Science.gov

Sample records for regional land cover

  1. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  2. The 1980 land cover for the Puget Sound region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, R. D.; Westerlund, F. V.; Eby, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Both LANDSAT imagery and the video information communications and retrieval software were used to develop a land cover classifiction of the Puget Sound of Washington. Planning agencies within the region were provided with a highly accurate land cover map registered to the 1980 census tracts which could subsequently be incorporated as one data layer in a multi-layer data base. Many historical activities related to previous land cover mapping studies conducted in the Puget Sound region are summarized. Valuable insight into conducting a project with a large community of users and in establishing user confidence in a multi-purpose land cover map derived from LANDSAT is provided.

  3. Seasonal land-cover regions of the US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Reed, Bradley C.; Olson, Paul; Hutchinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Global-change investigations have been hindered by deficiencies in the availability and quality of land-cover data. The US Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have collaborated on the development of a new approach to land-cover characterization that attempts to address requirements of the global-change research community and others interested in regional patterns of land cover. An experimental 1-km-resolution database of land-cover characteristics for the coterminous US has been prepared to test and evaluate the approach. Using multidate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data complemented by elevation, climate, ecoregions, and other digital spatial datasets, the authors define 15?? seasonal land-cover regions. Data are used in the construction of an illustrative 1:7500 000-scale map of the seasonal land-cover regions as well as of smaller-scale maps portraying general land cover and seasonality. The seasonal land-cover characteristics database can also be tailored to provide a broad range of other landscape parameters useful in national and global-scale environmental modeling and assessment. -from Authors

  4. [Regional evapotranspiration of different land covers based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    He, Yan-bo; Z, Su; L, Jia; Wang, Shi-li

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, surface energy balance system (SEBS) was extended into a regional daily evapotranspiration (ET) estimation model based on remote sensing data, and the extended SEBS was applied to estimate the regional daily ET of Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe rivers region in Northern China Plain by using MODIS/TERRA data. An analysis was made on the estimated daily ET characteristics of different land covers in the study area by using the spatial analysis module of ArcGIS. Since there were no field observations of ET on each land cover, the estimated daily ET of different land covers was compared with each other, taking the data on April 17, 2001 as an example. The results showed that the regional daily ET estimated by SEBS was reasonable. Wetland and cultivated land had the highest daily ET value, followed by forest-, bush- and grassland, and waste land. The characteristics of the daily ET over these land covers were accorded with the existing knowledge of ET over this region, and coincident to the results of previous work in this area. It was interesting that the residential area also had a higher ET value, which was explained as the higher ET of the land use types, e. g. , water body, street trees, and grass parcels in the resident areas within the pixel scale. The spatial inhomogeneity of ET among the forest-, bush-, grass- and cultivated land covers were caused by the spatial inhomogeneous soil water content under these land covers, and the spatial inhomogeneity of ET over cultivated land could be a potential indicator of making reasonable and effective irrigation schedule for the farmland. The limitations of using SEBS model in daily ET estimation were discussed, especially the possibility of underestimating the ET over water body and wetland covers due to the unsuitable surface parameterization scheme for these land types in the model. PMID:17450729

  5. An Integrated Land Use - Land Cover Change Model for the Southern Africa Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desanker, P. V.

    2001-12-01

    A land use change model covering the Miombo region of Southern Africa region is presented. The model includes a structure that recognizes the scales at which land use change decisions are made in the region, namely the traditional authority for subsistence agricultural land use, and includes social-economic and biophysical constraints to land use at multiple levels. Land cover information for the 1990's based on maps derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data are used to initiative the model. The model, called MELT, can be used to examine impacts of land use change on carbon pools, emissions from land use change (slash and burn agriculture or as a result of soil carbon changes), and spatial patterning of land cover. MELT provides a suitable representation of the process of land use in this region, and will be essential in providing the correct context for observed fire and emissions across the region of the SAFARI 2000 initiative. MELT is implemented using an object-oriented approach, and allows easy linkage with impacts models.

  6. Historical land cover changes in the Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Davis, M.B.; Stearns, F.; Guntenspergen, G.; Walker, K.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods of reconstructing historical vegetation change, drawing on General Land Office (GLO) surveys and fossil pollen deposits, are demonstrated by using data from the Great Lakes region. Both types of data are incorporated into landscape-scale analyses and presented through geographic information systems. Results from the two methods reinforce each other and allow reconstructions of past landscapes at different time scales. Changes to forests of the Great Lakes region during the last 150 years were far greater than the changes recorded over the preceding 1,000 years. Over the last 150 years, the total amount of forested land in the Great Lakes region declined by over 40%, and much of the remaining forest was converted to early successional forest types as a result of extensive logging. These results demonstrate the utility of using GLO survey data in conjunction with other data sources to reconstruct a generalized 'presettlement' condition and assess changes in landcover.

  7. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  8. Recent progress on land cover change and its regional climatic effects over China during historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; He, F.; Lin, S.

    2009-04-01

    Land cover change has been demonstrated as an important forcing driver of climate change, and many studies have been conducted that simulate the climatic effects of human-induced land cover change at global and regional scales. Land cover in China has undergone large-scale modifications, mainly through deforestation and desertification, over the last several thousand years, and the extents to which these changes have influenced climate change have increasingly attracted scientists' attention. The simulations of regional climatic effects caused by land cover changes which based on different datasets--historical reconstruction and potential land cover data--show that the human-induced land cover changes over China since 1700AD have led to the enhancement on the East Asian Winter Monsoon and cooling in winter overall, with warming over most of China but cooling at somewhere (e.g. northern China or the Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley) in summer. However, the different simulations by different models show different effects on annual mean temperature, annual precipitation and East Asian Summer Monsoon. These differences among these simulations are shown to have resulted from the disparities in the classifications of land cover types among different land cover dataset used, in the extent of land cover.

  9. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  10. THEMATIC ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL SCALE LAND COVER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium, a cooperative effort of several U .S. federal agencies, including. the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), have jointly conducted the National Land C...

  11. Land cover in Upper Egypt assessed using regional and global land cover products derived from MODIS imagery

    PubMed Central

    FULLER, DOUGLAS O.; PARENTI, MICHAEL S.; GAD, ADEL M.; BEIER, JOHN C.

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation along the Nile River has resulted in dramatic changes in the biophysical environment of Upper Egypt. In this study we used a combination of MODIS 250 m NDVI data and Landsat imagery to identify areas that changed from 2001–2008 as a result of irrigation and water-level fluctuations in the Nile River and nearby water bodies. We used two different methods of time series analysis -- principal components (PCA) and harmonic decomposition (HD), applied to the MODIS 250 m NDVI images to derive simple three-class land cover maps and then assessed their accuracy using a set of reference polygons derived from 30 m Landsat 5 and 7 imagery. We analyzed our MODIS 250 m maps against a new MODIS global land cover product (MOD12Q1 collection 5) to assess whether regionally specific mapping approaches are superior to a standard global product. Results showed that the accuracy of the PCA-based product was greater than the accuracy of either the HD or MOD12Q1 products for the years 2001, 2003, and 2008. However, the accuracy of the PCA product was only slightly better than the MOD12Q1 for 2001 and 2003. Overall, the results suggest that our PCA-based approach produces a high level of user and producer accuracies, although the MOD12Q1 product also showed consistently high accuracy. Overlay of 2001–2008 PCA-based maps showed a net increase of 12 129 ha of irrigated vegetation, with the largest increase found from 2006–2008 around the Districts of Edfu and Kom Ombo. This result was unexpected in light of ambitious government plans to develop 336 000 ha of irrigated agriculture around the Toshka Lakes. PMID:21766045

  12. Land cover in Upper Egypt assessed using regional and global land cover products derived from MODIS imagery.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Douglas O; Parenti, Michael S; Gad, Adel M; Beier, John C

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation along the Nile River has resulted in dramatic changes in the biophysical environment of Upper Egypt. In this study we used a combination of MODIS 250 m NDVI data and Landsat imagery to identify areas that changed from 2001-2008 as a result of irrigation and water-level fluctuations in the Nile River and nearby water bodies. We used two different methods of time series analysis -- principal components (PCA) and harmonic decomposition (HD), applied to the MODIS 250 m NDVI images to derive simple three-class land cover maps and then assessed their accuracy using a set of reference polygons derived from 30 m Landsat 5 and 7 imagery. We analyzed our MODIS 250 m maps against a new MODIS global land cover product (MOD12Q1 collection 5) to assess whether regionally specific mapping approaches are superior to a standard global product. Results showed that the accuracy of the PCA-based product was greater than the accuracy of either the HD or MOD12Q1 products for the years 2001, 2003, and 2008. However, the accuracy of the PCA product was only slightly better than the MOD12Q1 for 2001 and 2003. Overall, the results suggest that our PCA-based approach produces a high level of user and producer accuracies, although the MOD12Q1 product also showed consistently high accuracy. Overlay of 2001-2008 PCA-based maps showed a net increase of 12 129 ha of irrigated vegetation, with the largest increase found from 2006-2008 around the Districts of Edfu and Kom Ombo. This result was unexpected in light of ambitious government plans to develop 336 000 ha of irrigated agriculture around the Toshka Lakes. PMID:21766045

  13. Global Impacts of Long-Term Land Cover Changes Within China's Densely Populated Rural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term changes in land cover are usually investigated in terms of large-scale change processes such as urban expansion, deforestation and land conversion to agriculture. Yet China's densely populated agricultural regions, which cover more than 2 million square kilometers of Monsoon Asia, have been transformed profoundly over the past fifty years by fine-scale changes in land cover caused by unprecedented changes in population, technology and social conditions. Using a regional sampling and upscaling design coupled with high-resolution landscape change measurements at five field sites, we investigated long-term changes in land cover and ecological processes, circa 1945 to 2002, within and across China's densely populated agricultural regions. As expected, the construction of buildings and roads increased impervious surface area over time, but the total net increase was surprising, being similar in magnitude to the total current extent of China's cities. Agricultural land area declined over the same period, while tree cover increased, by about 10%, driven by tree planting and regrowth around new buildings, the introduction of perennial agriculture, improved forestry, and declines in annual crop cultivation. Though changes in impervious surface areas were closely related to changes in population density, long-term changes in agricultural land and tree cover were unrelated to populated density and required explanation by more complex models with strong regional and biophysical components. Moreover, most of these changes occurred primarily at fine spatial scales (< 30 m), under the threshold for conventional global and regional land cover change measurements. Given that these changes in built structures and vegetation cover have the potential to contribute substantially to regional and global changes in biogeochemistry, hydrology, and land-atmosphere interactions, future investigations of these changes and their impacts across Monsoon Asia would benefit from models

  14. A regional analysis of drivers and impacts of land cover change and long-term land cover trends in the Great Basin, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Bethany Adella

    An improved understanding of land use/land cover change at local and regional scales is important in an increasingly human-dominated biosphere. The land surface provides resources necessary for human survival (e.g., cropland, water, raw materials) as well as providing other services such as habitat for native species, carbon storage, and nutrient cycling. A goal of land change science is to identify where land cover change is taking place, understand how land use may affect that change, and determine what the consequences of change may be. In the Great Basin Desert of the Western U.S., an important form of land cover change is invasion by non-native cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass invasion destroys native shrub ecosystems, leading to a loss of biodiversity, loss of viable rangeland and increased fire frequency. In this work, I show how remote sensing can be used to detect the regional and local extents of cheatgrass invasion. Remote sensing results are then used to assess the spatial patterns of cheatgrass invasion over time to determine how land use might have affected invasion. Further, I consider the long-term impacts of cheatgrass invasion on biodiversity and carbon storage in the Great Basin. In addition to an analysis of cheatgrass, this thesis presents a new methodology for time series modeling, which can be used to better interpret annual and inter-annual vegetation community phenology. I apply this modeling methodology to all land cover in the Great Basin to assess long-term land cover trends and localized anomalous response within the range of land cover classes present. By investigating regional land cover change I am able to provide more detailed analysis of the drivers of change for land managers while working at a scale relevant to studies of global environmental change.

  15. Analysis of land-use/land-cover change in the Carpathian region based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezsõ, Zs.; Bartholy, J.; Pongrácz, R.; Barcza, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Human activities result in different significant environmental changes, these complex feedback processes may cause dramatic changes in our everyday life. Among others they include land-use and consequently land-cover changes. In order to study such complex variables full spatial coverage of the given area is one of the key issues. Rapid development of satellite use in different topics of research has provided an excellent tool to build agricultural monitoring systems and to improve our understanding of the complex links between air, water and land, including vegetation. In the last few years serious flood events occurred at the watershed of the river Tisza (both in Hungary and in Ukraine). One of the reasons of these floods is heavy precipitation at the region, which result in severe runoff consequences because of the significant change in land-use/land-cover. In this analysis both land-use change and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values for the Carpathian Region have been statistically analysed for the last two decades. Remotely sensed datasets observed by NOAA and NASA satellites are available for this period. The spatial resolution of these measurements is 1 to 8 km. Tendencies in the change of natural and artificial land-cover types are investigated in the upper watershed of the river Tisza. According to our estimations the forest area on the Ukrainian part of the watershed decreased by about 10% in the last decade. Possible reasons include regional effects of the global climate change, deforestation in the region, etc.

  16. Land-use and land-cover scenarios and spatial modeling at the regional scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LULC) change has altered a large part of the earth's surface. Scenarios of potential future LULC change are required in order to better manage potential impacts on biodiversity, carbon fluxes, climate change, hydrology, and many other ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey is analyzing potential future LULC change in the United States, using an approach based on scenario construction and spatially explicit modeling. Similar modeling techniques are being used to produce historical LULC maps from 1940 to present. With the combination of backcast and forecast LULC data, the USGS is providing consistent LULC data for historical, current, and future time frames to support a variety of research applications.

  17. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  18. Analysis of land cover changes using multisource and multitemporal images in loess hilly and gully regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongchuan; Gong, Jianhua; Zhang, Lihui; Lei, Qixiang; Cao, Quanyi

    2009-06-01

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is one of the most sensitive factors that show the interactions between human activities and ecological environments. In loess hilly and gully regions, to prevent soil loss and achieve better ecological environments, soil conservation measures have been taken during the past decades. This research attempts to detect land cover changes of Xihe ecological demonstration region by supervised classification to evaluate the effect of soil conservation measures. Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier was applied for its ability to produce reliable classifications using small training samples. RBF kernel was finally employed for it nonlinearly maps samples into a higher dimensional space. Multi-source images of about one and a half decades were acquired for change detection, including Landsat TM and ETM+, CBERS2B CCD images. To minimize seasonal impacts, post-classification comparison method was employed for image processing. Unified land use classification plan was set up for all the images. The accuracy of classification was evaluated using more than 300 ground truth points mainly identified from high resolution Quickbird and CBERS2B HR images. The trend of land cover changes were detected and analyzed, and the relationship between land cover changes and human activities have been probed preliminarily. Result shows the ecological environments of the study area had deteriorated to a large extent in the first period, while were greatly bettered in the second period and controlling human activities or consciously exerting active human activities is an effective way to improve ecological environments.

  19. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  20. Analysis of land-use/land-cover change in the Carpathian region based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezso, Zsuzsanna; Bartholy, Judit; Pongracz, Rita; Barcza, Zoltan

    In the last few years serious flood events occurred at the watershed of the river Tisza (both in Hungary and in Ukraine). One of the reasons of these floods is heavy precipitation at the region, which may result in severe runoff consequences because of the significant change in land-use/land-cover. In this paper land-use/land cover change occurred during the last decade have been analysed for the subcatchments of the upper river basin of Tisza. Remotely sensed datasets observed by NOAA and NASA satellites are available for this period. According to the results forest area on the upper subcatchments of the river has decreased by about 5% on average, while about 10-20% less forest area has been detected in case of the Eastern subcatchments from 1992/1993 to 2000/2001.

  1. Regionally Differentiated Scenarios of Future Albedo Forcing from Anthropogenic Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; Calvin, K. V.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we develop geographically differentiated estimates of radiative forcing from albedo change associated with major land cover transitions across 151 regions globally. The regions are formed through the intersectrion of 18 agro-ecological zones with 15 geo-political units, and correspond to the agricultural and land-use decision regions utilized by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Incorporating these forcing factors into GCAM allows us to calculate total radiative forcing associated with alternative scenarios of future anthropogenic land cover change. We find that conversion of 1 km2 of woody vegetation (forest and shrublands) to non-woody vegetation (crops and grassland) yields between 0 to -0.71 nW/m2 of globally averaged radiative forcing, depending on regional vegetation characteristics, snow dynamics, and atmospheric radiation environments. Across a set of scenarios designed to span a range of potential future anthropogenic landcover change, we find albedo forcing ranging from -0.05 to -0.25 W/m2 by 2070. The scenarios vary in terms of assumptions regarding future crop yield growth and climate policies, which could favor either afforestation or bioenergy crops. This range of forcing is similar in magnitude to central estimates for present-day forcing from historical land cover change and to several other forcing agents including nitrous oxide.

  2. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; Ciais, Philippe; Ichii, Kazuhito; Tian, Hanqin; Kondo, Masayuki; Piao, Shilong; Arneth, Almut; Harper, Anna B.; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charlie; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Vivoy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the ‘Houghton’ bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and South Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%–40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%–25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr‑1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of ‑0.17 Pg C yr‑1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990–2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.

  4. Shore zone land use and land cover: Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, R.; Hayden, B.P.; Vincent, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    Anderson's 1972 United States Geological Survey classification in modified form was applied to the barrier-island coastline within the CARETS region. High-altitude, color-infrared photography of December, 1972, and January, 1973, served as the primary data base in this study. The CARETS shore zone studied was divided into six distinct geographical regions; area percentages for each class in the modified Anderson classification are presented. Similarities and differences between regions are discussed within the framework of man's modification of these landscapes. The results of this study are presented as a series of 19 maps of land-use categories. Recommendations are made for a remote-sensing system for monitoring the CARETS shore zone within the context of the dynamics of the landscapes studied.

  5. Impact of land cover characterization on regional climate modeling over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Pal, Jeremy S.; Wang, Guiling L.; Lawrence, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of high resolution modern vegetation cover on the West African climate is examined using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model implementing the NCAR Community Land Model. Two high resolution 25 km long-term simulations driven by the output from a coarser 50-km resolution simulation are performed for the period 1998-2010. One high resolution simulation uses an earlier and coarser-resolution version of plant functional type distribution and leaf area index, while the other uses a more recent, higher-quality, and finer-resolution version of the data. The results indicate that the new land cover distribution substantially alters the distribution of temperature with warming in Central Nigeria, northern Gulf of Guinea and part of the Sahel due to the replacement of C4 grass with corn; and cooling along the coastlines of the Gulf of Guinea and in Central Africa due to the replacement of C4 grass with tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. Changes in latent heat flux appear to be largely responsible for these temperature changes with a net decrease (increase) in regions of warming (cooling). The improved land cover distribution also results in a wetter monsoon season. The presence of corn tends to favor larger precipitation amounts via more intense events, while the presence of tropical broadleaf evergreen trees tends to favor the occurrence of both more intense and more frequent events. The wetter conditions appear to be sustained via (1) an enhanced soil moisture feedback; and (2) elevated moisture transport due to increased low-level convergence in regions south of 10N where the most substantial land cover differences are present. Overall the changes induced by the improved vegetation cover improve, to some extent, the performance of the high resolution regional climate model in simulating the main West African summer monsoon features.

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  7. Managing water services in tropical regions: From land cover proxies to hydrologic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G; Brauman, Kate A; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Farley, Kathleen A; Weathers, Kathleen C; Young, Kenneth R; Curran, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Watershed investment programs frequently use land cover as a proxy for water-based ecosystem services, an approach based on assumed relationships between land cover and hydrologic outcomes. Water flows are rarely quantified, and unanticipated results are common, suggesting land cover alone is not a reliable proxy for water services. We argue that managing key hydrologic fluxes at the site of intervention is more effective than promoting particular land-cover types. Moving beyond land cover proxies to a focus on hydrologic fluxes requires that programs (1) identify the specific water service of interest and associated hydrologic flux; (2) account for structural and ecological characteristics of the relevant land cover; and, (3) determine key mediators of the target hydrologic flux. Using examples from the tropics, we illustrate how this conceptual framework can clarify interventions with a higher probability of delivering desired water services than with land cover as a proxy. PMID:25432319

  8. Land use and land cover change impacts on the regional climate of non-Amazonian South America: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Alvaro; Baldi, Germán; Hirota, Marina; Syktus, Jozef; McAlpine, Clive

    2015-05-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) affects regional climate through modifications in the water balance and energy budget. These impacts are frequently expressed by: changes in the amount and frequency of precipitation and alteration of surface temperatures. In South America, most of the studies of the effects of LUCC on the local and regional climate have focused on the Amazon region (54 studies), whereas LUCC within non-Amazonian regions have been largely undermined regardless their potential importance in regulating the regional climate (19 studies). We estimated that 3.6 million km2 of the original natural vegetation cover in non-Amazonian South America were converted into other types of land use, which is about 4 times greater than the historical Amazon deforestation. Moreover, there is evidence showing that LUCC within such fairly neglected ecosystems cause significant reductions in precipitation and increases in surface temperatures, with occasional impacts affecting neighboring or remote areas. We explore the implications of these findings in the context of water security, climatic extremes and future research priorities.

  9. Characterizing Land-cover Changes Since 1650 in the Southeastern United States for Application to Regional Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Hostetler, S. W.; Sundquist, E. T.; Thompson, R. S.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover change is a fundamental contributor to changes in climate, hydrology, and carbon cycling. European settlers introduced a series of widespread land-cover changes in eastern North America beginning in the early 17th century. These changes varied both temporally and spatially, and were related to population growth, emerging technology, and land-use. To examine the potential influence of historical land-cover changes on local to regional climate, we adapted reconstructed fractional land cover from 1650, 1850, and 1920 as well as land cover interpreted from Landsat imagery circa 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008) as input for regional climate model experiments. Observed changes included: deforestation and conversion to agriculture in the mid-Atlantic region from 1650 to 1850, region-wide expansion of agriculture from 1850 to 1920, and wetland drainage, reforestation, and increased urbanization from 1920 to 1992. We translated the land cover datasets to the BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) thematic classification on a 20 km2 grid for ingestion into the RegCM4 regional climate model. In BATS, land-cover classifications determine biophysical parameters such as the seasonal albedo cycle, fractional vegetation condition, stomatal resistance, leaf area index (LAI), and rooting depth. By defining and characterizing land cover in a consistent manner across the four time slices, we are able to explore interactions and feedbacks between land cover and regional climate in late prehistoric and historic times. Steyaert, L. T., & Knox, R. G. (2008). Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D2).

  10. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  11. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects. PMID:21546673

  12. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a fast growing economic region in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhi, A.; Kanniah, K. D.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Green space must be increased in the development of new cities as green space can moderate temperature in the cities. In this study we estimated the land surface temperature (LST) and established relationships between LST and land cover and various vegetation and urban surface indices in the Iskandar Malaysia (IM) region. IM is one of the emerging economic gateways of Malaysia, and is envisaged to transform into a metropolis by 2025. This change may cause increased temperature in IM and therefore we conducted a study by using Landsat 5 image covering the study region (2,217 km2) to estimate LST, classify different land covers and calculate spectral indices. Results show that urban surface had highest LST (24.49 °C) and the lowest temperature was recorded in, forest, rubber and water bodies ( 20.69 to 21.02°C). Oil palm plantations showed intermediate mean LST values with 21.65 °C. We further investigated the relationship between vegetation and build up densities with temperature. We extracted 1000 collocated pure pixels of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and LST in the study area. Results show a strong and significant negative correlation with (R2= -0.74 and -0.79) respectively between NDVI, NDWI and LST . Meanwhile a strong positive correlation (R2=0.8 and 0.86) exists between NDBI, UI and LST. These results show the importance of increasing green cover in urban environment to combat any adverse effects of climate change.

  13. The statistical significance test of regional climate change caused by land use and land cover variation in West China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. J.; Shi, W. L.; Chen, X. H.

    2006-05-01

    The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences axe the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east east and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.

  14. Modeling land use and land cover changes in a vulnerable coastal region using artificial neural networks and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region. PMID:25647797

  15. Land Use and Land Cover Changes 1977 to 2000 in the Steppe Region of Ukraine, and Preliminary Results of Evaluating its Ecological and Land Form Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. J.; Prydatko, V.; Luhmann, E. P.

    2001-05-01

    Ukraine's history as agro-economic region dates back hundreds of years, being the most productive portion of the "black earth region" for the now defunct Soviet Union. This incredible level of agricultural production brought tremendous changes to the landscape matrix, largely eliminating forests and prairie systems from the southern steppe regions of Ukraine. The age of industrialization has had far less significant impacts to the land use patterns as large farms were operated and managed under Soviet Era cooperatives. The recent, 1992, independence of Ukraine has brought new pressures to the landscape. These pressures are initiated by economic needs of Ukraine seeking to be resolved through increased farm production and rapid land and industrial privatization. This study examines land cover changes between 1977, 1988 and 2000 within a representative region of southern Ukraine and northern Crimea. The region covers prototypical landscapes of the steppe region of agriculture at various scales and crops. The study area also allows an examination of changes along coastal areas in the Azov and Black Seas, specifically barrier systems. Additionally, areas of rapid privatization of industries and introduction of western industries exist within this region. The years selected for documentation were chosen as being one near the height of Soviet autonomy, near separation of the Soviet Union and independence of Ukraine and current times. The study looks at ways of documenting land cover change using satellite imagery with ancillary ground based information. The study evaluates effects of these land cover changes through associated losses of hydrologic characteristics in the landscape such as stream, as well as landform changes especially in coastal barrier systems. These changes are correlated to landscape changes and ecological parameters recorded during this nearly 30 year period. Preliminary conclusions are presented as to alternative land use practices and actions for

  16. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 9: Shore zone land use and land cover; Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, R.; Hayden, B. P.; Vincent, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of the land use and land cover maps provides a stratification of the CARETS shore area into regions which have a similar environmental organization. Different elements of the landscape are altered less frequently moving inland. Near the beach, higher frequency of monitoring is needed than is needed in the inland areas, including the marsh and estuarine areas.

  17. Land cover and land use changes in the oil and gas regions of Northwestern Siberia under changing climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard E.; Engstrom, Ryan; Shiklomanov, Nikolay; Strelestskiy, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Northwestern Siberia has been undergoing a range of land cover and land use changes associated with climate change, animal husbandry and development of mineral resources, particularly oil and gas. The changes caused by climate and oil/gas development Southeast of the city of Nadym were investigated using multi-temporal and multi-spatial remotely sensed images. Comparison between high spatial resolution imagery acquired in 1968 and 2006 indicates that 8.9% of the study area experienced an increase in vegetation cover (e.g. establishment of new saplings, extent of vegetated cover) in response to climate warming while 10.8% of the area showed a decrease in vegetation cover due to oil and gas development and logging activities. Waterlogging along linear structures and vehicle tracks was found near the oil and gas development site, while in natural landscapes the drying of thermokarst lakes is evident due to warming caused permafrost degradation. A Landsat time series dataset was used to document the spatial and temporal dynamics of these ecosystems in response to climate change and disturbances. The impacts of land use on surface vegetation, radiative, and hydrological properties were evaluated using Landsat image-derived biophysical indices. The spatial and temporal analyses suggest that the direct impacts associated with infrastructure development were mostly within 100 m distance from the disturbance source. While these impacts are rather localized they persist for decades despite partial recovery of vegetation after the initial disturbance and can have significant implications for changes in permafrost dynamics and surface energy budgets at landscape and regional scales.

  18. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Alazba, A A

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  19. Hydrological Response to Land Cover Changes and Human Activities in Arid Regions Using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  20. Regional Differences in the Association Between Land Cover and West Nile Virus Disease Incidence in Humans in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Sarah E.; Magori, Krisztian; Drake, John M.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is generally considered to be an urban pathogen in the United States, but studies associating land cover and disease incidence, seroprevalence, or infection rate in humans, birds, domesticated and wild mammals, and mosquitoes report varying and sometimes contradictory results at an array of spatial extents. Human infection can provide insight about basic transmission activity; therefore, we analyzed data on the incidence of WNV disease in humans to obtain a comprehensive picture of how human disease and land cover type are associated across the United States. Human WNV disease incidence in Northeastern regions was positively associated with urban land covers, whereas incidence in the Western United States was positively associated with agricultural land covers. We suggest that these regional associations are explained by the geographic distributions of prominent WNV vectors: Culex pipiens complex (including Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus) in the Northeast and Cx. tarsalis in the Western United States. PMID:21292890

  1. Relationship between landslide processes and land use-land cover changes in mountain regions: footprint identification approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitta, Marcello; Pregnolato, Marco; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation aims to better understand the relationship between landslide events and land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Starting from the approach presented last year at national level ("In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research", Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-11253, 2014) we focused our study at regional scale considering South Tyrol, a mountain region in Italy near the Austrian border. Based on the concept exploited in the previous work, in which a disaster footprint was shown using land features and changes maps, in this study we start from the hypothesis that LULC can have a role in activation of landslides events. In this study, we used LULC data from CORINE and from a regional map called REAKART and we used the Italian national database IFFI (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Italian inventory of landslides) from which it is possible to select the landslides present in the national inventory together with other vector layers (the urban areas - Corine Land Cover 2000, the roads and railways, the administrative boundaries, the drainage system) and raster layers (the digital terrain model, digital orthophoto TerraItaly it2000, Landsat satellite images and IGM topographic map). Moreover it's possible to obtain information on the most important parameters of landslides, view documents, photos and videos. For South Tyrol, the IFFI database is updated in real time. In our investigation we analyzed: 1) LULC from CORINE and from REAKART, 2) landslides occurred nearby a border of two different LULC classes, 3) landslides occurred in a location in which a change in LULC classification in observed in time, 4) landslides occurred nearby road and railroad. Using classification methods and statistical approaches we investigated relationship between the LULC and the landslides events. The results confirm that specific LULC classes are

  2. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  3. Spatial analysis of land cover determinants of malaria incidence in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Oldeland, Jens; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Malaria belongs to the infectious diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a vector-borne disease malaria distribution is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between malaria risk and different land cover classes by using high-resolution multispectral Ikonos images and Poisson regression analyses. The association of malaria incidence with land cover around 12 villages in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was assessed in 1,988 children <15 years of age. The median malaria incidence was 85.7 per 1,000 inhabitants and year (range 28.4-272.7). Swampy areas and banana/plantain production in the proximity of villages were strong predictors of a high malaria incidence. An increase of 10% of swampy area coverage in the 2 km radius around a village led to a 43% higher incidence (relative risk [RR] = 1.43, p<0.001). Each 10% increase of area with banana/plantain production around a village tripled the risk for malaria (RR = 3.25, p<0.001). An increase in forested area of 10% was associated with a 47% decrease of malaria incidence (RR = 0.53, p = 0.029). Distinct cultivation in the proximity of homesteads was associated with childhood malaria in a rural area in Ghana. The analyses demonstrate the usefulness of satellite images for the prediction of malaria endemicity. Thus, planning and monitoring of malaria control measures should be assisted by models based on geographic information systems. PMID:21448277

  4. Spatial Analysis of Land Cover Determinants of Malaria Incidence in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Oldeland, Jens; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Malaria belongs to the infectious diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a vector-borne disease malaria distribution is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between malaria risk and different land cover classes by using high-resolution multispectral Ikonos images and Poisson regression analyses. The association of malaria incidence with land cover around 12 villages in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was assessed in 1,988 children <15 years of age. The median malaria incidence was 85.7 per 1,000 inhabitants and year (range 28.4–272.7). Swampy areas and banana/plantain production in the proximity of villages were strong predictors of a high malaria incidence. An increase of 10% of swampy area coverage in the 2 km radius around a village led to a 43% higher incidence (relative risk [RR] = 1.43, p<0.001). Each 10% increase of area with banana/plantain production around a village tripled the risk for malaria (RR = 3.25, p<0.001). An increase in forested area of 10% was associated with a 47% decrease of malaria incidence (RR = 0.53, p = 0.029). Distinct cultivation in the proximity of homesteads was associated with childhood malaria in a rural area in Ghana. The analyses demonstrate the usefulness of satellite images for the prediction of malaria endemicity. Thus, planning and monitoring of malaria control measures should be assisted by models based on geographic information systems. PMID:21448277

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM CHEMISTRY AND WATERSHED LAND COVER DATA IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the relationship between stream chemistry and watershed land cover at the regional scale, we analyzed data from 368 wadeable streams sampled in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. during spring 1993-1994. Study sites were selected using a probability sampl...

  6. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  7. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  8. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2013-12-01

    A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  9. Stratifying Tropical Fires by Land Cover: Insights into Amazonian Fires, Aerosol Loading, and Regional Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the number of fires detected on forest, grass, and transition lands during the 2002-2009 biomass burning seasons using fire detection data and co-located land cover classifications from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the total number of detected fires correlates well with MODIS mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) from year to year, in accord with other studies. However, we also show that the ratio of forest to savanna fires varies substantially from year to year. Forest fires have trended downward, on average, since the beginning of 2006 despite a modest increase in 2007. Our study suggests that high particulate matter loading detected in 2007 was likely due to a large number of savanna/agricultural fires that year. Finally, we illustrate that the correlation between annual Brazilian deforestation estimates and MODIS fires is considerably higher when fires are stratified by MODIS-derived land cover classifications.

  10. AN APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) is developing seamless digital coverages for land cover, vertebrate animal habitat, and land management status for the 5-state region of Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado. The project is a second generation effor...

  11. Multi Satellites Monitoring of Land Use/Cover Change and Its Driving Forces in Kashgar Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaitiaili, Ayisulitan; Aji, xiaokaiti; Kondoh, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Multi Satellites Monitoring of Land Use/Cover Change and Its Driving Forces in Kashgar Region, China Ayisulitan Maimaitiaili1, Xiaokaiti Aji2 Akihiko Kondoh2 1Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Japan 2Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University The spatio-temporal changes of Land Use/Cover (LUCC) and its driving forces in Kashgar region, Xinjiang Province, China, are investigated by using satellite remote sensing and a geographical information system (GIS). Main goal of this paper is to quantify the drivers of LUCC. First, considering lack of the Land Cover (LC) map in whole study area, we produced LC map by using Landsat images. Land use information from Landsat data was collected using maximum likelihood classification method. Land use change was studied based on the change detection method of land use types. Second, because the snow provides a key water resources for stream flow, agricultural production and drinking water for sustaining large population in Kashgar region, snow cover are estimated by Spot Vegetation data. Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) algorithm are applied to make snow cover map, which is used to screen the LUCC and climate change. The best agreement is found with threshold value of NDSI≥0.2 to generate multi-temporal snow cover and snowmelt maps. Third, driving forces are systematically identified by LC maps and statistical data such as climate and socio-economic data, regarding to i) the climate changes and ii) socioeconomic development that the spatial correlation among LUCC, snow cover change, climate and socioeconomic changes are quantified by using liner regression model and negative / positive trend analysis. Our results showed that water bodies, bare land and grass land have decreasing notably. By contrast, crop land and urban area have continually increasing significantly, which are dominated in study area. The area of snow/ice have fluctuated and has strong seasonal trends, total annual snow cover

  12. Land-cover classification in a moist tropical region of Brazil with Landsat TM imagery

    PubMed Central

    LI, GUIYING; LU, DENGSHENG; MORAN, EMILIO; HETRICK, SCOTT

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to improve land-cover classification accuracy in a moist tropical region in Brazil by examining the use of different remote sensing-derived variables and classification algorithms. Different scenarios based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data and derived vegetation indices and textural images, and different classification algorithms – maximum likelihood classification (MLC), artificial neural network (ANN), classification tree analysis (CTA), and object-based classification (OBC), were explored. The results indicated that a combination of vegetation indices as extra bands into Landsat TM multispectral bands did not improve the overall classification performance, but the combination of textural images was valuable for improving vegetation classification accuracy. In particular, the combination of both vegetation indices and textural images into TM multispectral bands improved overall classification accuracy by 5.6% and kappa coefficient by 6.25%. Comparison of the different classification algorithms indicated that CTA and ANN have poor classification performance in this research, but OBC improved primary forest and pasture classification accuracies. This research indicates that use of textural images or use of OBC are especially valuable for improving the vegetation classes such as upland and liana forest classes having complex stand structures and having relatively large patch sizes. PMID:22368311

  13. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  14. Impacts of land use and land cover change on regional climate: a case study in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Yu, Deyong; Georgescu, Matei; Han, Zhe; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the impacts of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on regional climate is essential for understanding land-atmosphere interactions and for designing climate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model, we examined how different land use and land cover patterns affect regional climate in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China, whose environmental and socioeconomic conditions are sensitive to climate change. We parameterized WRF using land use and land cover maps corresponding to 2001 and 2010 conditions, which differ in the representation of four land surface biophysical parameters: vegetation fraction, leaf area index (LAI), albedo, and emissivity. From 2001 to 2010, vegetation fraction and LAI increased in summer, emissivity increased and albedo decreased in winter. Our WRF simulations show that differences in land use and land cover patterns led to widespread reduction in summer temperature with local cooling on the order of 1 °C, and extensive increase in winter temperature with local warming exceeding 0.8 °C. By contrast, simulations using the default landscape representation, provided by WRF itself, show only minor and random changes in temperature. Model evaluation further reveals that our simulations with appropriate land surface properties improve the performance of the WRF model. Our findings demonstrate that LUCC in Northern China has altered the regional climate over the past decade. The magnitude and spatial patterns of temperature changes quantified by our simulations provide useful information for understanding the impacts of LUCC on climate and for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies in arid and semiarid regions.

  15. Changes in Land Use and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William B.; Turner, B. L., II

    1994-10-01

    This book deals with the relationship between land use and land cover: between human activities and the transformation of the Earth's surface. It describes the recent changes in the world's farmland, forests, grasslands and settlements, and the impacts of these changes on soil, water resources and the atmosphere. It explores what is known about the importance of various underlying human sources of land transformation: population growth, technological change, political-economic institutions, political structure, and attitudes and beliefs. Three working group reports outline important avenues for future research: the construction of a global land model, the division of the world into regional situations of land transformation, and a wiring diagram to structure the division of research among fields of study.

  16. Declining Snow Cover Reduces Radiative Cooling from Historic Land Use Change in the Western Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, B.; Rocha, A. V.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene is characterized by rapid changes in both land use and snow cover. The relative importance of these two forces remains unknown but may have important and long-term biophysical effects that are not adequately incorporated into current modeling efforts. Humans have altered the landscape of the Eastern U.S. both historically through deforestation during European settlement and more recently through climatic reductions in snow cover. Here we empirically reconstruct historic albedo in the Eastern U.S. using both modern and historic data. We focus on the Western Great Lakes region (MI, WI, MN, IL, IN), a global hotspot of historic deforestation that spans latitudes where anthropogenic climate modifications have produced important changes in snow cover. We find that vegetation changes have caused an overall increase in regional albedo that is strongest where intensive land use persists (i.e. agriculture) and weakest where forest regrowth has occurred. Changes in snow cover have caused an overall decrease in regional albedo that is about half as strong as increase in albedo due to vegetation change. Although the negative forcings of historic land use change may currently provide a radiative 'discount' on regional warming, these benefits are likely to disappear with time as snow cover decreases and forest regrowth continues.

  17. Land cover disturbance due to tourism in Jeseniky mountain region: a remote sensing and GIS based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Vozenilek, Vit

    2014-10-01

    The Jeseníky Mountains tourism in Czech Republic is unique for its floristic richness, which is caused mainly by the altitude division and polymorphism of the landscape; climate and oil structure are other important factors. This study assesses the impacts of tourism on the land cover in the Jeseniky mountain region by comparing multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1991, 2001 and 2013) to describe the rate and extent of land-cover change throughout the Jeseniky mountain region. This was achieved through spectral classification of different land cover and by assessing the change in forest; settlements; pasture and agriculture in relation to increasing distances (5, 10 and 15 km) from three tourism site. The results indicate that the area was deforested (11.13%) from 1991 to 2001 than experienced forest regrowth (6.71%) from 2001 to 2013. In first decay pasture and agriculture areas was increase and then in next decay it was decrease. The influence of tourism facilities on land cover is also variable. Around each of the tourism site sampled there was a general trend of forest removal decreasing as the distance from each village increased, which indicates tourism does have a negative impact on forests. However, there was an opposite trend from 2001 to 2013 that indicate conservation area. The interplay among global (tourism, climate), regional (national policies, large-river management), and local (construction and agriculture, energy and water sources to support the tourism industry) factors drives a distinctive but complex pattern of land-use and land-cover disturbance.

  18. Monitoring land cover dynamics in the Aral Sea region by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhoridze, Giorgi; Orlovsky, Leah; Orlovsky, Nikolai

    2012-10-01

    The Aral Sea ecological crisis resulted from the USSR government decision in 1960s to deploy agricultural project for cotton production in Central Asia. Consequently water flow in the Aral Sea decreased drastically due to the regulation of Amydarya and Syrdarya Rivers for irrigation purposes from 55-60 km3 in 1950s to 43 km3 in 1970s, 4 km3 in 1980s and 9-10 km3 in 2000s. Expert land cover classification approach gives the opportunity to use the unlimited variable for classification purposes. The band algebra (band5/band4 and Band4/Band3) and remote sensing indices (Normalized differential Salinity Index (NDSI), Salt Pan Index (SPI), Salt Index (SI), Normalized difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Albedo, Crust Index) utilized for the land cover classification has shown satisfactory result with classification overall accuracy 86.9 % and kappa coefficient 0.85. Developed research algorithm and obtained results can support monitoring system, contingency planning development, and improvement of natural resources rational management.

  19. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-11-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution-severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems. PMID:26569270

  20. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems. PMID:26569270

  1. Soil cover patterns and land resources in the south of the Selenga mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, T. V.; Tsybzhitov, Ts. Kh.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Soil cover patterns within the Kyakhta area of pine stands and the Kudarinsk area of dry steppes in the south of the Selenga mountainous region are characterized. The groups of soil combinations are shown on the map developed on a scale of 1: 500000. The areas of particular soils composing the combinations have been calculated. Thus, this small-scale soil map generally preserves information reflected on large- and medium-scale soil maps.

  2. Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant-functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling.

    PubMed

    Trondman, A-K; Gaillard, M-J; Mazier, F; Sugita, S; Fyfe, R; Nielsen, A B; Twiddle, C; Barratt, P; Birks, H J B; Bjune, A E; Björkman, L; Broström, A; Caseldine, C; David, R; Dodson, J; Dörfler, W; Fischer, E; van Geel, B; Giesecke, T; Hultberg, T; Kalnina, L; Kangur, M; van der Knaap, P; Koff, T; Kuneš, P; Lagerås, P; Latałowa, M; Lechterbeck, J; Leroyer, C; Leydet, M; Lindbladh, M; Marquer, L; Mitchell, F J G; Odgaard, B V; Peglar, S M; Persson, T; Poska, A; Rösch, M; Seppä, H; Veski, S; Wick, L

    2015-02-01

    We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for climate modelling. The REVEALS model was applied on 636 pollen records from lakes and bogs to reconstruct the past cover of 25 plant taxa grouped into 10 plant-functional types and three land-cover types [evergreen trees, summer-green (deciduous) trees, and open land]. The model corrects for some of the biases in pollen percentages by using pollen productivity estimates and fall speeds of pollen, and by applying simple but robust models of pollen dispersal and deposition. The emerging patterns of tree migration and deforestation between 6k bp and modern time in the REVEALS estimates agree with our general understanding of the vegetation history of Europe based on pollen percentages. However, the degree of anthropogenic deforestation (i.e. cover of cultivated and grazing land) at 3k, 0.5k, and 0.2k bp is significantly higher than deduced from pollen percentages. This is also the case at 6k in some parts of Europe, in particular Britain and Ireland. Furthermore, the relationship between summer-green and evergreen trees, and between individual tree taxa, differs significantly when expressed as pollen percentages or as REVEALS estimates of tree cover. For instance, when Pinus is dominant over Picea as pollen percentages, Picea is dominant over Pinus as REVEALS estimates. These differences play a major role in the reconstruction of European landscapes and for the study of land cover-climate interactions, biodiversity and human resources. PMID:25204435

  3. Effects of new MODIS land cover map replacement in a regional climate model on surface temperature and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.

    This study investigates the extent to which utilizing 1-km new the Moderate-resolution Imaging-Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data in the Pennsylvania State University/NCAR's MM5 coupled with Oregon State University (OSU) provides an improved regional diagnosis of near-surface atmospheric state variables as well as characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Those variables are strongly influenced by the energy, matter and momentum exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. MODIS data provides not only a detailed spatial distribution of vegetation, but also a delineation between water bodies and land surface for MM5 high-resolution applications. Advances in remote sensing technology allow MODIS to collect higher-quality data than previous sensors, yielding the most detailed land cover classification maps to date. The new maps are better because the quality of MODIS data is much higher than the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The default 25-category United States Geological Survey (USGS) land cover classification in MM5 was produced using data acquired in from 1992-1993 by AVHRR. Parameter sets of 17-category MODIS land use dataset are determined by making close match between MODIS, USGS and SIB categories to use in OSU land-surface model. 1-km Land-Water Mask (LWM) data is also derived from this new data as an input to MM5. When the MM5 horizontal grid increment is larger than 1-km (4-km and 12-km in current study), the dominant vegetation type in each grid box is selected to represent the ``grid level'' vegetation characteristics. The MODIS data consider the influence of detailed picture of the distribution of Earth's ecosystems in the surface energy and water budget and hence the evolution of the boundary layer. The impact on the near-surface temperature and humidity is given by making comparison between model and observations at selected land surface types.

  4. Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon daily rainfall and temperature during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, S.; Saha, S. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Chase, T. N.; Goswami, B. N.

    2015-07-01

    Daily moderate rainfall events, that constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 till 2005. Mean and extreme near surface daily temperature during the monsoon season have also increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) with prescribed vegetation cover of 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the above observed changes in moderate rainfall events and temperature have been caused by land-use land-cover change (LULCC) which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme temperature over central India coincides with the region of decreased (increased) forest (crop) cover. The results also show that land-use land-cover alone causes warming in the extremes of daily mean and maximum temperatures by maximum of 1-1.2 °C, that is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease (increase) in forest (crop) cover reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, apart from decreasing the moisture convergence. These factors act together not only in reducing the moderate rainfall events over central India but also the amount of rainfall in that category, significantly. This is the most interesting result of this study. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface temperatures. As a result, there is enhanced warming at the surface and decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India. Results from the additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of land-use land-cover change on increase in daily mean and extreme temperature and decrease in moderate rainfall events. This study not only demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over India, but also shows the necessity for inclusion of projected anthropogenic

  5. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  6. Development and testing of a statistical texture model for land cover classification of the Black Sea region with MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaneva, M. G.; Krezhova, D. D.; Yanev, T. K.

    2010-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed for analysis of the texture of land cover types for global and regional land cover classification by using texture features extracted by multiresolution image analysis techniques. It consists of four novel indices representing second-order texture, which are calculated after wavelet decomposition of an image and after texture extraction by a new approach that makes use of a four-pixel texture unit. The model was applied to four satellite images of the Black Sea region, obtained by Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS at different spatial resolution. In single texture classification experiments, we used 15 subimages (50 × 50 pixels) of the selected classes of land covers that are present in the satellite images studied. These subimages were subjected to one-level and two-level decompositions by using orthonormal spline and Gabor-like spline wavelets. The texture indices were calculated and used as feature vectors in the supervised classification system with neural networks. The testing of the model was based on the use of two kinds of widely accepted statistical texture quantities: five texture features determined by the co-occurrence matrix (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, inverse difference moment, entropy), and four statistical texture features determined after the wavelet transformation (mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy). The supervised neural network classification was performed and the discrimination ability of the proposed texture indices was found comparable with that for the sets of five GLCM texture features and four wavelet-based texture features. The results obtained from the neural network classifier showed that the proposed texture model yielded an accuracy of 92.86% on average after orthonormal wavelet decomposition and 100% after Gabor-like wavelet decomposition for texture classification of the examined land cover types on satellite images.

  7. Understanding the Effect of Land Cover Classification on Model Estimates of Regional Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest Biome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Kang, Sinkyu

    2003-01-01

    The original objectives of this proposed 3-year project were to: 1) quantify the respective contributions of land cover and disturbance (i.e., wild fire) to uncertainty associated with regional carbon source/sink estimates produced by a variety of boreal ecosystem models; 2) identify the model processes responsible for differences in simulated carbon source/sink patterns for the boreal forest; 3) validate model outputs using tower and field- based estimates of NEP and NPP; and 4) recommend/prioritize improvements to boreal ecosystem carbon models, which will better constrain regional source/sink estimates for atmospheric C02. These original objectives were subsequently distilled to fit within the constraints of a 1 -year study. This revised study involved a regional model intercomparison over the BOREAS study region involving Biome-BGC, and TEM (A.D. McGuire, UAF) ecosystem models. The major focus of these revised activities involved quantifying the sensitivity of regional model predictions associated with land cover classification uncertainties. We also evaluated the individual and combined effects of historical fire activity, historical atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and climate change on carbon and water flux simulations within the BOREAS study region.

  8. Accuracy Assessment for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Land-Cover Mapping Program: New York and New Jersey Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Yang, Limin; Stehman, Stephen V.; Czaplewski, Raymond L.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other government and private organizations, is producing a conterminous U.S. land-cover map using Landsat Thematic Mapper 30-meter data for the Federal regions designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Accuracy assessment is to be conducted for each Federal region to estimate overall and class-specific accuracies. In Region 2, consisting of New York and New Jersey, the accuracy assessment was completed for 15 land-cover and land-use classes, using interpreted 1:40,000-scale aerial photographs as reference data. The methodology used for Region 2 features a two-stage, geographically stratified approach, with a general sample of all classes (1,033 sample sites), and a separate sample for rare classes (294 sample sites). A confidence index was recorded for each land-cover interpretation on the 1:40,000-scale aerial photography The estimated overall accuracy for Region 2 was 63 percent (standard error 1.4 percent) using all sample sites, and 75.2 percent (standard error 1.5 percent) using only reference sites with a high-confidence index. User's and producer's accuracies for the general sample and user's accuracy for the sample of rare classes, as well as variance for the estimated accuracy parameters, were also reported. Narrowly defined land-use classes and heterogeneous conditions of land cover are the major causes of misclassification errors. Recommendations for modifying the accuracy assessment methodology for use in the other nine Federal regions are provided.

  9. Analysis of historical forest fire regime in Madrid region (1984-2010) and its relation with land-use/land-cover changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Nieto, Israel; Martín, María del Pilar; Salas, Francisco Javier; Gallardo, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between natural and socio-economic factors that determine fire regime is essential to make accurate projections and impact assessments. However, this requires having accurate historical, systematic, homogeneous and spatially explicit information on fire occurrence. Fire databases usually have serious limitations in this regard; therefore other sources of information, such as remote sensing, have emerged as alternatives to generate optimal fire maps on various spatial and temporal scales. Several national and international projects work in order to generate information to study the factors that determine the current fire regime and its future evolution. This work is included in the framework of the project "Forest fires under climate, social and economic Changes in Europe, the Mediterranean and other fire-affected areas of the World" (FUME http://www.fumeproject.eu), which aims to study the changes and factors related to fire regimes through time to determine the potential impacts on vegetation in Mediterranean regions and concrete steps to address future risk scenarios. We analyzed the changes in the fire regime in Madrid region (Spain) in the past three decades (1984-2010) and its relation to land use changes. We identified and mapped fires that have occurred in the region during those years using Landsat satellite images by combining digital techniques and visual analysis. The results show a clear cyclical behaviour of the fire, with years of high incidence (as 1985, 2000 and 2003, highlighted by the number of fires and the area concerned, over 2000 ha) followed by another with a clear occurrence decrease. At the same time, we analyzed the land use changes that have occurred in Madrid region between the early 80s and mid-2000s using as reference the CORINE Land-cover maps (1990, 2000 and 2006) and the Vegetation and Land Use map of the Community of Madrid, 1982. We studied the relationship between fire regimes and observed land

  10. A dynamic analysis of regional land use and cover changing (LUCC) by remote sensing and GIS: taking Fuzhou area as example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ming; Chen, Dawei; Huang, Ruihong; Ai, Tinghua

    2010-04-01

    Regional difference of environmental evolvements is one of important aspects in world change research program. Changes in land cover and in the way people use the land have become recognized as important global environmental change in many areas. Land-use and cover changing (LUCC) is one of the major studies of global changing lately. Land-use is the term which covers the condition of used-land, the method, extent, structure, regional distributing and benefits in the land-use. It is affected by the natural condition or is enslaved to the conditions in society, economy and technology, and social production mode plays a decisive role in land-use; land-cover is the state of covering which is formed on account of the earth's surface or contrived by human being, is the summary of vegetation and artificially covering on the earth's surface. So land-use and cover changing is connecting closely. Land-use and cover changing information points that information on the position, distributing, range, and size of land-use and cover changing in the certain time. Motivated by a global concern for sustainability and environmental quality in city, a considerable number of studies have utilized satellite sensor data in the analysis of urban morphological change .some studies focused on the physical and socioeconomic drivers of change in urban land cover and implications on land use practices and resource management. Other studies went beyond the characterization of change and its causes and attempted to integrate remotely sensed data with models of urban growth to project future change. GIS and RS technologies are widely applied for LUCC studies providing a powerful tool for capturing, storing, checking manipulating, merging, analyzing and displaying data. Especially RS technology are also widely used for LUCC studies such as automatic discovery changing, automatic extraction changing area, confirmation changing type, using interactive explanation accessorily to extract the changing

  11. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  12. Land Cover Mapping for the Development of Green House Gas (GHG) Inventories in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakhayanga, J. A.; Oduor, P.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the largest share of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Research has shown that greenhouse gases cause radioactive forcing in the stratosphere, leading to ozone depletion. Different land cover types act as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most dominant GHG.Under the oversight of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region countries are developing Sustainable National GHG Inventory Management Systems. While the countries in the ESA region are making substantial progress in setting up GHG inventories, there remains significant constraints in the development of quality and sustainable National GHG Inventory Systems. For instance, there are fundamental challenges in capacity building and technology transfer, which can affect timely and consistent reporting on the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) component of the GHG inventory development. SERVIR Eastern and Southern Africa is a partnership project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), an intergovernmental organization in Africa, with 21 member states in the ESA region. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), SERVIR ESA is implementing the GHG Project in 9 countries. The main deliverables of the project are land cover maps for the years 2000 and 2010 (also 1990 for Malawi and Rwanda), and related technical reports, as well as technical training in land cover mapping using replicable methodologies. Landsat imagery which is freely available forms the main component of earth observation input data, in addition to ancillary data collected from each country. Supervised classification using maximum likelihood algorithm is applied to the Landsat images. The work is completed for the initial 6 countries (Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Botswana, and

  13. Regional debris flow susceptibility analysis in mountainous peri-urban areas through morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2014-11-01

    A method for assessing regional debris flow susceptibility at the watershed scale, based on an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator, is proposed and applied in 106 peri-urban mountainous watersheds in Bogotá, Colombia. The indicator of debris flow susceptibility is obtained from readily available information common to most peri-urban mountainous areas and can be used to prioritise watersheds that can subsequently be subjected to detailed hazard analysis. Susceptibility is considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows occurring. Morphological variables recognised in the literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows are used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator is compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in identifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped into four indicators: size, shape, hypsometry and (potential) energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement and provided a more reliable assessment of debris flow susceptibility in the study area. The analysis shows that, even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. However, if favourable morphometric conditions are present

  14. Determining Robust Impacts of Land-Use-Induced Land Cover Changes on Surface Temperature over China and surrounding regions: Results from the First Set of LUCID Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Zheng; Guo, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The project Land-Use and Climate, Identification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) was designed to address the robustness of biogeophysical impacts of historical land use-land cover change (LULCC). LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore those impacts of LULCC that are robust and consistent across the climate models. The biogeophysical impacts of LULCC were also compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases and resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (hereafter SST/CO2). Focusing the analysis on China and surrounding regions, the climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced cooling is directed by decreases in absorbed solar radiation, but its amplitude is 30 to 50% smaller than the one that would be expected from the sole radiative changes. This results from direct impacts on the total turbulent energy flux (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as evapotranspiration efficiency or surface roughness) that decreases at all seasons, and thereby induces a relative warming in all models. The magnitude of those processes varies significantly from model to model, resulting on different climate responses to LULCC.

  15. High-resolution Land Cover Datasets, Composite Curve Numbers, and Storm Water Retention in the Tampa Bay, FL region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Policy makers need to understand how land cover change alters storm water regimes, yet existing methods do not fully utilize newly available datasets to quantify storm water changes at a landscape-scale. Here, we use high-resolution, remotely-sensed land cover, imperviousness, an...

  16. Sensitivity of boreal forest regional water flux and net primary production simulations to sub-grid-scale land cover complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.

    1999-11-01

    We use a general ecosystem process model (BIOME-BGC) coupled with remote sensing information to evaluate the sensitivity of boreal forest regional evapotranspiration (ET) and net primary production (NPP) to land cover spatial scale. Simulations were conducted over a 3 year period (1994-1996) at spatial scales ranging from 30 to 50 km within the BOREAS southern modeling subarea. Simulated fluxes were spatially complex, ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 18 to 29 cm yr-1. Biomass and leaf area index heterogeneity predominantly controlled this complexity, while biophysical differences between deciduous and coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Spatial aggregation of land cover characteristics resulted in mean monthly NPP estimation bias from 25 to 48% (0.11-0.20 g C m-2 d-1) and annual estimation errors from 2 to 14% (0.04-0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Error was reduced at longer time intervals because coarse scale overestimation errors during spring were partially offset by underestimation of fine scale results during summer and winter. ET was relatively insensitive to land cover spatial scale with an average bias of less than 5% (0.04 kg m-2 d-1). Factors responsible for differences in scaling behavior between ET and NPP included compensating errors for ET calculations and boreal forest spatial and temporal NPP complexity. Careful consideration of landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity is necessary to identify and mitigate potential error sources when using plot scale information to understand regional scale patterns. Remote sensing data integrated within an ecological process model framework provides an efficient mechanism to evaluate scaling behavior, interpret patterns in coarse resolution data, and identify appropriate scales of operation for various processes.

  17. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  18. Change detection of land use and land cover in an urban region with SPOT-5 images and partial Lanczos extreme learning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Han, Min; Yao, Wei; Chen, Liang-Chien; Xu, Shiguo

    2010-11-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology and the science associated with evaluation of land use and land cover (LULC) in an urban region makes use of the wide range images and algorithms. Improved land management capacity is critically dependent on real-time or near real-time monitoring of land-use/land cover change (LUCC) to the extent to which solutions to a whole host of urban/rural interface development issues may be well managed promptly. Yet previous processing with LULC methods is often time-consuming, laborious, and tedious making the outputs unavailable within the required time window. This paper presents a new image classification approach based on a novel neural computing technique that is applied to identify the LULC patterns in a fast growing urban region with the aid of 2.5-meter resolution SPOT-5 image products. The classifier was constructed based on the partial Lanczos extreme learning machine (PL-ELM), which is a novel machine learning algorithm with fast learning speed and outstanding generalization performance. Since some different classes of LULC may be linked with similar spectral characteristics, texture features and vegetation indexes were extracted and included during the classification process to enhance the discernability. A validation procedure based on ground truth data and comparisons with some classic classifiers prove the credibility of the proposed PL-ELM classification approach in terms of the classification accuracy as well as the processing speed. A case study in Dalian Development Area (DDA) with the aid of the SPOT-5 satellite images collected in the year of 2003 and 2007 and PL-ELM fully supports the monitoring needs and aids in the rapid change detection with respect to both urban expansion and coastal land reclamations.

  19. Impacts of land use/land cover change on regional carbon dynamics: an investigation along an urban-to-rural gradient in Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Allison L.; Briber, Brittain M.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Hutyra, Lucy R.

    2016-04-01

    More than half the world's population lives in cities, a fraction which is projected to increase over the next century. Land use and land cover changes associated with the urbanization process have important implications for vegetation and soil carbon cycling. The impact of urbanization on carbon dynamics is poorly understood, representing a major uncertainty in constraining regional carbon budgets. We initiated a suite of field measurements, remote sensing analyses, and modeling activities in order to investigate how urbanization alters carbon dynamics. We found that conversion of forest to urban land uses resulted in a decrease in overall biomass but a marked increase in productivity of the remaining vegetation. We also found that land use patterns had a profound impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on daily, seasonal, and annual timescales. Our results suggest that urbanization has a profound impact on regional carbon dynamics that extends from the time of land use change out well into the future, and the trajectory of urban carbon exchange in the future strongly depends on development patterns.

  20. Radiometric Normalization, Land Cover Classification, and Spatio-Temporal Change Detection Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery: a Case study of Land Development in the Eastern Nile Delta Region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulaziz, A. M.; Hurtado, J. M.; Al-Douri, R.

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates changes in land use associated with agricultural development and urban expansion in Eastern Nile Delta region from 1984 to 1990 and from 1990 to 2003. Three Landsat TM scenes were used to produce land use maps for the years 1984, 1990, and 2003. Normalization of corresponding bands in our multitemporal dataset enhanced the ability of classification algorithms to distinguish among spectrally similar, yet biophysically distinct, land use classes. The classes employed in this study include: "urban"," water", "marshland", "agricultural", and "fallow agricultural". Land use maps were prepared using a hybrid classification approach in which the ISODATA algorithm was used to identify training sites to be used in a subsequent supervised classification using the Minimum Distance to the Mean algorithm. This method resulted in an average overall accuracy of 94 percent in the resulting land use maps. Two change detection techniques were applied to the land use maps to produce "from-to" statistics and change detection maps with overall accuracies of ca. 90 percent. Our change detection results show that agricultural development during 1990- 2003 exceeded the amount of land reclamation during 1984-1990 by a factor of 2 reflecting unswerving development. We also find that the increase in urbanization (ca. 52674 acres) during 1990-2003 was predominantly due to encroachment into traditionally cultivated land at the fringes of urban centers. A marked decrease in wetland area, resulting from conversion to agricultural land northwest of Lake El Manzala was also documented. Our change detection maps show that recent agricultural development is concentrated around the eastern part of Ismaelia Canal and east of the northern part of Bahr El Baqar Drain. Furthermore the expansion of urban land dominated the desert fringe east of Cairo during 1984-1990, and overwhelmed traditionally cultivated land through 1990-2003. Three regions of maximum change, or hotspots, were

  1. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change and Associated Changes in Hydrological Cycle and Energy Exchange Processes in Monsoon Asian Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.; Liang, M.; Barman, R.; Erickson, M.; Cao, L.; Bala, G.

    2009-12-01

    The climate system is affected by land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC) through changes in hydrological cycle, energy exchange processes and soil biogeochemistry. These changes affect climate both at global and regional scales. Here, we use the terrestrial component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), with satellite data to examine the effects of LULCC and other terrestrial ecosystem processes on variability in soil hydrology and energy fluxes in monsoon Asian region. ISAM’s energy and hydrology processes have been adapted from the Common Land Model (CoLM) and the Community Land Model (CLM 3.5), respectively. CoLM uses a two-big-leaf scheme for modeling canopy temperature, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, improving CO2 and water flux estimates. The soil/snow hydrology, incorporated from CLM3.5 (10 layers for soil and up to 5 layers for snow) improves runoff and ground water table predictions. This talk will focus on describing the results of a series of modeling experiments investigating the influence of LULCC on terrestrial moisture flux, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and continental runoff (surface & subsurface) in monsoon Asian region. These experiments were conducted based on measured activities of LULCC and observed atmospheric forcings over the last century.

  2. Urban land cover classification using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G.; Ahamed, J. Mohammed; Hebbar, R.; Raj, U.

    2014-11-01

    Urban land cover classification using remote sensing data is quite challenging due to spectrally and spatially complex urban features. The present study describes the potential use of hyperspectral data for urban land cover classification and its comparison with multispectral data. EO-1 Hyperion data of October 05, 2012 covering parts of Bengaluru city was analyzed for land cover classification. The hyperspectral data was initially corrected for atmospheric effects using MODTRAN based FLAASH module and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation was applied to reduce data dimensionality. The threshold Eigen value of 1.76 in VNIR region and 1.68 in the SWIR region was used for selection of 145 stable bands. Advanced per pixel classifiers viz., Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for general urban land cover classification. Accuracy assessment of the classified data revealed that SVM was quite superior (82.4 per cent) for urban land cover classification as compared to SAM (67.1 per cent). Selecting training samples using end members significantly improved the classification accuracy by 20.1 per cent in SVM. The land cover classification using multispectral LISS-III data using SVM showed lower accuracy mainly due to limitation of spectral resolution. The study indicated the requirement of additional narrow bands for achieving reasonable classification accuracy of urban land cover. Future research is focused on generating hyperspectral library for different urban features.

  3. Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon daily rainfall and temperature during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Chase, Thomas N.; Nath Goswami, Bhupendra

    2016-05-01

    Daily moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface daily temperature during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and temperature have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme temperature over central India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of daily mean and maximum temperatures by a maximum of 1-1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface temperatures over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in daily mean and extreme temperature over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over

  4. Correlations between land covers and honey bee colony losses in a country with industrialized and rural regions.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Antoine; Eickermann, Michael; Kraus, François; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2015-11-01

    High levels of honey bee colony losses were recently reported from Canada, China, Europe, Israel, Turkey and the United States, raising concerns of a global pollinator decline and questioning current land use practices, in particular intense agricultural cropping systems. Sixty-seven crops (data from the years 2010-2012) and 66 mid-term stable land cover classes (data from 2007) were analysed for statistical relationships with the honey bee colony losses experienced over the winters 2010/11-2012/13 in Luxembourg (Western Europe). The area covered by each land cover class, the shortest distance between each land cover class and the respective apiary, the number of plots covered by each land use class and the size of the biggest plot of each land cover class within radii of 2 km and 5 km around 166 apiaries (2010), 184 apiaries (2011) and 188 apiaries (2012) were tested for correlations with honey bee colony losses (% per apiary) experienced in the winter following the season when the crops were grown. Artificial water bodies, open urban areas, large industrial facilities including heavy industry, railways and associated installations, buildings and installations with socio-cultural purpose, camping-, sports-, playgrounds, golf courts, oilseed crops other than oilseed rape like sunflower or linseed, some spring cereals and former forest clearcuts or windthrows were the land cover classes most frequently associated with high honey bee colony losses. Grain maize, mixed forest and mixed coniferous forest were the land cover classes most frequently associated with low honey bee colony losses. The present data suggest that land covers related to transport, industry and leisure may have made a more substantial contribution to winter honey bee colony losses in developed countries than anticipated so far. Recommendations for the positioning of apiaries are discussed. PMID:26057621

  5. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  6. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  7. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  8. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  9. Using land-cover data to understand effects of agricultural and urban development on regional water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.; Warner, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    The Land-Cover Trends project is a collaborative effort between the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary land-use and land-cover change in the United States. The data produced from this research can lead to an enriched understanding of the drivers of future landuse change, effects on environmental systems, and any associated feedbacks. USGS scientists are using the EPA Level III ecoregions as the geographic framework to process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. General land-cover classes for these periods were interpreted from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize and evaluate land-cover change using a modified Anderson Land-Use/Land-Cover Classification System for image interpretation.

  10. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  11. From Land-surface Snow Cover To Routed River Discharge In The Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, P.; Gollvik, S.; Graham, L. P.; Bringfelt, B.

    The purpose of a land-surface scheme (LSS) in a coupled atmosphere- land-ocean model system is in general to provide the atmosphere with correct turbulent and radia- tion fluxes and to provide the routing scheme with correct water runoff flux. ``Correct" includes both amounts and time distributions. Snow is a very important process to con- sider in a LSS used for simulations at high latitudes. Snow has extreme radiation and heat transfer properties and it accumulates water during the winter season. Therefore, both amount and distribution of snow have to be carefully simulated. The LSS in the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA) separates snow storage on open land and in forest. Both storages are single-layered, include liquid water and use the en- ergy balance to solve for time changes in temperature and water storage. The runoff generated from i.e. snow melt in each grid cell is used in a routing scheme to produce river discharge for the ocean model. The routing scheme is based on the hydrological HBV model which means that it is separately calibrated for each individual sub-basin. Validations of snow cover and river discharge simulations will be presented.

  12. The Effects of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change on Global and Regional Climate in the Preindustrial Holocene: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) scenarios that cover all or part of the preindustrial Holocene (11,700 BP to ~AD 1850) has led to a number of modelling studies on the impacts of land cover change on climate, using both GCMs and regional climate models. Because most ALCC scenarios arrive at similar estimates of anthropogenic deforestation by the late preindustrial, most models agree that the net biogeophysical effect of ALCC by AD 1850 is regional cooling at mid- to high-latitudes and warming and drying over the tropics and subtropics. In particular, tropical deforestation appears to lead to local amplification of externally forced drought cycles, e.g., from ENSO. The spatial extent of these climate changes varies between models because the choice of ALCC scenario leads to large differences in the initial forcing. Those model studies that considered biogeochemical feedbacks show that the importance of preindustrial CO2 emissions ranges from being insignificant to larger than the global biogeophysical feedback, depending on assumptions made about potential natural atmospheric CO2 at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. While the net magnitude of deforestation is similar among ALCC scenarios at AD 1850, the timing of deforestation varies widely, which, in addition to affecting the inferred importance of biogeochemical feedbacks, leads to large differences in the estimated importance of ALCC on climate earlier in the Holocene. For example, modelling experiments performed on Europe and the Mediterranean representing conditions at the peak of the Roman Empire or in Mesoamerica for the Classic Maya period show large differences in the estimated importance of the biogeophysical feedback to regional climate depending on the ALCC scenario used. The wide variety of results gained so far from ALCC and climate modelling experiments shows that the question of "how much did humans influence the state of the Earth System before the

  13. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was

  14. Relationships between Stream Biotic Integrity and Satellite-derived Land Cover Metrics in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, B.; Goetz, S.; Jantz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The condition of an aquatic system is determined in large part by the condition and use of the surrounding drainage basin. Increased knowledge about the relationship between stream health, land use and landscape metrics is thus useful for both water and land resource management. Multimetric stream health indices of aquatic condition reflect water chemistry, biologic condition, and physical habitat. The impact of land uses immediately adjacent to streams is influenced, and can be mitigated by vegetated stream buffers. We report on a multivariate and regression analysis of the relationship between satellite-derived landscape characteristics and stream indices in Maryland. Whole watershed characteristics and riparian characteristics were obtained from a land use/land cover map developed from Landsat satellite data. Landscape variables were derived and analyzed relative to the benthic and fish indices of biotic integrity. Associations among the water and land variables were analyzed using stepwise regression, factor analysis, and regression trees. Percent impervious surface cover and tree cover (whether in the watershed or the buffer zone) explained most of the variation in watershed health. We also considered metrics accounting for the spatial configuration of the landscape, such as the amount of impervious cover in the flow path from surrounding lands to the stream. These were also found to be significant predictors of stream health, but were second-order predictors. Our results suggest that best management practices designed to improve stream water quality should focus on the amount of impervious area and tree cover in both the watershed and within the buffer zone.

  15. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  16. Do we need to account for scenarios of land use/land cover changes in regional climate modeling and impact studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Susanna; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Perrin, Mathieu; Stefanon, Marc

    2016-04-01

    By modifying the Earth's natural landscapes, humans have introduced an imbalance in the Earth System's energy, water and emission fluxes via land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs). Through land-atmosphere interactions, LULCCs influence weather, air quality and climate at different scales, from regional/local (a few ten kilometres) (Pielke et al., 2011) to global (a few hundred kilometres) (Mahmood et al., 2014). Therefore, in the context of climate change, LULCCs will play a role locally/regionally in altering weather/atmospheric conditions. In addition to the global climate change impacts, LULCCs will possibly induce further changes in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and thereby affect adaptation strategies. If LULCCs influence weather/atmospheric conditions, could land use planning alter climate conditions and ease the impact of climate change by wisely shaping urban and rural landscapes? Nowadays, numerical land-atmosphere modelling allows to assess LULCC impacts at different scales (e.g., Marshall et al., 2003; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al., 2011). However, most scenarios of climate changes used to force impact models result from downscaling procedures that do not account for LULCCs (e.g., Jacob et al., 2014). Therefore, if numerical modelling may help in tackling the discussion about LULCCs, do existing LULCC scenarios encompass realistic changes in terms of land use planning? In the present study, we apply a surface model to compare projected LULCC scenarios over France and to assess their impacts on surface fluxes (i.e., water, heat and carbon dioxide fluxes) and on water and carbon storage in soils. To depict future LULCCs in France, we use RCP scenarios from the IPCC AR5 report (Moss et al., 2011). LULCCs encompassed in RCPs are discussed in terms of: (a) their impacts on water and energy balance over France, and (b) their feasibility in the framework of land use planning in France. This study is the first step to quantify the sensitivity of land

  17. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission. PMID:27171475

  18. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A.; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission. PMID:27171475

  19. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  20. Ecoregions and land cover trends in Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Sall, M.; Wood, E.C.; Cushing, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines long-term changes in Senegal's natural resources. We monitor and quantify land use and land cover changes occurring across Senegal using nearly 40 years of satellite imagery, aerial surveys, and fieldwork. We stratify Senegal into ecological regions and present land use and land cover trends for each region, followed by a national summary. Results aggregated to the national level show moderate change, with a modest decrease in savannas from 74 to 70 percent from 1965 to 2000, and an expansion of cropland from 17 to 21 percent. However, at the ecoregion scale, we observed rapid change in some and relative stability in others. One particular concern is the decline in Senegal's biodiverse forests. However, in the year 2000, Senegal's savannas, woodlands, and forests still cover more than two-thirds of the country, and the rate of agricultural expansion has slowed.

  1. Elements of regional beetle faunas: faunal variation and compositional breakpoints along climate, land cover and geographical gradients.

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani; Alahuhta, Janne

    2015-03-01

    Regional faunas are structured by historical, spatial and environmental factors. We studied large-scale variation in four ecologically different beetle groups (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Carabidae, Hydrophiloidea, Cerambycidae) along climate, land cover and geographical gradients, examined faunal breakpoints in relation to environmental variables, and investigated the best fit pattern of assemblage variation (i.e. randomness, checkerboards, nestedness, evenly spaced, Gleasonian, Clementsian). We applied statistical methods typically used in the analysis of local ecological communities to provide novel insights into faunal compositional patterns at large spatial grain and geographical extent. We found that spatially structured variation in climate and land cover accounted for most variation in each beetle group in partial redundancy analyses, whereas the individual effect of each explanatory variable group was generally much less important in accounting for variation in provincial species composition. We also found that climate variables were most strongly associated with faunal breakpoints, with temperature-related variables alone accounting for about 20% of variation at the first node of multivariate regression tree for each beetle group. The existence of faunal breakpoints was also shown by the 'elements of faunal structure' analyses, which suggested Clementsian gradients across the provinces, that is, that there were two or more clear groups of species responding similarly to the underlying ecological gradients. The four beetle groups showed highly similar biogeographical patterns across our study area. The fact that temperature was related to faunal breakpoints in the species composition of each beetle group suggests that climate sets a strong filter to the distributions of species at this combination of spatial grain and spatial extent. This finding held true despite the ecological differences among the four beetle groups, ranging from fully aquatic to fully

  2. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, M.-J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; Kaplan, J. O.; Trondman, A.-K.; Broström, A.; Hickler, T.; Kjellström, E.; Kuneš, P.; Lemmen, C.; Olofsson, J.; Smith, B.; Strandberg, G.

    2010-03-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover - CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4) to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need of REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is proved to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. Thus, the application of REVEALS opens up the possibility of achieving a more robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs) at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to

  3. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, M.-J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; Trondman, A.-K.; Broström, A.; Hickler, T.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kjellström, E.; Kokfelt, U.; Kuneš, P.; Lemmen, C.; Miller, P.; Olofsson, J.; Poska, A.; Rundgren, M.; Smith, B.; Strandberg, G.; Fyfe, R.; Nielsen, A. B.; Alenius, T.; Balakauskas, L.; Barnekow, L.; Birks, H. J. B.; Bjune, A.; Björkman, L.; Giesecke, T.; Hjelle, K.; Kalnina, L.; Kangur, M.; van der Knaap, W. O.; Koff, T.; Lagerâs, P.; Latałowa, M.; Leydet, M.; Lechterbeck, J.; Lindbladh, M.; Odgaard, B.; Peglar, S.; Segerström, U.; von Stedingk, H.; Seppä, H.

    2010-07-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover - CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4) to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need for methods such as the REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is demonstrated to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. This will achieve a robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs) at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data to reassess

  4. Comparison Of Multi-Frequency SAR Land Cover Signatures For Multi-Site Semi-Arid Regions Of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spies, Bernard; Lamb, Alistair; Brown, Sarah, Balzter, Heiko; Fisher, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This study shows the analysis and comparison of different SAR backscatter signatures (σ0 distributions) for distinguishable land cover types over two semi-arid test sites in Africa. The two sites that were chosen are located in Tanzania and Chad, where existing multi- frequency data was available from the different synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archives. Images were grouped into wet and dry season for the Tanzania site, whereas only dry season imagery was available for the Chad site. An IsoData unsupervised classification was applied on all three sets of images to classify seven land cover classes. Random samples were taken from each of the classes, resulting in σ0 distributions for the different classes for each site. These SAR land cover signatures are interpreted and discussed, with further steps identified.

  5. Land Use and Land Cover Analysis in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. S.; Giriraj, A.

    Information on land use/land cover in the form of maps and statistical data is very vital for spatial planning, management and utilization of land. Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) scenario in India has undergone a radical change since the onset of economic revolution in early 1990s. These changes involve a series of complex interaction between biophysical and socioeconomic variables. LULC follows a set of scientific themes which includes detection and monitoring, carbon and biogeochemical cycle, ecosystems and biodiversity, water and energy cycle, predictive land use modeling and climate variability and change. With the changing times and increasing demand on the availability of information on land use/land cover, it becomes necessary to have a standard classification system, precise definition of land use/land cover and its categories, uniform procedures of data collection and mapping on different scales over Indian region. The current review thus attempts to focus on development of a national goal towards changes in LULC as a necessary step for an interdisciplinary research program involving climate, ecological and socioeconomic drives, the processes of change and the responses and consequences of change.

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF THE STRESSORS AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION, LAND USE, AND LAND COVER CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and re~ona1 to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential of those activities. LULC...

  7. Do we need to account for scenarios of land use/land cover changes in regional climate modeling and impact studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Susanna; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Perrin, Mathieu; Stefanon, Marc

    2016-04-01

    By modifying the Earth's natural landscapes, humans have introduced an imbalance in the Earth System's energy, water and emission fluxes via land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs). Through land-atmosphere interactions, LULCCs influence weather, air quality and climate at different scales, from regional/local (a few ten kilometres) (Pielke et al., 2011) to global (a few hundred kilometres) (Mahmood et al., 2014). Therefore, in the context of climate change, LULCCs will play a role locally/regionally in altering weather/atmospheric conditions. In addition to the global climate change impacts, LULCCs will possibly induce further changes in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and thereby affect adaptation strategies. If LULCCs influence weather/atmospheric conditions, could land use planning alter climate conditions and ease the impact of climate change by wisely shaping urban and rural landscapes? Nowadays, numerical land-atmosphere modelling allows to assess LULCC impacts at different scales (e.g., Marshall et al., 2003; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al., 2011). However, most scenarios of climate changes used to force impact models result from downscaling procedures that do not account for LULCCs (e.g., Jacob et al., 2014). Therefore, if numerical modelling may help in tackling the discussion about LULCCs, do existing LULCC scenarios encompass realistic changes in terms of land use planning? In the present study, we apply a surface model to compare projected LULCC scenarios over France and to assess their impacts on surface fluxes (i.e., water, heat and carbon dioxide fluxes) and on water and carbon storage in soils. To depict future LULCCs in France, we use RCP scenarios from the IPCC AR5 report (Moss et al., 2011). LULCCs encompassed in RCPs are discussed in terms of: (a) their impacts on water and energy balance over France, and (b) their feasibility in the framework of land use planning in France. This study is the first step to quantify the sensitivity of land

  8. Land cover: national inventory of vegetation and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) produces data and tools that help meet critical national challenges such as biodiversity conservation, renewable energy development, climate change adaptation, and infrastructure investment. The GAP national land cover includes data on the vegetation and land-use patterns of the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. This national dataset combines land cover data generated by regional GAP projects with Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) data. LANDFIRE is an interagency vegetation, fire, and fuel characteristics mapping program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

  9. Identifying the fingerprints of the anthropogenic component of land use/land cover changes on regional climate of the USA high plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutiibwa, D.; Irmak, S.

    2011-12-01

    The majority of recent climate change studies have largely focused on detection and attribution of anthropogenic forcings of greenhouse gases, aerosols, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. However, there is growing evidence that land cover/land use (LULC) change can significantly impact atmospheric processes from local to regional weather and climate variability. Human activities such as conversion of natural ecosystem to croplands and urban-centers, deforestation and afforestation impact biophysical properties of the land surfaces including albedo, energy balance, moisture-holding capacity of soil, and surface roughness. Alterations in these properties affect the heat and moisture exchanges between the land surface and atmospheric boundary layer, and ultimately impact the climate system. The challenge is to demonstrate that LULC changes produce a signal that can be discerned from natural climate noise. In this study, we attempt to detect the signature of anthropogenic forcing of LULC change on climate on regional scale. The signal projector investigated for detecting the signature of LULC changes on regional climate of the High Plains of the USA is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). NDVI is an indicator that captures short and long-term geographical distribution of vegetation surfaces. The study develops an enhanced signal processing procedure to maximize the signal to noise ratio by introducing a pre-filtering technique of ARMA processes on the investigated climate and signal variables, before applying the optimal fingerprinting technique to detect the signals of LULC changes on observed climate, temperature, in the High Plains. The intent is to filter out as much noise as possible while still retaining the essential features of the signal by making use of the known characteristics of the noise and the anticipated signal. The study discusses the approach of identifying and suppressing the autocorrelation in optimal fingerprint analysis by

  10. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  11. Investigation and comparison of land-cover change patterns in Xuzhou city, China, and Dortmund city region, Germany, using multitemporal Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Thinh, Nguyen Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of land-cover (LC) change is important for assessing environmental consequences of urban growth and supporting land management and planning. Less attention, however, has been given to the comparison between land-cover change patterns in developing and developed countries. In this study, Xuzhou city and Dortmund city region were selected as study areas. Multitemporal Landsat images were classified by using the integration method of maximum likelihood classifier, subpixel classifier, and multiple normalized difference vegetation index values based on Vegetation-Impervious Surface-Soil model. Urban growth patterns and processes of the two study areas were investigated and compared through land-cover change detection, buffer analysis, and jaggedness degree. The results indicated that the urban area in Xuzhou city increased more than threefold dramatically from 128.5 to 418.3 km2, and the increased sprawling development trend was observed during the study period, while Dortmund city region showed a slight increase from 498 to 715.5 km2 in urban areas with an increasingly compact development trend. The results revealed a notable difference of spatiotemporal land-cover pattern dynamics between the two study areas as well as confirmed the effectiveness of the combined method of remote sensing and spatial analysis that can be used to support land management and policy decisions.

  12. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  13. Challenges in Global Land Use/Land Cover Change Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    For the purposes of projecting and anticipating human-induced land use change at the global scale, much work remains in the systematic mapping and modeling of world-wide land uses and their related dynamics. In particular, research has focused on tropical deforestation, loss of prime agricultural land, loss of wild land and open space, and the spread of urbanization. Fifteen years of experience in modeling land use and land cover change at the regional and city level with the cellular automata model SLEUTH, including cross city and regional comparisons, has led to an ability to comment on the challenges and constraints that apply to global level land use change modeling. Some issues are common to other modeling domains, such as scaling, earth geometry, and model coupling. Others relate to geographical scaling of human activity, while some are issues of data fusion and international interoperability. Grid computing now offers the prospect of global land use change simulation. This presentation summarizes what barriers face global scale land use modeling, but also highlights the benefits of such modeling activity on global change research. An approach to converting land use maps and forecasts into environmental impact measurements is proposed. Using such an approach means that multitemporal mapping, often using remotely sensed sources, and forecasting can also yield results showing the overall and disaggregated status of the environment.

  14. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    land cover and their attributes, researchers manipulate the colors recorded by the satellite to get the combination of wavelengths that best distinguishes the spectral signature of the land cover they wish to identify. After an area of forest or water or grass is identified, they can outline the category on an easy-to-analyze, color-coded map. To verify their results, the scientists will often travel to the regions of interest and compare the results of the map with test sites on the ground. next: The Basic Vegetation Map back: Mapping Earth's Diverse Landscapes

  15. A Landscape Indicator Approach to the Identification and Articulation of the Consequences of Land-Cover Change in the Mid-Atlantic Region, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley E.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape indicators, derived from land-use and land-cover data, hydrology, nitrate deposition, and elevation data, were used by Jones and others (2001a) to calculate the ecological consequences of land-cover change. Nitrate loading and physical bird habitat were modeled from 1973 and 1992 land-cover and other spatial data for the Mid-Atlantic region. Utilizing the same methods, this study extends the analysis another decade with the use of the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset. Land-cover statistics and trends are calculated for three time periods: 1973-1992, 1992-2001 and 1973-2001. In addition, high-resolution aerial photographs (1 meter or better ground-sample distance) were acquired and analyzed for thirteen pairs of adjacent USGS 7.5 minute quadrangle maps in areas where distinct positive or negative changes to nitrogen loading and bird habitat were previously calculated. During the entire 30 year period, the data show that there was extensive loss of agriculture and forest area and a major increase in urban land-cover classes. However, the majority of the conversion of other classes to urban occurred during the 1992-2001 period. During the 1973-1992 period, there was only moderate increase in urban area, while there was an inverse relationship between agricultural change and forest change. In general, forest gain and agricultural loss was found in areas of improving landscape indicators, and forest loss and agricultural gain was found to occur in areas of declining indicators related to habitat and nitrogen loadings, which was generally confirmed by the aerial photographic analysis. In terms of the specific model results, bird habitat, which is mainly related to the extent of forest cover, declined overall with forest extent, but was also affected more in the decline of habitat quality. Nitrate loading, which is mainly related to agricultural land cover actually improved from 1992-2001, and in the overall study, mainly due to the conversion of agriculture to

  16. Assessment of land cover change and desertification using remote sensing technology in a local region of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamchin, Munkhnasan; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Moonil; Lim, Chul-Hee; Choi, Hyun-Ah; Kim, So-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Desertification is a serious ecological, environmental, and socio-economic threat to the world, and there is a pressing need to develop a reasonable and reproducible method to assess it at different scales. In this paper, the Hogno Khaan protected area in Mongolia was selected as the study area, and a quantitative method for assessing land cover change and desertification assessment was developed using Landsat TM/ETM+ data on a local scale. In this method, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), TGSI (Topsoil Grain Size Index), and land surface albedo were selected as indicators for representing land surface conditions from vegetation biomass, landscape pattern, and micrometeorology. A Decision Tree (DT) approach was used to assess the land cover change and desertification of the Hogno Khaan protected area in 1990, 2002, and 2011. Our analysis showed no correlation between NDVI and albedo or TGSI but high correlation between TGSI and albedo. Strong correlations (0.77-0.92) between TGSI and albedo were found in the non-desertification areas. The TGSI was less strongly correlated with albedo in the low and non desertification areas, at 0.70 and 0.92; respectively. The desertification of the study area is increasing each year; in the desertification map for 1990-2002, there is a decrease in areas of zero and low desertification, and an increase in areas of high and severe desertification. From 2002 to 2011, areas of non desertification increased significantly, with areas of severe desertification also exhibiting increase, while areas of medium and high desertification demonstrated little change.

  17. Land Cover Indicators for U.S. National Climate Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channan, S.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, K. M.; Sexton, J. O.; Torrens, P.; Emanuel, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Land is a critical resource for human habitat and for the vast majority of human activities. Many natural resources are derived from terrestrial ecosystems or otherwise extracted from the landscape. Terrestrial biodiversity depends on land attributes as do people's perceptions of the value of land, including its value for recreation or tourism. Furthermore, land surface properties and processes affect weather and climate, and land cover change and land management affect emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, land cover with its close association with climate is so pervasive that a land cover indicator is of fundamental importance to U.S. national climate assessments and related research. Moderate resolution remote sensing products (MODIS) were used to provide systematic data on annual distributions of land cover over the period 2001-2012. Selected Landsat observations and data products further characterize land cover at higher resolution. Here we will present the prototype for a suite of land cover indicators including land cover maps as well as charts depicting attributes such as composition by land cover class, statistical indicators of landscape characteristics, and tabular data summaries indispensable for communicating the status and trends of U.S. land cover at national, regional and state levels.

  18. Modeling the potential contribution of land cover changes to the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model: impact of lateral boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Xue, Yongkang

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "idealized-but-realistic" land cover degradation on the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified based on a large number of control-and-experiment pairs of simulations, where the experiment features a degraded land cover relative to the control. Two different approaches of experimental design are tested: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived

  19. Downscaling Global Land Cover Projections from an Integrated Assessment Model for Use in Regional Analyses: Results and Evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095

    SciTech Connect

    West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Huang, Maoyi; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-06-05

    Projections of land cover change generated from Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at subregional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land use at the sub-continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5 degree).

  20. A Regional Modeling Study of the Influence of Urban Land Cover Change on the Lower Atmosphere in Baltimore-Washington DC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, J.; Gallo, K.; Pielke, R.; Rozoff, C.; Steyaert, L.

    2001-12-01

    The land-use and land cover (LULC) history of the Baltimore-Washington region has been intensively studied through a variety of environmental research collaborations and regional partnerships. One such partnership, the Baltimore-Washington Regional Collaboratory, involved multiple Federal and local agencies cooperating on a 200-year urban growth study in the Chesapeake region. Information from this study on pre-1900 and current LULC conditions for the Baltimore-Washington DC area was integrated with data from other sources to construct different lower boundary conditions for a series of simulations using the Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). We use the RAMS simulations to diagnose the extent and nature of the effect of urban anomalies in surface heat, moisture, and momentum on mid-summer local and regional climate. The experimental design adopted for this study takes advantage of the grid-nesting capability of RAMS. A fine grid with 1km horizontal resolution was nested into a coarser 5 km grid, which extends from southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, to parts of Virginia, and West Virginia. Two sets of month-long simulations for July 2000 were conducted with RAMS running in parallel on a 26-processor cluster of computers at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), CSU. In the first set of simulations, we initially used satellite-derived current land cover data as the lower boundary condition in a 31-day RAMS run. We then replaced this data with the pre-1900 land cover data for the same region and ran a similar RAMS simulation. Identical observed meteorology was retained for the lateral boundary conditions in both cases. The model results for the initial run were validated with July 2000 surface climate data and flux measurements of sensible and latent heat from sites located within the fine grid model domain. Additional simulations were conducted to compare RAMS model performance using prescribed land

  1. A comparative analysis of the Global Land Cover 2000 and MODIS land cover data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Reed, B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced

  2. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail

  3. Estimating Landscape Pattern Metrics from a Sample of Land Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although landscape pattern metrics can be computed directly from wall-to-wall land-cover maps, statistical sampling offers a practical alternative when complete coverage land-cover information is unavailable. Partitioning a region into spatial units (“blocks”) to create a samplin...

  4. AVHRR channel selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping land cover of large regions often requires processing of satellite images collected from several time periods at many spectral wavelength channels. However, manipulating and processing large amounts of image data increases the complexity and time, and hence the cost, that it takes to produce a land cover map. Very few studies have evaluated the importance of individual Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels for discriminating cover types, especially the thermal channels (channels 3, 4 and 5). Studies rarely perform a multi-year analysis to determine the impact of inter-annual variability on the classification results. We evaluated 5 years of AVHRR data using combinations of the original AVHRR spectral channels (1-5) to determine which channels are most important for cover type discrimination, yet stabilize inter-annual variability. Particular attention was placed on the channels in the thermal portion of the spectrum. Fourteen cover types over the entire state of Colorado were evaluated using a supervised classification approach on all two-, three-, four- and five-channel combinations for seven AVHRR biweekly composite datasets covering the entire growing season for each of 5 years. Results show that all three of the major portions of the electromagnetic spectrum represented by the AVHRR sensor are required to discriminate cover types effectively and stabilize inter-annual variability. Of the two-channel combinations, channels 1 (red visible) and 2 (near-infrared) had, by far, the highest average overall accuracy (72.2%), yet the inter-annual classification accuracies were highly variable. Including a thermal channel (channel 4) significantly increased the average overall classification accuracy by 5.5% and stabilized inter-annual variability. Each of the thermal channels gave similar classification accuracies; however, because of the problems in consistently interpreting channel 3 data, either channel 4 or 5 was found to be a more

  5. Land cover classification for Puget Sound, 1974-1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eby, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Digital analysis of LANDSAT data for land cover classification projects in the Puget Sound region is surveyed. Two early rural and urban land use classifications and their application are described. After acquisition of VICAR/IBIs software, another land use classification of the area was performed, and is described in more detail. Future applications are considered.

  6. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  7. Analysis of impacts of urban land use and land cover on air quality in the Las Vegas region using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.

    2007-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada (USA) has expanded rapidly over the past 50 years. The air quality in the valley has suffered owing to increases from anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide, ozone and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Air quality observations show that pollutant concentrations have apparent heterogeneous characteristics in the urban area. Quantified urban land use and land cover information derived from satellite remote sensing data indicate an apparent local influence of urban development density on air pollutant distributions. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations specify that ozone maximums develop in the May and June timeframe, whereas minimum concentrations generally occur from November to February. The fine particulate matter maximum occurs in July. Ozone concentrations are highest on the west and northwest sides of the valley. Night-time ozone reduction contributes to the heterogeneous features of the spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggest that the highest ozone and lowest nitrogen oxides concentrations are associated with medium to low density urban development in Las Vegas.

  8. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. PMID:25181944

  9. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  10. THEMATIC ACCURACY OF THE 1992 NATIONAL LAND-COVER DATA (NLCD) FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY AND REGIONAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) map is assessed via a probability sampling design incorporating three levels of stratification and two stages of selection. Agreement between the map and reference land-cover labels is defined as a match between the primary or a...

  11. Alaska interim land cover mapping program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

  12. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  13. Monitoring urban land cover change by updating the national land cover database impervious surface products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious conditions. To ensure timely and relevant data, it is important to update this base to a more recent time period. A prototype method was developed to update the land cover and impervious surface by individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season from both 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, impervious surface was estimated for areas of change by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain a variety of metropolitan areas. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of impervious surface changes associated with urban developments were accurately captured and updated. The approach optimizes mapping efficiency and can provide users a flexible method to generate updated impervious surface at national and regional scales. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  14. An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

  15. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  16. Remote sensing of boreal forest terrain: Sub-pixel scale mixture analysis of land cover and biophysical parameters at forest stand and regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddle, Derek Roland

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have focused attention on the global carbon cycle. Predicted climate change scenarios indicate the release of large stores of organic carbon in boreal forest regions could have profound ecological, cultural and economic impacts on agricultural, boreal and Arctic tundra zones. Remote sensing provides the only comprehensive information to monitor such large tracts of land, however, conventional NDVI vegetation index approaches have been shown to be unreliable for extracting required biophysical parameters such as biomass, leaf area index and productivity. In this research. spectral mixture analysis (SMA) and geometric- optical reflectance models provide sub-pixel scale forest information such as sunlit canopy, background and shadow fractions which yield improved biophysical estimates when compared to NDVI. This was validated first for individual forest stands using the NASA C scOVER data set from the Superior National Forest, Minnesota USA. Best results were obtained from shadow function using a spheroid based reflectance model with corrections for mutual shadowing and solar zenith angle variations. Following this, a regional scale methodology was implemented in the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (B scOREAS) which coupled canopy reflectance models, spectral mixture analysis, and a powerful evidential reasoning classifier into an integrated, physically based land cover and biophysical algorithm (the M⊕P software package). Field spectrometer data processed to end-member reflectance and stand level tree geometry were input to canopy optical models to produce spectral trajectories of reflectance and forest scene components over a full range of stand densities. These trajectories were input to the new M⊕P software to produce land cover and sub-pixel scale outputs for predicting biophysical parameters. Improved classification accuracies and biophysical estimates were obtained compared

  17. Forum on land use and land Cover: Summary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    This report includes the agenda and abstracts of presentations from the Forum on Land Use and Land Cover Data, cohosted by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), February 25-27,1992 at the USGS National Center in Reston, Virginia. The Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and was attended by Federal and State managers of programs that produce and use land use and land cover maps and data in support of environmental analysis, monitoring, and policy development. The goal was to improve opportunities for Federal and State coordination, information exchange, data sharing, and work sharing in land use and land cover mapping.

  18. Modelling land cover change in the Ganga basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulds, S.; Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a 'hot spot' of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land cover change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. In this work a time series dataset of land cover change between 1970 and 2010 is constructed for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The MODIS instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at small regional extent (CLUE-s) modelling framework. Non-spatial estimates of land cover area from national agriculture and forest statistics, available on a state-wise, annual basis, are used as a direct model input. Land cover change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. This dataset will provide an essential input to a high resolution, physically based land surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land cover change on regional climate.

  19. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget

  20. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-05-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth

  1. Linking spatio-temporal patterns in land cover dynamics with regional climate factors and recent weather: Application to the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Henebry, G.M.; Goodin, D.G.; Su, H.

    1995-06-01

    A key obstacle to developing regional models of ecosystem dynamics is representation of spatio-temporal variation in constituent patterns and processes. Simple resealing of site-specific ecological data or simulations to broader spatial scales is unlikely to capture regional spatio-temporal dynamics. Yet logistical constraints usually require synoptic weather data to be synthesized from sparse data networks. We seek a simple top-down model that links remotely-sensed vegetation cover with antecedent meteorological forcings to generate boundary conditions for site-specific fine-resolution data and simulations of tallgrass prairie. We developed several candidate models using AVHRR NDVI maximum biweekly composites of the Flint Hills from 1990-1993 and data from a network of more than 60 weather stations across the 40,000 km2 region. Models combined parameters derived from exemplary land cover trajectories, spatial structure (lacunarity and correlation length), and running weighted sums of weather data. Spectral-temporal models were easier to fit; lacunarity was more sensitive than correlation length; compositing effects were strong.

  2. An operational methodology for riparian land cover fine scale regional mapping for the study of landscape influence on river ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormos, T.; Kosuth, P.; Souchon, Y.; Villeneuve, B.; Durrieu, S.; Chandesris, A.

    2010-12-01

    Preservation and restoration of river ecosystems require an improved understanding of the mechanisms through which they are influenced by landscape at multiple spatial scales and particularly at river corridor scale considering the role of riparian vegetation for regulating and protecting river ecological status and the relevance of this specific area for implementing efficient and realistic strategies. Assessing correctly this influence over large river networks involves accurate broad scale (i.e. at least regional) information on Land Cover within Riparian Areas (LCRA). As the structure of land cover along rivers is generally not accessible using moderate-scale satellite imagery, finer spatial resolution imagery and specific mapping techniques are needed. For this purpose we developed a generic multi-scale Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) scheme able to produce LCRA maps in different geographic context by exploiting information available from very high spatial resolution imagery (satellite or airborne) and/or metric to decametric spatial thematic data on a given study zone thanks to fuzzy expert knowledge classification rules. A first experimentation was carried out on the Herault river watershed (southern of France), a 2650 square kilometers basin that presents a contrasted landscape (different ecoregions) and a total stream length of 1150 Km, using high and very high multispectral remotely-sensed images (10m Spot5 multispectral images and 0.5m aerial photography) and existing spatial thematic data. Application of the OBIA scheme produced a detailed (22 classes) LCRA map with an overall accuracy of 89% and a Kappa index of 83% according to a land cover pressures typology (six categories). A second experimentation (using the same data sources) was carried out on a larger test zone, a part of the Normandy river network (25 000 square kilometers basin; 6000 km long river network; 155 ecological stations). This second work aimed at elaborating a robust statistical

  3. Characteristics of the surface-subsurface flow generation and sediment yield to the rainfall regime and land-cover by long-term in-situ observation in the red soil region, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao-Jun; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jian-Min; Tang, Chong-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Land cover and rainfall regime are two important factors that affect soil erosion. In this paper, three land cover types - grass cover, litter cover and bare land - were employed to analyze surface runoff, subsurface flow and sediment loss processes in relation to the rainfall regimes in the red soil region of China. Five rainfall regimes were classified according to 393 rainfall events via a k-means clustering method based on the rainfall depth, duration and maximum 30-min intensity. The highest surface runoff coefficient and erosion amount were found on bare land in all five rainfall regimes, and the lowest were found on grass cover. The litter cover generated the highest subsurface flow rate, followed by the grass cover; the lowest was on bare land. For grass cover and litter cover plots, rainfall events of rainfall regime IV which had the longest duration, greatest depth and lowest intensity had the highest surface runoff coefficient, soil erosion amount and subsurface flow rate. For bare land, storm rainfall events of rainfall regime V had the highest intensity, lowest depth and duration, had the highest surface runoff coefficient and soil erosion amount, but the lowest subsurface flow rate. The highest subsurface flow rate of bare land happened in rainfall regime IV. Surface cover was urgently needed to reduce soil erosion. When the lands under dense surface cover, more attention should be paid to rainfall events that of long duration, high depth but low in intensity which commonly occurred in spring. The interactions of surface-subsurface flow and its effects on soil erosion and nutrient loss were worth considering in the red soil region.

  4. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  5. Updating the 2001 National Land Cover Database land cover classification to 2006 by using Landsat imagery change detection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.; Fry, J.

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001, which represents the nation's land cover status based on a nominal date of 2001, is widely used as a baseline for national land cover conditions. To enable the updating of this land cover information in a consistent and continuous manner, a prototype method was developed to update land cover by an individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season in 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, land cover classifications at the full NLCD resolution for 2006 areas of change were completed by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain several metropolitan areas including Seattle, Washington; San Diego, California; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Jackson, Mississippi; and Manchester, New Hampshire. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of land cover change was captured and updated with overall land cover classification accuracies of 78.32%, 87.5%, 88.57%, 78.36%, and 83.33% for these areas. The method optimizes mapping efficiency and has the potential to provide users a flexible method to generate updated land cover at national and regional scales by using NLCD 2001 as the baseline. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Land cover information is critical for national reporting and decision making in Australia. A review of information requirements for reporting on national environmental indicators identified the need for consistent land cover information to be compared against a baseline. A Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) for Australia has been developed by Geoscience Australia and the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) recently, to provide a comprehensive and consistent land cover information baseline to enable monitoring and reporting for sustainable farming practices, water resource management, soil erosion, and forests at national and regional scales. The DLCD was produced from the analysis of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data at 250-metre resolution derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period from 2000 to 2008. The EVI time series data for each pixel was modelled as 12 coefficients based on the statistical, phenological and seasonal characteristics. The time series were then clustered in coefficients spaces and labelled using ancillary information on vegetation and land use at the catchment scale. The accuracy of the DLCD was assessed using field survey data over 25,000 locations provided by vegetation and land management agencies in State and Territory jurisdictions, and by ABARES. The DLCD is seen as the first in a series of steps to build a framework for national land cover monitoring in Australia. A robust methodology to provide annual updates to the DLCD is currently being developed at Geoscience Australia. There is also a growing demand from the user community for land cover information at better spatial resolution than currently available through the DLCD. Global land cover mapping initiatives that rely on Earth observation data offer many opportunities for national and international programs to work in concert and deliver better outcomes by streamlining efforts on development and

  7. LAND USE/LAND COVER, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED (BUFFERED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Stu...

  8. Monitoring land-cover changes in the Terminos Lagoon region, Mexico: A comparison of change detection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mas, J.F.

    1997-06-01

    Six change detection procedures were tested using Landsat MSS images for detecting areas of changes in the region of the Terminos Lagoon, a coastal zone of the State of Campeche, Mexico. The change detection techniques considered were image differencing, vegetative index differencing, selective principal components analysis, direct multidate unsupervised classification, post-classification change differencing and a combination of image enhancement and post-classification comparison. Accuracy of the results obtained by each technique was evaluated by comparison with aerial photographs through Kappa coefficient calculation. Post-classification comparison was found to be the most accurate procedure and presents the advantage to indicate the nature of the changes. Poor performances obtained by image enhancement procedures were attributed to the spectral variation due to differences of soil moisture and of vegetation phenology between both scenes. Methods based on classification were found less sensitive at these spectral variations.

  9. Modelling land cover dynamics: integration of fine-scale land cover data with landscape attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Benoît; Lambin, Eric

    Land cover change detection based on remote sensing data allows the identification of major processes of change and, by inference, the characterization of land use dynamics. Empirical diagnostic models of land use/cover change can be developed from these observations. To grasp the complexity of landscape mosaics and changes in land use, fine-scale land cover and socio-economic data are required. Case studies need to be representative of conditions at a broader scale, and selected where sufficient knowledge on social and ecological processes leading to land use changes exists. For this reason, collaboration between remote sensing specialists and human ecologists conducting long-term field-based land use studies is extremely productive. Continental-scale analysis of Africa was conducted to detect land cover change "hot spots". Fine-scale analyses were performed for validation purposes and to understand better the land cover change processes. Spatial statistical models of land cover change can be developed in order to anticipate where changes are more likely to occur next. Such predictive information is essential to support the implementation of appropriate policy responses to, for example, land degradation that would lead to the depletion of essential resources. Results of a spatial model of deforestation in southern Cameroon are discussed.

  10. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  11. Survey methods for assessing land cover map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Klaas, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing availability of digital photographic materials has fueled efforts by agencies and organizations to generate land cover maps for states, regions, and the United States as a whole. Regardless of the information sources and classification methods used, land cover maps are subject to numerous sources of error. In order to understand the quality of the information contained in these maps, it is desirable to generate statistically valid estimates of accuracy rates describing misclassification errors. We explored a full sample survey framework for creating accuracy assessment study designs that balance statistical and operational considerations in relation to study objectives for a regional assessment of GAP land cover maps. We focused not only on appropriate sample designs and estimation approaches, but on aspects of the data collection process, such as gaining cooperation of land owners and using pixel clusters as an observation unit. The approach was tested in a pilot study to assess the accuracy of Iowa GAP land cover maps. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design addressed sample size requirements for land covers and the need for geographic spread while minimizing operational effort. Recruitment methods used for private land owners yielded high response rates, minimizing a source of nonresponse error. Collecting data for a 9-pixel cluster centered on the sampled pixel was simple to implement, and provided better information on rarer vegetation classes as well as substantial gains in precision relative to observing data at a single-pixel.

  12. Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change over South America: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. G. D.; Herdies, D. L.; Souza, D. O. D.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in patterns of land use and land cover have great influence on hydrology, climate and biogeochemical cycles. In this work the influences caused by changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil on the behavior of the water balance over South America were evaluated. To fulfill this objective numerical experiments were carried out with the regional model ETA for the period between 1979 and 2008, in which three different conditions of land use and land cover in Brazil was used: 1) Potential Experiment, which are not included the anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover; 2) Control Experiment, in which the map of land use and land cover used the conditions of the 90s; 3) New Experiment, which represents the current conditions of land use and land cover. The results show clearly that the constant changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil cause an increase in precipitation and moisture convergence, and reduced evapotranspiration over the Amazon Region. In other words, it can be stated that with the advance of changes in patterns of land use and land cover, Amazon further intensified their behavior as a sink of moisture, mainly due to increased precipitation and significant reduction in evapotranspiration, noting also that reduction of moisture available in the atmosphere was not offset by increased moisture convergence. The results on the La Plata Basin shows that initially (CONTROL) there is an increase in precipitation and evapotranspiration over the region and reduction in moisture convergence, which is later (NEW) modified to a pattern of reduction in precipitation and evapotranspiration followed by an increase in moisture convergence. These changes in the patterns of land use and land cover of the 90s make the area potentially source of moisture to the atmosphere, even with the reduction in moisture convergence, but reversing their behavior to sink moisture by inserting current vegetation cover modifications, mainly due to reduced

  13. Classifying Land Cover Using Spectral Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiye, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studying land cover has become increasingly important as countries try to overcome the destruction of wetlands; its impact on local climate due to seasonal variation, radiation balance, and deteriorating environmental quality. In this investigation, we have been studying the spectral signatures of the Jamaica Bay wetland area based on remotely sensed satellite input data from LANDSAT TM and ASTER. We applied various remote sensing techniques to generate classified land cover output maps. Our classifiers relied on input from both the remote sensing and in-situ spectral field data. Based upon spectral separability and data collected in the field, a supervised and unsupervised classification was carried out. First results suggest good agreement between the land cover units mapped and those observed in the field.

  14. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  15. The regional impact of Land-Use Land-cover Change (LULCC) over West Africa from an ensemble of global climate models under the aupsices of the WAMMEII project (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, A. A.; Xue, Y.; Comer, R.; De Sales, F.; Hagos, S. M.; Schiro, K.; Song, G.; Wang, G.; Guo, Z.; Mahanama, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land surface processes have been identified as one of the main factors influencing the Sahelian climate. Numerous studies have reported a significant increase in anthropogenic pressure on the already limited natural resources in this region, notably in terms of land use conversion and degradation. There is a growing effort in the climate modeling community to better understand and represent the effects of LULCC on the climate. For example, the recent IGBP-iLEAPS and GEWEX-GLASS sponsored Land-Use and Climate Identification of robust impacts (LUCID) experiment studied the bio-geophysical impacts of historical land-use change using an ensemble of general circulation models (GCMs). The goal was to identify those impacts which were robust and above the model internal variability. But there turned out to be considerable inter-model differences of the response to LULCC: the most likely reasons are differences in the land surface parameterizations, the strength of the land-atmosphere coupling and changes to the land cover classes. One of the main goals of the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project (WAMMEII) is to provide basic understanding of LULCC on the regional water cycle and to evaluate the sensitivity of the seasonal and decadal variability of the WAM to LULCC. The strategy is to apply observational data-based anomaly forcing (i.e., "idealized but realistic") in GCM and regional climate model (RCM) simulations. The prescribed LULCC is based on recent 50 year period using combined crop and pasture fraction changes. It represents a maximum feasible scenario consisting of i) making similar changes in vegetation-land cover maps among models, ii) proposing the modifications of parameters based on LULCC information after careful coordination with each model group, and iii) maintaining a monotonic meridional gradient of the LULCC to ensure a consistent degradation scenario among the models. Converting forests to pasture and crops decreases radiative forcing

  16. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  17. Improving arable land heterogeneity information in available land cover products for land surface modelling using MERIS NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, F.; Hank, T. B.; Mauser, W.

    2010-07-01

    Regionalization of physical land surface models requires the supply of detailed land cover information. Numerous global and regional land cover maps already exist, but generally they do not resolve arable land into different crop types. However, the characteristic phenological behaviour of different crops affects the mass and energy fluxes on the land surface and thus its hydrology. The objective of this study is the generation of a land cover map for Central Europe based on CORINE Land Cover 2000, merged with CORINE Switzerland, but distinguishing different crop types. Accordingly, an approach was developed, subdividing the land cover class arable land into the regionally most relevant subclasses for Central Europe using statistical data from EUROSTAT. This database was analysed concerning the acreage of different crop types, taking a multiseasonal series of MERIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) into account. The satellite data were used for the separation of spring and summer crops. The hydrological impact of the improved land cover map was modelled exemplarily for the Upper Danube catchment.

  18. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  19. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Alaaddin; Akay, Abdullah E.; Gundogan, Recep

    2008-01-01

    The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land cover types and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor imagery has been widely used in classification process of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessing satellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellite sensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study, an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance (TOA), was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE) land cover nomenclature, for an area representing the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data of ASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of 83.2% and 0.79, respectively) and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory for CORINE Land Cover Project.

  20. A methodology to generate a synergetic land-cover map by fusion of different land-cover products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Hoyos, A.; García-Haro, F. J.; San-Miguel-Ayanz, J.

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop a general framework for building a hybrid land-cover map by the synergistic combination of a number of land-cover classifications with different legends and spatial resolutions. The proposed approach assesses class-specific accuracies of datasets and establishes affinity between thematic legends using a common land-cover language such as the UN Land-Cover Classification System (LCCS). The approach is illustrated over a large region in Europe using four land-cover datasets (CORINE, GLC2000, MODIS and GlobCover), but it can be applied to any set of existing products. The multi-classification map is expected to improve the performance of individual classifications by reconciling their best characteristics while avoiding their main weaknesses. The intermap comparison reveals improved agreement of the hybrid map with all other land-cover products and therefore indicates the successful exploration of synergies between the different products. The approach offers also estimates for the classification confidence associated with the pixel label and flexibility to shift the balance between commission and omission errors, which are critical in order to obtain a desired reliable map.

  1. Improving arable land heterogeneity information in available land cover products for land surface modelling using MERIS NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, F.; Hank, T. B.; Mauser, W.

    2010-10-01

    Regionalization of physical land surface models requires the supply of detailed land cover information. Numerous global and regional land cover maps already exist but generally, they do not resolve arable land into different crop types. However, arable land comprises a huge variety of different crops with characteristic phenological behaviour, demonstrated in this paper with Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurements exemplarily for maize and winter wheat. This affects the mass and energy fluxes on the land surface and thus its hydrology. The objective of this study is the generation of a land cover map for central Europe based on CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2000, merged with CORINE Switzerland, but distinguishing different crop types. Accordingly, an approach was developed, subdividing the land cover class arable land into the regionally most relevant subclasses for central Europe using multiseasonal MERIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The satellite data were used for the separation of spring and summer crops due to their different phenological behaviour. Subsequently, the generated phenological classes were subdivided following statistical data from EUROSTAT. This database was analysed concerning the acreage of different crop types. The impact of the improved land use/cover map on evapotranspiration was modelled exemplarily for the Upper Danube catchment with the hydrological model PROMET. Simulations based on the newly developed land cover approach showed a more detailed evapotranspiration pattern compared to model results using the traditional CLC map, which is ignorant of most arable subdivisions. Due to the improved temporal behaviour and spatial allocation of evapotranspiration processes in the new land cover approach, the simulated water balance more closely matches the measured gauge.

  2. Effects of landscape characteristics on land-cover class accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jonathan H.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Wickham, James D.; Yang, Limin

    2003-01-01

    The effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy were evaluated using reference data collected for the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment. Logistic regression models quantified the relationship between classification accuracy and these landscape variables for each land-cover class at both the Anderson Levels I and II classification schemes employed in the NLCD. The general relationships were consistent, with the odds of correctly classifying a pixel increasing as patch size increased and decreasing as heterogeneity increased. Specific characteristics of these relationships, however, showed considerable diversity among the various classes. Odds ratios are reported to document these relationships. Interaction between the two landscape variables was not a significant influence on classification accuracy, indicating that the effect of heterogeneity was not impacted by the sample being in a small or large patch. Landscape variables remained significant predictors of class-specific accuracy even when adjusted for regional differences in the mapping and assessment processes or landscape characteristics. The land-cover class-specific analyses provide insight into sources of classification error and a capacity for predicting error based on a pixel's mapped land-cover class, patch size and surrounding land-cover heterogeneity.

  3. Integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques for change detection of the land use and land cover (LULC) for soil management in the southern Port Said region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed Abd El Rehim Abd El Aziz

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of land use/land cover (LULC) changes in southern Port Said region area is very important for the planner of managements, governmental and non-governmental organizations, decision makers and the scientific community. This information is essential for planning and implementing policies to optimize the use of natural resources and accommodate development whilst minimizing the impact on the environment. To monitor these changes in the study area, two sets of satellite images (Landsat TM-5 and ETM+7) data were used with Path/Row (175/38) in date 1986 and 2006, respectively. The Landsat TM and ETM data are useful for this type of study due to its high spatial resolution, spectral resolution and low repetitive acquisition (16 days). A postclassification technique is used in this study based on hybrid classification (Unsupervised and Supervised). Each method used was assessed, and checked in field. Eight to Twelve LULC classes are recognized and mapping produced. The soils in southern Port Said area were classification in two orders for soil taxonomic units, which are Entisols and Aridisols and four sub-orders classes. The study land was evaluated into five classes from non suitable (N) to very highly suitable (S1) for some crops in the southern region of Port Said studied soils, with assess the nature of future change following construction of the international coastal road which crosses near to the study area.

  4. USING CLASSIFICATION CONSISTENCY IN INTER-SCENE OVERLAP AREAS TO MODEL SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN LAND-COVER ACCURACY OVER LARGE GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the last decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create systematic national and global data sets of processed satellite imagery. An important application of these data is the derivation of large area (i.e. multi-scene) land cover products. Such products, ho...

  5. EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON LAND-COVER CLASS ACCURACY

    EPA Science Inventory



    Utilizing land-cover data gathered as part of the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment, several logistic regression models were formulated to analyze the effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy. Specific land-cover ...

  6. Impact of land cover types and components on urban heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L. T.; Cai, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper discussed the impact of the distribution of parks including water bodies on the relief of urban heat. An image of QuickBird on Aug. 30, 2013 was employed to perform the detailed land cover classification. One swath of Landsat 8 THIR image was collected to derive the land surface temperature. After some necessary preprocessing procedures, object-based classification method was used to classify the land cover as residential region, square and road, water body, as well as park. The results showed that water bodies and parks play an important role in reducing the land surface temperature. Grass, shrub and trees were extracted out respectively by manual from parks that were adopted to test the influence of proportions among trees, shrubs and grass on the fluctuation of land surface temperature in urban area. The results achieved in this paper could be helpful for the local governments to make a decision in urban plan and management.

  7. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  8. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available. PMID:24680540

  9. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in land-use and land-cover inventory tasks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.

    1978-01-01

    The bibliography contains more than 300 citations of selected publications on the application of remote-sensing techniques to regional and metropolitan land-use and land-cover inventroy and analysis tasks.  Most of the citations were published between January 1968 and June 1977, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  10. Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, C.

    1981-01-01

    Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

  11. AN APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national interagency progranl that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sens...

  12. AN INTER-AGENCY APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sens...

  13. Development of an Independent Global Land Cover Validation Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulla-Menashe, D. J.; Olofsson, P.; Woodcock, C. E.; Holden, C.; Metcalfe, M.; Friedl, M. A.; Stehman, S. V.; Herold, M.; Giri, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate information related to the global distribution and dynamics in global land cover is critical for a large number of global change science questions. A growing number of land cover products have been produced at regional to global scales, but the uncertainty in these products and the relative strengths and weaknesses among available products are poorly characterized. To address this limitation we are compiling a database of high spatial resolution imagery to support international land cover validation studies. Validation sites were selected based on a probability sample, and may therefore be used to estimate statistically defensible accuracy statistics and associated standard errors. Validation site locations were identified using a stratified random design based on 21 strata derived from an intersection of Koppen climate classes and a population density layer. In this way, the two major sources of global variation in land cover (climate and human activity) are explicitly included in the stratification scheme. At each site we are acquiring high spatial resolution (< 1-m) satellite imagery for 5-km x 5-km blocks. The response design uses an object-oriented hierarchical legend that is compatible with the UN FAO Land Cover Classification System. Using this response design, we are classifying each site using a semi-automated algorithm that blends image segmentation with a supervised RandomForest classification algorithm. In the long run, the validation site database is designed to support international efforts to validate land cover products. To illustrate, we use the site database to validate the MODIS Collection 4 Land Cover product, providing a prototype for validating the VIIRS Surface Type Intermediate Product scheduled to start operational production early in 2013. As part of our analysis we evaluate sources of error in coarse resolution products including semantic issues related to the class definitions, mixed pixels, and poor spectral separation between

  14. Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Gebelein, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    This report is produced in accordance with the requirements outlined in the NASA Research Grant NAG9-1032 titled "Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery". This grant funds the Remote Sensing Research Unit of the University of California, Santa Barbara. This document summarizes the research progress and accomplishments to date and describes current on-going research activities. Even though this grant has technically expired, in a contractual sense, work continues on this project. Therefore, this summary will include all work done through and 5 May 1999. The principal goal of this effort is to test the accuracy of a sub-regional portion of an AVHRR-based land cover product. Land cover mapped to three different classification systems, in the southwestern United States, have been subjected to two specific accuracy assessments. One assessment utilizing astronaut acquired photography, and a second assessment employing Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, augmented in some cases, high aerial photography. Validation of these three land cover products has proceeded using a stratified sampling methodology. We believe this research will provide an important initial test of the potential use of imagery acquired from Shuttle and ultimately the International Space Station (ISS) for the operational validation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land cover products.

  15. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  16. Land Cover Change in the Boston Mountains, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land-cover change. The objectives of the study are to: (1) to develop a comprehensive methodology for using sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data to measure regional land-cover change across the United States; (2) to characterize the types, rates, and temporal variability of change for a 30-year period; (3) to document regional driving forces and consequences of change; and (4) to prepare a national synthesis of land-cover change (Loveland and others, 1999). The 1999 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions derived from Omernik (1987) provide the geographic framework for the geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000, and 1973-2000, and the data are evaluated using a modified Anderson Land Use Land Cover Classification System (Anderson and others, 1976) for image interpretation. The rates of land-cover change are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change for the five time periods previously mentioned. Additionally, historic aerial photographs from similar time frames and other ancillary data, such as census statistics and published literature, are used. The sample block data are then incorporated into statistical analyses to generate an overall change matrix for the ecoregion. Field data of the sample blocks include direct measurements of land cover, particularly ground-survey data collected for training and validation of image classifications (Loveland and others, 2002). The field experience allows for additional

  17. A preliminary evaluation of land use mapping and change detection capabilities using an ERTS image covering a portion of the CARETS region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A preliminary study on the capabilities of ERTS data in land use mapping and change detection was carried out in the area around Frederick County, Maryland, which lies in the northwest corner of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site. The investigation has revealed that Level 1 (of the Anderson classification system) land use mapping can be performed and that, in some cases, land undergoing change can be identified. Results to date suggest that more work should be done in areas where land use changes are known to exist, in order to establish some form of base for recognizing the spectral signature indicative of change areas.

  18. Water dynamics under changing land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaze, J.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Most of the forested headwater catchments are an important source of water supply in many parts of the world. A prime example is southeast Australia where forests supply major river systems and towns and cities with water. It is critical for an informed and adaptive water resource management to understand changes in streamflow caused by vegetation changes in these headwater forest catchments. Natural disturbances such as bushfires and anthropogenic activities like forestation, deforestation, or logging alter vegetation, evapotranspiration and soil water status, and may affect water supplies. Although catchment water yield is mainly controlled by climatic conditions, but it is also strongly influenced by land cover changes because of natural disturbances and anthropogenic activities. It is necessary to accurately estimate streamflow in water supply catchments subjected to dramatic land surface changes. This paper summarises the methods commonly used to investigate the impacts of land cover change on water resources, and provides some examples of impacts of afforestation/deforestation and bushfire on water resources in two southeast Australian catchments.

  19. Impact of climate and land cover changes on snow cover in a small Pyrenean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypta, C.; Gascoin, S.; Houet, T.; Hagolle, O.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Vigneau, C.; Fanise, P.

    2015-02-01

    The seasonal snow in the Pyrenees Mountains is an essential source of runoff for hydropower production and crop irrigation in Spain and France. The Pyrenees are expected to undergo strong environmental perturbations over the 21st century because of climate change (rising temperatures) and the abandonment of agro-pastoral areas (reforestation). Both changes are happening at similar timescales and are expected to have an impact on snow cover. The effect of climate change on snow in the Pyrenees is well understood, but the effect of land cover changes is much less documented. Here, we analyze the response of snow cover to a combination of climate and land cover change scenarios in a small Pyrenean catchment (Bassiès, 14.5 km2, elevation range 940-2651 m a.s.l.) using a distributed snowpack evolution model. Climate scenarios were constructed from the output of regional climate model projections, whereas land cover scenarios were generated based on past observed changes and an inductive pattern-based model. The model was validated over a snow season using in situ snow depth measurements and high-resolution snow cover maps derived from SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre - Earth Observation Satellite) satellite images. Model projections indicate that both climate and land cover changes reduce the mean snow depth. However, the impact on the snow cover duration is moderated in reforested areas by the shading effect of trees on the snow surface radiation balance. Most of the significant changes are expected to occur in the transition zone between 1500 m a.s.l. and 2000 m a.s.l. where (i) the projected increase in air temperatures decreases the snow fraction of the precipitation and (ii) the land cover changes are concentrated. However, the consequences on the runoff are limited because most of the meltwater originates from high-elevation areas of the catchment, which are less affected by climate change and reforestation.

  20. Commentary: A cautionary tale regarding use of the National Land Cover Dataset 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Knutson, Melinda G.; Fox, Timothy J.; Suarez, Manuel J.

    2004-01-01

    Digital land-cover data are among the most popular data sources used in ecological research and natural resource management. However, processes for accurate land-cover classification over large regions are still evolving. We identified inconsistencies in the National Land Cover Dataset 1992, the most current and available representation of land cover for the conterminous United States. We also report means to address these inconsistencies in a bird-habitat model. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to position a regular grid (or lattice) over the upper midwestern United States and summarized the proportion of individual land covers in each cell within the lattice. These proportions were then mapped back onto the lattice, and the resultant lattice was compared to satellite paths, state borders, and regional map classification units. We observed mapping inconsistencies at the borders between mapping regions, states, and Thematic Mapper (TM) mapping paths in the upper midwestern United States, particularly related to grass I and-herbaceous, emergent-herbaceous wetland, and small-grain land covers. We attributed these discrepancies to differences in image dates between mapping regions, suboptimal image dates for distinguishing certain land-cover types, lack of suitable ancillary data for improving discrimination for rare land covers, and possibly differences among image interpreters. To overcome these inconsistencies for the purpose of modeling regional populations of birds, we combined grassland-herbaceous and pasture-hay land-cover classes and excluded the use of emergent-herbaceous and small-grain land covers. We recommend that users of digital land-cover data conduct similar assessments for other regions before using these data for habitat evaluation. Further, caution is advised in using these data in the analysis of regional land-cover change because it is not likely that future digital land-cover maps will repeat the same problems, thus resulting in

  1. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  2. Development of a land-cover characteristics database for the conterminous US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Merchant, J.W.; Ohlen, D.O.; Brown, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Information regarding the characteristics and spatial distribution of the Earth's land cover is critical to global environmental research. A prototype land-cover database for the conterminous United States designed for use in a variety of global modelling, monitoring, mapping, and analytical endeavors has been created. The resultant database contains multiple layers, including the source AVHRR data, the ancillary data layers, the land-cover regions defined by the research, and translation tables linking the regions to other land classification schema (for example, UNESCO, USGS Anderson System). The land-cover characteristics database can be analyzed, transformed, or aggregated by users to meet a broad spectrum of requirements. -from Authors

  3. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  4. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas. PMID:22419398

  5. The regional impact of Land-Use Land-cover Change (LULCC) over West Africa from an ensemble of global climate models under the auspices of the WAMME2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Aaron Anthony; Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Comer, Ruth E.; Hagos, Samson; Mahanama, Sarith; Schiro, Kathleen; Song, Guoqiong; Wang, Guiling; Li, S.; Mechoso, Carlos R.

    2016-07-01

    The population of the Sahel region of West Africa has approximately doubled in the past 50 years, and could potentially double again by the middle of this century. This has led to the northward expansion of agricultural areas at the expense of natural savanna, leading to widespread land use -land cover change (LULCC). Because there is strong evidence of significant surface-atmosphere coupling in this region, one of the main goals of the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project phase II is to provide basic understanding of LULCC on the regional climate, and to evaluate the sensitivity of the seasonal variability of the West African Monsoon to LULCC. The prescribed LULCC is based on the changes from 1950 through 1990, representing a maximum feasible degradation scenario in the past half century. It is applied to 5 state of the art global climate models (GCMs) over a 6-year simulation period. Multiple GCMs are used because the magnitude of the impact of LULCC depends on model-dependent coupling strength between the surface and the overlying atmosphere, the magnitude of the surface biophysical changes, and how the key processes linking the surface with the atmosphere are parameterized within a particular model framework. Land cover maps and surface parameters may vary widely among models; therefore a special effort was made to impose consistent biogeophysical responses of surface parameters to LULCC using a simple experimental setup. The prescribed LULCC corresponds to degraded vegetation conditions, which mainly cause increases in the Bowen ratio and decreases in the surface net radiation, and result in a significant reduction in surface evaporation (upwards of 1 mm day-1 over a large part of the Sahel). This, in turn, mainly leads to less moisture convergence and precipitation over the LULCC zone. The overall impact is a rainfall reduction with every model, which ranges across models from 4 to 25 % averaged over the Sahel, and a southward shift of the

  6. Examining the impact of land cover change for biofuel production on the Midwestern U.S. hydroclimate using a regional climate model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, K. J.; Twine, T. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Bagley, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have been proposed as cellulosic feedstocks for U.S. biofuel production because their high productivity and low inputs could reduce net CO2 emissions. Possible biogeochemical feedbacks of widespread production have been extensively studied, but less attention has been given to the two-way biophysical interactions between the land surface and regional climate. Miscanthus uses significantly more water than maize, resulting in large evapotranspiration (ET) increases upon conversion from maize to Miscanthus that could impact regional precipitation, precipitation recycling, and soil moisture. In this study, we simulate perennial grass production in a fully coupled regional climate model with dynamic vegetation, enabling an investigation into the two-way responses between these potential biofuels and the climate over the Mississippi River Basin. We incorporated algorithms of miscanthus and switchgrass growth and management from the Agro-IBIS model into with WRF-CLM4crop, a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to the Community Land Model with dynamic crop growth and irrigation enabled. Using suggested production regions from the United States Department of Energy, we performed simulations driven with 10 years of NCEP-DOE Reanalysis (NCEP2) data, with 25%, 50%, and 75% of current croplands replaced by perennial grass feedstocks. Our results provide spatially explicit maps of how simulated ET increased with conversion and the resulting regional cooling, greater precipitation, and precipitation recycling over the region.

  7. Strong dependence of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change on initial land cover and soil carbon parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, Daniel S.; Brovkin, Victor; Liski, Jari; Raddatz, Thomas; Thum, Tea; Todd-Brown, Kathe E. O.

    2015-09-01

    The quantification of sources and sinks of carbon from land use and land cover changes (LULCC) is uncertain. We investigated how the parametrization of LULCC and of organic matter decomposition, as well as initial land cover, affects the historical and future carbon fluxes in an Earth System Model (ESM). Using the land component of the Max Planck Institute ESM, we found that the historical (1750-2010) LULCC flux varied up to 25% depending on the fraction of biomass which enters the atmosphere directly due to burning or is used in short-lived products. The uncertainty in the decadal LULCC fluxes of the recent past due to the parametrization of decomposition and direct emissions was 0.6 Pg C yr-1, which is 3 times larger than the uncertainty previously attributed to model and method in general. Preindustrial natural land cover had a larger effect on decadal LULCC fluxes than the aforementioned parameter sensitivity (1.0 Pg C yr-1). Regional differences between reconstructed and dynamically computed land covers, in particular, at low latitudes, led to differences in historical LULCC emissions of 84-114 Pg C, globally. This effect is larger than the effects of forest regrowth, shifting cultivation, or climate feedbacks and comparable to the effect of differences among studies in the terminology of LULCC. In general, we find that the practice of calibrating the net land carbon balance to provide realistic boundary conditions for the climate component of an ESM hampers the applicability of the land component outside its primary field of application.

  8. Impact of land cover and population density on land surface temperature: case study in Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Tan, Yongbin; Ying, Shen; Yu, Zhonghai; Li, Zhen; Lan, Honghao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization, the standard of living has improved, but changes to the city thermal environment have become more serious. Population urbanization is a driving force of residential expansion, which predominantly influences the land surface temperature (LST). We obtained the land covers and LST maps of Wuhan from Landsat-5 images in 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2009, and discussed the distribution of land use/cover change and LST variation, and we analyzed the correlation between population distribution and LST values in residential regions. The results indicated massive variation of land cover types, which was shown as a reduction in cultivatable land and the expansion of building regions. High-LST regions concentrated on the residential and industrial areas with low vegetation coverage. In the residential region, the population density (PD) had effects on the LST values. Although the area or variation of residential regions was close, lower PD was associated with lower mean LST or LST variation. Thus, decreasing the high-LST regions concentration by reducing the PD may alleviate the urban heat island effect on the residential area. Taken together, these results can provide supports for urban planning projects and studies on city ecological environments.

  9. Impact of 300 Years of Land Cover Change on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevliakova, E.; Findell, K. L.; Stouffer, R. J.; Milly, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's atmosphere/land/sea ice/mixed layer ocean model is used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover changes estimated to have occurred over the past 300 years. Results of two equilibrium experiments with vegetation cover representing 1990 conditions and "natural" (~1700) conditions are compared. Land cover changes occurred over about 9% of the earth's surface, including large portions of Europe extending into Western Russia, India, Eastern China, and the Eastern United States. Smaller areas of change were in Central America, Northwestern South America, along the Guinea Coast of Africa, in much of Indonesia, and in other isolated spots around the globe. These changes were primarily conversion from native forests to agriculture or grassland. The effects of irrigation or other water management practices were not included in these experiments. The model shows that observed land cover changes have little to no significant impact on globally averaged climatic fields (e.g., 2 m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in the simulation with 1990 land cover, net radiation at the top of the atmosphere is 0.007 W/m2 lower). Field significance is not achieved in annual mean global representations of most climatic fields: for most variables, about 10% of global area passes a modified Student's t-test at the 90% significance level. Local to some of the altered regions, however, there are statistically significant changes to many climatic fields such as near-surface air temperature, evaporation, and radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. These changes are highly significant in the annual mean and in most months of the year in Eastern Europe, Eastern China, India, the Guinea Coast, and Northwestern South America, and are directly related to the local land surface changes.

  10. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Changes: The Case of Tropical Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional science and economic geography. It first provides an account of the so-called spatially explicit model, which has emerged in recent years as a key empirical approach to the issue. The article uses this discussion as a springboard to evaluate the potential utility of von Thuenen to the discourse on land-cover and land-use change. After identifying shortcomings of current theoretical approaches to land use in mainly urban models, the article filters a discussion of deforestation through the lens of bid-rent and assesses its effectiveness in helping us comprehend the destruction of tropical forest in the Amazon basin. The article considers the adjustments that would have to be made to existing theory to make it more useful to the empirical issues.

  11. Estimating Accuracy of Land-Cover Composition From Two-Stage Clustering Sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), ...

  12. Identification of Bogor regency land cover change index based on geospatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtriana, Riantini; Sumarto, Irawan; Deliar, Albertus; Pasaribu, Udjianna S.; Taufik, Moh.

    2015-04-01

    Based on Indonesia Disaster Risk Index (IRBI), Bogor Regency entered the ranks 5th most disaster-prone areas in Indonesia. This rank shows that the Bogor Regency has a variety of areas that are prone to disasters. In an effort to anticipate the existing conditions is to controlling land cover change in Bogor regency. Uncontrolled human activities on land cover may cause a negative impact on the environment both locally and globally. To determine the pattern of land cover change, required an analysis of an index of land cover change that might happen. Methodology for this research for identification index patterns of land cover change are using overlay analysis of land cover data at different time periods. The results of this study shows index of land cover change in regional scale, with the accuracy 83,645 %.

  13. National climate assessment technical report on the impacts of climate and land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas; Mahmood, Rezaul; Patel-Weynand, Toral; Karstensen, Krista; Beckendorf, Kari; Bliss, Norman; Carleton, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This technical report responds to the recognition by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the importance of understanding how land use and land cover (LULC) affects weather and climate variability and change and how that variability and change affects LULC. Current published, peer-reviewed, scientific literature and supporting data from both existing and original sources forms the basis for this report's assessment of the current state of knowledge regarding land change and climate interactions. The synthesis presented herein documents how current and future land change may alter environment processes and in turn, how those conditions may affect both land cover and land use by specifically investigating, * The primary contemporary trends in land use and land cover, * The land-use and land-cover sectors and regions which are most affected by weather and climate variability,* How land-use practices are adapting to climate change, * How land-use and land-cover patterns and conditions are affecting weather and climate, and * The key elements of an ongoing Land Resources assessment. These findings present information that can be used to better assess land change and climate interactions in order to better assess land management and adaptation strategies for future environmental change and to assist in the development of a framework for an ongoing national assessment.

  14. Estimation of Croplands in West Africa using Global Land Cover and Land Use Datasets: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    Africa is vulnerable to the effects of global climate change resulting in reduced agricultural production and worsening food security. Studies show that Africa has the lowest cereal yield compared to other regions of the world. The situation is particularly dire in East, Central and West Africa. Despite their low cereal yield, the population of East, Central and West Africa has doubled between 1980 and 2007. Furthermore, West Africa has a history of severe and long droughts which have occasionally caused widespread famine. To understand how global climate change and land cover change have impacted crop production (yield) it is important to estimate croplands in the region. The objective of this study is to compare ten publicly available land cover and land use datasets, covering different time periods, to estimate croplands in West Africa. The land cover and land use data sets used cover the period from early 1990s to 2010. Preliminary results show a high variability in cropland estimates. For example, in Benin, the estimated cropland area varies from 2.5 to 21% of the total area, while it varies from 3 to 8% in Niger. Datasets with a finer resolution (≤ 1,000 m) have consistently estimated comparable cropland areas across all countries. Several categorical verification statistics such as probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR) and critical success index are also used to analyze the correspondence between estimated and observed cropland pixels at the scales of 1 Km and 10 Km.

  15. Land-atmosphere coupling associated with snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Emanuel; Schär, Christoph; Viterbo, Pedro; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigates the role of interannual snow cover variability in controlling the land-atmosphere coupling and its relation with near surface (T2M) and soil temperature (STL1). Global atmospheric simulations are carried out with the EC-EARTH climate model using climatological sea surface temperature and sea ice distributions. Snow climatology, derived from a control run (COUP), is used to replace snow evolution in the snow-uncoupled simulation (UNCOUP). The snow cover and depth variability explains almost 60% of the winter T2M variability in predominantly snow-covered regions. During spring the differences in interannual variability of T2M are more restricted to the snow line regions. The variability of soil temperature is also damped in UNCOUP. However, there are regions with a pronounced signal in STL1 with no counterpart in T2M. These regions are characterized by a significant interannual variability in snow depth, rather than snow cover (almost fully snow covered during winter). These results highlight the importance of both snow cover and snow depth in decoupling the soil temperature evolution from the overlying atmosphere.

  16. The FORE-SCE model: a practical approach for projecting land cover change using scenario-based modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of ecological applications require spatially explicit, historic, current, and projected land use and land cover data. The U.S. Land Cover Trends project is analyzing contemporary (1973–2000) land-cover change in the conterminous United States. The newly developed FORE-SCE model used Land Cover Trends data and theoretical, statistical, and deterministic modeling techniques to project future land cover change through 2020 for multiple plausible scenarios. Projected proportions of future land use were initially developed, and then sited on the lands with the highest potential for supporting that land use and land cover using a statistically based stochastic allocation procedure. Three scenarios of 2020 land cover were mapped for the western Great Plains in the US. The model provided realistic, high-resolution, scenario-based land-cover products suitable for multiple applications, including studies of climate and weather variability, carbon dynamics, and regional hydrology.

  17. Monitoring land use/land cover dynamics in northwestern Ethiopia using support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewdie, Worku; Csaplovics, E.

    2014-10-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) change assessment explores a terrestrial ecosystem in relation to the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic activities towards temporal and spatial change. This study explores spatial and quantitative dynamics of land use change in the semi-arid regions of northwestern Ethiopia using Landsat-5 (1984) and Landsat-8 (2014) which provided recent and historical LULC conditions of the region. Supervised classification algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was used to map and monitor land use transformations. A post-classification change detection assessment was applied to individual image classification outputs of the best performing SVM model in order to identify respective two-date change trajectories. The change detection analysis with an extended transition matrix showed a net quantity change of 44.0% and total change of 53.7% of the study area, with the latter change is due to swap changes. Post-classification comparisons of the classified imagery identified a major woodland transformation to cropland which is attributed to population size and economic activity. The area of cropland has increased significantly (52.8%) in 2014 contributing to the reduction in native vegetation cover. In the study period, 55.6% of woodland lost signifying a significant change in ecosystems. This significant land use transformation is due to accelerated human impact and subsequent agricultural land expansion. The loss in vegetation cover has exposed the surface and it is common to see a haze of cloud in a most semiarid region of NW Ethiopia.

  18. Investigating the Impact of Land between the Lakes (LBL) and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Precipitation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

    2012-12-01

    Large dams/reservoirs as open water surface and as a mechanism of triggering land use/land cover changes in their vicinity have impacted local climate and extreme precipitation patterns as study show. Urbanization, agricultural development, and forestation are some of the Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) that are result of development of large dams/reservoirs. Thus creating heterogeneities. It is believed that such heterogeneities bring about a boundary of different air masses that triggers convection due to differential heating as well as variation in soil moisture. One such heterogeneities is of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL). LBL is an inland peninsula formed by Lake Kentucky on Tennessee River and Lake Barkley on Cumberland River in Western Kentucky. The development of the two lakes brought about an area of 680 sq.km forest cover. The LBL renders unique land use/land cover heterogeneities with in a shorter distance providing open water for evaporation and forest for evapotranspiration. Reports as well as a preliminary investigation of nearby weather radar data showed storms dying out as it approaches the inland peninsula and gaining strength east of LBL. The storm exhibits a wave like strength, attenuating before LBL and gaining strength after. The purpose of this study mainly is to investigate the impact of LBL and in general LULCC on precipitation in the area. In this study the following specific scientific question will be addressed a. Has the development of LBL modified precipitation in the region? b. Which LULCC predominately affects storm formation? Summer radar reflectivity data from Paducah, KY station along with North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) geopotential height and wind direction data will be analyzed for identification of LBL effect precipitation and synoptic effect precipitation, respectively. A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) will be setup to investigate what land use/land cover predominately modifies precipitation in

  19. Land Cover Changes between 1974 and 2008 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Yamagata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In the past 35 years, a combination of human actions and natural causes has led to a significant decline in land quality in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia. Human causes include changes in conventional livestock husbandry, overgrazing, and exploitation for traditional uses. Natural causes include a harsh, dry climate, short growing seasons, and thin soils. Since 1995, many herders left the countryside to come to the city in search of new opportunities, the Ger areas (wooden houses and Ger) have expended, resulting in urban sprawl. Since urbanization usually advance in an uncontrolled or unorganized way in Mongolia, they have destructive effects on the environment, particularly on basic ecosystems, wildlife habitat, and pollution of natural resources (e.g. air and water). Land use and land cover changes occurred in the region are investigated using satellite images acquired in 1974 (Landsat MSS), 1990 (Landsat TM), 2000 (ASTER), 2006 (IKONOS), and 2008 (ALOS). Pre-processing of all data included orthorectification and registration to precisely geolocated imagery. In the detection of changes, classification approaches were employed using a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network classifier (Fig. 1a) and new developed subspace classification method (Fig. 1b). From the time-series classified remote sensing images, we extract the land cover and land cover temporal changes from 1974 to 2008. The results show some important findings regarding the size and nature of the change occurred in the study area. A significant amount of steppe and forest lands have been destroyed or replaced by residential areas; as a result, the total area of urban region doubled in the 35-year period with a higher urbanization rate between 2000 and 2008. Key words: Environment; Land Cover; Urban; Change detection; Classification. References Chinbat,B., Bayantur,M., & Amarsaikhan.D. (2006). Investigation of the internal structure changes of ulaanbaatar city using RS and GIS. ISPRS

  20. Land Covering Classifications of Boreas Modeling Grid Using AIRSAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Rignot, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Mapping forest types in the boreal ecosystem in an integrated part of any modeling excercise of biogeophysical processes characterizing the interaction of forest with the atmosphere. In this paper, we report the results of the land cover classification of the SAR data acquired during the BOREAS (BOReal Ecosystem Atmospheric Study) intensive field campaigns over the modeling sub-grid of the southern study area in Saskatchewan , Canada. A Bayesian-maximum-a-posteriori classifier has been applied on the NASA/JPL AIRSAR images covering the region during the peak of the growing season in July, 1994.

  1. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Scott M.; McHale, Melissa R.; Hess, George R.

    2016-07-01

    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m2) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.

  2. Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

  3. Simulating Land-Cover Change in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B.; Sen, Omer L.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Ziegler, Alan D.

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season.

  4. Simulating land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B; Sen, Omer L; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Ziegler, Alan D

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season. PMID:22476665

  5. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    PubMed

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society. PMID:25500156

  6. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  7. MRLC-LAND COVER MAPPING, ACCURACY ASSESSMENT AND APPLICATION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD), produced by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) provides consistently classified land-cover and ancillary data for the United States. These data support many of the modeling and monitoring efforts related to GPRA goals of Cle...

  8. Land Cover in the Puget Sound/Georgia Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator compares changes in two land cover metrics (urban and forest land cover area) for the Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in Washington state and part of British Columbia, Canada. Data cover the period from 1995 to 2000 for the U.S. portion of the basin and from 1992 ...

  9. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class. PMID:26602150

  10. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class. PMID:26602150

  11. Photo interpretation key to Michigan land cover/use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hudson, W. D.; Lusch, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.

  12. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape. PMID:25345850

  13. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  14. Analysing land cover and land use change in the Matobo National Park and surroundings in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharsich, Valeska; Mtata, Kupakwashe; Hauhs, Michael; Lange, Holger; Bogner, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Natural forests are threatened worldwide, therefore their protection in National Parks is essential. Here, we investigate how this protection status affects the land cover. To answer this question, we analyse the surface reflectance of three Landsat images of Matobo National Park and surrounding in Zimbabwe from 1989, 1998 and 2014 to detect changes in land cover in this region. To account for the rolling countryside and the resulting prominent shadows, a topographical correction of the surface reflectance was required. To infer land cover changes it is not only necessary to have some ground data for the current satellite images but also for the old ones. In particular for the older images no recent field study could help to reconstruct these data reliably. In our study we follow the idea that land cover classes of pixels in current images can be transferred to the equivalent pixels of older ones if no changes occurred meanwhile. Therefore we combine unsupervised clustering with supervised classification as follows. At first, we produce a land cover map for 2014. Secondly, we cluster the images with clara, which is similar to k-means, but suitable for large data sets. Whereby the best number of classes were determined to be 4. Thirdly, we locate unchanged pixels with change vector analysis in the images of 1989 and 1998. For these pixels we transfer the corresponding cluster label from 2014 to 1989 and 1998. Subsequently, the classified pixels serve as training data for supervised classification with random forest, which is carried out for each image separately. Finally, we derive land cover classes from the Landsat image in 2014, photographs and Google Earth and transfer them to the other two images. The resulting classes are shrub land; forest/shallow waters; bare soils/fields with some trees/shrubs; and bare light soils/rocks, fields and settlements. Subsequently the three different classifications are compared and land changes are mapped. The main changes are

  15. Land use and land cover change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 1975-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmenter, A.W.; Hansen, A.; Kennedy, R.E.; Cohen, W.; Langner, U.; Lawrence, R.; Maxwell, B.; Gallant, A.; Aspinall, R.

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in the demographic and economic character of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are driving patterns of land cover and land use change in the region. Such changes may have important consequences for ecosystem functioning. The objective of this paper is to quantify the trajectories and rates of change in land cover and use across the GYE for the period 1975-1995 using satellite imagery. Spectral and geographic variables were used as inputs to classification tree regression analysis (CART) to find "rules" which defined land use and land cover classes on the landscape. The resulting CART functions were used to map land cover and land use across seven Landsat TM scenes for 1995. We then used a thresholding technique to identify locations that differed in spectral properties between the 1995 and 1985 time periods. These "changed" locations were classified using CART functions derived from spectral and geographic data from 1985. This was similarly done for the year 1975 based on Landsat MSS data. Differences between the 1975, 1985, and 1995 maps were considered change in land cover and use. We calibrated and tested the accuracy of our models using data acquired through manual interpretation of aerial photos. Elevation and vegetative indices derived from the remotely sensed satellite imagery explained the most variance in the land use and land cover classes (-i.e., defined the "rules" most often). Overall accuracies from our study were good, ranging from 94% at the coarsest level of detail to 74% at the finest. The largest changes over the study period were the increases in burned, urban, and mixed conifer-herbaceous classes and decreases in woody deciduous, mixed woody deciduous-herbaceous, and conifer habitats. These changes have important implications for ecological function and biodiversity. The expansion of mixed conifer classes may increase fuel loads and enhance risk to the growing number of rural homes. The reduction of woody deciduous cover types is

  16. The role of land cover in high latitude land surface temperature heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Nagol, J. R.; Morton, D. C.; Masek, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Near-surface air temperature governs a range of land surface processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and evapotranspiration. However, the spatiotemporal patterns of near-surface air temperature are complex. Meteorological stations provide a detailed account of temporal variations in air temperature, but fail to capture spatial heterogeneity in surface temperature, especially over remote regions with sparse station networks. Gridded climate datasets (0.5° - 2.0° spatial resolution) produced from the meteorological station observations therefore inherit these same shortcomings, since current algorithms use only latitude, longitude, and elevation to interpolate between station locations. Here, we explored the use of MODIS-based estimates of land surface temperature (LST) and land cover to estimate fine-scale heterogeneity in land surface temperature during summer months over boreal North America. We combined nighttime MODIS LST with meteorological station and gridded climate data records. Our analysis quantified the contribution from station distance (latitude and longitude) and land cover type for differences between MODIS and station-based estimates of nighttime temperatures. Finally, we estimated the impact of sub-grid cell heterogeneity in LST for ecosystem processes by comparing seasonal respiration fluxes from an ecosystem model driven by gridded climate data and MODIS LST. Our study suggests that downscaling coarse resolution temperature data using MODIS LST and land cover information can improve estimates of spatial variability in surface temperature data and related ecosystem processes.

  17. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  18. Continental land cover classification using meteorological satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Goff, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data for classifying land cover and monitoring of vegetation dynamics over an extremely large area is demonstrated for the continent of Africa. Data from 17 imaging periods of 21 consecutive days each were composited by a technique sensitive to the in situ green-leaf biomass to provide cloud-free imagery for the whole continent. Virtually cloud-free images were obtainable even for equatorial areas. Seasonal variation in the density and extent of green leaf vegetation corresponded to the patterns of rainfall associated with the inter-tropical convergence zone. Regional variations, such as the 1982 drought in east Africa, were also observed. Integration of the weekly satellite data with respect to time produced a remotely sensed assessment of biological activity based upon density and duration of green-leaf biomass. Two of the 21-day composited data sets were used to produce a general land cover classification. The resultant land cover distributions correspond well to those of existing maps.

  19. Time series change detection: Algorithms for land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriah, Shyam

    The climate and earth sciences have recently undergone a rapid transformation from a data-poor to a data-rich environment. In particular, climate and ecosystem related observations from remote sensors on satellites, as well as outputs of climate or earth system models from large-scale computational platforms, provide terabytes of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal data. These massive and information-rich datasets offer huge potential for advancing the science of land cover change, climate change and anthropogenic impacts. One important area where remote sensing data can play a key role is in the study of land cover change. Specifically, the conversion of natural land cover into humandominated cover types continues to be a change of global proportions with many unknown environmental consequences. In addition, being able to assess the carbon risk of changes in forest cover is of critical importance for both economic and scientific reasons. In fact, changes in forests account for as much as 20% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, an amount second only to fossil fuel emissions. Thus, there is a need in the earth science domain to systematically study land cover change in order to understand its impact on local climate, radiation balance, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and the diversity and abundance of terrestrial species. Land cover conversions include tree harvests in forested regions, urbanization, and agricultural intensification in former woodland and natural grassland areas. These types of conversions also have significant public policy implications due to issues such as water supply management and atmospheric CO2 output. In spite of the importance of this problem and the considerable advances made over the last few years in high-resolution satellite data, data mining, and online mapping tools and services, end users still lack practical tools to help them manage and transform this data into actionable knowledge of changes in forest ecosystems that

  20. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  1. Estimates of Geographically Explicit Future CO2 Emissions From Land Cover/ Land Use Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, T.; Yang, X.; Jain, A.; O'Neill, B.

    2007-12-01

    Land cover and land use change activities, such as deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture management, are important sources of not only CO2, but also non-CO2 GHGs and aerosols. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential contribution of future GHGs and reactive GHGs emissions via changes in regional land use-related activities at a 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree resolution. Regional land use is downscaled to the grid cell level based on socioeconomic, biophysical, and biogeochemical factors. Socio-economic factors include population density at the grid zone level. Land sustainability and attainable crop yields, as well as terrain conditions, are biophysical and biogeochemical factors that were also determined at each grid zone level. The productivity of land was determined by the length of growing period (LGP) using the biophysical and biochemical cycles of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). Agro-ecological and economic indexes were constructed using historical and current-day cropping practices at the grid zone levels. In the future, the distribution of LGPs may be altered due to changes in carbon, nutrients, and climate. This paper uses two IPCC SRES (A2 and B1) emissions and land use scenarios during the time period 2000-2050 to evaluate the relative importance of land use emissions to future net terrestrial CO2 uptakes.

  2. The Geographic Variability of Contemporary United States Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with NASA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is conducing a study to document the rates, causes, and consequences of 1973 to 2000 land cover change for the eighty-four ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Estimates of change are based on the interpretation of five dates of Landsat MSS and TM data (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). Results from an analysis of the first twenty-five ecoregions indicate that the rates, causes, and consequences of change are relative consistent within ecoregions but there are significant differences in the rates of change and types of dominant land use and land cover conversions occurring between ecoregions. For example, high rates of cyclic change are found in ecoregions dominated by resource-based economies while lower but unidirectional change is more common in more urbanized ecoregions. The specific character of change in each ecoregion is shaped by the resource potential of each ecoregion and the historical settlement patterns. Land uses changes that determine changes in cover in a given ecoregion are typically based on the highest economic use enabled by the physical environment (i.e., climate, soils, geology, landforms, etc.) and the comparative advantages associate with resource, location, and history. The differences in rates of change combined with the prevailing land use practices and enduring environmental character of different regions have a significant impact on issues such as carbon dynamics. An assessment of the ecoregion carbon dynamics also shows significant differences in flux rates over time. Overall, the results of this study show that the fabric of change across the conterminous United States highly variable in time and space and understanding the geographic dimensions of change. This suggests that ecoregions offer a framework for projecting rates, types, and the subsequent consequences of change.

  3. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  4. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  5. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  6. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  7. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-11-15

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).

  8. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental- to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  9. Consistent Global Land Cover Maps For Climate Modelling Communities: Current Achievements Of The ESA' Land Cover CCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, S.; Defourny, P.; Radoux, J.; Van Bogaert, E.; Lamarche, C.; Achard, F.; Mayaux, P.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Kirches, G.; Zulkhe, M.; Kalogirou, V.; Seifert, F. M.; Arino, O.

    2013-12-01

    Led by the European Space Agency, the Climate Change Initiative land cover project focuses on the land cover observed as an Essential Climate Variable. Consultation mechanisms were established with the climate modelling community in order to identify its specific needs in terms of satellite-based global land cover products. Key finding was the needs for stable land cover data and a dynamic component in form of time-series. An innovative land cover concept is proposed, along with an new global land cover mapping approach, based on multi-year earth observation datasets. The corresponding products are presented, which consist of three successive and consistent global LC maps centred to the epochs 2000, 2005 and 2010.

  10. A Simple Semi-Automatic Approach for Land Cover Classification from Multispectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Zhu, Yunqiang; Xu, Xinliang; Ren, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Land cover data represent a fundamental data source for various types of scientific research. The classification of land cover based on satellite data is a challenging task, and an efficient classification method is needed. In this study, an automatic scheme is proposed for the classification of land use using multispectral remote sensing images based on change detection and a semi-supervised classifier. The satellite image can be automatically classified using only the prior land cover map and existing images; therefore human involvement is reduced to a minimum, ensuring the operability of the method. The method was tested in the Qingpu District of Shanghai, China. Using Environment Satellite 1(HJ-1) images of 2009 with 30 m spatial resolution, the areas were classified into five main types of land cover based on previous land cover data and spectral features. The results agreed on validation of land cover maps well with a Kappa value of 0.79 and statistical area biases in proportion less than 6%. This study proposed a simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification by using prior maps with satisfied accuracy, which integrated the accuracy of visual interpretation and performance of automatic classification methods. The method can be used for land cover mapping in areas lacking ground reference information or identifying rapid variation of land cover regions (such as rapid urbanization) with convenience. PMID:23049886

  11. A simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification from multispectral remote sensing imagery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Zhu, Yunqiang; Xu, Xinliang; Ren, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Land cover data represent a fundamental data source for various types of scientific research. The classification of land cover based on satellite data is a challenging task, and an efficient classification method is needed. In this study, an automatic scheme is proposed for the classification of land use using multispectral remote sensing images based on change detection and a semi-supervised classifier. The satellite image can be automatically classified using only the prior land cover map and existing images; therefore human involvement is reduced to a minimum, ensuring the operability of the method. The method was tested in the Qingpu District of Shanghai, China. Using Environment Satellite 1(HJ-1) images of 2009 with 30 m spatial resolution, the areas were classified into five main types of land cover based on previous land cover data and spectral features. The results agreed on validation of land cover maps well with a Kappa value of 0.79 and statistical area biases in proportion less than 6%. This study proposed a simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification by using prior maps with satisfied accuracy, which integrated the accuracy of visual interpretation and performance of automatic classification methods. The method can be used for land cover mapping in areas lacking ground reference information or identifying rapid variation of land cover regions (such as rapid urbanization) with convenience. PMID:23049886

  12. Land use and land cover information and air-quality planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, W.E.; Lewis, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The land use and land cover information developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site project has been proven useful when used in an improved technique for estimating emissions, diffusion, and impact patterns of sulfur dioxide (S02) and particulate matter. Implementation of plans to control air quality requires land use and land cover information, which, until this time, has been inadequate. The land use and land cover data were used in updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of S02 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for the 1971-72 winter (Dec.-Jan.-Feb.) and the annual 1972 period, and for a future annual period-1985. This emission information is used as input to the Air Quality Display Model of the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain diffusion and impact patterns for the three periods previously mentioned. The results are: (1) During the 1971-72 winter, estimated S02 amounts over an area with southwest-northeast axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels, (2) future annual levels of S02, estimated by anticipated residential development and point-source changes, are not expected to cause serious deterioration of the region's present air quality, and (3) for the 1971-72 winter, and annual 1972, period the diffusion results showed that both primary and secondary standards for particulate matter are regularly exceeded in central Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, on the basis of current control programs, the 1985 levels of particulate matter are expected to exceed the presently established secondary air-quality standards through central Norfolk and Portsmouth and in certain areas of Virginia Beach. Land use and land cover information can be used to estimate emissions for inputs to diffusion models and to interpret the implications of diffusion patterns for: (1) Implementing various control strategies, (2

  13. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; Hildanus; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to produce a uniform 'regional' land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on 'sub-regional' mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project. Location: The 'region' of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east. Methods: The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998-2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories 'forest' and 'cropland'. Results: The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of 'forest' and 'cropland'; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics. Main conclusions: The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub-tropical Asia, and it delivers

  14. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  15. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland.

    PubMed

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map. PMID:21229303

  16. The Trajectories and Impacts of Land Use and Land Cover Change: A Global Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Fisher, T. R.; Prince, S. D.; Soja, A. J.; Elmore, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    We have summarized the trajectories of land cover and land use change (LCLUC) and the resulting impacts through a synthesis of results from studies encompassing a wide range of environments. While the specific changes and impacts are in some ways unique to each environment, we have nevertheless identified some general principles that seem to apply across all regions. The LCLUC trajectory of a particular landscape under influence by human actions begins with the transition from conditions dominated by natural vegetation to a frontier state. Land use activities in a frontier state are centered primarily around resource extraction and development of infrastructure such as roads or ports. Under the proper conditions (e.g. soils, climate), the frontier state gives way to an agricultural landscape by further conversion of natural vegetation to agriculture and management of cleared land for agriculture. The maximum extent of this conversion is a function of local biophysical and socio-economic factors. For example conversion of arid lands may be limited by water availability, access to capital for development of water resources and access to markets for the products. Given the appropriate conditions (e.g. economic and social policy, generation of wealth), LCLUC evolves as large settlements and industrialization develop in concert with high land prices and agricultural intensification. In some cases (e.g., New England, Appalachia), economic conditions (e.g., better land for agriculture elsewhere) may result in reversion of agriculture to natural vegetation. The last stage in LCLUC is conversion of agriculture to residential and suburban environments (e.g., Baltimore/Washington corridor). Examination of global land cover indicates that every stage is currently present, with areas like the Eastern United States and Western Europe as examples of regions having experienced all stages, while parts of the Amazon basin, Siberia, and Africa are moving through the frontier

  17. Changes of Land Cover and Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.; Reilly, J.; McGuire, A.; Prinn, R.; Shvidenko, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Sirin, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Peregon, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia accounts for about 20% of the Earth's land surface and 60% of the terrestrial land cover north of 40°N. It contains 70% of the Earth's boreal forests and more than two-thirds of the Earth's land that is underlain by permafrost. The region is covered by vast areas of peatland, complex tundra in the north and semi-deserts and deserts in the south, including the Mongolia plateau. The surface air temperature has increased in the last half century and this increase will continue during this century. We present the results of climate change effects on biogeochemical processes and mechanisms governing the carbon and water dynamics in the region. Future research will address on how patterns of land use in Northern Eurasia may change in the future due to: 1) Economic pressures for providing food, fiber and fuel to a growing global population; 2) Expansion of management of land for cropping, pasture, and forestry into areas that experience a more favorable climate in the future; and 3) Abandonment of management in areas that experience a less favorable climate and the implications of these changes for (1) the exchange of CO2 and CH4 between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere; (2) terrestrial carbon storage and primary productivity; (3) water supply; and (4) radiative forcing of the atmosphere through changes in surface albedo. We use a system of linked models that include the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model of the world economy, the SiBCliM bioclimatic vegetation model, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) with land-cover/ land-use modeling and biogeochemical modeling based on current relationships as observed through satellite and remote sensing data.

  18. United States Land Cover Land Use Change, Albedo and Surface Radiative Forcing 1973 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. A.; Roy, D. P.

    2007-12-01

    This research responds to the recent recommendations made by the U.S. National Research Council for regional forcing studies to better understand climatic responses to land cover land use change. Surface albedo affects the earth's radiative energy balance, by controlling how much incoming solar radiation is absorbed and reflected. It is well established that Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change results in changes in the surface albedo which has a radiative forcing effect, however, to date, studies have been limited due to data uncertainties. New spatially explicit satellite derived LCLU change and albedo data for the conterminous U.S. are used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000 on surface albedo and radiative forcing. The methodology and preliminary results for 42% of the U.S. processed to date are presented as spatially explicit maps and summary statistics. The results indicate a negative (cooling) radiative forcing effect due to U.S. LCLU change over the last three decades. Data used include USGS Landsat based decadal land cover maps of the conterminous U.S. located using a stratified sampling methodology across 84 ecoregions, mean 2000-2002 MODIS broadband albedo values extracted in each ecoregion for the 10 mapped LCLU classes, and monthly mean surface incoming solar radiation from the recent European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40 year Reanalysis (ERA40) product.

  19. Spatial relationship between landslide occurrence and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide represents a major type of natural hazards. It may leave great threat to human lives as well as infrastructures. In this study, we tried to understand the spatial relationship between landslide occurrences and land cover types through spatial statistics. The approach was based on the bivariate K-functions which can be used to analyze whether there is spatial clustering, repelling or randomness for landslide occurring in areas within different land covers. The Arno River basin in central Italy was chosen as the study area because the landslide inventory is complete with acquired records of more than 27,000 events. According to the inventory, we divided landslides into four classifications according to their types: slides, sofluctions, falls and flows. The land cover data was derived from the CORINE Land Cover map. The land cover types of artificial lands, natural and forest areas, and agriculture lands were focused on. The results indicate that landslides tend to occur in a clustering way within both three land covers. The difference is from the clustering level and spatial dependence distance. Therefore, no evidence can be found that the spatial pattern of landslide occurrence is dependent on changes of land covers.

  20. Satellite images for land cover monitoring - Navigating through the maze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Künzer, Claudia; Fosnight, Gene

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this publication is satellite systems for land cover monitoring. On the reverse is a table that compares a selection of these systems, whose data are globally available in a form suitable for land cover analysis. We hope the information presented will help you assess the utility of remotely sensed image to meet your needs.

  1. EVALUATING ECOREGIONS FOR SAMPLING AND MAPPING LAND-COVER PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification ...

  2. Land Cover Applications, Landscape Dynamics, and Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tieszen, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    The Land Cover Applications, Landscape Dynamics, and Global Change project at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) seeks to integrate remote sensing and simulation models to better understand and seek solutions to national and global issues. Modeling processes related to population impacts, natural resource management, climate change, invasive species, land use changes, energy development, and climate mitigation all pose significant scientific opportunities. The project activities use remotely sensed data to support spatial monitoring, provide sensitivity analyses across landscapes and large regions, and make the data and results available on the Internet with data access and distribution, decision support systems, and on-line modeling. Applications support sustainable natural resource use, carbon cycle science, biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and robust simulation modeling approaches that evaluate ecosystem and landscape dynamics.

  3. Remote Sensing for optimum road network development by using Land use Land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Snehal; Bhuvana Chandra, mr.; Hebbar, R.

    2012-07-01

    Rural development plays a major role in overall development of any country. Remote Sensing may be helpful in areas like infrastructure development, agricultural development. This paper focuses on implementation of Remote Sensing methods for solving problems in laying new roads and efficient transport in undulating terrain regions. It gives an approach towards economical and ecofriendly rural development. The aim was to suggest a road network with optimum transportation path considering the major factors as slope, road length, least intervention to the natural vegetation, least transportation cost. Area of interest was chosen from Agali-Thuvaipathy area in Palakkad, Kerala. The methodology involves generation of Digital Elevation Model, slope map, land use land cover map for the area of interest. DEM was generated using Cartosat-1 stereo pairs, slope map was generated using Arc Map and land use land cover map was generated by digitizing different feature classes like cropland, vegetation, barren land, water body and town from the LISS 4 data. Weighted overlay analysis was performed for identification of an optimum path by applying required limitations on land use type and maximum slope value. The favorable area for road creation between the two given points in the image was obtained.

  4. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  5. Temporal Variations of 12 sets (2001-2012) of MODIS Land-Cover Data over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Yeol; Suh, Myoung Seok

    2014-05-01

    MODIS land cover data sets are one of the widely used data in the various application studies, such as the land cover changes, desertification, and bottom boundary conditions for the numerical simulation models (NWP, RCM, GCM). In this study, we investigated the temporal variations of land cover over East Asian region using the 12 sets (2001-2012) of MODIS land cover data. The main issues addressed in this study are where and what kind of land cover type show frequent temporal variations. Because the frequent changes of land cover at the given location can be caused by the real changes of land cover or the erroneous classification. In general, there were increases in the evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest, and mixed forest. Whereas, the coverage of the woody Savannas and barren were significantly reduced. And land cover changes were reported in the 44% of total land area. In some pixels (about 26% of the land area), more than 4 times of land cover changes were found. The frequent changes of land cover types at the given location can be caused by the erroneous classification because the temporal variation of land cover is relatively slow. Among the 44% of land cover changed area, about 8.20 and 10.55% showed one and two times of land cover changes, respectively. This area can be caused by the real changes of land cover. The frequent changes in the land cover are mainly occurred at the Korean Peninsula, southern part of Shanghai, and the northern region of Beijing. Detailed analysis results on the temporal variations of MODIS land cover data will be presented.

  6. Towards realistic Holocene land cover scenarios: integration of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological records and comparison to global land cover scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Brue, Hanne; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and spatially explicit landscape reconstructions for distinct time periods in human history are essential for the quantification of the effect of anthropogenic land cover changes on, e.g., global biogeochemical cycles, ecology, and geomorphic processes, and to improve our understanding of interaction between humans and the environment in general. A long-term perspective covering Mid and Late Holocene land use changes is recommended in this context, as it provides a baseline to evaluate human impact in more recent periods. Previous efforts to assess the evolution and intensity of agricultural land cover in past centuries or millennia have predominantly focused on palynological records. An increasing number of quantitative techniques has been developed during the last two decades to transfer palynological data to land cover estimates. However, these techniques have to deal with equifinality issues and, furthermore, do not sufficiently allow to reconstruct spatial patterns of past land cover. On the other hand, several continental and global databases of historical anthropogenic land cover changes based on estimates of global population and the required agricultural land per capita have been developed in the past decennium. However, at such long temporal and spatial scales, reconstruction of past anthropogenic land cover intensities and spatial patterns necessarily involves many uncertainties and assumptions as well. Here, we present a novel approach that combines archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data for the Dijle catchment in the central Belgium Loess Belt in order to arrive at more realistic Holocene land cover histories. Multiple land cover scenarios (> 60.000) are constructed using probabilistic rules and used as input into a sediment delivery model (WaTEM/SEDEM). Model outcomes are confronted with a detailed geomorphic dataset on Holocene sediment fluxes and with REVEALS based estimates of vegetation cover using palynological data from

  7. Seasat SAR identification of dry climate urban land cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.; Wharton, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Digitally processed Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the Denver, Colorado area was examined to assess its potential for mapping urban land cover and the compatibility of SAR derived classes with those described in the U.S. Geological Survey classification system. The entire scene was interpreted to generate a small-scale land cover map. In addition, six subscene enlargements representative of urban land cover categories extant in the area were used as test sites for detailed analysis of land cover types. Two distinct approaches were employed and compared in examining the imagery - a visual interpretation of black-and-white positive transparencies and an automated-machine/visual interpretation. The latter used the Image 100 interactive image analysis system to generate land cover classes by density level slicing of the image frequency histogram.

  8. Land cover estimation using multiple satellite platforms during CLASIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of the Department of Energy Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) in June 2007, the land cover/land use was characteristized over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Testbed in Oklahoma throughout the month long field campaign. Excessive and persiste...

  9. Impacts of land use and land cover on surface and air temperature in urban landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating urbanization affects regional climate as the result of changing land cover and land use (LCLU). Urban land cover composition may provide valuable insight into relationships among urbanization, air, and land-surface temperature (Ta and LST, respectively). Climate may alter these relationships, where hotter climates experience larger LULC effects. To address these hypotheses we examined links between Ta, LST, LCLU, and vegetation across an urban coastal to desert climate gradient in southern California, USA. Using surface temperature radiometers, continuously measuring LST on standardized asphalt, concrete, and turf grass surfaces across the climate gradient, we found a 7.2°C and 4.6°C temperature decrease from asphalt to vegetated cover in the coast and desert, respectively. There is 131% more temporal variation in asphalt than turf grass surfaces, but 37% less temporal variation in concrete than turf grass. For concrete and turf grass surfaces, temporal variation in temperature increased from coast to desert. Using ground-based thermal imagery, measuring LST for 24 h sequences over citrus orchard and industrial use locations, we found a 14.5°C temperature decrease from industrial to orchard land use types (38.4°C and 23.9°C, respectively). Additionally, industrial land use types have 209% more spatial variation than orchard (CV=0.20 and 0.09, respectively). Using a network of 300 Ta (iButton) sensors mounted in city street trees throughout the region and hyperspectral imagery data we found urban vegetation greenness, measured using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), was negatively correlated to Ta at night across the climate gradient. Contrasting previous findings, the closest coupling between NDVI and Ta is at the coast from 0000 h to 0800 h (highest r2 = 0.6, P < 0.05) while relationships at the desert are weaker (highest r2 = 0.38, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that vegetation cover in urbanized regions of southern

  10. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.