tectonic regime, still active in southern Apennines, as revealed by seismological and geodetic data.

  15. Population data for 17 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Stella, A; D'Ovidio, F D; Frati, P; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

    2013-01-01

    The 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit were analyzed in 98 unrelated healthy males from Apulia (Southern Italy). A total of 97 different haplotypes were identified, of which 96 haplotypes were unique and 1 occurred twice. Allele frequencies for each Y-STR locus in pooled sample and estimated value of gene diversity (GD) were evaluated. The lowest value of GD was observed for DYS392 (0.126) and the highest one (0.936) for DYS385. The HD (haplotype diversity) for the studied Y-STR set showed a value of 0.9994, with an HMP (haplotype match probability) value of 0.0006, while the overall DC was 98.98%. Microvariant alleles were found for the DYS458 and DYS385 markers and sequenced. Furthermore, Φ(st)-based genetic distance computation and pair-wise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test were carried out. When comparing our population with the Apulia sample previously investigated, the AMOVA analysis detected no evidence for significant differentiation. The comparison with all Italian populations submitted to the YHRD website showed no relevant differences with all Southern Italian populations (San Giorgio La Molara, Belvedere, Trapani and Catania) and significant genetic deviation with all Northern Italian populations (Udine, Biella, La Spezia, Modena, Ravenna, Marche and North Sardinia). Moreover, the other populations and meta-populations belonging to the whole Mediterranean area (Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were different from our Apulia sample. The data were submitted to YHRD. PMID:22960096

  16. Flash Flood Occurrences Since the 17th Century in Steep Drainage Basins in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora; Polemio, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The historical floods that have occurred since the seventeenth century were collected for a study area in southern Italy. Damages caused by floods, rainfall and the main anthropogenic modifications are discussed all together. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be attributed to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In 4 % of cases, mainly occurred in past centuries, floods damaged people. Hydraulic works, roads and private buildings were the more frequently damaged elements (25, 18 and 14 % of the cases, respectively). The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h and daily rainfall. The rainfall shows a decreasing trend, in terms of both the annual maximum of short duration and the annual amount. The population has been progressively increasing since the sixteenth century, except during the years following the catastrophic 1908 earthquake. The rate of population growth has been very high since the second half of the twentieth century; the urbanized areas greatly increased, especially following the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the trend of damaging floods has been increasing, especially since the seventies. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favourable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications.

  17. Environmental monitoring in the Mar Grande basin (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Hydrodynamic and water quality data has been recorded since February 2014 by a meteo-oceanographic station installed in the inner part of the Gulf of Taranto, in the northeastern part of the Ionian Sea (Southern Italy). This monitoring action, managed by the research unit of the Technical University of Bari, DICATECh Department, could play a pivotal role in a vulnerable and sensitive area, affected by massive chemical and biological pollutant discharges due to the presence of heavy industry and intense maritime traffic. Monthly trends of winds, waves, currents, and biochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and turbidity, are analyzed and discussed. The analysis exhibits that the wave regime is slightly controlled by wind forcing; rather, topography strongly affects the wave propagation direction. Surface currents appear wind induced in the measuring station, while near the bottom a quasi-steady current directed towards southwest is formed. The selected water quality indicators show monthly trends consistent with the typical seasonal convective fluxes and mixing. PMID:26077314

  18. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis. PMID:16881413

  19. Tectonic stress and renewed uplift at Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy: New insights from caldera drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Deep drilling is a key tool for the investigation of active volcanoes in the modern Earth Sciences, as this provides the only means to obtain direct information on processes that occur at depth. Data acquired from drilling projects are fundamental to our understanding of volcano dynamics, and for mitigation of the hazards they pose for millions of people who live close to active volcanoes. We present here the first borehole measurement of the stress field in the crust of Campi Flegrei (southern Italy), a large active caldera, and one of the highest risk volcanoes worldwide. Measurements were performed to depths of ∼500 m during a pilot study for the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project. These data indicate an extensional stress field, with a minimum horizontal stress of ca. 75% to 80% of the maximum horizontal stress, which is approximately equal to the vertical stress. The deviation from lithostatic conditions is consistent with a progressive increase in applied horizontal stress during episodes of unrest, since at least 1969. As the stress field is evolving with time, the outcome of renewed unrest cannot be assessed by analogy with previous episodes. Interpretations of future unrest must therefore accommodate the possibility that Campi Flegrei is approaching conditions that are more favourable to a volcanic eruption than has previously been the case. Such long-term accumulation of stress is not expected to be unique to Campi Flegrei, and so might provide a basis for improved forecasts of eruptions at large calderas elsewhere.

  20. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  1. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzarello, Marta; Marcolini, Federica; Pavia, Giulio; Pavia, Marco; Petronio, Carmelo; Petrucci, Mauro; Rook, Lorenzo; Sardella, Raffaele

    2007-02-01

    Some flint lithic artifacts were discovered in the fissure fillings of the well-known Pirro Nord site (Apulia, Southern Italy). The lithic industry, composed by three cores and some flakes, has been found to be associated to an Early Pleistocene vertebrate fossil assemblage. The fossil association contains a wide range of micromammals, including Allophaiomys ruffoi and Episoriculus gibberodon and large mammals including Bison degiulii and Equus altidens together with African elements as the gelada baboon Theropithecus and the saber-toothed cat Megantereon whitei. It defines the latest Villafranchian chronological unit (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit) in the Western European mammal biochronology. The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. The new discovery from Pirro Nord changes the chronology of the first arrival of hominids in Europe and offers new perspectives in the debate about the human dispersal in the Early Pleistocene.

  2. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

  3. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

  4. Reactive-transport modelling of gypsum dissolution in a coastal karst aquifer in Puglia, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Claudia; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2015-11-01

    The gypsum coastal aquifer of Lesina Marina (Puglia, southern Italy) has been affected by sinkhole formation in recent decades. Previous studies based on geomorphologic and hydrogeological data ascribed the onset of collapse phenomena to the erosion of material that fills palaeo-cavities (suffosion sinkholes). The change in the hydrodynamic conditions of groundwater induced by the excavation of a canal within the evaporite formation nearly 100 years ago was identified as the major factor in triggering the erosion, while the contribution of gypsum dissolution was considered negligible. A combined reactive-transport/density-dependent flow model was applied to the gypsum aquifer to evaluate whether gypsum dissolution rate is a dominant or insignificant factor in recent sinkhole formation under current hydrodynamic conditions. The conceptual model was first defined with a set of assumptions based on field and laboratory data along a two-dimensional transect of the aquifer, and then a density-dependent, tide-influenced flow model was set up and solved using the numerical code SEAWAT. Finally, the resulting transient flow field was used by the reactive multicomponent transport model PHT3D to estimate the gypsum dissolution rate. The validation tests show that the model accurately represents the real system, and the multi-disciplinary approach provides consistent information about the causes and evolution time of dissolution processes. The modelled porosity development rate is too low to represent a significant contribution to the recent sinkhole formation in the Lesina Marina area, although it justifies cavity formation and cavity position over geological time.

  5. Non-volcanic CO2 Earth degassing: Case of Mefite d'Ansanto (southern Apennines), Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Avino, R.; Caliro, S.; Costa, A.; Minopoli, C.; Vilardo, G.

    2010-06-01

    Mefite d'Ansanto, southern Apennines, Italy is the largest natural emission of low temperature CO2 rich gases, from non-volcanic environment, ever measured in the Earth. The emission is fed by a buried reservoir, made up of permeable limestones and covered by clayey sediments. We estimated a total gas flux of ˜2000 tons per day. Under low wind conditions, the gas flows along a narrow natural channel producing a persistent gas river which has killed over a period of time people and animals. The application of a physical numerical model allowed us to define the zones which potentially can be affected by dangerous CO2 concentration at breathing height for humans. The geometry of the Mefite gas reservoir is similar to those designed for sequestering CO2 in geological storage projects where huge amounts of CO2 should be injected in order to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration. The approach which we have used at Mefite to define hazardous zones for the human health can be applied also in case of large CO2 leakages from storage sites, a phenomena which, even if improbable, can not be ruled out.

  6. Engineering Geological and Petrographic Characterization of Migmatites Belonging to the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Punturo, R.; Mineo, S.; Ortolano, G.; Castelli, F.

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory characterization of migmatite rocks, affected by tunneling works in southern Calabria (Italy), has been carried out with the purpose of investigating the relationship between some potentially interdependent petrographic and petrophysical features with the mechanical behavior of the excavated rocks. Mineralogical and petrographic investigation allowed estimating the modal composition of the rock and the grain size of the constituting minerals, as well as examining the intergranular contacts and associated microfractures. The velocity of seismic waves within the specimens has been measured and calculated, along with the elastic properties of the rock. Specimens were also characterized from the physical-mechanical point of view and their mode of failure was considered. Results show that the mechanical behavior of migmatites varies within the sample population, although the specimens belong to the same sampling area. It is controlled by both porosity and modal composition of the rock. Thus, primary minerals were grouped with respect to their elastic properties; their abundance/deficiency within the specimen controls its mechanical strength. This is also reflected in the modes of failure associated to different strength values. This is a new consideration in the laboratory characterization of this rock type, largely cropping out in several contexts worldwide. Results should be taken into account before starting engineering works, in order to avoid errors resulting from considering this rock as a homogeneous material from the mechanical and petrographic points of view.

  7. The 1980 earthquake in southern Italy: rescue of trapped victims and mortality*

    PubMed Central

    de Bruycker, Marc; Greco, Donato; Annino, Isidoro; Stazi, Maria A.; de Ruggiero, Nicola; Triassi, Maria; de Kettenis, Yves P.; Lechat, Michel F.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective survey was undertaken on the health effects of the 1980 earthquake in southern Italy. The study population included 3619 people living in 7 villages situated near the epicentre of the disaster. The overall casualty rate (dead and injured) was 19.7%. Nearly all the deaths (192/202) occurred among trapped people who died before they could be rescued. Eighty per cent of all the trapped people were extricated within 2 days, mostly without the use of sophisticated means. The probability of survival decreased sharply, the longer the time before extrication. The crude mortality during the 18 months following the earthquake was 19.0 per thousand among the injured people who received treatment, and 14.1 per thousand among non-injured people. After age standardization, there was no significant difference between these two figures and the expected mortality figures for the Italian population in normal times (14.4 per thousand). These results stress the importance of providing rescue activities in the first 48 hours after the impact. Strengthening the self-reliance of the community in disaster preparedness is suggested as the best way to improve the effectiveness of relief operations. In disaster-prone areas, training and education in methods of rescue should be an integral part of any primary health care programme. PMID:6609007

  8. How healthy is community-dwelling elderly population? Results from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Francesca; Orlando, Valentina; Tari, Daniele Ugo; Di Giorgio, Annalisa; Cittadini, Antonio; Trifirò, Gianluca; Menditto, Enrica

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore the frequency of polypharmacy, functional and cognitive capacity among the elderly in Southern Italy. METHODS Population-based retrospective cross-sectional study. Information were retrieved from electronic-geriatric-forms matched by record-linkage to outpatient pharmacy-records. The following domains were collected from geriatric forms: BMI, cognitive capacity (SPMSQ), functional status (Barthel-index), mobility, living condition. Polypharmacy status was categorized as non-polypharmacy (0–4), polypharmacy (5–9) and excessive-polypharmacy (≥10). Prevalence of all variables were stratified by age and polypharmacy group. RESULTS 88,878 old people received a geriatric assessment in the years 2013–2014. Mean age was 74.8 (±7.3) years, 56.6% females. Proportion of elderly in excessive-polypharmacy increased with age (18.9% in 65–75 age-group; 27.9% in >85). Referring to cognitive capacity, the proportion of lucid patients decreased with age (from 94.3% to 58.1%), while confused patient increased with age (from 4.7% to 30.9%). Proportion of subjects with a decline in cognitive status, functional status and mobility increased in polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy group. CONCLUSION Polypharmacy is common in people aged 65 years and older with difficulties in activities of daily living and impaired cognition. Furthermore, its prevalence raises with increasing age. Preventive strategies such us optimization of drug regimen should be performed routinely to reduce risk of adverse-health-events. PMID:27042434

  9. Spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic analyses of plasters from ancient buildings in Lamezia Terme (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Luca, Raffaella; Gigliotti, Valentina; Panarello, Mario; Bloise, Andrea; Crisci, Gino M; Miriello, Domenico

    2016-01-15

    This work shows the results of the spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic study carried out on six plasters coming from three important residential buildings of the 18th century, located in Lamezia Terme (Catanzaro, Southern Italy). To study the provenance of the raw materials used to make the plasters, one sample of limestone and two samples of sand were also collected from the quarries near Lamezia Terme and compared with the historical plasters. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses allowed to determine the mineralogical, petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plasters, identify the pigments used for their coloration and provide useful information about the building techniques, the raw materials employed and the production technology of plasters during the 18th century in Lamezia Terme. SEM-EDS microanalysis also revealed the presence of gold and silver on the surface of two samples. PMID:26311479

  10. In vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic Albanians in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, A; Janiak, V; Dürr, C M; Lüdeke, S; Trachsel, E; Heinrich, M

    2002-08-01

    A total of 27 extracts from non-cultivated and weedy vegetables traditionally consumed by ethnic Albanians (Arbëreshë) in the Vulture area (southern Italy) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay, for their in vitro non-enzymatic inhibition of bovine brain lipid peroxidation and for their inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO). In both antioxidant assays strong activity was shown for Leopoldia comosa (bulbs, syn.: Muscari comosum) and Centaurea calcitrapa (young whorls). In the lipid peroxidation assay, extracts from leaves of Origanum heracleoticum, Urtica dioica and Tordylium apulum showed a remarkable inhibitory activity (> 50%), too. In the case of Leopoldia comosa and Origanum heracleoticum this activity was comparable to quercetin (at a concentration of 50 microM) and Rhodiola rosea extract. Extracts from non-cultivated Cichorium intybus, Chondrilla juncea and Stellaria media showed strong in vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase, with an activity higher than that of a reference extract from Ledum groenlandicum. These findings suggest that weedy vegetables may be useful antioxidants of interest in the prevention of ageing related diseases, CNS disorders and as potential sources of phytomedicines against hyperuricaemia and gout. PMID:12203269

  11. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures. PMID:25962800

  12. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  13. Flood history in the karst environment of Castellana-Grotte (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.

    Karst environments are characterized by peculiar hydrologic features, and in particular by a very limited, if not absent, surface hydrography. Water tends to infiltrate rapidly underground through the complex network of fractures and karstic conduits in the rock mass. However, on the occasion of concentrated rainfall, as well as in case of prolonged precipitation, such network might not be able to allow flowing of large amounts of water, which causes the occurrence of floods. This contribution illustrates the flood history in a classical karst area of Southern Italy, the town of Castellana-Grotte, in Apulia. The oldest part of the town lies at the bottom of a karst valley, which was hit by many flood events in the last centuries. More than twenty of these are here documented, starting from critical analysis of existing publications and documents, integrated with additional historical researches. Aimed at reconstructing the flood history at Castellana-Grotte, the best-documented events are described, together with the main factors, which played a role in distribution and gravity of the related damage. Eventually some engineering works realized during the first decades of the last century, in order to avoid further damage on the occasion of catastrophic floods, are also described.

  14. Spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic analyses of plasters from ancient buildings in Lamezia Terme (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Raffaella; Gigliotti, Valentina; Panarello, Mario; Bloise, Andrea; Crisci, Gino M.; Miriello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the results of the spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic study carried out on six plasters coming from three important residential buildings of the 18th century, located in Lamezia Terme (Catanzaro, Southern Italy). To study the provenance of the raw materials used to make the plasters, one sample of limestone and two samples of sand were also collected from the quarries near Lamezia Terme and compared with the historical plasters. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses allowed to determine the mineralogical, petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plasters, identify the pigments used for their coloration and provide useful information about the building techniques, the raw materials employed and the production technology of plasters during the 18th century in Lamezia Terme. SEM-EDS microanalysis also revealed the presence of gold and silver on the surface of two samples.

  15. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-11-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructure in an urbanized area; as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide phenomenon started in the last century and has been studied since the 1990s using classical geotechnical methods; however the sliding body continues to move. This paper presents the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project, the results of which will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  16. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-03-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in Southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructures in an urbanized area, as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide was discovered in the last century and has been studied since the 1990's using classical geotechnical methods, but the sliding body continues to move. In this paper, we will present the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project of which the results will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  17. Post-deformational growth of late diagenetic greigite in lacustrine sediments from southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porreca, M.; Mattei, M.; Di Vincenzo, G.

    2009-05-01

    Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and micro-textural analyses from a Middle Pleistocene lacustrine sequence in the southern Apennines (Italy) indicate the presence of greigite and magnetite as the main magnetic minerals at different stratigraphic levels. In all cases a normal polarity characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was observed, in agreement with an 40Ar-39Ar age of 0.712 ± 0.018 Ma from volcaniclastic sanidine. After correction for bedding tilt, ChRM directions carried by greigite do not coincide with the expected geocentric axial dipole field direction at the site latitude, whereas the magnetite ChRMs directions do. The data indicate that the greigite magnetization was acquired after tilting and after lock-in of the magnetite ChRM. The estimated delay for the remanence carried by greigite with respect to deposition is ˜300 ka. Scanning electron microscope analyses indicate that alteration of detrital volcanic minerals has occurred and that authigenic greigite is generally present in agglomerates and around volcanic grains. This observation is consistent with a late diagenetic origin of greigite due to anoxic conditions and availability of dissolved sulfide associated with decomposition of organic matter in the paleolake. Documentation of a late diagenetic magnetization confirms that care should be taken when using greigite-bearing sediments for magnetostratigraphic and tectonic studies.

  18. Post-deformational growth of late diagenetic greigite in lacustrine sediments from Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porreca, M.; Mattei, M.; di Vincenzo, G.

    2009-04-01

    Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and micro-textural analyses from a Middle Pleistocene lacustrine sequence in the Southern Apennines (Italy) indicate the presence of greigite and magnetite as main magnetic minerals at different stratigraphic levels. In all cases a normal polarity characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was observed, in agreement with an 40Ar-39Ar age of 0.712±0.018 Ma. After correction for bedding tilt, the normal polarity directions, which are carried by greigite, do not coincide with the expected geocentric axial dipole field direction at the site latitude, whereas the magnetite ChRMs directions do. The data indicate that the greigite magnetization was acquired after tilting and after lock-in of the magnetite remanence. Scanning electron microscope analyses indicate that alteration of detrital volcanic minerals has occurred and that authigenic iron sulfides phase formed. Greigite is generally present in agglomerates and around volcanic grains. This observation is consistent with a late diagenetic origin of greigite due to the presence of anoxic conditions and availability of dissolved sulfide associated with decomposition of organic matter in the paleolake. Documentation of a late diagenetic magnetization suggests that care should be taken when using greigite-bearing sediments for magnetostratigraphic and tectonic studies.

  19. Autochthonous and migratory birds as a dispersion source for Ixodes ricinus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandro; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Malia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and examined for ticks. A total of 75 (35.4 %) birds were found infested by ticks, with 451 ticks being collected. All ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, of which 241 (53.4 %) were larvae and 210 nymphs (46.6 %). The highest intensity of infestation was found in April 2010, when 117 ticks were retrieved on 25 birds. No ticks were found on birds (n = 5) netted in December 2010. High infestation rates were recorded on blackbirds (Turdus merula) (90 %; 29 birds examined) and on mistle thrushes (Turdus viscivorus) (100 %; 2 birds examined). The highest intensity of infestation by larvae was found on wrens (5.6 larvae/bird) and by nymphs on mistle thrushes (11.5 nymphs/bird). Temperature and number of hours of light showed to influence the activity of larvae and nymphs. These data support the notion that birds may be responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of I. ricinus in Europe, thus playing a role in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22610454

  20. Groundwater recharge assessment at local and episodic scale in a soil mantled perched karst aquifer in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, V.; De Vita, P.; Manna, F.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Groundwater recharge assessment of karst aquifers, at various spatial and temporal scales, is a major scientific topic of current importance, since these aquifers play an essential role for both socio-economic development and fluvial ecosystems. In this study, groundwater recharge was estimated at local and episodic scales in a representative perched karst aquifer in a region of southern Italy with a Mediterranean climate. The research utilized measurements of precipitation, air temperature, soil water content, and water-table depth, obtained in 2008 at the Acqua della Madonna test area (Terminio Mount karst aquifer, Campania region). At this location the aquifer is overlain by ash-fall pyroclastic soils. The Episodic Master Recession (EMR) method, an improved version of the Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method, was applied to estimate the amount of recharge generated episodically by individual rainfall events. The method also quantifies the amount of precipitation generating each recharge episode, thus permitting calculation of the Recharge to the Precipitation Ratio (RPR) on a storm-by-storm basis. Depending on the seasonally varying air temperature, evapotranspiration, and precipitation patterns, calculated values of RPR varied between 35% and 97% among the individual episodes. A multiple linear correlation of the RPR with both the average intensity of recharging rainfall events and the antecedent soil water content was calculated. Given the relatively easy measurability of precipitation and soil water content, such an empirical model would have great hydrogeological and practical utility. It would facilitate short-term forecasting of recharge in karst aquifers of the Mediterranean region and other aquifers with similar hydrogeological characteristics. By establishing relationships between the RPR and climate-dependent variables such as average storm intensity, it would facilitate prediction of climate-change effects on groundwater recharge. The EMR methodology

  1. Investigation of subsidence in the Manfredonia Gulf (Southern Italy) through multitemporal DInSAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triggiani, M.; Refice, A.; Capolongo, D.; Bovenga, F.; Caldara, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present results of an experiment aimed at detecting possible displacements due to subsidence in the coastal area of the Tavoliere plain, Puglia Region, in Southern Italy, through analysis of remotely sensed data. The Tavoliere is the second largest Italian plain. Its coastal area, between the urban centers of Manfredonia and Barletta, is composed of a 50 km long sandy beach (Manfredonia gulf), linking the Gargano massif at north with the Murge plateau in the south-east. Both areas belong to the carbonate Mesozoic Apulian platform. The current configuration of the Gulf was reached recently, as a consequence of the Holocene sea level rise. During the Neolithic age the plain was occupied by an elongated lagoon (Salpi Lagoon) [1]. During the 2nd century B.C., alluvial deposition caused the lagoon to be separated into two basins: the so-called Salpi lake at south and the Salso lake at north. To cope with the increasing demand of arable lands and with the necessity to make unhealthy areas accessible to humans, some reclaims were accomplished by diverting and channelling the rivers crossing the Tavoliere plain, and by levelling dune belts. At present, the beach is separated by low artificial dunes from the areas already reclaimed and intensely cultivated or exploited as evaporation basin for salt production. In the last decades, the coastal area has been retreating due to a reduction in sediment input necessary for coastal equilibrium. The levelling of dunes and the decrease of fluvial turbid discharge due to dam constructions are probably the cause of this deficit in sediment supply. During highly intense hydrodynamic and meteorological events, sea waters often penetrate deeply inland, flooding intensively cultivated areas. These events are occurring with growing frequency and rates. They are an indication of the possibility that those areas are subject to subsidence at a faster rate in comparison to the surroundings. An example is the salt marsh located inland of the

  2. Relationship between geo- and biodiversity: an example from the Piemonte Region (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Pistarino, Annalaura; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The portion of floodplain located in the southern sector of Piemonte region (NW Italy) nearby the Langhe hills, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous geomorphological system. It is the results of geological processes and climate changes occurred since Pliocene and continued in the Upper Pleistocene with the piracy of the Tanaro River, which because of the change of the base level it triggered processes of intense headward erosion, helped by the sedimentary nature of the substrate. As a consequence of this action the landscape can be subdivided in three main geomorphological units: i) the deep incisions on the floodplain where the main rivers flow; ii) the uplands rising above the plain characterized in the eastern portion by several fluvial terraces, while in the northern one they are cut by streams that dug deep gorges where marine deposits of the Piemonte Tertiary Basin outcrop; iii) the hilly area of Langhe and Roero, which shaped on sedimentary rocks, represents a monocline structure dipping to the north-west. The aim of the present work is to identify a complex of geomorphosites able to describe not only the geological and geomorphological evolution, but also the conditioning that the geomorphological features produce on the vegetation. In particular this kind of analysis has been carried out on a limited area located nearby the city of Cherasco. In this sector the presence of deep narrow gorges created a characteristic environment with ecological niches occupied by plant communities of alpine origin, considered as glacial relicts.

  3. Assessment of perceived health status among primary care patients in Southern Italy: findings from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to measure HRQOL of primary care patients in one of the poorest areas of Italy, using SF-12, whereas the secondary aim was to identify subgroups of this population, according to socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, behavioural risk factors, and health services utilization, that manifest poorer HRQOL. These data may be helpful to policy makers to implement health care policies and social interventions for improving HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Southern Italy on primary care patients aged 18 and over. SF-12 was used to measure perceived health status. Physical component and mental summary scores were obtained. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate eventual significant differences of mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 according to various characteristics (demographics, presence of chronic diseases, behavioral risk factors, and utilization of health services). Results Of the 1467 participating in our survey, more than one third evaluated their health as unsatisfactory, noted significant limitations and reported problems on all SF-12-scales. Physical and mental summary scores showed an overall mean of 45.9 (SD ± 10.8) and 44.9 (SD ± 11.6), respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in perceived health status by socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, education level and employment status, by behavioral risk factors, chronic diseases and health services utilization. Conclusions Our findings seem to indicate that primary care patients in Southern Italy have a poor HRQOL and this perception is even poorer in subgroups of the population, according to several sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and behavioural risk factors. These results may have significant implications for health care policymakers, since they emphasize the need of developing effective and targeted strategies to improve HRQOL in Southern Italy. PMID:23758708

  4. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  5. Albanian: The Albanian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluscio, Giovanni, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--"Arberishtja" of Italy. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures,…

  6. Novel monitoring protocol for the Monte Cotugno Dam (Southern Italy) healthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Loperte, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    to evaluate the water level in the inner part of dam on dependence of the minimum and maximum water level in the basin. These surveys have allowed to identify areas of the side facing upstream, at which sampling coring were carried out, and the samples were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory with the aim to evaluate the state of conservation and permeability. ERT images also permitted to identify areas affected by water infiltration below the basin level, which underwent to a visual inspection through an underwater drone. This underwater survey confirmed the presence of deteriorated areas and submerged fractured bituminous zone. This, the flaring of the reservoir was carried out as far as the managing body saw fit. After, in correspondence of the minimum basin level, a visual inspection of all the bituminous face was performed, thus identifying fractured zones on which to intervene immediately. As conclusion, we can state that the integrated approach here presented was crucial in order to identify, areas of the facing bituminous needing urgent interventions. [1] A. Loperte, M Bavusi, G. Cerverizzo, V Lapenna, and F Soldovieri, "Integrated geophysical investigations by GPR and ERT on the largest rock fill dam in Europe: Monte Cotugno dam (Southern Italy)", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-9972, 2012

  7. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic gas emissions are projected to change future climates with potentially nontrivial impacts (Keller et al., 2008 and references therein) and the impacts of the increased CO2 concentration are, among others, the greenhouse effect, the acidification of the surface of the ocean and the fertilization of ecosystems (e.g. Huijgen and Comans, 2003). Geologic Sequestration into subsurface rock formations for long-term storage is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS. A major strategy for the in situ geological sequestration of CO2 involves the reaction of CO2 with Mg-silicates, especially in the form of serpentinites, which are rocks: i) relatively abundant and widely distributed in the Earth's crust, and ii) thermodynamically convenient for the formation of Mg-carbonates (e.g., Brown et al., 2011). In nature, carbonate minerals can form during serpentinization or during hydrothermal carbonation and weathering of serpentinites whereas industrial mineral carbonation processes are commonly represented by the reaction of olivine or serpentine with CO2 to form magnesite + quartz ± H2O (Power et al., 2013). Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in the subsurface as a result of fluid-rock interactions within serpentinite, which occur during serpentinization and carbonate alteration. In situ carbonation aims to promote these reactions by injecting CO2 into porous, subsurface geological formations, such as serpentinite-hosted aquifers. In the northern sector of the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) extensively occur serpentinites (Sansone et. al., 2012) and serpentinite-hosted aquifers (Margiotta et al., 2012); both serpentinites and serpentinite-hosted aquifers are the subject of a comprehensive project devoted to their possible use for in situ geological sequestration of CO2. The serpentinites derived from a lherzolitic and subordinately harzburgitic mantle, and are within tectonic slices in association with metadolerite dykes

  8. Soil erosion and desertification: a combined approach using RUSLE and ESAs models in the Tusciano basin (southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paola, F.; Ducci, D.; Giugni, M.

    2009-04-01

    To identify the desertification prone areas the ESAs (Environmentally Sensitive Areas) model was developed in 1999 in the framework of MEDALUS (MEditerranean Desertification And Land USe) European project; this method has been used in many Mediterranean Countries (Greece, Portugal Italy, Egypt, etc.). The identification of areas sensitive to desertification by using the ESAs model has been carried out in the Tusciano river basin (261 km2) located in southern Italy (Campania region). All data defining the four groups of parameters related to soil quality, climate quality, vegetation quality, and management quality have been introduced in a geographical database, and overlain using a GIS. Afterwards, a sensitivity analysis highlighted the different impact of the desertification parameters on the mountainous, hilly, and downstream areas of the catchment, strongly different in terms of morphological, geological, climatic and land-use features. The assessment of desertification sensitivity shows a clear vulnerability status in the Tusciano river basin, where more than half of the area is susceptible to desertification risk. The results of the ESAs model have been combined with those of the soil loss, achieved using the RUSLE method, based approximately on the same environmental factors; nevertheless, ESAs model considers a wider range of parameters, allowing to characterize in detail the catchment, from the climatic, geomorphological, vegetational and socio-economical point of view. The comparison between the desertification prone areas map and the potential erosion map of the Tusciano river basin shows fundamental differences. The areas at higher erosion risk are located in the mountain and hilly sectors of the basin, while the downstream areas, at high desertification risk, are characterized by a low erosion risk. The hilly sector is especially prone to both risks, desertification and erosion. Finally, a correlation analysis for the risk classes was developed using

  9. Role of lichens in weathering of granodiorite in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Saporito, Natalina; La Russa, Mauro F.; Le Pera, Emilia; Macchione, Maria; Puntillo, Domenico; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores the role of five recurrent epilithic lichen species (Aspicilia intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold, Xanthoparmelia pulla (Ach.) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Elix, D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum Anders, Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner and Lecanora bolcana (Pollini) Poelt), which encrust granodiorite spheroidal boulders exposed in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy), in weathering of plutonic rocks in a typical mountainous Mediterranean environment. A detailed investigation was carried out on the lichen-rock interface of each species, by comparing them mutually and with lichen-free granodiorite samples. For this purpose, the lichen species were sampled together with the encrusted rock surface for detailed mineral-petrographic analyses performed in thin and ultra-thin sections. Optical and scanning electron microscopy of these sections and of bulk samples permitted us to highlight the peculiar modes of physical and chemical attacks of lichen thalli and hyphae on and into the substratum for each species. Crack systems often parallel to the outer rock surface appear often intruded by hyphae, which cause rupture of primary minerals, with detachment and progressive incorporation of their fragments into the thallus. In particular, the species L. bolcana and T. atra revealed an unexpected, partly endolithic behavior, presumably enhanced by the presence of rock fractures earlier generated by other physical breakage processes already affecting the spheroidal boulders in the Sila mountains. Dissolution features often affect primary minerals (even quartz), that may show very peculiar patterns which are suggestive of a biologically-induced control. Various phyllosilicate clay minerals were identified using SEM-EDS microprobe analyses and FT-IR spectroscopy, which also enabled the identification of possible amorphous silica (or quartz micrograins), rhizocarpic acid and carotenoid at the encrusted granodiorite interface. In contrast, neither oxalic

  10. Morphometric analysis of the thrust front of the Lucanian Apennine, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivo Giano, Salvatore; Mecca, Luciana; Pascale, Stefania; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The thrust front of the southern Apennines, Italy, is formed by a north-east verging imbricate fan, transversally cut by several major rivers draining to the Ionian Sea. In the Lucanian segment of this orogen, the tectonic stack is composed by Cretaceous-Oligocene deep-sea water clayey successions and Miocene siliciclastic units, emplaced during Pliocene and Pleistocene times. It is still debated if the contractional deformation of this external part of the south-Italian orogen continues until now, because clear field evidences of recent shortening does not overcome the Middle Pleistocene. On the other hand, geomorphological features clearly indicate that the whole area suffered a significant uplift in more recent times. The present study will try to discriminate the different components of the recent and active tectonic deformation in the light of an accurate morphotectonic analysis, based on both the study of terraced surfaces and morphometric indices. The analysis of fluvial terraces arrangement and their longitudinal profiles revealed that the study area underwent a diffused rising during the Late Pleistocene. In the Holocene, the same area seems to be affected by differential uplift due to tectonic tilting toward south-east, as also supported by the increasing of the sinuosity index of the Bradano River. The tectonic mobility has been adequately proved by other indices such as the asymmetry index and the stream length-gradient index. The mapping of the SLk values has also shown that the anomalies follow NW-SE trends, suggesting a very recent activity of the ridges previously produced by contractional tectonics. Similar results have been obtained by swath profile analysis, showing peaks in coincidence of the main outcropping thrust and of more external buried structures located in the foredeep. In conclusion, all the data and geomorphic parameters led to consider the frontal portion of the Lucanian Apennines as still tectonically active, even if its recent

  11. Coastline shifts and probable ship landing site submerged off ancient Locri-Epizefiri, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennent, J.M.; Stanley, J.-D.; Hart, P.E.; Bernasconi, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A geophysical survey provides new information on marine features located seaward of Locri-Epizefiri (Locri), an ancient Greek settlement on the Ionian coastal margin in southern Italy. The study supplements previous work by archaeologists who long searched for the site's harbor and recently identified what was once a marine basin that is now on land next to the city walls of Locri. Profiles obtained offshore, between the present coast and outer shelf, made with a high-resolution, seismic subbottom-profiling system, record spatial and temporal variations of buried Holocene deposits. Two of these submerged features are part of a probable now-submerged ship landing facility. The offshore features can be linked to coastline displacements that occurred off Locri: a sea-to-land shift before Greek settlement, followed by a shoreline reversal from the archaeological site back to sea, and more recently, a return landward. The seaward directed coastal shift that occurred after Locri's occupation by Greeks was likely caused by land uplift near the coastal margin and tectonic seaward shift of the coast, as documented along this geologically active sector of the Calabrian Arc. The seismic survey records an angular, hook-shaped, low rise that extends from the present shore and is now buried on the inner shelf. The rise, enclosing a core lens of poorly stratified to transparent acoustic layers, bounds a broad, low-elevation zone positioned immediately seaward of the shoreline. Close proximity of the raised feature to the low-elevation area suggests it may have been a fabricated structure that functioned as a wave-break for a ship-landing site. The study indicates that the basin extended offshore as a function of the coastline's seaward migration during and/or after Greek occupation of Locri.

  12. Sedimentological and palaeoecological integrated analysis of a Miocene channelized carbonate margin, Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Davide; Carannante, Gabriele; Checconi, Alessio; Simone, Lucia; Vigorito, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Lower-Middle Miocene temperate marine carbonates occur in the Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines (Italy). These carbonates formed in an open-shelf depositional system with an uneven margin, 10 km long and up to 6 km wide. Shelf margin morphology shows multiple submarine channelized carbonate deposits which are dominated by coralline red algae and subordinate bryozoans. Two main channel networks (Pietraroia and Regia Piana channels) with their sedimentary bodies were analysed. The studied submarine channels grew by sediment accumulation as prograding bodies on a tectonic modelled substrate. Shallow-water rhodalgal skeletal debris, from moderately re-mobilized up to significantly re-worked, built up the complex channel-system fills in which sedimentary lenses overlapped and partially amalgamated one another when they were still unlithified. The early channelized succession is characterized by parautochthonous bryozoan floatstone and rhodolith/bryozoan floatstone representing soft muddy substrates in a low water turbulence and high turbidity setting. The rhodoliths, dominated by melobesioid coralline algae, are sub-discoidal and sub-spheroidal in shape with a characteristic loosely-packed inner arrangement. These sediments, whose latter portion underwent submarine diagenetic processes (incipient to evoluted hard-grounds), were eroded and successively covered by shallower water gravitative deposits constituted by rhodolith floatstone/rudstone. Their rhodoliths, constituted by melobesioids, mastophoroids and subordinate lithophylloids and sporolithaceans, are mainly spheroidal/sub-spheroidal in shape with subordinate sub-discoidal specimens, with massive and laminar inner arrangements. The lack in early lithification can be drawn back to the physiography of the channelized shelf margin, to the active tectonic as well as to the temperate-type carbonate dominant biogenic components. The depositional surface profile and local hydrodynamic conditions were the major

  13. Fissumella motolae new genus new species from the late Aptian-early Albian of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Erzika; Consorti, Lorenzo; Di Lucia, Matteo; Parente, Mariano; Ciria, Alex; Caus, Esmeralda

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera, together with calcareous algae and rudist bivalves, play a key role in the biostratigraphy of Cretaceous carbonate platforms of the peri-Adriatic area. In the biozonation currently adopted for the carbonate platforms of central and southern Apennines (Italy) there is a stratigraphic interval, roughly corresponding to most of the Albian stage, which is poorly defined and assigned to a single biozone, called "Ostracoda and Miliolidae" biozone (Chiocchini et al., 2008). We describe here a new peneropliform benthic foraminifer, Fissumella motolae n. gen., n. sp. which could be used for a finer biostratigraphic subdivision of this interval. Its porcelaneous test shows a peneropliform shape with rounded margins. In the early stage of growth the chambers are streptospirally arranged, becoming later planispiral involute. The aperture is single, migrating during ontogeny from an interiomarginal position to the center of septa. The chamber lumina are traversed by few and short radial septula. Fissumella motolae is a common constituent of benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the Apennine Carbonate Platform. We have found it in the same stratigraphic interval in several stratigraphic sections distributed along a NW-SE transect from Monte Croce (in the Aurunci Mts.) to Monte Tobenna (in the Picentini Mts.) to Monte Motola (in the Cilento Promontory). It first appears in the levels with Archaeoalveolina reicheli, close to Aptian-Albian boundary, and then continues for some tens of meters, associated with Praechrysalidina infracretacea, Cuneolina parva, Sabaudia minuta, conical imperforate foraminifers, miliolids, textularids, nezzazzatids, dasycladalean green algae and ostracods. Carbon isotope stratigraphy has been used to better constrain the correlation between the studied sections and their chronostratigraphic calibration. Chiocchini, M., Chiocchini, R. A., Didaskalou, P., and Potetti, M., 2008. Microbiostratigrafia del Triassico superiore, Giurassico e

  14. Understanding the structural setting in the Southern Apennines (Italy): insight from Gravity Gradient Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, Maurizio; Ferranti, Luigi; Florio, Giovanni; Giori, Italiano; Italiano, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    The Lucania Apennines form the frontal part of the Apennines in Southern Italy. This orogenic belt was formed in response to late Miocene-Early Pleistocene shortening and allochthon emplacement toward the northeast, and was subsequently affected by extensional faulting which migrated to northeast ahead of the thrust system. As a result, contraction structures are found associated to Pliocene-Early Pleistocene thrust-top basins in the NE part of the area, whereas extensional faults shape Middle Pleistocene-Holocene basin on the SW sector. The main structural grain of the belt is NW-SE, but E-W structures are widespread in the area as a result of phases of non-coaxial thrusting and strike-slip faulting. The analysis, one by one, of the components of the Gravity Gradient Tensor (GGT) has proved to yield a fine image of the structural setting of the investigated area. GGT is a second rank tensor containing the second spatial derivatives of the gravity potential and in this paper is used instead than the more traditional gravity data. The Tzz component allows an accurate description of the location and of the shape of basins and other structures, but different components of the GGT provide even more detailed insights for such structures. In particular, we found that the Tzy and Tyy locate well those structures trending closer to the E-W direction for both thrust-top and extensional basins, and their termination against the main NW-SE structures. The combined use of components of GGT provides a finer definition of the anomaly sources particularly if a good knowledge of their strike and depth is independently estimated with other geological and geophysical investigations.

  15. An innovative mobile georadar system for road monitoring and diagnostic: first application in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Bavusi, Massimo; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Valanzano, Antonio; Pafundi, Donato; Lacorazza, Piero

    2013-04-01

    This work will show the preliminary results obtained through the use of an innovative mobile georadar system for road monitoring and diagnostic. This electromagnetic mobile system is an innovative tool which is able to analyse and monitor the road paving of the overall road network with the aim of individuating critical areas affected by sinking or wearing. The georadar system, equipped by a high frequency antenna (f=1GHz), is mounted on a van and is able to acquire suitable data at velocities up to 70Km/hour. Through the use of this kind of mobile system it is possible to obtain in a short time and with very low costs a wide amount of data on thickness and roughness of the asphalt, superficial sinking and water saturated areas. The first tests were carried out on the main provincial road located in an area of the Southern Apennines affected by hydrogeological risk. This activity has been performed in the framework of a project funded by the Province of Potenza, and realized thank to the consolidated collaboration between the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (IMAA) and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR). This activity has been recognized also at European level as a best practice procedure in the frame of "Window on GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security". The application of this innovative electromagnetic system on the overall road system of the province of Potenza will enable the decision-makers to plan with more detail and awareness the technical actions addressed to maintain and repair the road sections really affected by anomalies, with a time-saving and lower management costs.

  16. Antibiotic prescribing for dental conditions: a community-based study in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, G; Arcoraci, V; Blandino, G; Miragliotta, G; Schito, A M; Pasquantonio, G; Nicoletti, G; Caputi, A P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate for which conditions antibiotics are being used in community dental practice, and which clinical features represent the most common reason for an antibacterial approach to the treatment of dental conditions. The study was carried out from November 1998 to June 1999. Dentists were selected according to the different areas of southern Italy, from a list provided by the Italian Society of Dentists. Out of 87 selected dentists, 33 agreed to participate and filled in 1615 questionnaires for each therapeutic intervention ending with antibiotic treatment. Analysis of data indicated that alveolar-gingival abscesses were the most commonly treated infection, accounting for 23.6% of total treatments, followed by acute periodontitis (20.6%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (18.5%). Parenteral antibiotics were chosen in 7.8% of cases. Penicillins were the most commonly used group, 40.1% of total treatments, followed by macrolides (30.2%) and cephalosporins (13.4%). Moreover, penicillins were widely used for post-surgery therapy (52.1%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (50.8%), while macrolides were the most commonly used group for gingivitis (44.1%) and parodontal diseases (55.0%). The choice of parenteral antibiotics was related to severe general symptoms (odds ratios [OR], 4.4; 95% CI: 2.2-9.0), pain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.1) and lymphonodal involvement (OR, 6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that antibiotic treatment is often based on the eradication of as many microorganisms as possible, and on the clinical assessment of the patients, rather than on any knowledge of the pathogens involved. PMID:11892902

  17. Genesis of autochthonous and allochthonous Apulian karst bauxites (Southern Italy): Climate constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Buccione, Roberto; Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-07-01

    The Apulian Carbonate Platform (ACP) in southern Italy has experienced several episodes of subaerial exposure, which were in some cases associated with the formation of karst bauxite deposits. The ACP contains both autochthonous canyon-like bauxite and allochthonous Salento-type bauxite, with the latter having been derived from a weathered and eroded pristine bauxite deposit. The remnants of this pristine bauxite are preserved as transported pebbles embedded in a clayey matrix. The autochthonous bauxite and the pebbles of the allochthonous bauxite have the same texture of sub-spheroidal components (ooids) dispersed in a fine-grained matrix. The fractal dimension of ooids from both deposits is very similar and corresponds to the growth of "aggregates" under a diffusion-controlled process. The ooids of the autochthonous bauxite have a different composition to those in the pebbles of the allochthonous bauxite, because they formed under different climatic conditions. During the Turonian, autochthonous bauxite ooids formed in alternating wet tropical conditions (promoting Al-hematite formation) and drier conditions (favouring boehmite stability). In the allochthonous pebbles, ooids formed mainly in a dry climate, promoting the formation of large boehmite cores. The ooids/matrix ratio and the geometrical features of the ooids reflect these climate differences. The differences in composition and age (post-Turonian) of the Salento-type bauxite bedrock suggest that the pristine bauxite that produced the Salento-type pebbles was different in composition to and younger in age than the Canyon-like bauxite. The latter probably formed during a middle Campanian emersion event (evidenced by large karstic cavities), which is correlated with the subaerial exposure of karst recorded on the Adriatic island of Brač.

  18. Mercury and methylmercury contamination in Mytilus galloprovincialis from Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy): risk evaluation for consumers.

    PubMed

    Di Leo, A; Cardellicchio, N; Giandomenico, S; Spada, L

    2010-11-01

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (Me-Hg) concentrations were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from 10 stations located in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Taranto Gulf) an important semi-enclosed basin in Italy, devoted to mussel culture activities. The obtained results show that THg and Me-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.236 to 0.559 μg g(-1) d.w. and from 0.066 to 0.155 μg g(-1) d.w., respectively. Consequently, the Me-Hg/THg ratios ranged from 17% to 49%. The dietary intake of THg and Me-Hg were studied among children and adults from Taranto (Southern Italy). The estimated weekly intake for THg and Me-Hg was below the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) established by European Food Safety Autority (EFSA) for all sampled mussels, though their consumption provides a THg intake in children near the PTWI. PMID:20728495

  19. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.

    2010-09-01

    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  20. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  1. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  2. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  3. Crustal Stress and Strain Distribution in Sicily (Southern Italy) from Joint Analysis of Seismicity and Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presti, D.; Neri, G.; Aloisi, M.; Cannavo, F.; Orecchio, B.; Palano, M.; Siligato, G.; Totaro, C.

    2014-12-01

    An updated database of earthquake focal mechanisms is compiled for the Sicilian region (southern Italy) and surrounding off-shore areas where the Nubia-Eurasia convergence coexists with the very-slow residual rollback of the Ionian subducting slab. High-quality solutions selected from literature and catalogs have been integrated with new solutions estimated in the present work using the Cut And Paste (CAP) waveform inversion method. In the CAP algorithm (Zhao and Helmberger, 1994; Zhu and Helmberger, 1996), each waveform is broken up into Pnl and surface wave segments, which are weighted differently during the inversion procedure. Integration of the new solutions with the ones selected from literature and official catalogs led us to collect a database consisting exclusively of waveform inversion data relative to earthquakes with minimum magnitude 2.6. The seismicity and focal mechanism distributions have been compared with crustal motion and strain data coming from GNSS analyses. For this purpose GNSS-based observations collected over the investigated area by episodic measurements (1994-2013) as well as continuous monitoring (since 2006) were processed by the GAMIT/GLOBK software packages (Herring et al., 2010) following the approach described in Palano et al. (2011). To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern, the estimated GNSS velocities were aligned to a fixed Eurasian reference frame. The good agreement found between seismic and geodetic information contributes to better define seismotectonic domains characterized by different kinematics. Moving from the available geophysical information and from an early application of FEM algorithms, we have also started to investigate stress/strain fields in the crust of the study area including depth dependence and relationships with rupture of the main seismogenic structures.

  4. Anisotropy patterns in the subducting lithosphere and in the mantle wedge: A case study—The southern Italy subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccheschi, P.; Margheriti, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Boschi, E.

    2011-08-01

    In this study we present a collection of high quality S wave splitting measurements in the southern Italy subduction system. We analyzed 76 deep earthquakes located within the descending slab using the method of Silver and Chan (1991) to determine the splitting parameters φ and δt. The local deep earthquakes allow us to analyze raypaths primarily sampling the slab and the wedge above it. Mainland Calabria is an outcropping forearc, enabling us to sample rays that propagate up the slab. S wave splitting parameters show a complex pattern of anisotropy with variable fast directions and with delay times ranging from 0.1 s to 2.2 s. We compared local S wave splitting data with SKS results at the same stations, and we found that the average δt is very different (1.8 s for SKS and 0.5 s for S). We found consistency between averaged S fast directions and the SKS splitting measurements, including a pattern of toroidal mantle flow at the SW edge of the slab. The S wave splitting parameters show frequency-dependent behavior that we attribute to the presence of small-scale anisotropic heterogeneities. Comparison of S splitting measurements to P wave velocity anomaly at 100-200 km depth shows that where the rays primarily sample the slab the delay times are small. In contrast, where S rays sample the mantle wedge, the delay times are quite high. This δt pattern depicts the slab as a weakly anisotropic region and suggests that the main source of anisotropy in the subduction zone is the surrounding asthenosphere.

  5. Study of tsunami hazard associated with large earthquakes along the coasts of Calabria and Sicily (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.

    2003-04-01

    Messina Straits, the eastern coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria are known to have been affected by large tsunamis. Since development of urban, industrial and tourist settlements is remarkably increased in recent years on the coastal zones here as well as elsewhere in southern Italy, the problem of evaluating the effect of possible future events on coastal environment and structures has become a critical issue for civil protection and for the economic and balanced growth of the littoral zones. To this purpose, basic seismotectonic information on active faults and numerical simulations of tsunamis provide an indispensable tool to evaluate hazard, vulnerability and risk associated with plausible scenarios of disasters. The two most destructive tsunamis reported to have occurred in Calabria and Sicily were caused by the earthquakes of January 11, 1693 in eastern Sicily and of December 28, 1908 in the Messina Straits. Here we explore different scenarios of tsunami impact taking into account some of the most reliable fault models that are proposed in the literature. The simulations are performed by means of a finite-element code which implements and solves the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations in the shallow water approximation. Special attention is devoted to the study of the action of the water waves on the most important coastal towns in the source region. Very interesting features are expectedly played by the local coastal morphology and by harbour structures: for example, in the case of Augusta, the peninsula on which the town is built and the breakwaters of the Augusta harbour have the effect to screen the tsunami waves reducing sensibly their amplitude within the harbour basin, which is a non-trivial fact, that not always is reported to occur for tsunamis attacking harbours.

  6. Hydrochemical features of groundwater in a coastal gypsum karst (Marina di Lesina, Gargano, Southern Italy) in relation to tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Campana, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    As part of a complex monitoring aimed at collecting suitable data for conceptual and numerical modelling of the coastal gypsum karst of Marina di Lesina (Gargano, Southern Italy), 64 groundwater samples were collected during three surveys at different depths from 9 monitoring wells aligned along two transects. The transects, perpendicular to the Acquarotta canal, are less of 1 Km long. The canal is directly connected to the sea and to the Lesina Lagoon and behaves as an oscillating border following sea tides. The sampling campaigns were carried out concurrently to phases of increasing, decreasing, and low tide and provide different frameworks of the chemical composition of ground waters. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) of ground water samples ranges from 0.2 g/l to 35 g/l and increases generally along the flow lines towards the canal, and downward. The concentrations of the major ions deviate from theoretical ones defined by non-reactive mixing lines, which have as saline end-member either standard seawater or local seawater sampled offshore.Owing to the multi-component character of the hydrochemical system, the cation concentrations are controlled by competition among concurrent water-rock interaction processes that overlap to non-reactive freshwater-saltwater (FW-SW) mixing, being even triggered and/or enhanced by the same mixing, with feedback loops: gypsum and calcite dissolution, ion exchange (with direction depending on hydrodynamic conditions mainly driven by tides, and justified due to the presence of clay in the gypsum bedrock), and dedolomitization. The geochemical study also highlights the involvement of saline ground waters belonging to regional circuits that develop in the huge Mesozoic carbonate basement. The study highlights that in the saturated thickness of the gypsum coastal aquifer closer to the coast, the hydrochemical system is extremely reactive and strongly influenced by the different groundwater hydraulic conditions induced by the tide phases.

  7. Could be the future climate change an opportunity for the winegrowers? The case study of Aglianico wine in southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Dragonetti, Giovanna; De Lorenzi, Francesca; De Mascellis, Roberto; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Giampiero; Manna, Piero; Minieri, Luciana; Oliva, Marco; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Water deficit is a limiting factor to yield production and crop adaptation to future climate conditions. This is true for crops addressed mainly for biomass production (e.g. maize, wheat, etc.) but not for those where the quality is relevant. Specifically, in grapevine water stress (mid or limited) - occurring during specific phenological phases - is a factor to produce good quality wines. It induces for example the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Therefore, the water stress, due to the future increase of temperature and the rainfall decrease, could represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. The study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), in an area vocated to high quality wines production (ZOVISA project: Viticultural zoning at farm scale) The study was realized in two different soils (calcisol and cambisol), under the same climate, on Aglianico cultivar, standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks placed along a slope of 90 m length with 11% of gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Crop water stress index (CWSI) - estimated by the model - was related to physiological measurements (e.g leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Then, the model was applied to future climate condition (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of GCM in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. The results show that the effects of the climate change on the vine quality is dependent by the soil, being relevant to the cambisol and less pronounced to the calcisol, with an expected improvement of wine quality in the cambisol.

  8. Visible and infrared spectroscopy to evaluate soil quality in degraded sites: an applicative study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Matarrese, Raffaella; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Regano, Simona; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation processes like organic matter impoverishment and contamination are growing increasingly all over the world due to a non-rational and often sustainable spread of human activities on the territory. Consequently the need to characterize and monitor degraded sites is becoming very important, with the aim to hinder such main threats, which could compromise drastically, soil quality. Visible and infrared spectroscopy is a well-known technique/tool to study soil properties. Vis-NIR spectral reflectance, in fact, can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variation in soil constituents (Brown et al., 2006; Viscarra Rossel et al., 2006), and potentially its surface structure (Chappell et al., 2006, 2007). It is a rapid, non-destructive, reproducible and cost-effective analytical method to analyse soil properties and therefore, it can be a useful method to study land degradation phenomena. In this work, we present the results of proximal sensing investigations of three degraded sites (one affected by organic and inorganic contamination and two affected by soil organic matter decline) situated southern Italy close to Taranto city (in Apulia Region). A portable spectroradiometer (ASD-FieldSpec) was used to measure the reflectance properties in the spectral range between 350-2500 nm of the soil, in the selected sites, before and after a recovery treatment by using compost (organic fertilizer). For each measurement point the soil was sampled in order to perform chemical analyses to evaluate soil quality status. Three in-situ campaigns have been carried out (September 2012, June 2013, and September 2013), collecting about 20 soil samples for each site and for each campaign. Chemical and spectral analyses have been focused on investigating soil organic carbon, carbonate content, texture and, in the case of polluted site, heavy metals and organic toxic compounds. Statistical analyses have been carried out to test a prediction model of different soil quality

  9. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were mon...

  10. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII