Science.gov

Sample records for regional stage upper

  1. Current systems: Upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States orbital transfer vehicles are presented: PAM-D (Payload Assist Module); PAM-D2; IUS (Inertial Upper Stage); and TOS (Transfer Orbit Stage). This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  2. Centaur upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groesbeck, W.

    An account is given of the design features of the LOX/LH2-fueled Centaur upper stage engine and fuel cryotankage, in order to serve as a basis for understanding the Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) system instituted. MECO follows the instant of spacecraft separation from the upper stage. The planetary launch program during 1966-1978 involved 23 Centaur launches and led to no upper stage reentry; LEO missions for HEAO and OAO satellite lofting in 1963-1979 involved nine Centaur launches and led to five reentries. GEO satellite launches in 1969-1986 saw 32 launches and three known reentries.

  3. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  4. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  5. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  6. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  7. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  8. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  9. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  10. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  11. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  13. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  14. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

  15. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

  16. ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  17. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  18. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  20. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  1. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  2. Orbital debris from upper-stage breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on the effects of launch vehicle upper-stage breakup on the orbital debris scenario discusses an analysis of the SPOT 1 Ariane third stage, the explosive fragmentation of orbiting propellant tanks, albedo estimates for debris, Ariane-related debris in deep-space orbit, and the relationship of hypervelocity impacts to upper-stage breakups. Also discussed are the prospects for and the economics of the future removal of orbital debris, collision probabilities in GEO, current operational practices for Delta second stage breakup prevention, breakup-precluding modifications to the Ariane third stage, and the safing of the H-1 second stage after spacecraft separation.

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the manufacturing of aluminum panels that will be used to form the Ares I barrel. The panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  4. Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

  5. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  6. Staging or upper stage reignition for GEO missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François

    2002-07-01

    Geostationary orbit will remain in the near and far future one of the most frequently used for several applications including, mainly, telecommunications. For the time being the GEO satcoms are injected by intermediate, heavy or super heavy class launch vehicles, LV, using quasi standard procedures: low altitude injection on a geostationary transfer orbit, ballistic phase of at least five and a half hour, followed by an apogee manoeuvre (or boost) to reach GEO. Apogee boost is most of the time provided by the propulsive system of the satellite, if this one uses liquid propellant in an integrated system performing final injection and house-keeping for the whole life (up to 15 years) of the satellite. The current launch vehicle features generally a cryogenic (LOX/LH2) or semi-cryogenic (LOX/Kerosene) upper stage having a better Isp than the Isp of the satellite propulsive system: The possibility to provide the apogee boost by the LV upper stage seems attractive. Another possibility is to put on the top of the upper stage an other small stage, or module having the function of kick-stage, as it was done earlier when solid propellant stages were used for this apogee manoeuvre. This presentation will describe the pros and cons of this various choices for single but also dual launches in GTO/GEO, and also will address future new injection scheme, providing new transportation services to satellites featuring advanced propulsive systems such as electric, plasmic or thermo-solar thrusters, requiring other transfer orbits like MEO, GTO+ and super GTO+.

  7. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  8. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  9. Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

  10. Inertial Upper Stage navigation algorithms evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joldersma, T.; Winkel, D. J.; Goodstein, R.; Simmons, E. J., Jr.

    The Inertial Upper Stage is a Space Shuttle-deployed vehicle taking payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous and other orbits, and incorporates a redundant inertial measurement unit containing five gyros and five accelerometers in a strapped down, skewed orientation. The gyro and accelerometer outputs are provided to redundant, on board digital computers to conduct sensor motion compensation, failure detection and isolation, and navigation in an earth-centered inertial coordinate system. Two representations of the flight software algorithms are under evaluation in preparation for the first payload-carrying flight: a FORTRAN nonreal time version for a scientific computer, and a JOVIAL version compiled for the flight computer. Results to date on nominal and off-nominal simulation runs are meeting navigation algorithm error allocations and generating correct responses to sensor error simulations for the redundancy algorithms.

  11. Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

    1984-01-01

    Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

  12. Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test

  13. Regional anesthesia for an upper extremity amputation for palliative care in a patient with end-stage osteosarcoma complicated by a large anterior mediastinal mass

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Mumin; Burrier, Candice; Bhalla, Tarun; Raman, Vidya T; Martin, David P; Dairo, Olamide; Mayerson, Joel L; Tobias, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression during end-of-life care can lead to significant pain, which at times may be refractory to routine analgesic techniques. Although regional anesthesia is commonly used for postoperative pain care, there is limited experience with its use during home hospice care. We present a 24-year-old male with end-stage metastatic osteosarcoma who required anesthetic care for a right-sided above-the-elbow amputation. The anesthetic management was complicated by the presence of a large mediastinal mass, limited pulmonary reserve, and severe chronic pain with a high preoperative opioid requirement. Intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative pain management were provided by regional anesthesia using an interscalene catheter. He was discharged home with the interscalene catheter in place with a continuous local anesthetic infusion that allowed weaning of his chronic opioid medications and the provision of effective pain control. The perioperative applications of regional anesthesia in palliative and home hospice care are discussed. PMID:26442759

  14. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics include: 1) What is NASA s Mission?; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line?; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologies Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 4) Ares I Upper Stage; 5) Upper Stage Primary Products; 6) Ares I Upper Stage Development Approach; 7) What progress have we made?; 8) Upper Stage Subsystem Highlights; 9) Structural Testing; 10) Common Bulkhead Processing; 11) Stage Installation at Stennis Space Center; 12) Boeing Producibility Team; 13) Upper Stage Low Cost Strategy; 14) Ares I and V Production at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF); 15) Merged Manufacturing Flow; and 16) Manufacturing and Assembly Weld Tools.

  15. Ranking upper stages in low Earth orbit for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmo, L.; Pardini, C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of ranking the upper stages in orbit in order to evaluate their potential detrimental effects on the debris environment over the long-term, and the relative advantage of having them actively de-orbited. To do so, a new ranking scheme is introduced, applicable to any object in low Earth orbit (LEO) and able to prioritize the target objects potentially most critical for the future preservation of the LEO protected region. Applying the proposed approach, it was found, for instance, that the 22 most massive upper stages abandoned in LEO, at the beginning of 2015, are on the whole equivalent to several hundred average intact objects in sun-synchronous orbit, regarding their latent detrimental effects on the debris environment over the next 200 years. Most of them could therefore be the top priority targets of any worldwide coordinated effort for active removal and the prevention of new collisional debris. The ranking scheme was also applied to other main models of rocket bodies currently in orbit, trying to identify the combinations of orbital elements and upper stage types requiring particular attention.

  16. Integrated solar upper stage alternate receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Streckert, H.H.; Begg, L.L.; Heffernan, T.F.; Horner, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) receiver is a compact orbital transfer vehicle designed to generate thrust to boost transfer payloads from low earth orbit to Molniya or geosynchronous orbits. It can provide thrust by collecting and concentrating solar flux and heating hydrogen to {approximately} 2,500 K. Simultaneously, the ISUS receiver radiates heat into an array of thermionic converters to produce electrical power. The central component consists of a graphite body with rhenium lined internal passages. The alternate receiver relies on wrought rhenium that is rolled, machined and electron-beam welded to form a complex rhenium liner system within the graphite body. All machining operations were performed by molybdenum wire electron discharge machining. The tube forming procedure was performed to minimize the amount of cold work before annealing. Electron-beam welding was performed at a current density range of {approximately} 2 to 10 A/cm{sup 2} depending on material thickness, which melts the rhenium locally and results in a fine grained weld zone. A simplified Demonstration Test Assembly was fabricated and tested. The unit consisted of an inlet structure welded to a manifold with a simplified exhaust nozzle system and contained in a machined graphite body. The external graphite surfaces were coated with plasma sprayed rhenium for protection from graphite erosion. Testing included a hot hydrogen flow test to {approximately} 2,500 K. The main ISUS Alternate Receiver was designed and built according to the same procedures as the demonstration unit. However, the inlet and outlet plenums are more complex and are connected by 195 channels to efficiently transfer heat to the flowing hydrogen. An outlet tube containing a sonic orifice mates to the exhaust plenum.

  17. The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

  18. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  20. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  1. United States upper stages for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, A.; Woods, F.

    United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970 s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G' was ultimately developed as the centaur upper stage for use with the Titan IV launch system. In the last two decades upper stage development decisions and requirements were driven by increased payload performance demands. As we look forward to the next decade it is apparent that the situation has changed. Significant effort is underway to downsize payloads. The best mission model projections indicate that the payload performance demands have reached a maximum with current or near-term missions, and that maximum weight requirements will generally decrease in the near future. Thus the current fleet of launch systems and upper stages are expected to be able to meet all projected performance requirements through the next one to two decades. The impetus for development of a new upper stage will have to come from somewhere other than increased performance requirements. A driving need for a new upper stage is emerging from the concept and technology development work currently underway in the U.S. on the evolved expendable vehicle (EELV) and reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The key EELV upper stage requirements are cost, operability and reliability. Clearly the EELV presents a performance challenge for a single upper stage to operate with a booster family over the complete mission model payload weight and destination range. The design requirements and trade-off considerations are quite different for a stage to operate with an RLV. In this case, manned safety and payload bay packaging become significant additional considerations which must be addressed, and reusability, with or without space basing, is an option. This paper covers the

  2. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  3. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  4. The Upper Midwest and Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    The broad question addressed is whether the Upper Midwest needs a new regional educational laboratory and, if so, why and where and for whom? Conclusions were reached after a sampling of deans of education, chief state school officers, classroom teachers, National Institute of Education staff members, local superintendents, and other knowledgeable…

  5. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davusm Daniel J.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system.

  6. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  7. Ariane 5 ECA's upper stage perigee reduction via passivation manoeuvre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, David-Alexis; Masson, Frédéric; Corbin, Julien; Bonnal, Christophe

    2012-10-01

    When Ariane 5 ECA development has been decided by Europe to increase Ariane 5 performance, the rule of 25 years in GTO orbit for the upper stage has been anticipated. This was 14 years ago and this rule was known to be satisfied with a perigee lower than 250 km. Even when lowering slightly Ariane 5 ECA performance, this maximum perigee altitude has been held and the whole Launch System has been developed under CNES responsibility with this GTO perigee. In the meantime, more precise calculations demonstrated that such a GTO perigee was giving for the ESCA a mean lifetime higher than 25 years. So studies are in progress inside CNES to decrease the perigee and re-enter inside the 25 years lifetime domain. This paper presents a CNES study to reduce the orbital lifetime of Ariane 5's upper stage that last in GTO after each commercial mission. Usually the aimed orbit has a perigee altitude of 250 km, an apogee altitude near to the geostationary position and an inclination between 2° and 7°. These conditions make stage's mean lifetime superior to 90 years. The CNES study is to expose the possibility to decrease this lifetime by reducing the perigee altitude of the final upper stage orbit through a passivation process optimised to produce orbit modification. It is shown that taking into account material and functional stage constraints the optimised passivation process is able to decrease the perigee by a few tenths of kilometres.

  8. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  9. ARES I Upper Stage Subsystems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.; Senick, Paul F.; Tolbert, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    From 2005 through early 2011, NASA conducted concept definition, design, and development of the Ares I launch vehicle. The Ares I was conceived to serve as a crew launch vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit human space exploration missions as part of the Constellation Program Architecture. The vehicle was configured with a single shuttle-derived solid rocket booster first stage and a new liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage, propelled by a single, newly developed J-2X engine. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was to be mated to the forward end of the Ares I upper stage through an interface with fairings and a payload adapter. The vehicle design passed a Preliminary Design Review in August 2008, and was nearing the Critical Design Review when efforts were concluded as a result of the Constellation Program s cancellation. At NASA Glenn Research Center, four subsystems were developed for the Ares I upper stage. These were thrust vector control (TVC) for the J-2X, electrical power system (EPS), purge and hazardous gas (P&HG), and development flight instrumentation (DFI). The teams working each of these subsystems achieved 80 percent or greater design completion and extensive development testing. These efforts were extremely successful representing state-of-the-art technology and hardware advances necessary to achieve Ares I reliability, safety, availability, and performance requirements. This paper documents the designs, development test activity, and results.

  10. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-11-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 {mu}m diameter) and fine (0.8--12 {mu}m diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q-{sup 1/8}, where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D{sup n} where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs.

  11. The upper mantle transition region - Eclogite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The upper mantle transition region is usually considered to be peridotite which undergoes a series of phase changes involving spinel and post-spinel assemblages. There are difficulties associated with attempts to explain the 220, 400 and 670 km discontinuities in terms of phase changes in a peridotitic mantle. Moreover, in a differentiated earth there should be large quantities of eclogite in the upper mantle. Eclogite is denser than Al2O3-poor mantle to depths of 670 km, but it stays in the garnet stability field to pressures in excess of those required to transform depleted mantle to denser phases such as ilmenite and perovskite. Eclogite, therefore, remains above 670 km. The seismic properties of the transition region are more consistent with eclogite than peridotite. Most of the mantle's inventory of incompatible trace elements may be in this layer, which is a potential source region for some basalt magmas. The radioactivity in this layer is the main source of mantle heat flow, 0.7 microcalorie/sq cm-sec, and drives upper mantle convection.

  12. Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

  13. Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), a key component of NASA's blueprint for the next generation of spacecraft to take humans back to the moon, is being designed and built by engineers at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The vehicle s design is based on the results of NASA's 2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which called for development of a crew-launch system to reduce the gap between Shuttle retirement and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Initial Operating Capability, identification of key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance these reference exploration systems, and a reprioritization of near- and far-term technology investments. The Upper Stage Element (USE) of the CLV is a clean-sheet approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115' long and 216" in diameter, consisting of the following subsystems: Primary Structures (LOX Tank, LH2 Tank, Intertank, Thrust Structure, Spacecraft Payload Adaptor, Interstage, Forward and Aft Skirts), Secondary Structures (Systems Tunnel), Avionics and Software, Main Propulsion System, Reaction Control System, Thrust Vector Control, Auxiliary Power Unit, and Hydraulic Systems. The ESAS originally recommended a CEV to be launched atop a four-segment Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) CLV, utilizing an RS-25 engine-powered upper stage. However, Agency decisions to utilize fewer CLV development steps to lunar missions, reduce the overall risk for the lunar program, and provide a more balanced engine production rate requirement prompted engineers to switch to a five-segment design with a single Saturn-derived J-2X engine. This approach provides for single upper stage engine development for the CLV and an Earth Departure Stage, single Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) development for the CLV and a Cargo Launch Vehicle, and single core SSME development. While the RSRB design has

  15. The Malemute development program. [rocket upper stage engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolster, W. J.; Hoekstra, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Malemute vehicle systems are two-stage systems based on utilizing a new high performance upper stage motor with two existing military boosters. The Malmute development program is described relative to program structure, preliminary design, vehicle subsystems, and the Malemute motor. Two vehicle systems, the Nike-Malemute and Terrier-Malemute, were developed which are capable of transporting comparatively large diameter (16 in.) 200-lb payloads to altitudes of 500 and 700 km, respectively. These vehicles provide relatively low-cost transportation with two-stage reliability and launch simplicity. Flight tests of both vehicle systems revealed their performance capabilities, with the Terrier-Malemute system involving a unique Malemute motor spin sensitivity problem. It is suggested that the vehicles can be successfully flown by lowering the burnout spin rate.

  16. Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

    The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

  17. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  18. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares 1-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  19. J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

  20. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  1. Trade studies on Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, J.D.; Jacox, M.G.; Kennedy, F.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program at the USAF Phillips Laboratory is directed at demonstrating a solar bimodal power and propulsion system for military applications. Trades were performed to examine the potential performance of the ISUS stage combined with the proposed LLV-3 launch vehicle. Variation in ISUS thermal power directly affects the trip time from LEO to GEO. These variations can be altered by changing average propellant temperature raising or lowering the average specific impulse. If the ISUS system is sized for the spacecraft`s electrical power requirements, this can result in long trip times for high mass satellites with low electrical power requirements. The ISUS can be sized, however, for a suitable thermal power to allow more rapid trip times with minimum impact on delivered mass. Such a system can place significantly more payload in GEO than a solid chemical stage. The mass advantages of the ISUS increase as electrical power requirements increase, rising from 46% improvement at 0 kW(e) to 179% improvement at 3 kW(e).

  2. Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

  3. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  4. Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, J. P.

    The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

  5. The Critical Technologies and Applications on Advanced Upper Stage Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Feng; Wang, Guo-hui

    2016-07-01

    Upper Stage Vehicle(USV) is a kind of independent one-stop-into-space launching vehicles. In this article, different new-conception USVs are mentioned and out of them, on basis of the possibility in future application, laser propelling USV and nuclear-thermal propelling USV are selected and discussed in technical details, especially in critical technologies and recent relative technical improvements about new propelling methods within these two kinds. Furthermore, laser propelled USV and nuclear-thermal propelled USV both seem to have important roles to play in future space exploring projects. And several possible applications of the two kinds of USVs emphasized above are carried out at the end of this piece of article.

  6. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  7. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  8. Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

  9. Small upper stage - An orbit enabling hydrazine propulsion stage for the small satellite community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitan, Thane

    1992-03-01

    The small upper stage (SUS) study aimed at creating a generic, low-cost propulsion stage design capable of being integrated to different launch vehicles (LVs) and providing a mission with an orbit transfer function to a variety of different small satellite missions is presented. The preliminary SUS design was developed taking into account the SUS specification requirements. The SUS design makes it possible to provide small satellites with several orbit transfer maneuvers from a LEO parking orbit, including Hohmann transfer, circularization, plane change, and deorbit. The propulsion system design encompasses a single delta V thruster, a single hydrazine propellant tank, and a pressurized nitrogen gas storage system. It is concluded that with the SUS generic design, the software and fuel loads are tailorable to enable a variety of different missions in a cost-effective manner. The SUS will eliminate the need for a custom propulsion stage for future small satellite missions.

  10. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  11. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  13. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  14. New upper stage propulsion concept for future launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, Max; Talbot, Christophe

    2008-07-01

    A pressure-fed system is leading to a stage easy to operate, reliable, needing no costly solutions (expander engine, boost pumps). On the other hand, many R&D programs are going on all ceramic liquid engines, engines cooled by "effusion" (DLR), Transpiration (PTAH-SOCAR from MBDA), Film or Trim (Astrium, Snecma), so very light engine may be offered on the market in the close future. Operating to relatively low pressure the specific impulse is slightly lower than a conventional one with a turbomachine (expander type or other) and the structural index lightly less interesting: a concept with the LOX tank nested inside the fuel tank with a scrolling common bulkhead appears easily usable for LOX/methane stage due to the fact that the two propellants are liquids in the same range of temperature and may lead to an interesting mass saving. Even if such an upper stage may lead to a dramatic increase of the performance of a small launch vehicle such as Vega (replacement of Z9 and AVUM), the aim of this presentation is mainly to show the interest of special tools to make the very first evaluation of the interest of a new solution. The Inner Arch developed for the CNES DLA two softwares: One dedicated to solid propulsion projects: APSOL. One dedicated to liquid propulsion projects: ELIS. A third one, PERFOL, is used to optimize the trajectory and the propulsion parameters. The paper will describe the main software used for this study and illustrate the interest of the approach.

  15. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

  16. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  17. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  18. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overall description of the avionics and software functions of the Ares I Upper Stage Crew Launch Vehicle. The contents include: 1) IUA Team - Development Approach Roadmap; 2) Ares I US Avionics and Software Development Approach; 3) NDT Responsibilities; 4) Ares I Upper Stage Avionics Locations; 5) Ares I Overall Avionics & Software Functions; 6) Block Diagram Version of Avionics Architecture; 7) Instrument Unit Avionics Preliminary Design; and 8) Upper Stage Avionics External Interfaces.

  19. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Charles L.; Blue, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Building on the heritage of the Saturn and Space Shuttle Programs for the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT and E) of avionics and software for NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I Upper Stage Element is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. The Upper Stage Element's Avionics Subsystem is actively proceeding toward its objective of delivering a flight-certified Upper Stage Avionics System for the Ares I CLV.

  20. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  1. Laboratory experiment on boundaries of upper stage plane bed regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrostlík, Štěpán; Matoušek, Václav

    2016-04-01

    Results are discussed of laboratory experiments on criteria determining the transition between the regime of dunes and the upper stage plane bed (UPB) regime and the transition between the UPB regime and the regime of wavy flow. The experiments were carried for 3 fractions of plastic material and two fractions of glass beads in a broad range of flow conditions (different discharges of water and solids and longitudinal bed slopes) in a tilting flume. The experiments reveal that, contrary to expectations, a constant value of the Shields parameter is not an appropriate criterion for the transition between the dune regime and the UPB regime. Furthermore, the transition appears to be insensitive to the total discharge of solids and water. Instead, the criterion seems to be well represented by a constant value of the average transport concentration of sediment (the ratio of volumetric discharge of solids and volumetric discharge of mixture). The experimental results exhibit a very tight correlation between the transport concentration and the longitudinal bed slope. Hence, a constant value of the bed slope can be considered an appropriate criterion for the transition. The transition between the UPB regime and the wavy regime (significant waves develop but they are not always standing waves) is found at a constant value of Froude number, which is in agreement with literature, although it is found at a higher value than the literature usually suggests (Fr = 1.2 instead of 1.0). Hence, the transition occurs in the super-critical flow but it is not necessarily associated with the critical flow.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  3. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  4. STS spin-stabilized upper stage study (study 2.6). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Spinning solid propellant upper stage rocket engines designed for geosynchronous satellite payloads are investigated. Factors considered include: impact of the spinning stages on the payloads; applicability to 1981-1991 NASA mission model; and cost effectiveness.

  5. Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

    1975-01-01

    Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

  6. IUS/SPINSIM - INERTIAL UPPER STAGE SPIN STAGE SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM SIMULATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IUS/SPINSIM was written to evaluate a proposed spinning third stage for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Jupiter Mission. The third stage of the IUS was not to have altitude control during the solid motor burn for this mission. IUS was to be spun up about its principle thrust axis in the desired attitude prior to ignition of its solid motor. IUS/SPINSIM can also be used to evaluate the performance of other spinning stages that utilize a fixed burn motor. IUS/SPINSIM is a Six-Degree-of-Freedom simulation for exo-atmospheric flight of an IUS. It assumes the stage is released in orbit at or near its desired inertial attitude, and is spinning slowly. The code models three phases: a coast phase in which further spin-up may occur, a burn stage during which a solid rocket motor (SRM) burn injects the space craft into a transfer trajectory, and a final coast phase. IUS/SPINSIM takes into account the effects of the following: a reaction control system (RCS) spinning the vehicle; SRM thrust buildup, decay, and misalignment; changing mass, center of gravity, principle moments of inertia, cross products of inertia, time derivatives of inertia; jet damping moments; and an oblate gravity model. Numerical integration of the equations of motion using a Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator and small step sizes is used to track the vehicle's position, velocity, attitude and spin rates. Instead of using Euler angles or the Direction Cosine Matrix, Quarternions are used to model the attitude and spinning of the vehicle. This eliminates the renormalization difficulties associated with either of the other methods. Program input is taken from a file, and output is to a print file and a data file suitable for use in plotting. The IUS/SPINSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 9track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This

  7. Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

  8. A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  10. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1990-11-01

    During the current reporting period experimental studies of aerosol deposition in replicate NOPL airways have carried out. A replicate model of a 4 week old infant nasal passage was constructed from MR scans. The model completes the age range from newborn'' to 4 years, there now being one child model for 4 different ages. Deposition studies have been performed with unattached radon progeny aerosols in collaboration with ITRI, Albuquerque, NM and NRPB, Chilton, UK. Overall measurements have been performed in adult and child nasal airways indicating that the child nasal passage was slightly more efficient than the adult in removing 1 nm particles at corresponding flow rates. A similar weak dependence on flow rate was observed. Local deposition studies in an adult nasal model indicated predominant deposition in the anterior region during inspiratory flow, but measurable deposition was found throughout the model. The deposition pattern during expiration was reverse, greater deposition being observed in the posterior region. Local deposition studies of attached progeny aerosol size (100--200 nm) were performed in adult and child nasal models using technigas'' and a gamma scintillation camera. Similar to the unattached size, deposition occurred throughout the models, but was greater in the anterior region.

  12. Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  13. Ares I Upper Stage Pressure Tests in Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

  14. Reusable Agena study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [space shuttle Agena upper stage tug concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The shuttle Agena upper stage interim tug concept is based on a building block approach. These building block concepts are extensions of existing ascent Agena configurations. Several current improvements, have been used in developing the shuttle/Agena upper stage concepts. High-density acid is used as the Agena upper stage oxidizer. The baffled injector is used in the main engine. The DF-224 is a fourth generation computer currently in development and will be flight proven in the near future. The Agena upper stage building block concept uses the current Agena as a baseline, adds an 8.5-inch (21.6 cm) extension to the fuel tank for optimum mixture ratio, uses monomethyl hydrazine as fuel, exchanges a 150:1 nozzle extension for the existing 45:1, exchanges an Autonetics DF-224 for the existing Honeywell computer, and adds a star sensor for guidance update. These modifications to the current Agena provide a 5-foot (1.52m) diameter shuttle/Agena upper stage that will fly all Vandenberg Air Force Base missions in the reusable mode without resorting to a kick motor. The delta V velocity of the Agena is increased by use of a strap-on propellant tank option. This option provides a shuttle/Agena upper stage with the capability to place almost 3900 pounds (1769 kg) into geosynchronous orbit (24 hour period) without the aid of kick motors.

  15. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

  16. Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

  17. A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

  19. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  20. Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton

  1. Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

    2003-01-01

    Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

  2. MIDDLE TO UPPER ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (PHASE II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this assessment activity is to enhance the ability of decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Middle to Upper Atlantic Region who are vulnerable to land use change and climate change to access and use the best scientific information when making decisions th...

  3. Active Space Debris Removal using European Modified Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Equipped with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Ali S.; Emanuelli, Matteo; Raval, Siddharth; Turconi, Andrea; Becker, Cristoph

    2013-08-01

    During the past few years, several research programs have assessed the current state and future evolution of the Low Earth Orbit region. These studies indicate that space debris density could reach a critical level such that there will be a continuous increase in the number of debris objects, primarily driven by debris-debris collision activity known as the Kessler effect. This cascade effect can be even more significant when intact objects as dismissed rocket bodies are involved in the collision. The majority of the studies until now have highlighted the urgency for active debris removal in the next years. An Active Debris Removal System (ADRS) is a system capable of approaching the debris object through a close-range rendezvous, establishing physical connection, stabilizing its attitude and finally de-orbiting the debris object using a type of propulsion system in a controlled manoeuvre. In its previous work, this group showed that a modified Fregat (Soyuz FG's 4th stage) or Breeze-M upper stage (Proton-M) launched from Plesetsk (Russian Federation) and equipped with an electro-dynamic tether (EDT) system can be used, after an opportune inclination's change, to de-orbit a Kosmos-3M second stage rocket body while also delivering an acceptable payload to orbit. In this paper, we continue our work on the aforementioned concept, presented at the 2012 Beijing Space Sustainability Conference, by comparing its performance to ADR missions using only chemical propulsion from the upper stage for the far approach and the de-orbiting phase. We will also update the EDT model used in our previous work and highlight some of the methods for creating physical contact with the object. Moreover, we will assess this concept also with European launch vehicles (Vega and Soyuz 2-1A) to remove space debris from space. In addition, the paper will cover some economic aspects, like the cost for the launches' operator in term of payload mass' loss at the launch. The entire debris removal

  4. Climatology of upper air temperature in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philandras, C. M.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, I. N.; Repapis, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to contribute to the climatology of upper air temperature in the Mediterranean region, during the period 1965-2011. For this purpose, both radiosonde recordings and gridded reanalysis datasets of upper air temperature from National Center for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) were used for seven barometric levels at 850 hPa, 700 hPa, 500 hPa, 300 hPa, 200 hPa, 150 hPa and 100 hPa. Trends and variability of upper air temperature were analyzed on annual and seasonal basis. Further, the impact of atmospheric circulation, by means of correlation between upper air temperature at different barometric levels and specific climatic indices such as Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), North Sea Caspian Pattern Index (NCPI) and North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI), was also quantified. Our findings have given evidence that air temperature is increasing at a higher rate in lower/middle troposphere against upper, and this is very likely due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

  5. Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  6. NASA Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA s Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115 long and 216" in diameter. While the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system.

  7. Thunderstorms and upper troposphere chemistry during the early stages of the 2006 North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Lee, J.; Hodzic, A.; Pfister, G.; Skamarock, W. C.; Worden, J.; Wong, J.; Noone, D.

    2012-11-01

    To study the meteorology and chemistry that is associated with the early stages of the North American Monsoon, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied for the first time at high resolution (4 km grid spacing, allowing for explicit representation of convection) over a large region (continental US and northern Mexico) for a multi-week (15 July to 7 August 2006) integration. Evaluation of model results shows that WRF-Chem reasonably represents the large-scale meteorology and strong convective storms, but tends to overestimate weak convection. In the upper troposphere, the WRF-Chem model predicts ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) to within 10-20% of aircraft and sonde measurements. Comparison of UT O3 and CO frequency distributions between WRF-Chem and satellite data indicates that WRF-Chem is lofting CO too frequently from the boundary layer (BL). This excessive lofting should also cause biases in the WRF-Chem ozone frequency distribution; however it agrees well with satellite data suggesting that either the chemical production of O3 in the model is overpredicted or there is too much stratosphere to troposphere transport in the model. Analysis of different geographic regions (West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Central Plains, Midwest, and Gulf Coast) reveals that much of the convective transport occurs in the Rocky Mountains, while much of the UT ozone chemical production occurs over the Gulf Coast and Midwest regions where both CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are abundant in the upper troposphere and promote the production of peroxy radicals. In all regions most of the ozone chemical production occurs within 24 h of the air being lofted from the boundary layer. In addition, analysis of the anticyclone and adjacent air indicates that ozone mixing ratios within the anticyclone region associated with the North American Monsoon and just outside the anticyclone are similar. Increases of O3 within the anticyclone are

  8. Thunderstorms and upper troposphere chemistry during the early stages of the 2006 North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Lee, J.; Hodzic, A.; Pfister, G.; Skamarock, W. C.; Worden, J.; Wong, J.; Noone, D.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied at 4 km horizontal grid spacing to study the meteorology and chemistry over the continental US and Northern Mexico region for the 15 July to 7 August 2006 period, which coincides with the early stages of the North American Monsoon. Evaluation of model results shows that WRF-Chem reasonably represents the large-scale meteorology and strong convective storms, but tends to overestimate weak convection. In the upper troposphere, the WRF-Chem model predicts ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) to within 10-20% of aircraft and sonde measurements. However, the frequency distribution from satellite data indicates that WRF-Chem is lofting too much CO from the boundary layer (BL). Because ozone mixing ratios agree well with these same satellite data, it suggests that chemical production of O3 in the model is overpredicted and compensates for the excess convective lofting of BL air. Analysis of different geographic regions (West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Central Plains, Midwest, and Gulf Coast) reveals that much of the convective transport occurs in the Rocky Mountains, while much of the UT ozone chemical production occurs over the Gulf Coast and Midwest regions where both CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are abundant in the upper troposphere and promote the production of peroxy radicals. In all regions most of the ozone chemical production occurs within 24 h of the air being lofted from the boundary layer. In addition, analysis of the anticyclone and adjacent air indicates that ozone mixing ratios within the anticyclone region associated with the North American Monsoon and just outside the anticyclone are similar. Increases of O3 within the anticyclone are strongly coincident with entrainment of stratospheric air into the anticyclone, but also are from in situ O3 chemical production. In situ O3 production is up to 17% greater within the anticyclone than just outside the

  9. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  10. Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchett, Bradley T.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

  11. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the ARES I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-09-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items(SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and / or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage(US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  12. Utilization of solid-propellant upper stages in STS payload orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to discuss techniques of trajectory design, maneuver execution, and stage loading that are compatible with the use of SRM's (solid rocket motors) which, once ignited, must burn to propellant depletion. It is anticipated that some shuttle payloads will use non-IUS (interim upper stage) solid propellant kick stages; therefore this subject is also pertinent to shuttle flights other than those involving the use of the IUS. The SRM utilization techniques can be divided into two major categories: (1) those in which the stage performance is adjusted to match the velocity increment magnitude requirements of a preselected trajectory, and (2) those in which the trajectory is designed to match the velocity increment magnitude capability of the stage(s).

  13. Development status of the Ariane 5 upper-stage AESTUS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Langel, G.; Zewen, H.

    1993-06-01

    The paper presents the development status of the Ariane 5 upper-stage AESTUS 28 kN engine. Particular attention is given to the architecture and function of the AESTUS engine, its performance characteristics, operational characteristics, and stability characteristics. Results are presented on the sea-level and vacuum test, stability test, and environmental test.

  14. Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark

    Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

  15. Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

  16. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of small-scale convection in the upper mantle for the Eurasian region (20°E~170°E,15°N~75°N), using the anomaly of isostatic gravity. The results show that the regional lithospheric tectonics is strongly correlated with the upper mantle flow in the Eurasian region. Two intensive convective belts against the weak background convection can be recognized from convection patterns in this region: Alpine-Himalayan collision belt and West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt. Alpine-Himalayan belt is caused by the collision between the northern plate (Eurasian plate) and the southern plates (African plate and Indian plate). West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Both of them are also seismotectonic belts. The collision and the subduction are two important geological events occurred since Mesozoic era and Cenozoic era in the Eurasian region. Therefore, the mantle flows may be one of the main driving forces of two events. In addition, most plate boundaries in this region can be recognized and the characteristics of upper mantle convection are different completely between the Eurasian plate and the plates around it (African plate, Arabian plate, Indian plate, Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate). Main structures and geodynamic characteristics of the Eurasian can also be explained by our model results. The Tibet plateau is located in the intensive convective belt. Around the belt, the upwelling materials push the lithosphere to lift unitarily and form the plateau. Towards the north of the Tibet

  17. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and

  18. Upper mantle anisotropy in the New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Klosko, E.K.

    1999-02-01

    Shear-wave splitting parameters of fast polarization direction (F) and delay time (dt) are determined using data from the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE), on the South Island of New Zealand and in the surrounding region. Our results clearly show that F are subparallel to trends of the Alpine and Marlborough Faults, and to the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. The dt values range from 0.6-2.2 s with an average value of 1.6 s; the largest values are from the central South Island. The main source of the observed shear-wave splitting is an anisotropic region between 40-400 km. The width of the zone is approximately 200 km. We attribute the coincidence of surface structural trends with the measured F, and the large dt values, to significant shear deformation in a 200 km thick zone along the plate boundary extending from the surface to deep within the upper mantle.

  19. Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification / Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittweger, A.; Beuchel, W.; Eckhardt, K.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested to validate the mathematical model of the launcher. Additionally, transfer functions were measured for Pogo investigations. Validated mathematical launcher models are the basis to predict the launcher global responses in the low frequency domain with sufficient confidence. The predicted global axial and lateral responses for selected sections at the stage represent the flight loads for these sections. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. The verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro shock) a stage separation test was performed. All the equipment was qualified separately for its dynamic (sine, random and shock excitation) and thermal environment to proof its structural and functional integrity. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine-vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electrodynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 150 Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experiences which were made - the comparison

  20. Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

  1. Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2009-01-01

    In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

  2. Infusing Training into the Documentation and Culture of Ares I Upper Stage Design and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2009-01-01

    In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 2) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can grow their own training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, and 3) possibilities for interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff.

  3. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-15

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  4. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  5. Overview of the Main Propulsion System for the NASA Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jason E.; Swanson, Luke A.

    2009-01-01

    A functional overview of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage is provided. In addition to a simple overview of the key MPS functions and design philosophies, major lessons learned are discussed. The intent is to provide a technical overview with enough detail to allow engineers outside of the MPS Integrated Product Team (IPT) to develop a rough understanding of MPS operations, components, design philosophy, and lessons learned.

  6. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  7. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  8. Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B.; Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

  10. Upper D region chemical kinetic modeling of LORE relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Luque, A.; Haldoupis, C.

    2016-04-01

    The recovery times of upper D region electron density elevations, caused by lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP), are modeled. The work was motivated from the need to understand a recently identified narrowband VLF perturbation named LOREs, an acronym for LOng Recovery Early VLF events. LOREs associate with long-living electron density perturbations in the upper D region ionosphere; they are generated by strong EMP radiated from large peak current intensities of ±CG (cloud to ground) lightning discharges, known also to be capable of producing elves. Relaxation model scenarios are considered first for a weak enhancement in electron density and then for a much stronger one caused by an intense lightning EMP acting as an impulsive ionization source. The full nonequilibrium kinetic modeling of the perturbed mesosphere in the 76 to 92 km range during LORE-occurring conditions predicts that the electron density relaxation time is controlled by electron attachment at lower altitudes, whereas above 79 km attachment is balanced totally by associative electron detachment so that electron loss at these higher altitudes is controlled mainly by electron recombination with hydrated positive clusters H+(H2O)n and secondarily by dissociative recombination with NO+ ions, a process which gradually dominates at altitudes >88 km. The calculated recovery times agree fairly well with LORE observations. In addition, a simplified (quasi-analytic) model build for the key charged species and chemical reactions is applied, which arrives at similar results with those of the full kinetic model. Finally, the modeled recovery estimates for lower altitudes, that is <79 km, are in good agreement with the observed short recovery times of typical early VLF events, which are known to be associated with sprites.

  11. Waterhammer Testing and Modeling of the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. Hunter; Holt, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Ares I rocket is the agency's first step in completing the goals of the Constellation Program, which plans to deliver a new generation of space explorers into low earth orbit for future missions to the International Space Station, the moon, and other destinations within the solar system. Ares I is a two-stage rocket topped by the Orion crew capsule and its service module. The launch vehicle's First Stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), derived from the Space Shuttle Program's four segment RSRB. The vehicle's Upper Stage, being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is propelled by a single J-2X Main Engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During active Upper Stage flight of the Ares I launch vehicle, the Upper Stage Reaction Control System (US ReCS) will perform attitude control operations for the vehicle. The US ReCS will provide three-axis attitude control capability (roll, pitch, and yaw) for the Upper Stage while the J-2X is not firing and roll control capability while the engine is firing. Because of the requirements imposed upon the system, the design must accommodate rapid pulsing of multiple thrusters simultaneously to maintain attitude control. In support of these design activities and in preparation for Critical Design Review, analytical models of the US ReCS propellant feed system have been developed using the Thermal Hydraulic Library of MSC.EASY5 v.2008, herein referred to as EASY5. EASY5 is a commercially available fluid system modeling package with significant history of modeling space propulsion systems. In Fall 2009, a series of development tests were conducted at MSFC on a cold-flow test article for the US ReCS, herein referred to as System Development Test Article (SDTA). A subset of those tests performed were aimed at examining the effects of waterhammer on a flight-representative system and to ensure that those effects could be quantified with analytical models and incorporated into

  12. Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid

  13. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the

  14. Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

  15. Biostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of the Caspian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, D.; Yanina, T.

    2012-04-01

    Biostratigraphy of the Caspian Pleistocene is based on changes in evolutionary patterns and ecological assemblage change of the mollusk genus Didacna Eichwald. The study of peculiarities and patterns in the spatial-temporal distribution of shells of the genus Didacna in the deposits of the middle and upper Pleistocene of the Caspian region showed, that the molluscan fauna represent a complex hierarchical system of assemblages with different composition and at different taxonomic levels: faunas, complexes, subcomplexes, associations, distinguished following particular criteria. Based on molluscan fauna, namely on distinguished faunal units at different hierarchical levels, we built a regional biostratigraphic (ecostratigraphic) scheme of the Middle and Upper Pleistocene (Neopleistocene according to Russian stratigraphic sheme) of the Caspian, supplementing and specifying the exisiting schemes. Caspian Middle and Upper Pleistocene (Neopleistocene) represent a Didacna biozone - deposits encompassing the entire stratigraphic interval of this taxon distribution. Based on temporal distribution of faunas, the zone is subdivided into subzones, which become the biostratigraphic basis for establishment of horizons: Baku, Urunjik, low Khazar, upper Khazar, Khvalynian and New Caspian. From the point of view of palaeogeography these horizons correspond to transgressive epochs with the same names in the Caspian history, which resulted in accumulation of sediment complexes, filled with particular paleontological material - mollusk faunas. Interval-zones, characterized by faunal complexes, are used for distinguishing subhorizons. From the point of view of palaeogeography they correspond to major transgressive stages, separated by regressions, within the transgressive epochs, which is reflected in the sediment structure and presence of distinguishing mollusk complexes. The subhorizons reflect three transgressive stages during Early Khazar epoch, two transgressive stages during Late

  16. Hydrocarbon discoveries in Paleozoic Solimoes basin, Upper Amazon region, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Apoluceno, N.; Ferreira, A.; Tsubone, K.

    1989-03-01

    The Solimoes basin, previously known as Upper Amazon basin, is located in northern Brazil and has a prospectable area of more than 300,000 km/sup 2/. The Purus arch, a regional positive feature, separates this basin from the Amazonas basin. As far as the basin geology is concerned, the Solimoes basin is strikingly different from its neighboring basin due to certain structural and stratigraphic peculiarities. Between the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous the basin was affected by regional compressional tectonics that generated a series of northeast-southwest-oriented trends. The exploration play in the basin is classic wrench tectonics - elongated dome structures on upthrown blocks of en echelon reverse faults. Despite the problems of working in a tropical forest, Petrobras has made a systematic exploration campaign in the basin since the early 1970s. This effort was compensated by the discovery of two important hydrocarbon-bearing areas: Jurua gas province in 1978 and the Urucu River oil, gas, and condensate province in 1986. The latter, whose commercial oil production was initiated in July 1988, is considered an important marker in the petroleum exploration history of Brazil, particularly with respect to the Paleozoic basins, which total more than 3 million km/sup 2/ of the country's territory.

  17. Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, J.; Horstman, M.; Papanyan, V.

    2013-01-01

    On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to use specialized radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

  18. Characterization of the 2012-044c Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, Joseph; Papanyan, Valen

    2013-01-01

    On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to request radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

  19. Upper stage in-flight retargeting to enhance geosynchronous satellite operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Otto W. K.

    1990-01-01

    Real time utilization of propellant reserves that are not needed is available with the implementation of the in-flight retargeting capability for the Centaur Upper Stage. Application to a performance critical, geosynchronous mission is discussed. The operational duration of the satellite may be increased by selectively choosing the appropriate final orbit injection conditions. During ascent Centaur evaluates the amount of propellant excess available and adjusts the final orbit target to consume the excess. Typical satellite mission requirements are introduced to illustrate the mission analysis process to determine the pre-flight nominal target and the in-flight retarget function.

  20. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  1. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1997-11-01

    During the award period, a number of studies have been carried out related to the overall objective of the project which is to elucidate important factors which influence the upper airway deposition and dose of particles in the size range 0.5 nm - 10 {mu}m, such as particle size, breathing conditions, age, airway geometry, and mode of breathing. These studies are listed below. (1) A high voltage electrospray system was constructed to generate polydispersed 1-10 {mu}m diameter di-ethylhexyl sebacate aerosol for particle deposition studies in nasal casts and in human subjects. (2) The effect of nostril dimensions, nasal passage geometry, and nasal resistance on particle deposition efficiency in forty healthy, nonsmoking adults at a constant flowrate were studied. (3) The effect of nostril dimensions, nasal passage dimensions and nasal resistance on the percentage of particle deposition in the anterior 3 cm of the nasal passage of spontaneously breathing humans were studied. (4) The region of deposition of monodispersed aerosols were studied using replicate casts. (5) Ultrafine aerosol deposition using simulated breath holding path and natural path was compared. (6) An experimental technique was proposed and tested to measure the oral deposition of inhaled ultrafine particles. (7) We have calculated the total deposition fraction of ultrafine aerosols from 5 to 200 n in the extrathoracic airways and in the lung. (8) The deposition fraction of radon progeny in the head airways was studied using several head airway models.

  2. Benefits of the integrated solar upper stage (ISUS) to commercial space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, John; Miles, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar thermal system that provides both propulsion and electric power. Using hydrogen as the propellant, ISUS can provide average specific impulses between 750 and 800 seconds. Once in final orbit, the stage uses thermionic diodes to produce electricity for the satellite payload throughout its operating lifetime. Because of its high specific impulse, ISUS can increase the total mass delivered to GEO by any launch vehicle by up to 250%. ISUS can provide benefits to commercial system in lower orbits as well. These orbits are particularly demanding on battery system because of the short orbit periods and the resulting number of battery cycles. Thermal storage in the ISUS receiver can accommodate these cycles without increasing system mass. ISUS also provide more efficient propulsion for station keeping and for separation of satellites when multiple satellites are launched for a single launch vehicle.

  3. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

  4. Anisotropic Peridotite Rheology and Regional Upper Mantle Flow Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D. K.; Boyce, D.; Dawson, P.; Castelnau, O.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the rheologic impact of strong lattice preferred orientation (LPO), such as develops due to plate-driven shear, on the pattern of upper mantle flow near plate boundaries. We use finite element models to simulate a regional system of mantle flow, that includes LPO evolution in olivine polycrystal aggregates tracked along flow paths and anisotropic viscosity tensors based on the LPO. Our first, loosely coupled approach begins with a flow field based on a scalar viscosity. The results are postprocessed to compute LPO by integration along streamlines, and an anisotropic viscosity tensor field is derived from LPO. A new flow field is then computed based on the viscosity tensor field. For this case, the predicted flow field differed in a modest but geologically relevant way from the isotropic case. In preparation for incorporating the LPO and effective viscosity calculation directly into the flow code, we have been testing this step separately to assess the sensitivity of the computed tensor to specified deformation parameters. New work explores a power law stress:strain rate relation for the LPO development, upon which the aggregate's effective viscosity tensor depends. The pattern and amplitude of predicted deviation from isotropic viscosity are stronger than for the previously assumed linear stress:strain rate case, as expected. Initial runs that employ the power law viscosity tensor in updated flow calculations are underway at the time of this writing. In addition to the stress exponent for LPO and the resulting viscosity tensor, flow model parameters that notably impact the predictions include the specified stiffening as asthenosphere cools to lithospheric temperatures and mesh resolution within the axial and the base of lithosphere regions. We will present results for subaxial oceanic spreading center flow and report the outcomes of model parameter testing.

  5. Electrical soundings in the decay stage of a thunderstorm in the Pingliang region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tinglong; Zhao, Zhongkuo; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Changxiong; Yu, Hai; Zhou, Fangcong

    2015-10-01

    An electric field sounding system, based on corona discharge, was designed to measure the vertical component of the electric fields in a thunderstorm. The decay stage of a thunderstorm that occurred during the night of August 20, 2012, in the Pingliang region, China (35.57°N, 106.59°E, 1620 m above sea level (asl)), was investigated by two balloon-borne electrical soundings. The results of the first sounding showed that the thunderstorm had a tripole charge structure: a lower positive charge region located at temperatures of 3 to 15 °C (2.0-4.0 km asl); a middle negative charge region located at temperatures of - 3 to 3 °C (4.5-5.3 km asl); and an upper positive charge region at temperatures of - 10 to - 3 °C (5.3-6.3 km asl). In addition, there was a negative screen layer at the bottom of the thunderstorm with a depth of about 400 m. The charge density of the middle negative charge region was larger than that of the lower and upper positive charge regions. Influenced by the downdraft of precipitation, each charge region moved down to a lower altitude region. The results of the second sounding showed that the lower positive charge center totally disappeared and only the middle negative charge region (3.7-4.2 km asl) and upper positive charge region (4.2-4.7 km asl) remained. We conclude that the downdraft with precipitation caused the dissipation of the lower positive charge region. Compared with the first sounding result, we found that the charge density increased and the depth decreased for both of the charge regions.

  6. Lifetime Estimation of the Upper Stage of GSAT-14 in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Jeyakodi David, Jim Fletcher; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2014-01-01

    The combination of atmospheric drag and lunar and solar perturbations in addition to Earth's oblateness influences the orbital lifetime of an upper stage in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). These high eccentric orbits undergo fluctuations in both perturbations and velocity and are very sensitive to the initial conditions. The main objective of this paper is to predict the reentry time of the upper stage of the Indian geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, GSLV-D5, which inserted the satellite GSAT-14 into a GTO on January 05, 2014, with mean perigee and apogee altitudes of 170 km and 35975 km. Four intervals of near linear variation of the mean apogee altitude observed were used in predicting the orbital lifetime. For these four intervals, optimal values of the initial osculating eccentricity and ballistic coefficient for matching the mean apogee altitudes were estimated with the response surface methodology using a genetic algorithm. It was found that the orbital lifetime from these four time spans was between 144 and 148 days. PMID:27437491

  7. Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

  8. Lifetime Estimation of the Upper Stage of GSAT-14 in Geostationary Transfer Orbit.

    PubMed

    Jeyakodi David, Jim Fletcher; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2014-01-01

    The combination of atmospheric drag and lunar and solar perturbations in addition to Earth's oblateness influences the orbital lifetime of an upper stage in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). These high eccentric orbits undergo fluctuations in both perturbations and velocity and are very sensitive to the initial conditions. The main objective of this paper is to predict the reentry time of the upper stage of the Indian geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, GSLV-D5, which inserted the satellite GSAT-14 into a GTO on January 05, 2014, with mean perigee and apogee altitudes of 170 km and 35975 km. Four intervals of near linear variation of the mean apogee altitude observed were used in predicting the orbital lifetime. For these four intervals, optimal values of the initial osculating eccentricity and ballistic coefficient for matching the mean apogee altitudes were estimated with the response surface methodology using a genetic algorithm. It was found that the orbital lifetime from these four time spans was between 144 and 148 days. PMID:27437491

  9. Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a

  10. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, THomas

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware

  11. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  12. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  13. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  14. Dinoflagellates: Fossil motile-stage tests from the upper cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

  15. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft and inertial upper stage (IUS) deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Magellan spacecraft mounted on inertial upper stage drifts above Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, after its deployment during mission STS-30 in this artist concept. Solar panels are deployed and in OV-104's open payload bay (PLB) the airborne support equipment (ASE) is visible. Both spacecraft are orbiting the Earth. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit when it is closest to the surface. Using an advanced instrument called a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it will map more than 90 per cent of the surface with resolution ten times better than the best from prior spacecraft. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta Aerospace is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Aircraft Company, the advanced imaging radar.

  16. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

  17. Flight test results of the inertial upper stage redundant inertial measurement unit redundancy management technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, R.; Tse, B. K.; Winkel, D. J.; Halliday, C.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicles have been deployed once from a Titan T-34D booster and once from Space Shuttle Challenger to carry spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. Telemetry data have been analyzed showing the performance of the failure detection and isolation scheme for the redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU). On the T-34D flight, no built-in test failure events occurred and no failure detection thresholds were exceeded for as long as telemetry was available. On the Space Shuttle flight, considerable failure detection activity took place during which the RIMU indicated continuous proper navigation functioning until gyro maximum rates were exceeded. Adjustments to the algorithm and additional pre-flight tests should reduce the undesired activity while preserving performance on subsequent flights.

  18. Experimental approach on the pyrotechnical shock reduction of Ariane-5 upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribarri, I.; Tejero, P.; Rivaillon, B.; Laviron, B.

    1991-10-01

    The separation of the upper stage of the Ariane 5 launcher is to be achieved by means of a Pyrotechnical Expansive Tube (PET) installed in the Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB) structure. When the pyrotechnical device is activated, severe shock levels are transmitted to the structural components and electronic equipment located near the separation section. These shock inputs could affect the operational performances of the above mentioned components during and after separation. An experimental research project to verify that VEB equipment will not be damaged, to achieve a deeper knowledge of the nature and consequences of the event, and to improve existing theoretical models, was undertaken. A specification was identified for the equipment platform, and a campaign of technological tests were started in order to select a damping material and its layout to obtain the highest shock reduction without compromising the VEB structural integrity and stiffness.

  19. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kromis, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

  1. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  2. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

  3. Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

  4. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT. PMID:25320538

  5. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design

  6. Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high

  7. [Alveolar injuries in the upper incisor region in the child].

    PubMed

    Pernice, L; Gacon, J; Fourestier, J; Ribault, J Y; Roubaudi, G; Rouillon, C

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied a series of 50 children. They found that the sequelae can only be assessed at a late stage. The repair technique is always delicate and the damages awarded by the Courts are currently insufficient. PMID:2130467

  8. Genomic Biomarkers for the Prediction of Stage and Prognosis of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sfakianos, John P.; Zabor, Emily C.; Bochner, Bernard H.; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Solit, David B.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Iyer, Gopa; Scott, Sasinya N.; Shah, Ronak; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Lee, Byron; Desai, Neil B.; Ren, Qinghu; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Dalbagni, Guido; Bajorin, Dean F.; Reuter, Victor E.; Berger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Genomic characterization of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) specimens in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) may allow for thoughtful integration of systemic and targeted therapies. We sought to determine if genomic alterations in UTUC are associated with adverse pathologic and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Next-generation exon capture sequencing of 300 cancer-associated genes was performed in 83 patients with UTUC. Genomic alterations were assessed individually and also grouped into core signal transduction pathways or canonical cell functions for association with clinicopathologic outcomes. Binary outcomes, including grade (high vs. low), T stage (pTa/T1/T2 vs. pT3/T4), and organ-confined status (≤pT2 and N0/Nx vs. >pT2 or N+) were assessed with Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Associations between alterations and survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. Results Of the 24 most commonly altered genes within 9 pathways, TP53/MDM2 alterations and FGFR3 mutations were the only two alterations uniformly associated with high-grade, advanced stage, non-organ-confined disease, recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific survival. TP53/MDM2 alterations were associated with adverse clinicopathologic outcomes whereas FGFR3 mutations were associated with favorable outcomes. We created a risk score using TP53/MDM2 and FGFR3 status that was able to discriminate between adverse pathologic and clinical outcomes, including in the subset of patients with high-grade disease. The study is limited by small numbers and lack of validation. Conclusions Our data indicate that specific genomic alterations in RNU specimens correlate with tumor grade, stage, and cancer-specific survival outcomes. PMID:26778714

  9. GREAT LAKES REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: REPORT OF A WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE UPPER GREAT LAKES REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Great Lakes workshop, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan from 4-7 May 1998 to discuss some of the potential consequences of climate change in the Upper Great Lakes region (e.g., Mi...

  10. KAP@FREGAT - A Carrier for New Technology In -Orbit Demonstration using FREGAT Upper Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Pfeuffer, H.; Pont, G.; Smirnow, A.; Ishin, S.

    2008-08-01

    The success of the Kayser-Threde test satellite MAQSAT-B2 on Ariane L521 in February 2005 (2nd Ariane 5 ECA qualification flight) and its instrument platform equipped with experiments, sensors and an autonomous telemetry system has led to the development of a new autonomous experiment platform called KAP. KAP stands for Kayser-Threde Auxiliary Platform carrier and is a direct spin-off product out of Kayser-Threde Ariane 5 post projects and experience. The main idea is to use the available remaining payload capacity of the launcher to provide a flexible and low- cost test facility for scientific experiments and In-Orbit Demonstration of new technologies remaining attached to the launcher upper stage. KAP is a fully autonomous kit providing the complete necessary infrastructure (power, data acquisition and telemetry) to minimize constraints and interactions with the launch vehicle, increasing significantly the possibility for regular flight opportunities. Two different mission scenarios are foreseen. One with KAP only working during the launch phase itself, referred to as Short Mission (SM), the other as Medium Mission (MM), to be switched on after upper stage passivation for up to 7 days in orbit. Different accommodations for KAP are foreseen in order to ease its integration on various launchers including Ariane 5, SOYUZ and Vega. KAP can either be mounted on an additional load-carrying raising cylinder located underneath the launcher payload adaptor (MFD type), or integrated on a platform for auxiliary payloads (ASAP-5 type). The technical concept for both mechanical and electrical subsystems for space segment and ground support equipment is mainly based on existing and space qualified technologies from the successful MAQSAT-B2 project and Kayser-Threde's sounding rocket programme TEXUS/MAXUS. In particular, the data acquisition and telemetry unit as back bone of the KAP experimental payload infrastructure, is a direct adaptation from these programmes to the

  11. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

  12. Shuttle program standard maneuver sequences for orbiter/upper-stage separation SSUS-A, SSUS-D, and IUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Descriptions of standard post-ejection maneuver sequences for the deployment of IUS, SSUS-A, and SSUS-D upper stages from the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The sequences were designed to satisfy requirements for limiting the damage inflicted on the orbiter by upper-stage exhaust particles, subject to a further requirement for minimizing the impingement of orbiter thruster plumes on the deployed payload. In all cases it was assumed that the orbital maneuvering system engines would be used to apply the orbiter's major separation velocity increment.

  13. Sustainable Alternative Fuel Feedstock Opportunities, Challenges and Roadmaps for Six U.S. Regions: Upper Midwest Regional Roadmap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On a region-by-region basis, nowhere in the U.S. has the landscape been so completely enlisted into feed grain crop production than the region represented by the Upper Midwest. National maps showing where corn and soybean crops are annually grown demonstrate all the necessary elements are in place t...

  14. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion system concepts. SSME upper stage use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeland, Eric; Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The main objective was to determine viable methods for starting the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in an altitude environment and restarting it in an orbit environment with minimum changes in utilization of the engine system or hardware. The study concluded that the use of the SSME in an upper stage is feasible with minimal changes to the engine systems. The altitude start case requires only a change in the valve sequencing during start and reorificing of the ASI lines. Inlet pressures can be moderately low at 40 psia for the LOX and 32 psia for the H2. The orbital restart case adds the need to recirculate propellant and thermal control paint (to keep the turbomachinery inlets cold to minimize the tank pressures needed), and the need to heat two small components (to maintain acceptable mixture ratios during the early part of the start). These actions allow start anytime after approximately 120 minutes. Earlier starts (approximately one hour) are also possible but would require additional component heating for mixture ratio control during the early portion of the start sequence.

  15. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Henderson, C.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Shen, S.; Cao, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base-Changhsingian Stage is defined at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Clarkina wangi within the lineage from C. longicuspidata to C. wangi at a point 88 cm above the base of the Changxing Limestone in the lower part of Bed 4 (base of 4a-2) at Meishan D section, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, South China. This level is consistent with the first appearance of Changhsingian index fusulinid Palaeofusulina sinensis and tapashanitid ammonoids. The speciation event from Clarkina longicuspidata to C. wangi occurs just above the flooding surface of the second parasequence in the Changxing Limestone. In addition, the boundary interval is clearly recognizable by the depletion of isotopic carbon ratios and the normal polarity zone appearing above the Late Wuchiapingian reversed polarity zone. Section C, about 300 m to the west of Section D, exposes more of the upper Longtan Formation. It clearly shows the transitional nature of deposition across the Longtan/Changxing formational boundary, and thus is described as a supplementary reference section.

  16. Effect of gimbal friction modelling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

  17. Effect of Gimbal friction modeling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper-stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

  18. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Jan W. A.; Schreurs, Wendy M. J.; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Vogel, Wouter V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. Methods FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. Results The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly. PMID:27556809

  19. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Reaction Control System (ReCS) Cold Flow Development Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervan, Melanie; Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Sivak, Amy; Morris, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J2-X engine Upper Stage, is the vehicle that s been chosen to launch the Orion Crew Module, which will return humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. After First Stage booster separation, the Reaction Control System (ReCS), a monopropellant hydrazine system, will provide the Upper Stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. This paper provides an overview of the system level development testing that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle Upper Stage ReCS. The ReCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) was built as a flight representative water flow test article whose primary test objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate the integrate system performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Water is the industry standard for cold flow testing of hydrazine systems, because the densities are very close and the speeds of sound are well characterized. The completion of this development level test program was considered necessary to support the ReCS Critical Design Review. This paper will address the design approach taken in building the test article, the objectives of the test program, types of testing completed, general results, the ability of the program to meet the test objectives, and lessons learned

  20. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper

  1. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

  2. Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was

  3. Lessons learned from the dynamic identification/qualification tests on the ESC-A upper stage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittweger, Andreas; Beuchel, Werner; Andersen, Martin G.; Albus, Jochen

    2005-12-01

    The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modeling approach made at the beginning of the development. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. For the low frequency domain the verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro-shock) a stage separation test was performed. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electro-dynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 100÷150Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach of how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experience accomplished.

  4. Conodont-based stratigraphy of the Mosolovian Regional Stage (Eifelian, Middle Devonian) of the Voronezh Anteclise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, V. M.; Kononova, L. I.

    2016-07-01

    Conodonts from the deposits of the Mosolovian Regional Stage (Middle Devonian) of the Voronezh Anteclise are studied on the basis of the data from six boreholes. Three assemblages are recognized. The index species of the lowermost assemblage is Icriodus formosus Naz. The index species of the middle assemblage are I. formosus Naz. and Pseudobipennatus ziegleri Kon. et Kim, as well as I. arkonensis Stauff. and I. jejunus Naz. This assemblage is the most diverse and is recognized in all boreholes. The deposits containing this assemblage correspond to the maximum of the Nara transgression. The upper assemblage is also recognized in all the studied boreholes. Its index species is Ps. ziegleri Kon. et Kim. The Mosolovian Regional Stage is assigned to the kockelianus Zone. The distribution diagrams of species in the most diverse middle assemblage support the hypothesis that, in the southeastern regions of the Voronezh anteclise, the depth was greater than in its western part. The characteristic conodont species are shown in the plates.

  5. Initial staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. What is the place of bronchoscopy and upper GI endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Page, Cyril; Lucas-Gourdet, Emily; Biet-Hornstein, Aurélie; Strunski, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    To determine the place of bronchoscopy and upper GI endoscopy in the initial staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A 10-year retrospective study was conducted on a series of 838 patients. As part of initial staging of the tumor, all patients were examined by neck and chest CT scan, 487 patients were examined by bronchoscopy and 588 patients were examined by upper GI endoscopy. Esophageal cancer was detected in 4.25 % of cases and lung cancer in 6.35 % of cases. Chest CT scan was statistically superior to bronchoscopy to detect second lung cancers (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, oral cancers (p = 0.009) and multiple (synchronous) HNSCC (p = 0.009) were associated with the presence of a second lung cancer. Systematic bronchoscopy (performed by a pulmonologist) might not to be indicated for initial staging of HNSCC, particularly in the presence of normal chest CT scan. In case of abnormal Chest CT scan, patients should be referred to a pulmonologist. However, as oral cancers and multiple (synchronous) HNSCCs were statistically associated with the presence of a second lung cancer in this study, bronchoscopy might be indicated in these cases in order to detect rare small proximal bronchic lesions which might be invisible on chest CT scan in these patients at risk. More, systematic upper GI endoscopy (performed by a gastroenterologist) for initial staging of HNSCC might also not to be indicated in a majority of cases. PMID:24682611

  6. Upper Miocene-Eopleistocene terrestrial sediments of the northwestern Ciscaucasia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beluzhenko, E. V.; Pis'mennaya, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of their stratigraphic, lithological, and genetic features, the Upper Miocene-Eopleistocene terrestrial sediments of the northwestern Ciscaucasia region are subdivided into the following local stratigraphic units (formations): Azov-Kuban, Srednyaya Kuban, Novoaleksandrovsk, Temizhbekskaya. The paleontological and paleomagnetic data are used for determining or specifying their age and correlating the formations between each other and with the regional stratigraphic scale. The obtained data make it possible to improve the Upper Miocene-Eopleistocene stratigraphic scale of the northwestern Ciscaucasia region.

  7. 40 CFR 81.239 - Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.239 Section 81.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  8. 40 CFR 81.239 - Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.239 Section 81.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  9. 40 CFR 81.239 - Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.239 Section 81.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  10. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2014-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were

  11. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit Via Shuttle_Centaur G Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2015-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982 to 1986 joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-United States Air Force (USAF) Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37 deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57 deg inclined orbit: 9,545 versus 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a 1 hr window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer versus 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three versus two burn transfer (12 vs. 1-1/4 hr), but could be

  12. Regional Ecorisk Field investigation, upper Clark Fork River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; LaTier, A.; Ginn, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Regional Ecorisk Field Investigation was conducted at the Clark Fork River Superfund Site (Montana) to evaluate the relationships between plant communities and tailings deposits in riparian habitats and to evaluate food-chain transfer of trace elements to selected wildlife species. Stations were selected to represent a range of vegetation biomass (or cover) values and apparent impact of trace elements, with some areas of lush vegetation, some areas of mostly unvegetated soil (e.g., < 30 percent plant cover), and a gradient in between. For the evaluation of risk to wildlife, bioaccumulation of metals was evaluated in native or naturalized plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reproductive effects in the deer mouse were evaluated by direct measurements. For other wildlife species, bioaccumulation data were interpreted in the context of food web exposure models. Total biomass and species richness of riparian plant communities are related to tailings content of soil as indicated by pH and metals concentrations. Risk to populations of omnivorous small mammals such as the deer mouse was not significant. Relative abundance and reproductive condition of the deer mouse were normal, even in areas of high metals enrichment. Based on exposure models and site-specific tissue residue data for dietary species, risk to local populations of predators such as red fox and American kestrel that feed on deer mice and terrestrial invertebrates is not significant. Risk to herbivores related to metals bioaccumulation in plant tissues is not significant. Population level effects in deer and other large wildlife are not expected because of the large home ranges of such species and compensatory demographic factors.

  13. A 20k payload launch vehicle fast track development concept using an RD-180 engine and a Centaur upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toelle, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

  14. A 20k Payload Launch Vehicle Fast Track Development Concept Using an RD-180 Engine and a Centaur Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, Ronald (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

  15. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: Hydroclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watras, C. J.; Read, J. S.; Holman, K. D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A. J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13 years) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables, and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P - E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the midlatitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by an ~12 years downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  16. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-05-01

    We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density variations in the lithospheric mantle, knowledge on the uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of density structure of the crust is of utmost importance for further progress in such studies. The new regional density model for the North American upper mantle complements an on-going study of the regional upper mantle velocity and density structure by other methods. Our new regional density model is compared to regional and world-wide petrological data on upper mantle densities constrained by mantle-derived xenoliths.

  17. Upper-stage space shuttle propulsion by means of separate scramjet and rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.; Allen, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary mission study of a reusable vehicle from staging to orbit indicates payload advantages for a dual-propulsion system consisting of separate scramjet and rocket engines. In the analysis the scramjet operated continuously and the initiation of rocket operation was varied. For a stage weight of 500,000 lb the payload was 10.4 percent of stage weight or 70 percent greater than that of a comparable all-rocket-powered stage. When compared with a reusable two-state rocket vehicle having 50,000 lb payload, the use of the dual propulsion system for the second stage resulted in significant decreases in lift-off weight and empty weight, indicating possible lower hardware costs.

  18. Upper Ovetian trilobites from Spain and their implications for the palaeobiogeography and correlation of the Cambrian Stage 3 in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liñán, Eladio; Gámez Vintaned, José Antonio; Pillola, Gian Luigi; Gozalo, Rodolfo

    2016-06-01

    The upper part of the La Herrería Formation in Los Barrios de Luna (León Province, N Spain) has been revised from a palaeontological and biostratigraphical point of view. Two stratigraphic sections have been studied including their trilobite and ichnofossils contents. The ichnofossil assemblages have a high diversity of species characterising the Cruziana ichnofacies, suggesting a shallow sublittoral environment for the upper part of the La Herrería Formation. The trilobites species recognised are Lunagraulos antiquus, Dolerolenus formosus, Dolerolenus longioculatus, Lunolenus lunae, Metadoxides richterorum, Metadoxides armatus and Sardaspis? sp. from the upper Ovetian (lower Cambrian Stage 3 under discussion by the ISCS). The new trilobite assemblages make possible a good correlation between the lower Cambrian formations of North Spain, Sardinia, South China and Siberia. Analysis of the palaeobiogeographical meaning of all trilobite genera that have been identified in the upper Ovetian of Spain shows a strong connection between the northern peri-Gondwana margin and west Gondwana, with a low latitude distribution for the Spanish trilobites at this time.

  19. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin. PMID:27243625

  20. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIALS ON THE UPPER CUMBERLAND REGION. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project Upper Cumberland, Livingston, TN.

    SEVENTEEN BOOKS AND OTHER GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1941 AND 1966 ARE LISTED, PLUS 34 UNDATED MASTER'S THESES AVAILABLE FROM TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY. THE MATERIALS DEAL WITH POPULATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND EDUCATION FACTORS IN THE UPPER CUMBERLAND REGION OF TENNESSEE. (DK)

  1. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  2. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  3. Large Scale Testing of a Foam/Multilayer Insulation Thermal Control System (TCS) for Cryogenic Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Leon; Martin, James

    1998-01-01

    The development of high energy cryogenic upper stages is essential for the efficient delivery of large payloads to various destinations envisioned in future programs. A key element in such upper stages is cryogenic fluid management (CFM) advanced development/technology. Due to the cost of and limited opportunities for orbital experiments, ground testing must be employed to the fullest extent possible. Therefore, a system level test bed termed the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is representative in size and shape (3 meter diameter by 3 meter long with a volume of 18 cubic meters) of a fully integrated space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank has been established. To date, upper stage studies have often baselined the foam/multilayer insulation (FMLI) combination concept; however, hardware experience with the concept is minimal and was therefore selected for the MHTB. The foam element (isofoam SS-1 171 with an average thickness of 3.5 centimeters) is designed to protect against ground hold/ascent flight environments, and allows for the use of a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required with MLI in cryogenic applications. The MLI (45 layers of Double Aluminized Mylar with Dacron spacers) provides protection in the vacuum environment of space and is designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Several unique features were incorporated in the MLI concept and included: variable density MLI (reduces weight and radiation losses by changing the layer density), larger but fewer DAM perforations for venting during ascent to orbit (reduces radiation losses), and roll wrap installation of the MLI with a commercially established process to lower assembly man-hours and reduce seam heat leak. Thermal performance testing of the MHTB TCS was conducted during three test series conducted between September 1995 and May 1996. Results for the ground hold portion of the tests were as expected

  4. Correlating CCM upper atmosphere parameters to surface observations for regional climate change predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiangshang; Sailor, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper explores the use of statistical downscaling of General Circulation Model (GCM) results for the purpose of regional climate change analysis. The strong correlation between surface observations and GCM upper air predictions is used in an approach very similar to the Model Output Statistics approach used in numerical weather prediction. The primary assumption in this analysis is that the statistical relationships remain unchanged under conditions of climatic change. These relations are applied to GCM upper atmosphere predictions for future (2*CO{sub 2}) climate predictions. The result is a set of regional climate change predictions conceptually valid at the scale of cities. The downscaling for specific cities within a GCM grid cell reveals some of the anticipated variability within the grid cell. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis may indicate warming that is significantly higher or lower for a particular region than the raw data from the GCM runs. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints. PMID:26849879

  6. Framework for Regional, Coordinated Monitoring in the Middle and Upper Deschutes River Basins, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Chauncey W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a framework for regional water-quality monitoring in the middle and upper Deschutes River Basin, Oregon, that would be coordinated among organizations doing related monitoring. The emphasis is on maximizing the value of existing programs and resources by minimizing overlapping sampling efforts, filling key data gaps, increasing communication about results, and facilitating coordination and cooperation among organizations. The report was developed in conjunction with the Upper Deschutes Watershed Council and a committee of representatives from each of the organizations listed in the Acknowledgments (hereafter referred to as the Upper Deschutes Water Quality Monitoring Committee, or "the Committee" ). This group helped to (1) determine the water-quality issues to be addressed, (2) provide information on current programs in the basin, (3) develop the overall monitoring objectives, and (4) reach agreement on the general monitoring framework

  7. A reconnaissance of the major Holocene tephra deposits in the upper Cook Inlet region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The upper Cook Inlet region of southcentral Alaska would be significantly impacted by a major tephrafall, owing to a widespread population and heavily travelled transportation corridors. To evaluate the likelihood of such an occurrence, the tephra deposits of the region have been inventoried. Approximately 90 deposits of Holocene age are sufficiently thick to have been preserved for sampling; the frequency of such major tephrafalls ranges from 1 every 200 years near sources on the west side of upper Cook Inlet, to 1 every 1000 years on the more populated east side. The volcanoes located on the west side of upper Cook Inlet are, from north to south, Hayes, Spurr, Redoubt, and Iliamna. Hayes volcano produced the most extensive set of 6 to perhaps 8 tephra layers in the region about 3650 yr B.P. and produced one other, less extensive tephra layer during Holocene time. Spurr and Redoubt volcanoes have produced, respectively, approximately 35 and 30 Holocene layers which were dispersed eastward toward population centers. No Holocene tephra layers of Iliamna have been recognized with certainty; consequently, several tephra layers which originated to the south of the region must have a source at Augustine Volcano, or some more distant volcano. Tephra layers of Hayes volcano are calc-alkaline dacites. Most of the Spurr deposits are tholeiitic, basaltic andesites whereas those of Redoubt Volcano are calc-alkaline andesites and dacites. ?? 1985.

  8. Long-lasting upper D-region ionospheric modifications caused by intense +/- CG lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, Christos

    2013-04-01

    In a recent Geophysical Research Letter we have presented observations from a single maritime storm showing that intense positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning discharges during nighttime, which trigger both an elve and a sprite, are associated with long-lasting conductivity modifications in the upper D-region ionosphere. The ionospheric disturbances can be observed as perturbations in the amplitude and phase of VLF (very low frequency) signals propagating through or near the disturbed region. They are manifested as LOng Recovery early VLF Events (LOREs) which can last up to 20 - 30 minutes. The same ionospheric modifications may also produce abrupt step-like changes in VLF transmissions which offset signal levels for longer times (>30-60 min). Here we discuss these observations supplementing them with new evidence and some statistics. Among other things, the unpublished results show that very intense (currents > 250-300 kA) CG lightning discharges of either positive or negative polarity are always accompanied mainly by step-like LOREs. The evidence suggests that the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of a very high peak current CG lightning stroke, which is likely able to produce an elve, produces by electron impact long lasting and spatially extended elevations in electron density at VLF ionospheric reflection heights in the upper D region ionosphere. The results identify a mechanism for the LORE VLF signatures and confirm predictions and postulations that elves may be accompanied by significant and long-lasting electron density perturbations in the upper D- lower E- region ionosphere.

  9. Plasma Wave Irregularities in the Equatorial Upper E Region at Twilight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ILMA, R.; Hysell, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new class of plasma irregularities in the postsunset equatorial upper E region has been detected by radar experiments over Jicamarca, Peru [Chau and Hysell , 2004]. In comparison with daytime plasma irregularities, nighttime large-scale plasma waves are not well understood. These waves has been detected with the JULIA (Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Atmosphere) operation mode at Jicamarca. Despite the fact that observations of this new class of irregularities were made, there has been a lack of interest into the characterization of them. As stated by the work of Hysell and Chau [2002] and Chau and Hysell [2004], the source of these irregularities is related to gradient-drift (or interchange) instability process. This instability was firstly investigated for laboratory plasmas by Simon [1963]. It arises in the presence of an ionization gradient perpendicular to the current flow in a plasma [Sudan et al., 1973]. In the equatorial upper E region, the passage of the solar terminator generates an steep horizontal conductivity gradients which induce an upward current in the upper E region which is known to be present in the vicinity of the evening solar terminator and it is linked directly with the F-region overhead. This work focus on show experimental evidence, numerical simulation results and a theoretical discussion which attempts to describe the origin of these irregularities.

  10. C/C and C/SiC Nozzle Extensions - A Breakthrough to Improve Upper and Lower Stage Engines Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, T.; /Lacombe, A.; Mercier, A.; Ferrey, A.

    2002-01-01

    The need to increase the payload capacity of the current launchers drives rocket engine manufacturers to seek higher thrust level, specific impulse and thrust to weight ratio. A particularly efficient way to do this is the use of increased expansion ratio nozzle extensions for upper stage engines, and using thermostructural composite materials in order to allow higher temperature material limitations and to decrease mass. The latter is applicable to both upper and lower stage engines. Up to the mid 90s, the use of composite nozzles has been limited to solid rocket nozzles, but recent developments led to flight qualification on liquid rocket engines, on the RL10-B2 engine of the DELTA III launcher. This engine is equipped with a large extendible Carbon/Carbon Novoltex Sepcarb nozzle developed by Snecma Propulsion Solide under a contract from Pratt &Whitney San Jose. This paper describes the technological background of Snecma Propulsion Solide concerning the design and manufacturing of large size composite nozzles for liquid rocket engines. It provides an up-to-date status of the demonstrations already performed on different engines (HM7, RL10-B2 in particular) and details all the recent progress on technical and manufacturing performance. The manufacturing process has also been improved and simplified in order to allow the manufacturing of larger scale nozzles, at lower cost. Finally, this paper evidences that this technology is today mature and is ready to be implemented on existing or future liquid rocket engines being developed.

  11. Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

    2010-01-01

    NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

  12. Test usage of AMS for the sedimentological and structural analyses in selected regions of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobien, K.; Werner, T.; Nawrocki, J.

    2009-04-01

    The principal aim of our mainly methodological work, was to determine anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes in the stratigraphic profile of clastic Upper Silesian Coal Basin rocks as well as in Devonian carbonate rocks of its north-eastern margin. Furthermore, relations between obtained axes directions and detritus transport and also changeable tectonics were to be defined. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is situated in the borderland of Poland and Czech Republic. It was formed over the northern corner of the Upper Silesia massif, as a foredeep of the Moravo-Silesian Fold Zone. Structural development of the basin was strictly related with its geotectonic position. The western part was affected by the fold activity of the Moravo-Silesian Zone, while its central and eastern part was dominated by disjunctive basement processes during the Variscan orogenesis. The Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata are considered as molasse sediments of the Variscan orogenic system. The basin was asymmetric. Migration of the axis during the sedimentation caused differences in thickness of separate series. Clastic material of various sources (mainly from the west) was supplied during the basin sedimentary history. Almost 250 oriented samples from Namurian and Westphalian molasse association (mudstones, sandstones) as well as Middle Devonian carbonates were selected from eight brickyards and mines. Variability of magnetic anisotropy trend was analyzed in all of the sites respectively. Additionally, to test the reliability of the obtained AMS data, detailed petromagnetic analyses of magnetic carriers were performed. Unique collection of magnetic anisotropy data allowed for simplified model development, that combines rocks' anisotropy with tectonics. Lineation directions observed in carbonates and fine grained clastic rocks are in general perpendicular to the tectonic stress directions interchangeable during the last stages of the Variscan orogen evolution (adjacent to the

  13. Shotgun injury to the arm: a staged protocol for upper limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Nikica, Darabos; Marijan, Cesarec; Denis, Grgurovic; Zeljko, Rutic; Anela, Darabos; Egol, Kenneth

    2010-03-01

    Low-energy shotgun fractures involving the arm are complex injuries. Previously published reports have emphasized various problems associated with these injuries. This case report describes a low-energy shotgun wound managed by a staged treatment protocol involving: (1) a spanning external fixator and immediate soft tissue management, followed by (2) osteosynthesis and autogenous bone grafting and (3) epineural suturing of injured radial nerve, with a successful outcome. Although adequate debridement of the fracture and soft tissue wound is the key to open fracture management, some difference of opinion exists with regard to the timing of bone reconstruction and grafting. In severe type III open fractures, or in wounds that are marginal, it may be best to delay cancellous bone grafting until soft tissue has stabilized following acute trauma when the risk of infection has been minimized. If early coverage of vital structures is not possible, local or remote flap coverage may be necessary. PMID:20358713

  14. Three-Dimensional Model for the Crust and Upper Mantle in the Barents Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungum, H.; Ritzmann, O.; Maercklin, N.; Faleide, J.-I.; Mooney, W. D.; Detweiler, S. T.

    2005-04-01

    The Barents Sea and its surroundings is an epicontinental region which previously has been difficult to access, partly because of its remote Arctic location (Figure 1) and partly because the region has been politically sensitive. Now, however, this region, and in particular its western parts, has been very well surveyed with a variety of geophysical studies, motivated in part by exploration for hydrocarbon resources. Since this region is interesting geophysically as well as for seismic verification, a major study [Bungum et al., 2004] was initiated in 2003 to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic velocity model for the crust and upper mantle, using a grid density of 50 km. This study, in cooperation between NORSAR, the University of Oslo (UiO), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), has led to the construction of a higher-resolution, regional lithospheric model based on a comprehensive compilation of available seismological and geophysical data. Following the methodology employed in making the global crustal model CRUST5.1 [Mooney et al., 1998], the new model consists of five crustal layers: soft and hard sediments, and crystalline upper, middle, and lower crust. Both P- and S-wave velocities and densities are specified in each layer. In addition, the density and seismic velocity structure of the uppermost mantle, essential for Pn and Sn travel time modeling, are included.

  15. Large mammals from the Upper Neopleistocene reference sections in the Tunka rift valley, southwestern Baikal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.

  16. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  17. Late-stage flood lavas in the Elysium region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the Elysium region is a unit that exhibits little texture and a generally low albedo and that has a very low crater frequency. This unit has been mapped as smooth plains material and previously interpreted as an eolian deposit on the basis of Mariner 9 images. More recently, the unit was mapped as material deposited during a channeling episode. The author interprets the smooth plains unit as being a volcanic deposit composed of low viscosity lava flows: both flood lavas and individual flows. The reasons for these conclusions are given and briefly discussed.

  18. An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

  19. Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

  20. Upper mantle anisotropy from teleseismic SKS splitting beneath Lützow-Holm Bay Region, East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.; Kubo, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Negishi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of SKS wave splitting of teleseismic events from digital seismographs recorded at eight stations around the Lützow-Holm Bay Region have lead to understanding the evolution of the Antarctic Plate. The observed delay times of SKS splitting are up to 1.3 s, which are generally equal to the global average. A two-layer model reveals that the lower layer anisotropy is caused by the recent asthenospheric flow, as compared with the Absolute Plate Motion by the HS3-NUVEL1 model. The upper layer anisotropy corresponds well to polarization of NE–SW convergence direction between East and West Gondwana in Pan-African age. We suggest that the upper layer anisotropy was formed during Pan-African orogeny and was possibly influenced by the preexisting structure during Gondwana break-up. The origin of anisotropy is the Lattice Preferred Orientation of olivine which was caused by both paleo-tectonic events and the recent asthenospheric flow.

  1. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  2. Implications of regional gravity for state of stress in the earth's crust and upper mantle.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNutt, M.

    1980-01-01

    Topography is maintained by stress differences within the earth. Depending on the distribution of the stress we classify the support as either local or regional compensation. In general, the stresses implied in a regional compensation scheme are an order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to local isostasy. Gravity anomalies, a measure of the earth's departure from hydrostatic equilibrium, can be used to distinguish between the two compensation mechanisms and thus to estimate the magnitude of deviatoric stress in the crust and upper mantle. Topography created at an ocean ridge crest or in a major contiental orogenic zone appears to be locally compensated. Such features were formed on weak crust incapable of maintaining stress differences much greater than the stress from the applied load. Oceanic volcanoes formed on an already cooled, thickened lithosphere are regionally supported with elastic stresses. -Author

  3. Synthesis of regional crust and upper-mantle structure from seismic and gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Lavin, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Available seismic and ground based gravity data are combined to infer the three dimensional crust and upper mantle structure in selected regions. This synthesis and interpretation proceeds from large-scale average models suitable for early comparison with high-altitude satellite potential field data to more detailed delineation of structural boundaries and other variations that may be significant in natural resource assessment. Seismic and ground based gravity data are the primary focal point, but other relevant information (e.g. magnetic field, heat flow, Landsat imagery, geodetic leveling, and natural resources maps) is used to constrain the structure inferred and to assist in defining structural domains and boundaries. The seismic data consists of regional refraction lines, limited reflection coverage, surface wave dispersion, teleseismic P and S wave delay times, anelastic absorption, and regional seismicity patterns. The gravity data base consists of available point gravity determinations for the areas considered.

  4. Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

  5. Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachary, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

  6. Crustal and upper mantle structure of stable continental regions in North America and northern Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    From an analysis of many seismic profiles across the stable continental regions of North America and northern Europe, the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure is determined. Analysis procedures include ray theory calculations and synthetic seismograms computed using reflectivity techniques. The P wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is virtually identical to that beneath the Baltic Shield to a depth of at least 800 km. Two major layers with a total thickness of about 42 km characterize the crust of these shield regions. Features of the upper mantle of these region include velocity discontinuities at depths of about 74 km, 330 km, 430 km and 700 km. A 13 km thick P wave low velocity channel beginning at a depth of about 94 km is also present. A number of problems associated with record section interpretation are identified and a generalized approach to seismic profile analysis using many record sections is described. The S wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is derived from constrained surface wave data. The thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Canadian and Baltic Shields is determined to be 95-100 km. The continental plate thickness may be the same as the lithospheric thickness, although available data do not exclude the possibility of the continental plate being thicker than the lithosphere. ?? 1987 Birkha??user Verlag.

  7. Structure of North Atlantic upper mantle based on gravity modelling, regional geochemistry and tectonic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We study the link between deep geodynamic processes and their surface expression in the North Atlantic region which has an anomalous, complex structure compared to other oceans. We calculate a model of residual mantle gravity between the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and Svalbard. The calculations are based on GOCE satellite data the regional crustal model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013) ; for the crustal and topography effects, and the global totpgraphy and bathymetry model ETOPO1 from NOAA (Amante and Eakis, 2009). Results are complemented by sensitivity analysis of the various parameters' effects on the models. Our results identify strong heterogeneity in the upper mantle residual gravity, expressed as a sharp contrasts at the continent-ocean transition, positive mantle gravity below the continental blocks and negative - below oceanic blocks; the MOR has low-gravity anomaly. By introducing regional geochemical data and analysis of the tectonical history, we identify a strong correlation between residual mantle gravity anomalies and geochemical anomalies in ɛNd and Mg#. This analysis identifies three zones of North Atlantic mantle based on the correlation between upper mantle gravity and ocean floor age. In the area around Iceland, the residual mantle gravity is systematically lower than predicted from the half-space cooling model, and we estimate the thermal anomaly that could cause this shift.

  8. Regional draft-storage relationships for central and western Upper Peninsula of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoimenoff, L.E.

    1972-01-01

    Regional draft-storage relationships for central and western Upper Peninsula of Michigan are presented in this report. Storage requirements for the 5- and 20-year recurrence intervals were determined using the frequency-mass curve method and daily discharge records from 15 gaging stations. The relationships will be useful in making preliminary estimates of development potential and inc comparing the development possibilities of different streams. Carryover storage was investigated and was found to be unnecessary at draft rates of less than 50 percent of the mean annual flow. Carryover storage requirements are presented for the gaging station Middle Branch Escanaba River near Ishpeming.

  9. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Krodkiewska, M.

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  10. Dynamic-chemical coupling of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region.

    PubMed

    Grewe, V; Reithmeier, C; Shindell, D T

    2002-06-01

    The importance of the interaction between chemistry and dynamics in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for chemical species like ozone is investigated using two chemistry-climate models and a Lagrangian trajectory model. Air parcels from the upper troposphere, i.e. regions of lightning and aircraft emissions, are able to be transported into the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). Trajectory calculations suggest that the main transport pathway runs via the inter tropical convergence zone, across the tropical tropopause and then to higher latitudes, i.e. into the LMS. NOx from aircraft emissions at mid-latitudes are unlikely to perturb the LMS since they are washed-out while still in the troposphere. In contrast, NOx from tropical lightning has the chance to accumulate in the LMS. Because of the longer residence times of NOx in the LMS, compared to the upper troposphere, this excess NOx from lightning has the potential to form ozone in the LMS, which then is transported back to the troposphere at mid-latitudes. In the models, around 10% of the ozone concentration and 50% of the NOx concentration in the northern hemisphere LMS is produced by lightning NOx At least 5% of the ozone concentration and 35% the NOx concentration at 150 hPa at mid-latitudes originates from tropical lightning in the climate-chemistry simulations. PMID:12079080

  11. Upper Mantle Structure beneath the Chinese Capital Region from Teleseismic Finite-Frequency Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we applied the finite-frequency seismic tomography(FFST) to teleseismic waveform data to determine 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle under the Chinese capital region. The seismic waveform data from more than 300 teleseismic events recorded by the Chinese digital Capital Seismic Network during the period from September 2003 to December 2005 was used in this study. We obtained 18499 high accuracy P-wave relative travel-times by filtering these waveform data on the vertical component into high-, intermediate-, low-frequency bands (1.0-2.0, 0.1-1.0 and 0.05-0.1 hz, respectively) and the multi-channel waveform cross correlation measurement. The 3-D Fréchet sensitivity kernels were calculated by paraxial approximation for each frequency band. We established observation equations with these measured relative travel-times and 3-D Fréchet sensitivity kernels and then determined the 3-D velocity structure by inverting the observation equations. Our results show there are distinct differences of deep velocity structure down to 150 km depth under the four tectonic units of present study region. The Yanshan uplift exhibited the high velocity(high-V) feature. Under the Taihangshan uplift, broad low velocity(low-V) are visible, but it also shows up as small high-V anomalies. A large scale prominent low-V anomaly was revealed in the shallow upper mantle under the North China basin and Bohai bay. In the North China basin the low-V anomaly generally extend from 50 km to 150 km depth, but in the Bohai bay, this low-V anomaly gradually extend down to 200 km depth. The depth of this low-V anomaly is 50-70 km under the North China basin and Bohai bay, which is consistent with the depth of high conductivity layer in the upper mantle determined by the measurement of magnetotelluric sounding and heat flow. This result shows lithosphere thinning in the North China basin and Bohai bay. Most of large earthquakes occurred in the Zhangjiakou-Penglai fault zone

  12. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  13. Synthesis of regional crust and upper-mantle structure from seismic and gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Lavin, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of regional gravity and magnetic patterns, LANDSAT images and geological information revealed two major lineaments crossing western Pennsylvania and parts of surrounding states. These lineaments are inferred to be expressions of fracture zones which penetrare deeply into the crust and possibly the upper mantle. The extensions of the Tyron-Mt. Union and the Pittsburgh-Washington lineaments bound a distinct crustal block (Lake Erie-Maryland block) over 100 km wide and probably more than 600 km in length. Evidence exists for the lateral displacement of this block at least 60 km northwestward during late Precambrian to Lower Ordovician time. Subsequent movements have been mainly vertical with respect to neighboring blocks. A possible crustal block that passes through eastern Kentucky, proposed by a TVA study on tectonics in the southern Appalachians, was also investigated. Finally, the use of regional gravity and magnetic data in identifying major crustal structures beneath western Pennsylvania is discussed.

  14. Upper mantle electrical conductivity for seven subcontinental regions of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.; Schiffmacher, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis coefficients of the external and internal parts of the quiet-day geomagnetic field variations (Sq) separated for the 7 continental regions of the observatories have been used to determine conductivity profiles to depths of about 600 km by the Schmucker equivalent substitute conductor method. The profiles give evidence of increases in conductivity between about 150 and 350 km depth, then a general increase in conductivity thereafter. For South America we found a high conductivity at shallow depths. The European profile showed a highly conducting layer near 125 km. At the greater depths, Europe, Australia and South America had the lowest values of conductivity. North America and east Asia had intermediate values whereas the African and central Asian profiles both showed the conductivities rising rapidly beyond 450 km depth. The regional differences indicate that there may be considerable lateral heterogeneity of electrical conductivity in the Earth's upper mantle. -Authors

  15. Investigation Spectral Image the Upper Atmosphere over Regions with Thunderstorm Using Data from the Sv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichshenko, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    The results of the two-level experiment, including registration of the electric field in the surface layer during thunderstorm on TSCRS (Almaty) and synchronous image the top of the cloud cover over the test range from satellite "Terra / MODIS" are presented. Spectral image of the upper atmosphere over of the thunderstorm related to lighting discharge has been created. As a result of the processing of satellite images Terra / MODIS created a new index of "lightning discharge," which will be used to search for and investigation of optical phenomena (such as Sprites, Elves, Blue Jet) over the regions with thunderstorm activity. The developed technique of space picture processing will be used for studying optical phenomena above other regions too.

  16. Regional differences in practice patterns and associated outcomes for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Michael; Kassouf, Wassim; Rendon, Ricardo; Bell, David; Izawa, Jonathan; Chin, Joseph; Kapoor, Anil; Matsumoto, Edward; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Saad, Fred; Lacombe, Louis; Fradet, Yves; Fairey, Adrian; Jacobson, Niels-Eric; Drachenberg, Darryl; Cagiannos, Ilias; So, Alan; Black, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We delineated Canadian regional differences in practice patterns in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after nephroureterectomy and relate these to patient outcomes. Methods: A database was created with 1029 patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC between 1994 and 2009 at 10 Canadian centres. Demographic, clinical and pathological variables were collected from chart review. Practice pattern variables were defined as: open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, management strategy for the distal ureter, performance of lymphadenectomy and administration of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The outcome measures were overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The centres were divided into three regions (West, Central, East). Cox proportional multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between regional differences in practice patterns and clinical outcomes. Results: There was a significant difference in practice patterns between regions within Canada for: time from diagnosis to surgery (p = 0.001), type of surgery (open vs. laparoscopic, p < 0.01) and method of management of the distal ureter (p = 0.001). As well, there were significant differences in survival between regions across Canada: 5-year OS (West 70%, Central 81% and East 62%, p < 0.0001) and DSS (West=79%, Central=85%, East=75%, p = 0.007) were significantly different, but there was no difference in RFS (West 47%, Central 48%, East 46%, p = 0.88). Multivariable linear regression analysis demonstrated that the differences in survival were independent of region OS (p = 0.78), DSS (p = 0.30) or RFS (p = 0.43). Conclusion: There is significant disparity in practice patterns between regions within Canada, but these do not appear to have an effect on survival. We believe that the variability in practice is a reflection of the lack of standardized treatments for UTUC and underlines the need for

  17. Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

  18. Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

  19. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

  20. Habitat Capacity for Cougar Recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes Region

    PubMed Central

    O′Neil, Shawn T.; Rahn, Kasey C.; Bump, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor) are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL) region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2) of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. Conclusions/Significance Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region. PMID:25389761

  1. Searching for the Upper Mass Limit in NGC 3603, the Nearest Giant H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip

    2009-07-01

    What is the mass of the highest mass star? 100Mo? 150Mo? 200Mo? Or higher? Theory gives us little guidance as to what physics sets the upper mass limit, presuming one exists. Is it due to limitations in the highest masses that can coalesce? Or is it due to stability issues in such a behemoth? Observationally, the upper mass limit is poorly constrained at present, with the strongest evidence coming from the K-band luminosity function of the Arches cluster near the Galactic Center. Here we propose to investigate this question by determining the Initial Mass Function of NGC 3603, the nearest giant H II region. This cluster is known to contain a wealth of O3 and hydrogen-rich Wolf-Rayets, the most luminous and massive of stars. By constructing an accurate H-R diagram for the cluster, we will construct a present day mass function using newly computed high mass evolutionary tracks, and convert this to an initial mass function using the inferred ages. This will allow us to see whether or not there is a true deficit of high mass stars, evidence of an upper mass cutoff. At the same time we are likely to establish good masses for the highest mass stars ever determined. We have laid the groundwork for this project using the Magellan 6.5-m telescope and the excellent seeing found on Las Campanas, plus analysis of archival ACS/HRS frames, but we now need to obtain spectra of the stars unobservable from the ground. This can only be done with HST and a reburbished STIS.

  2. Statistical study of emerging flux regions and the response of the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    We statistically study the properties of emerging flux regions (EFRs) and response of the upper solar atmosphere to the flux emergence using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Parameters including total emerged flux, flux growth rate, maximum area, duration of the emergence and separation speed of the opposite polarities are adopted to delineate the properties of EFRs. The response of the upper atmosphere is addressed by the response of the atmosphere at different wavelengths (and thus at different temperatures). According to our results, the total emerged fluxes are in the range of (0.44-11.2)×1019 Mx while the maximum area ranges from 17 to 182 arcsec2. The durations of the emergence are between 1 and 12 h, which are positively correlated to both the total emerged flux and the maximum area. The maximum distances between the opposite polarities are 7-25 arcsec and are also positively correlated to the duration. The separation speeds are from 0.05 to 1.08 km s-1, negatively correlated to the duration. The derived flux growth rates are (0.1-1.3)×1019 Mx h-1, which are positively correlated to the total emerging flux. The upper atmosphere first responds to the flux emergence in the 1600Å chromospheric line, and then tens to hundreds of seconds later, in coronal lines, such as the 171Å (T = 105.8 K) and 211Å (T = 106.3 K) lines almost simultaneously, suggesting the successive heating of the atmosphere from the chromosphere to the corona.

  3. Regional L-Moment-Based Flood Frequency Analysis in the Upper Vistula River Basin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, A.; Żelazny, M.; Kohnová, S.; Łyp, M.; Banasik, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Upper Vistula River basin was divided into pooling groups with similar dimensionless frequency distributions of annual maximum river discharge. The cluster analysis and the Hosking and Wallis (HW) L-moment-based method were used to divide the set of 52 mid-sized catchments into disjoint clusters with similar morphometric, land use, and rainfall variables, and to test the homogeneity within clusters. Finally, three and four pooling groups were obtained alternatively. Two methods for identification of the regional distribution function were used, the HW method and the method of Kjeldsen and Prosdocimi based on a bivariate extension of the HW measure. Subsequently, the flood quantile estimates were calculated using the index flood method. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and the generalised least squares (GLS) regression techniques were used to relate the index flood to catchment characteristics. Predictive performance of the regression scheme for the southern part of the Upper Vistula River basin was improved by using GLS instead of OLS. The results of the study can be recommended for the estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged sites, in flood risk mapping applications, and in engineering hydrology to help design flood protection structures.

  4. Upper limb vascular trauma in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Wali, Mahmoud A

    2002-10-01

    Upper limb vascular trauma is associated with major morbidity and mortality, but little is known about its incidence or nature in the Asir region of southern Saudi Arabia. During the five and a half-year period from May 1996 to December 2001, 27 patients were admitted to Asir Central Hospital (ACH), Abha, Saudi Arabia with upper limb vascular injury. The patients were 21 males and 6 females with a mean age of 27+/-12.6 years. Although penetrating trauma was more frequent than blunt trauma (59%), road traffic accident (RTA) was the most common single mechanism of trauma (33%). The brachial artery was the most frequently affected artery and interposition vein grafting was the most commonly employed type of vascular repair. Fifty-two percent of the patients had associated orthopedic injury and 60% had associated nerve injury. One patient underwent delayed above-elbow amputation and two patients died from other associated injuries. Vascular repair was successful in 24 out of the 26 patients in whom it was attempted (92%). However, the functional outcome of the limbs depended on the presence of associated nerve injury. PMID:12472413

  5. Regional differences in outcomes of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    O’Byrne, Michael; Smith-Windsor, Erin L; Kenyon, Chris R; Bhasin, Sanchit; Jones, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is associated with significant mortality. OBJECTIVE: To examine several factors that may impact the mortality and 30-day rebleed rates of patients presenting with NVUGIB. METHODS: A retrospective study of the charts of patients admitted to hospital in either the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR) or Regina Qu’Appelle Health Region (RQHR) (Saskatchewan) in 2008 and 2009 was performed. Mortality and 30-day rebleed end points were stratified according to age, sex, day of admission, patient status, health region, specialty of the endoscopist and time to endoscopy. Logistic regression modelling was performed, controlling for the Charlson comorbidity index, age and sex as covariates. RESULTS: The overall mortality rate observed was 12.2% (n=44), while the overall 30-day rebleed rate was 20.3% (n=80). Inpatient status at the time of the rebleeding event was associated with a significantly increased risk of both mortality and rebleed, while having endoscopy performed in the RQHR versus SHR was associated with a significantly decreased risk of rebleed. A larger proportion of endoscopies were performed both within 24 h and by a gastroenterologist in the RQHR. CONCLUSION: Saskatchewan has relatively high rates of mortality and 30-day rebleeding among patients with NVUGIB compared with published rates. The improved outcomes observed in the RQHR, when compared with the SHR, may be related to the employ of a formal call-back endoscopy team for the treatment of NVUGIB. PMID:24619634

  6. Erosion Rates, Landscape Morphology, and Hillslope Processes in the Upper Beni River Region, Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, E. B.; Whipple, K. X.; Dunne, T.; Bierman, P.; Aalto, R.; Caffee, M.

    2004-12-01

    Over the long term, rates of mountain erosion are controlled by rates of channel incision into bedrock. Channel incision rates are a function of discharge and local channel gradient, which reflects lithology and rock uplift rate. Other things being equal, patterns of channel gradient are indicators of relative channel incision rates. One useful metric of relative gradient is channel steepness index, ks, the coefficient modifying a power law relationship between local channel gradient and contributing drainage area. In the Upper Beni River region of the Bolivian Andes, short-term, basin-averaged erosion rate correlates with channel steepness index. Erosion rates derived from analysis of in situ-produced 10Be in alluvium range from 0.05 mm/yr to 1.35 mm/yr, and average over 102-104 years. Channel steepness index values, for a reference concavity of 0.45, are 100-200 in the headwaters of trans-range drainages, increase to 400-600, and then decrease to 40-100 downstream. Departures from this pattern occur in two channel networks with exceptionally large drainage areas whose headwaters have extended into the internally drained Altiplano on the Andean plateau. Patterns of channel steepness index, and by implication incision rate, appear primarily to reflect tectonic patterns and transient adjustment to those patterns by channel networks. Lithology exerts a weaker control on erosion rate but influences spatial patterns of hillslope geomorphic process. Neither channel steepness index nor basin-averaged erosion rate shows strong correlation with mean basin hillslope gradient or mean basin local relief because many hillslopes in the Upper Beni River region are at threshold values of slope and local relief. In addition, some hillslopes appear to be in a transient state of adjustment to relatively rapid rates of channel incision.

  7. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results and Discussion Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal. PMID:26629702

  8. Large-scale shear velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath Europe and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, C. P.; Meier, T. M.; Lebedev, S.; Friederich, W.

    2009-12-01

    The automated multimode waveform inversion technique developed by Lebedev et al. (2005) was applied to available data of broadband stations in Europe and surrounding regions. It performs a fitting of the complete waveform starting from the S-wave onset to the surface wave. Assuming the location and focal mechanism of a considered earthquake as known, the first basic step is to consider each available seismogram separately and to find the 1D-model that can explain the filtered seismogram best. In a second step, each 1D-model serves as a linear constraint in an inversion for a 3D S-wave velocity model of the upper mantle. We collected data for the years from 1990 to 2006 from all permanent stations for which data were available via the data centers of ORFEUS, GEOFON amd IRIS, and from others that build the Virtual European Seismological Network (VEBSN). In addition, we incorporated data from temporary experiments like SVEKALAPKO, TOR and the Eifel plume project as well as permanent stations in France. Just recently we were also able to add the data recorded by the temporary broadband EGELADOS network in the southern Aegean. In this way, a huge data set of about 500000 seismograms came about from which about 60000 1D-models could be constructed. The resulting models exhibit an overwhelming structural detail in relation to the size of the region considered in the inversion. They are to our knowledge the most detailed models of shear wave velocity currently available for the European upper mantle and surroundings. Most prominent features are an extremely sharp demarcation of the East European platform from Western Europe. Narrow high velocity regions follow the Hellenic arc and the Ionian trench toward the north. Whereas high velocities are found beneath the western Alps between about 100 km to 200 km depth, the eastern Alps show a low velocity anomaly at these depths. Low velocity zones are found at depths around 150 km in the Pannonian basin, the back-arc of the

  9. The Mono Arch, eastern Sierra region, California: Dynamic topography associated with upper-mantle upwelling?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A broad, topographic flexure localized east of and over the central and southern Sierra Nevada, herein named the Mono Arch, apparently represents crustal response to lithospheric and/or upper-mantle processes, probably dominated by mantle upwelling within the continental interior associated Pacific-North American plate-boundary deformation. This zone of flexure is identified through comparison between the topographic characteristics of the active Cascade volcanic arc and backarc regions with the analogous former arc and backarc in the Sierra Nevada and eastern Sierra Nevada. Serial topographic profiles measured normal to the modern Cascade backarc reveal an accordance of topographic lows defined by valley floors with an average minimum elevation of ???1400-1500m for over 175km to the southeast. Although the accordance drops in elevation slightly to the south, the modern Cascade backarc region is remarkably level, and is characterized by relief up to ???750m above this baseline elevation. By contrast, serial topographic profiles over the former arc and backarc transitions of the eastern Sierra region exhibit a regional anticlinal warping defined by accordant valley floors and by a late Miocene-early Pliocene erosion surface and associated deposits. The amplitude of this flexure above regionally flat baseline elevations to the east varies spatially along the length of the former Sierran arc, with a maximum of ???1000m centred over the Bridgeport Basin. The total zone of flexure is approximately 350km long N-S and 100km wide E-W, and extends from Indian Wells Valley in the south to the Sonora Pass region in the north. Previous geophysical, petrologic, and geodetic studies suggest that the Mono Arch overlies a zone of active mantle upwelling. This region also represents a zone crustal weakness formerly exploited by the middle-to-late Miocene arc and is presently the locus of seismic and volcanic activities. This seismic zone, which lies east of the Sierra Nevada block

  10. Performance of the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility During Altitude Firing Tests of the Delta 3 Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Dickens, Kevin W.; Skaff, Tony F.; Cmar, Mark D.; VanMeter, Matthew J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station was reactivated in order to conduct flight simulation ground tests of the Delta 3 cryogenic upper stage. The tests were a cooperative effort between The Boeing Company, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. They included demonstration of tanking and detanking of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and helium pressurant gas as well as 12 engine firings simulating first, second, and third burns at altitude conditions. A key to the success of these tests was the performance of the primary facility systems and their interfaces with the vehicle. These systems included the structural support of the vehicle, propellant supplies, data acquisition, facility control systems, and the altitude exhaust system. While the facility connections to the vehicle umbilical panel simulated the performance of the launch pad systems, additional purge and electrical connections were also required which were unique to ground testing of the vehicle. The altitude exhaust system permitted an approximate simulation of the boost-phase pressure profile by rapidly pumping the test chamber from 13 psia to 0.5 psia as well as maintaining altitude conditions during extended steady-state firings. The performance of the steam driven ejector exhaust system has been correlated with variations in cooling water temperature during these tests. This correlation and comparisons to limited data available from Centaur tests conducted in the facility from 1969-1971 provided insight into optimizing the operation of the exhaust system for future tests. Overall, the facility proved to be robust and flexible for vehicle space simulation engine firings and enabled all test objectives to be successfully completed within the planned schedule.