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Sample records for regular continental-scale coverage

  1. Regular Deployment of Wireless Sensors to Achieve Connectivity and Information Coverage.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Yin, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Coverage and connectivity are two of the most critical research subjects in WSNs, while regular deterministic deployment is an important deployment strategy and results in some pattern-based lattice WSNs. Some studies of optimal regular deployment for generic values of rc/rs were shown recently. However, most of these deployments are subject to a disk sensing model, and cannot take advantage of data fusion. Meanwhile some other studies adapt detection techniques and data fusion to sensing coverage to enhance the deployment scheme. In this paper, we provide some results on optimal regular deployment patterns to achieve information coverage and connectivity as a variety of rc/rs, which are all based on data fusion by sensor collaboration, and propose a novel data fusion strategy for deployment patterns. At first the relation between variety of rc/rs and density of sensors needed to achieve information coverage and connectivity is derived in closed form for regular pattern-based lattice WSNs. Then a dual triangular pattern deployment based on our novel data fusion strategy is proposed, which can utilize collaborative data fusion more efficiently. The strip-based deployment is also extended to a new pattern to achieve information coverage and connectivity, and its characteristics are deduced in closed form. Some discussions and simulations are given to show the efficiency of all deployment patterns, including previous patterns and the proposed patterns, to help developers make more impactful WSN deployment decisions. PMID:27529246

  2. Mission Design for Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Esper, J.; McClain, C. R.; Hall, F. G.; Middleton, E. M.; Gregg, W. W.; Mannino, A.; Knox, R. G.; Dabney, P. W.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Wood, H. J.; Roberto, M.

    2003-12-01

    constituents. A hyperspectral instrument design capable of observing in the ultraviolet, in addition to the visible and near infrared spectrum, is essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world's coastal and open ocean regions. For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geosynchronous hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of between 500 and 1000 to 1. An innovative and bold focal plane design and a large mirror (1.8 meter diameter) will be required.

  3. Comprehensive lake dynamics mapping at continental scales using Landsat 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inland lakes, important water resources, play a crucial role in the global water cycle and are sensitive to global warming and human activities. There clearly is a pressing need to understand temporal and spatial variations of lakes at global and continental scales. The recent operation of Landsat...

  4. Integrative taxonomy for continental-scale terrestrial insect observations.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Cara M; Kao, Rebecca H; Blevins, Kali K; Travers, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    Although 21(st) century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18(th) century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities. PMID:22666362

  5. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  6. Species richness at continental scales is dominated by ecological limits.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2015-05-01

    Explaining variation in species richness among provinces and other large geographic regions remains one of the most challenging problems at the intersection of ecology and evolution. Here we argue that empirical evidence supports a model whereby ecological factors associated with resource availability regulate species richness at continental scales. Any large-scale predictive model for biological diversity must explain three robust patterns in the natural world. First, species richness for evolutionary biotas is highly correlated with resource-associated surrogate variables, including area, temperature, and productivity. Second, species richness across epochal timescales is largely stationary in time. Third, the dynamics of diversity exhibit clear and predictable responses to mass extinctions, key innovations, and other perturbations. Collectively, these patterns are readily explained by a model in which species richness is regulated by diversity-dependent feedback mechanisms. We argue that many purported tests of the ecological limits hypothesis, including branching patterns in molecular phylogenies, are inherently weak and distract from these three core patterns. We have much to learn about the complex hierarchy of processes by which local ecological interactions lead to diversity dependence at the continental scale, but the empirical evidence overwhelmingly suggests that they do. PMID:25905501

  7. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in Ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR) since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e. standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and non random spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  8. Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

    2013-10-01

    Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river loss terms and groundwater sustainable yield calculations. However, continental and global scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point scale recharge modelling and catchment scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, and often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

  9. Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

    2014-04-01

    Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point-scale recharge modelling and catchment-scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite's flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under-predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite-derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, but often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

  10. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-10-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR), since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e., standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and nonrandom spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that, for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  11. Classifying the water table at regional to continental scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; Marklund, Lars; Smith, Leslie; Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Water tables at regional to continental scales can be classified into two distinct types: recharge-controlled water tables that are largely disconnected from topography and topography-controlled water tables that are closely tied to topography. We use geomatic synthesis of hydrologic, geologic and topographic data sets to quantify and map water-table type over the contiguous United States using a dimensionless criterion introduced by Haitjema and Mitchell-Bruker (2005), called the water-table ratio, which differentiates water-table type. Our analysis indicates that specific regions of the United States have broadly contiguous and characteristic water-table types. Water-table ratio relates to water-table depth and the potential for regional groundwater flow. In regions with recharge-controlled water tables, for example the Southwest or Rocky Mountains, USA, water-tables depths are generally greater and more variable and regional groundwater flow is generally more important as a percentage of the watershed budget. Water-table depths are generally shallow and less variable, and regional groundwater flow is limited in areas with topography-controlled water tables such as the Northeast USA. The water-table ratio is a simple but powerful criterion for evaluating regional groundwater systems over broad areas.

  12. Quantifying wildland fire emissions at landscape to continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, N. H.

    2009-05-01

    The basic approach to estimating biomass burning emissions was developed over 25 years ago. Since then, refinements in emissions modeling have progressed with techniques developed to look at spatial and temporal (seasonal) patterns at multiple scales. Much of what has been developed has been to understand the impact of wildland fire on carbon dynamics. This research has shown that a substantial proportion of the carbon moving from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere is through fire. Also of interest has been improved quantification of the impact of these natural events on air quality. Pollutants, including CO, ozone, and VOCs, from fire have been shown to rival levels of anthropogenic emissions during some fire events. Smoke from forest fire can be transported vast distances to impact air quality thousands of miles from its origin. Over the past two decades research on refining fire emission estimations at several spatial scales and quantifying the uncertainly in these measures has shown that we still have more to learn. In this presentation we describe the methods of quantifying carbon and pollutant emissions from fire at the North American continental scale using basic information derived from local and landscape scale data and models. We present a review of the tools and science used to improve our understanding of the impact of wildland fire emissions for continental and global carbon cycle modeling and review progress on a current NASA-funded project to provide easy access to the most up-to-date fire emissions estimates for North America.

  13. European hydraulic geometries for continental SCALE environmental modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, A.; Pennington, D.

    2006-10-01

    SummaryThis paper presents a geo-exploratory analysis carried out using publicly accessible data to estimate river channel width and mean lake depth. These two parameters, combined with other more readily available information, are key in many environmental assessment applications such as sedimentological and ecological studies, and the prediction of surface water residence times. For river width, runoff estimates have been used to produce a European map of mean annual discharge based on the flow accumulation computed for the GTOPO30 digital elevation model (DEM). A regression equation is fitted to predict river width as a function of river discharge. For lake depth, a landscape roughness index has been calculated on the GTOPO30 DEM. Based on this index, a regression equation predicts lake depth, allowing to populate the existing geographic databases with information on estimated depth. Using these models for river width and lake depth it is possible to compute "representative" values of velocity and depth in rivers, as well as residence time in lakes at a pan-European level. These parameters define the hydraulic geometry of European inland waters for typical conditions with errors on the predictions generally within a factor of 2. Errors are generally unbiased, and geographic patterns (such as macroscopic differentiation of catchments and physiographic environments) are reproduced in a qualitatively correct way, so that overall representativeness of the values for continental scale modelling is further corroborated.

  14. Worldwide Estimates Relative to Five Continental-Scale Populations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Christopher D; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Balding, David J

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate comparing subpopulations with a hypothetical ancestral population, which is the approach most widely used in population genetics, and also compare a subpopulation with a sampled reference population, which is more appropriate for forensic applications. Both estimation methods are likelihood-based, in which is related to the variance of the multinomial-Dirichlet distribution for allele counts. Overall, we find low values, with posterior 97.5 percentiles when comparing a subpopulation with the most appropriate population, and even for inter-population comparisons we find . These are much smaller than single nucleotide polymorphism-based inter-continental estimates, and are also about half the magnitude of STR-based estimates from population genetics surveys that focus on distinct ethnic groups rather than a general population. Our findings support the use of up to 3% in forensic calculations, which corresponds to some current practice. PMID:26460400

  15. Design Considerations for Continental-Scale Water-Quality Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed the redesign of two continental-scale networks, the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). In both cases, although the original networks provided useful data, the networks failed to achieve as much as was originally hoped when they were implemented approximately 30 years ago (NASQAN) and 40 years ago (HBN). Although both networks focused on water quality, the lessons from these networks are applicable to the network of research watersheds currently under consideration. The most important lesson was that network objectives must be stated with sufficient precision to define the intended interpretation and analysis of data collected by the network. For example, many monitoring networks have the objectives to determine the "status" of a resource and the "trend" in that status. These generic objectives were too imprecise to determine the NASQAN and HBN network design: how are the data going to define the status? For NASQAN, we decided that estimation of the annual load of selected water-quality constituents was our central objective because it permitted us to determine the source, transport, and delivery of constituents using the principle of conservation of mass. Once this objective was specified, the details on network design fell into place. Sampling strategy, sampling methods, and minimum sampling frequency could be determined, which, in turn, determined the cost of operating stations. Methods and quality-assurance plans could be specified to meet this objective, as well as the requisite data-handling system. When combined with the budget, these elements defined the maximum number of stations that could be operated. In general, resource constraints will require iterating between defining objectives and determining whether environmentally meaningful data that meet those objectives can be collected within budget. Often, objectives will have to be redefined to meet

  16. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    validation of land cover products. Among the upcoming missions, the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-2 satellites are seen as an important source of optical data for updating land cover information in Australia. This paper outlines the DLCD development, key applications that inform nationally significant issues, further work on updating the DLCD that would enable transition to a national land cover monitoring framework, challenges and approaches to delivering land cover information at higher spatial resolutions on a continental scale, and the potential value of data from the Sentinel-2 mission in supporting land cover monitoring in Australia and globally.

  17. Evaluation of two pollutant dispersion models over continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Walker, H.; Klepikova, N.; Kostrikov, A.; Zhuk, Y.

    Two long-range, emergency response models—one based on the particle-in-cell method of pollutant representation (ADPIC/U.S.) the other based on the superposition of Gaussian puffs released periodically in time (EXPRESS/Russia)—are evaluated using perfluorocarbon tracer data from the Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). The purpose of the study is to assess our current capabilities for simulating continental-scale dispersion processes and to use these assessments as a means to improve our modeling tools. The criteria for judging model performance are based on protocols devised by the Environmental Protection Agency and on other complementary tests. Most of these measures require the formation and analysis of surface concentration footprints (the surface manifestations of tracer clouds, which are sampled over 24-h intervals), whose dimensions, center-of-mass coordinates and integral characteristics provide a basis for comparing observed and calculated concentration distributions. Generally speaking, the plumes associated with the 20 releases of perfluorocarbon (10 each from sources at Glasgow, MT and St. Cloud, MN) in January 1987, are poorly resolved by the sampling network when the source-to-receptor distances are less than about 1000 km. Within this undersampled region, both models chronically overpredict the sampler concentrations. Given this tendency, the computed areas of the surface footprints and their integral concentrations are likewise excessive. When the actual plumes spread out sufficiently for reasonable resolution, the observed ( O) and calculated ( C) footprint areas are usually within a factor of two of one another, thereby suggesting that the models possess some skill in the prediction of long-range diffusion. Deviations in the O and C plume trajectories, as measured by the distances of separation between the plume centroids, are on the other of 125 km d -1 for both models. It appears that the inability of the models to simulate large

  18. European Continental Scale Hydrological Model, Limitations and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad, E.; Abbaspour, K.

    2014-12-01

    The pressures on water resources due to increasing levels of societal demand, increasing conflict of interest and uncertainties with regard to freshwater availability create challenges for water managers and policymakers in many parts of Europe. At the same time, climate change adds a new level of pressure and uncertainty with regard to freshwater supplies. On the other hand, the small-scale sectoral structure of water management is now reaching its limits. The integrated management of water in basins requires a new level of consideration where water bodies are to be viewed in the context of the whole river system and managed as a unit within their basins. In this research we present the limitations and challenges of modelling the hydrology of the continent Europe. The challenges include: data availability at continental scale and the use of globally available data, streamgauge data quality and their misleading impacts on model calibration, calibration of large-scale distributed model, uncertainty quantification, and computation time. We describe how to avoid over parameterization in calibration process and introduce a parallel processing scheme to overcome high computation time. We used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) program as an integrated hydrology and crop growth simulator to model water resources of the Europe continent. Different components of water resources are simulated and crop yield and water quality are considered at the Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) level. The water resources are quantified at subbasin level with monthly time intervals for the period of 1970-2006. The use of a large-scale, high-resolution water resources models enables consistent and comprehensive examination of integrated system behavior through physically-based, data-driven simulation and provides the overall picture of water resources temporal and spatial distribution across the continent. The calibrated model and results provide information support to the European Water

  19. A GEO Hyperspectral Mission For Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Dabney, Philip W.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2004-01-01

    For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are needed to identify the geographical locations of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and global climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage provided by most polar-orbiting satellites, and without benefit of spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions that down-regulate photosynthesis. Physiological status can be better assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow (5 nm) bands, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world s coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of Ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change scenarios. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geostationary hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of

  20. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON

  1. Overcoming complexities for consistent, continental-scale flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen; Zaidman, Maxine; Davison, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires all member states to produce flood hazard maps by 2013. Although flood mapping practices are well developed in Europe, there are huge variations in the scale and resolution of the maps between individual countries. Since extreme flood events are rarely confined to a single country, this is problematic, particularly for the re/insurance industry whose exposures often extend beyond country boundaries. Here, we discuss the challenges of large-scale hydrological and hydraulic modelling, using our experience of developing a 12-country model and set of maps, to illustrate how consistent, high-resolution river flood maps across Europe can be produced. The main challenges addressed include: data acquisition; manipulating the vast quantities of high-resolution data; and computational resources. Our starting point was to develop robust flood-frequency models that are suitable for estimating peak flows for a range of design flood return periods. We used the index flood approach, based on a statistical analysis of historic river flow data pooled on the basis of catchment characteristics. Historical flow data were therefore sourced for each country and collated into a large pan-European database. After a lengthy validation these data were collated into 21 separate analysis zones or regions, grouping smaller river basins according to their physical and climatic characteristics. The very large continental scale basins were each modelled separately on account of their size (e.g. Danube, Elbe, Drava and Rhine). Our methodology allows the design flood hydrograph to be predicted at any point on the river network for a range of return periods. Using JFlow+, JBA's proprietary 2D hydraulic hydrodynamic model, the calculated out-of-bank flows for all watercourses with an upstream drainage area exceeding 50km2 were routed across two different Digital Terrain Models in order to map the extent and depth of floodplain inundation. This generated modelling for

  2. Using R for Global Optimization of a Fully-distributed Hydrologic Model at Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Zajac, Z.; Salamon, P.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays hydrologic model simulations are widely used to better understand hydrologic processes and to predict extreme events such as floods and droughts. In particular, the spatially distributed LISFLOOD model is currently used for flood forecasting at Pan-European scale, within the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Several model parameters can not be directly measured, and they need to be estimated through calibration, in order to constrain simulated discharges to their observed counterparts. In this work we describe how the free software 'R' has been used as a single environment to pre-process hydro-meteorological data, to carry out global optimization, and to post-process calibration results in Europe. Historical daily discharge records were pre-processed for 4062 stream gauges, with different amount and distribution of data in each one of them. The hydroTSM, raster and sp R packages were used to select ca. 700 stations with an adequate spatio-temporal coverage. Selected stations span a wide range of hydro-climatic characteristics, from arid and ET-dominated watersheds in the Iberian Peninsula to snow-dominated watersheds in Scandinavia. Nine parameters were selected to be calibrated based on previous expert knowledge. Customized R scripts were used to extract observed time series for each catchment and to prepare the input files required to fully set up the calibration thereof. The hydroPSO package was then used to carry out a single-objective global optimization on each selected catchment, by using the Standard Particle Swarm 2011 (SPSO-2011) algorithm. Among the many goodness-of-fit measures available in the hydroGOF package, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was used to drive the optimization. User-defined functions were developed for reading model outputs and passing them to the calibration engine. The long computational time required to finish the calibration at continental scale was partially alleviated by using 4 multi-core machines (with both GNU

  3. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  4. Trace Gas/Aerosol Boundary Concentrations and their Impacts on Continental-scale AQMEII Modelling Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over twenty modeling groups are participating in the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) in which a variety of mesoscale photochemical and aerosol air quality modeling systems are being applied to continental-scale domains in North America and Europe fo...

  5. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  6. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  7. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Leff, Jonathan W; Pollard, Katherine S; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R; Fierer, Noah

    2015-05-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  8. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Pollard, Katherine S.; Menninger, Holly L.; Dunn, Robert R.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  9. Comparing Geodetic Data Quality from PBO and non-PBO GPS Stations at Decadal and Continental Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Blewitt, G.; Walls, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The UNAVCO GAGE GPS data Analysis Centers (ACs) and Analysis Center Coordinator (ACC) currently process more than 1800 GPS stations. Approximately 1100 of these stations are from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, with 700+ non-PBO stations from COCONet, SCIGN, NGS CORS, and other regional networks. The 700+ stations provide improved coverage across North America plus additional reference frame constraints. The extra stations were incorporated into the standard daily processing stream during a massive reprocessing effort from 2012-2014. The combined, continental-scale data set of all GPS positions spans an 18-year time period from 1996-2014 and not only represents a significant opportunity to explore mm-scale geophysical phenomena, but also allows the examination and comparison of data quality parameters between stations and networks. The overall data quality of PBO and non-PBO stations is investigated using a variety of quality parameters. Signal-to-noise and multipath histories derived from TEQC preprocessing are used to assess instrument health. Quality parameters from daily processing are used for station health determination. Position time series are used for noise analysis to characterize site stability based on white and colored noise. Further anomalies can be identified by direct inspection of a station's time series, network velocity field, and strain rate. Non-geophysical factors such as monument instability, equipment failure, and incorrect metadata can also affect data quality. Non-PBO stations were built with a variety of monument designs, equipment, and installation practices, and do not generally have consistently recorded operational and maintenance histories in a central database, because stations were installed by various organizations. Our quality analysis will identify any significant differences between PBO and non-PBO stations, and the resulting overview will help inform time series analysis for geophysical investigations.

  10. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  11. A European research infrastructure for the aerosol study on a continental scale: EARLINET-ASOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodeo, Aldo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Bösenberg, Jens; Ansmann, Albert; Apituley, Arnoud; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Balis, Dimitris; Böckmann, Christine; Chaikovsky, Anatoly; Comeron, Adolfo; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gustaffson, Ove; Hansen, Georg; Mitev, Valentin; Nicolae, Doina; Papayannis, Alexandros; Perrone, Maria Rita; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Pujadas, Manuel; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Ravetta, Francois; Rizi, Vincenzo; Simeonov, Valentin; Spinelli, Nicola; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Trickl, Thomas; Wiegner, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The present knowledge of the aerosol distribution is not sufficient to estimate the aerosol influence on global and regional environmental conditions and climate. This observational gap can be closed by using advanced laser remote sensing. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) is the first aerosol lidar network, established in 2000, with the main goal to provide a comprehensive, quantitative, and statistically significant database for the aerosol distribution on a continental scale. EARLINET is a coordinated network of European stations (25 at present) using advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The network activity is based on simultaneous scheduled measurements, a rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms, and a standardised data exchange format. Further observations are performed to monitor special events. EARLINET-ASOS (Advanced Sustainable Observation System) is a five year EC Project started in 2006, based on the EARLINET infrastructure. The main objectives are: to make EARLINET a world-leading instrument for the observation of the 4-D aerosol distribution on continental scale; to foster aerosol-related process studies, validation of satellite sensors, model development and validation, assimilation of aerosol data into operational models; and to build a comprehensive climatology of the aerosol distribution.

  12. Preparing for the ingestion of SWOT data into continental-scale river models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Cédric; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Beighley, Edward; Famiglietti, James; Boone, Aaron; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Gaborit, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is currently scheduled to launch at the end of this decade. SWOT should retrieve unprecedented measurements of water extent, elevation, and slope in the largest terrestrial water bodies. Such potential transformative information motivates the investigation of our ability to ingest the associated data into continental-scale models of terrestrial hydrology. In preparation for the expected SWOT observations, an inter-comparison of continental-scale river models is being designed. This comparison experiment focuses on four of the world's largest river basins: the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Niger, and the Saint-Lawrence. This ongoing project focuses on two main research questions: 1) How can we best prepare for the expected SWOT continental to global measurements before SWOT even flies?, and 2) What is the added value of including SWOT terrestrial measurements into global hydro models for enhancing our understanding of the terrestrial water cycle and the climate system? We present here the preliminary architecture of the inter-comparison in hope to motivate community feedback and involvement.

  13. Developing partnerships for implementing continental-scale citizen science programs at the local-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology that resides at the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON, Inc). A central question for Project BudBurst and other national outreach programs is: what are the most effective means of engaging and connecting with diverse communities throughout the country? How can continental scale programs like NEON's Project BudBurst engage audiences in such a way as to be relevant at both the local and continental scales? Staff with Project BudBurst pursued partnerships with several continental scale organizations: the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Park Service, and botanic gardens to address these questions. The distributed nature of wildlife refuges, national parks, and botanic gardens around the country provided the opportunity to connect with participants locally while working with leadership at multiple scales. Project BudBurst staff talked with hundreds of staff and volunteers prior to setting a goal of obtaining and developing resources for several Refuge Partners, a pilot National Park partner, and an existing botanic garden partner during 2011. We were especially interested in learning best practices for future partnerships. The partnership efforts resulted in resource development for 12 Refuge partners, a pilot National Park partner, and 2 botanic garden partners. Early on, the importance of working with national level leaders to develop ownership of the partner program and input about resource needs became apparent. Once a framework for the partnership program was laid out, it became critical to work closely with staff and volunteers on the ground to ensure needs were met. In 2012 we began to develop an online assessment to allow our current and potential partners to provide feedback about whether or not the partnership program was meeting their needs and how the program could be improved. As the year progressed, the timeline for resource development became more

  14. Ecosystem services - from assessements of estimations to quantitative, validated, high-resolution, continental-scale mapping via airborne LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    service potential" which is the ability of the local ecosystem to deliver various functions (water retention, carbon storage etc.), but can't quantify how much of these are actually used by humans or what the estimated monetary value is. Due to its ability to measure both terrain relief and vegetation structure in high resolution, airborne LIDAR supports direct quantification of the properties of an ecosystem that lead to it delivering a given service (such as biomass, water retention, micro-climate regulation or habitat diversity). In addition, its high resolution allows direct calibration with field measurements: routine harvesting-based ecological measurements, local biodiversity indicator surveys or microclimate recordings all take place at the human scale and can be directly linked to the local value of LIDAR-based indicators at meter resolution. Therefore, if some field measurements with standard ecological methods are performed on site, the accuracy of LIDAR-based ecosystem service indicators can be rigorously validated. With this conceptual and technical approach high resolution ecosystem service assessments can be made with well established credibility. These would consolidate the concept of ecosystem services and support both scientific research and evidence-based environmental policy at local and - as data coverage is continually increasing - continental scale.

  15. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Guy; Gessner, Mark O; Giller, Paul S; Gulis, Vladislav; Hladyz, Sally; Lecerf, Antoine; Malmqvist, Björn; McKie, Brendan G; Tiegs, Scott D; Cariss, Helen; Dobson, Mike; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Lacoursière, Jean O; Nistorescu, Marius; Pozo, Jesús; Risnoveanu, Geta; Schindler, Markus; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vought, Lena B-M; Chauvet, Eric

    2012-06-15

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health. PMID:22700929

  16. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food production

    SciTech Connect

    Chameides, W.L.; Kasibhatla, P.S. ); Yienger, J.; Levy, H. II )

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O[sub 3]) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO[sub x] emissions are not abated.

  17. Temperature drives the continental-scale distribution of key microbes in topsoil communities.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Loza, Virginia; Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Mateo, Pilar; Potrafka, Ruth M

    2013-06-28

    Global warming will likely force terrestrial plant and animal species to migrate toward cooler areas or sustain range losses; whether this is also true for microorganisms remains unknown. Through continental-scale compositional surveys of soil crust microbial communities across arid North America, we observed a latitudinal replacement in dominance between two key topsoil cyanobacteria that was driven largely by temperature. The responses to temperature of enrichment cultures and cultivated strains support this contention, with one cyanobacterium (Microcoleus vaginatus) being more psychrotolerant and less thermotolerant than the other (M. steenstrupii). In view of our data and regional climate predictions, the latter cyanobacterium may replace the former in much of the studied area within the next few decades, with unknown ecological consequences for soil fertility and erodibility. PMID:23812714

  18. Growth of Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plexes, Regional Ozone Pollution, and World Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Yienger, J.; Levy, H., II

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O_3) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO_x emissions are not abated.

  19. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey wolves Canis lupus are known to kill coyotes Canis latrans, and coyotes, in turn, may kill foxes Vulpes spp., but the spatial effects of these competitive interactions at large scales are unknown. Here, we analyse fur return data across eight jurisdictions in North America to test whether the presence or absence of wolves has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox Vulpes vulpes density. Our results support the existence of a continental scale cascade whereby coyotes outnumber red foxes in areas where wolves have been extirpated by humans, whereas red foxes outnumber coyotes in areas where wolves are present. However, for a distance of up to 200 km on the edge of wolf distribution, there is a transition zone where the effects of top-down control are weakened, possibly due to the rapid dispersal and reinvasion capabilities of coyotes into areas where wolves are sporadically distributed or at low densities. Our results have implications for understanding how the restoration of wolf populations across North America could potentially affect co-occurring predators and prey. We conclude that large carnivores may need to occupy large continuous areas to facilitate among-carnivore cascades and that studies of small areas may not be indicative of the effects of top-down mesopredator control. PMID:24930631

  20. The Role of Continental-scale Landmass in Monsoonal and Global Precipitation Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2008-01-01

    It was argued by Chao and Chen (20011) that land-sea thermal contrast on the continental scale is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon is an ITCZ that have moved into the subtropics in its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. Chao and Chen supported their contention by GCM experiments in which they replaced landmass by ocean and were able to generate monsoons. However, land-sea thermal contrast does exist and must play a role in monsoonal rainfall distribution. Land-sea thermal contrast is one facet of continental-scale landmass. in this article the roles of land-sea thermal contrast in monsoonal rainfall distribution and in middle latitude storm tracks are examined through GCM experiments. Comparison of a set of two GCM experiments in which the sea surface temperature (SST) from observations is prescribed from observations with and without a six-month delay reveals the role of land-sea thermal contrast. These experiments confirm that land-sea thermal contrast is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon should be viewed as an ITCZ displaced into the subtropics, instead of a continent-sized giant sea breeze. However, land-sea thermal contrast does have influence on the distribution of monsoonal rainfall. The temperature rise over south Asia as the season moves into summer helps the Asian monsoon to start early. However, this role is not the same as that of the land-sea thermal contrast as in the conventional explanation for the cause of monsoon. The heated Landmass in summer contributes to the displacement of 1TCZ into the subtropics Also, the heated landmass in summer, by drawing moisture toward itself, limits the range of the summer storm tracks in the middle latitude oceans. On the other band, in winter the landmass does not present a competition for rainfall and thus allow middle latitude storm tracks to expand over the ocean.

  1. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  2. Integrating Phenological, Trait and Environmental Data For Continental Scale Analysis: A Community Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Walls, R.; Guralnick, R. P.; Rosemartin, A.; Deck, J.; Powers, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is a wealth of biodiversity and environmental data that can provide the basis for addressing global scale questions of societal concern. However, our ability to discover, access and integrate these data for use in broader analyses is hampered by the lack of standardized languages and systems. New tools (e.g. ontologies, data standards, integration tools, unique identifiers) are being developed that enable establishment of a framework for linked and open data. Relative to other domains, these tools are nascent in biodiversity and environmental sciences and will require effort to develop, though work can capitalize on lessons learned from previous efforts. Here we discuss needed next steps to provide consistently described and formatted ecological data for immediate application in ecological analysis, focusing on integrating phenology, trait and environmental data to understand local to continental-scale biophysical processes and inform natural resource management practices. As more sources of data become available at finer spatial and temporal resolution, e.g., from national standardized earth observing systems (e.g., NEON, LTER and LTAR Networks, USA NPN), these challenges will become more acute. Here we provide an overview of the standards and ontology development landscape specifically related to phenological and trait data, and identify requirements to overcome current challenges. Second, we outline a workflow for formatting and integrating existing datasets to address key scientific and resource management questions such as: "What traits determine differential phenological responses to changing environmental conditions?" or "What is the role of granularity of observation, and of spatiotemporal scale, in controlling phenological responses to different driving variables?" Third, we discuss methods to semantically annotate datasets to greatly decrease time needed to assemble heterogeneous data for use in ecological analyses on varying spatial scales. We

  3. Testing a growth efficiency hypothesis with continental-scale phenological variations of common and cloned plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2014-10-01

    Variation in the timing of plant phenology caused by phenotypic plasticity is a sensitive measure of how organisms respond to weather and climate variability. Although continental-scale gradients in climate and consequential patterns in plant phenology are well recognized, the contribution of underlying genotypic difference to the geography of phenology is less well understood. We hypothesize that different temperate plant genotypes require varying amount of heat energy for resuming annual growth and reproduction as a result of adaptation and other ecological and evolutionary processes along climatic gradients. In particular, at least for some species, the growing degree days (GDD) needed to trigger the same spring phenology events (e.g., budburst and flower bloom) may be less for individuals originated from colder climates than those from warmer climates. This variable intrinsic heat energy requirement in plants can be characterized by the term growth efficiency and is quantitatively reflected in the timing of phenophases—earlier timing indicates higher efficiency (i.e., less heat energy needed to trigger phenophase transitions) and vice versa compared to a standard reference (i.e., either a uniform climate or a uniform genotype). In this study, we tested our hypothesis by comparing variations of budburst and bloom timing of two widely documented plants from the USA National Phenology Network (i.e., red maple- Acer rubrum and forsythia- Forsythia spp.) with cloned indicator plants (lilac- Syringa x chinensis `Red Rothomagensis') at multiple eastern US sites. Our results indicate that across the accumulated temperature gradient, the two non-clonal plants showed significantly more gradual changes than the cloned plants, manifested by earlier phenology in colder climates and later phenology in warmer climates relative to the baseline clone phenological response. This finding provides initial evidence supporting the growth efficiency hypothesis, and suggests more

  4. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sam W.; Prior, Lynda D.; Stephens, Helen C.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  5. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  6. Striving for consistency in a national assessment: The challengest of applying a reference-condition approach at a continental scale

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the biggest challenges when conducting a continental-scale assessment of streams is setting appropriate expectations for the assessed sites. The challenge occurs for 2 reasons: 1) tremendous natural environmental heterogeneity exists within a continental landscape and 2) r...

  7. Warming and Chilling: Assessing Aspects of Changing Plant Ecology with Continental-scale Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. D.; Hanes, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Many recent ecological studies have concentrated on the direct impacts of climate warming, such as modifications to seasonal plant and animal life cycle events (phenology). There are many examples, with most indicating earlier onset of spring plant growth and delayed onset of autumn senescence. However, the implication of continued warming for plant species’ chilling requirements has received comparatively less attention. Temperate zone woody plants often require a certain level of cool season "chilling" (accumulated time at temperatures below a specific threshold) to break dormancy and prepare to respond to springtime warming. Thus, the potential impacts of insufficient chilling must be included in a comprehensive assessment of plant species' responses to climate warming. Vegetation phenological data, when collected for specific plant species at continental-scale, can be used to extract information relating to the combined impacts of reduced chilling and warming on plant species physiology. In a recent study, we demonstrated that common lilac first leaf and first bloom phenology (collected from multiple locations in the western United States and matched with air temperature records) can estimate the species' chilling requirement (in this case 1748 chilling hours, below a base temperature of 7.2°C) and highlight the changing impact of warming on the plant's phenological response in light of that requirement. Specifically, when chilling is above the requirement, lilac first leaf dates advance at a rate of -5.0 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction, and lilac first bloom dates advance at a rate of -4.2 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction. In contrast, when chilling is below the requirement, the lilac event dates advance at a much reduced rate of -1.6 days per 100 hour reduction for first leaf date and -2.2 days per 100 hour reduction for first bloom date. Overall, these encouraging results for common lilac suggest that similar continental-scale

  8. The Role of Continental-scale Landmass in Monsoons-A GCM Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston

    2008-01-01

    It was argued by Chao and Chen (2001) that land-sea thermal contrast on the continental scale is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon is an ITCZ that have moved into the subtropics in its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. Chao and Chen supported their contention by GCM experiments in which they replaced landmass by ocean and were able to generate monsoons. However, land-sea thermal contrast does exist and must play a role in monsoonal rainfall distribution. Land-sea thermal contrast is one facet of continental-scale landmass. The other important characteristic of landmass is its topography. In this article the roles of landmass in monsoonal rainfall distribution and in middle latitude storm tracks are examined through GCM experiments. Comparison of a set of two GCM experiments in which the sea surface temperature (SST) from observations is prescribed from observations with and without a six-month delay reveals the role of Land-sea thermal contrast. Another set of experiments, which repeats the first set but with topography of all landmass reduced to zero, reveals the role of topography of landmass. These experiments confirm that land-sea thermal contrast is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon should be viewed as an ITCZ displaced into the subtropics, instead of a continent-sized giant sea breeze. However, land-sea thermal contrast does have influence on the distribution of monsoonal rainfall. The temperature rise over south Asia as the season moves into summer helps the Asian monsoon to start early. However, this role is not the same as that of the land-sea thermal contrast as in the conventional explanation for the cause of monsoon. The heated landmass in summer contributes to the displacement of ITCZ into the subtropics. Also, the heated landmass in summer, by drawing moisture toward itself, limits the range of the summer storm tracks in the middle latitude oceans. On the ether hand, in winter the landmass does not

  9. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment

  10. Local Discrepancies in Continental Scale Biomass Maps: A Case Study over Forested and Non-Forested Landscapes in Maryland, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Swatantran, A.; Johnson, K. D.; Duncanson, L.; Tang, H.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental-scale aboveground biomass maps are increasingly available, but their estimates vary widely, particularly at high resolution. A comprehensive understanding of map discrepancies is required to improve their effectiveness in carbon accounting and local decision-making. To this end, we compare four continental-scale maps with a recent high-resolution lidar-derived biomass map over Maryland, USA. We conduct detailed comparisons at pixel-, county-, and state-level. Spatial patterns of biomass are broadly consistent in all maps, but there are large differences at fine scales (RMSD 48.5 Mg·ha-1-92.7 Mg·ha-1). Discrepancies reduce with aggregation and the agreement among products improves at the county level. However, continental scale maps exhibit residual negative biases in mean (33.0 Mg·ha-1-54.6 Mg·ha-1) and total biomass (3.5-5.8 Tg) when compared to the high-resolution lidar biomass map. Three of the four continental scale maps reach near-perfect agreement at ~4 km and onward but do not converge with the high-resolution biomass map even at county scale. At the State level, these maps underestimate biomass by 30-80 Tg in forested and 40-50 Tg in non-forested areas. Local discrepancies in continental scale biomass maps are caused by factors including data inputs, modeling approaches, forest / non-forest definitions and time lags. There is a net underestimation over high biomass forests and non-forested areas that could impact carbon accounting at all levels. Local, high-resolution lidar-derived biomass maps provide a valuable bottom-up reference to improve the analysis and interpretation of large-scale maps produced in carbon monitoring systems.

  11. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M.; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Snook, Rhonda R.

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species’ distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  12. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens

    PubMed Central

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R.; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies. PMID:21227965

  13. Coupled modeling of biospheric and chemical weathering processes at the continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelandt, C.; GoddéRis, Y.; Bonnet, M.-P.; Sondag, F.

    2010-06-01

    In this contribution, a reactive-transport model describing weathering in soil profiles and at the watershed scale is coupled to a dynamic global vegetation model to calculate the dissolved load of continental waters on a 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude grid. The so-called Biosphere-Weathering at the Catchment Scale (B-WITCH) model is applied to the Orinoco watershed (South America). We show that B-WITCH is able to reproduce the main cation composition of the surface waters over the watershed. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that clay mineral reactivities are key factors controlling the calculated discharge of dissolved species. More specifically, our simulations show that the dissolution and precipitation rates of clay minerals in the weathering profiles are strongly intertwined, and that this coupling must be accurately described when modeling the weathering fluxes at the continental scale. A second set of sensitivity tests show that, for the tropical environment, land plants control the total base cation discharge through their impact on the soil hydrology, rather than through enhanced soil CO2 pressures. Indeed, the complete removal of the continental vegetation leads to an increase in the dissolved fluxes to the ocean by 80% because of the collapse in the evapotranspiration, resulting in a more efficient drainage of the weathering profiles. On the other hand, neglecting the root respiration and setting the soil CO2 pressure to the atmospheric level forces the total base cation discharge to decrease by only 20%.

  14. Observed Land Impacts on Clouds, Water Vapor, and Rainfall at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Menglin; King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    How do the continents affect large-scale hydrological cycles? How important can one continent be to the climate system? To address these questions, 4-years of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) global precipitation analysis, were used to assess the land impacts on clouds, rainfall, and water vapor at continental scales. At these scales, the observations illustrate that continents are integrated regions that enhance the seasonality of atmospheric and surface hydrological parameters. Specifically, the continents of Eurasia and North America enhance the seasonality of cloud optical thickness, cirrus fraction, rainfall, and water vapor. Over land, both liquid water and ice cloud effective radii are smaller than over oceans primarily because land has more aerosol particles. In addition, different continents have similar impacts on hydrological variables in terms of seasonality, but differ in magnitude. For example, in winter, North America and Eurasia increase cloud optical thickness to 17.5 and 16, respectively, while in summer, Eurasia has much smaller cloud optical thicknesses than North America. Such different land impacts are determined by each continent s geographical condition, land cover, and land use. These new understandings help further address the land-ocean contrasts on global climate, help validate global climate model simulated land-atmosphere interactions, and help interpret climate change over land.

  15. Soil mapping in Africa using satellite remote sensing at regional and continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, O.; Jones, A.; Horion, S.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Bosco, C.; Montanarella, L.

    2012-04-01

    The protection and the sustainable management of soil resources in Africa are of paramount importance, particularly in the context of the uncertain impact of climate change and the increasing pressures of human activities. From the perspective of a policy maker interested in topics such as food security and land degradation in Africa, up-to-date and relevant soil information at regional and continental scales are required. To provide timely and reliable information on soils at synoptic scales, moderate and coarse spatial resolution satellite data offer many possibilities. Here we review how a range of multispectral, thermal infrared, passive microwave and active microwave spaceborne sensors can be used in the delineation of soil units, as well as in the assessment of some of the key soil properties and threats to soil functions (water and wind erosion, landslides and salinisation). We show that remotely sensed data can be used for mapping soils in Africa but often they need to be combined with ancillary data and field observations in order to be effective. Remote sensing is shown to be a key component of the emerging discipline of digital soil mapping.

  16. The local environment determines the assembly of root endophytic fungi at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Glynou, Kyriaki; Ali, Tahir; Buch, Ann-Katrin; Haghi Kia, Sevda; Ploch, Sebastian; Xia, Xiaojuan; Çelik, Ali; Thines, Marco; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G

    2016-09-01

    Root endophytic fungi are found in a great variety of plants and ecosystems, but the ecological drivers of their biogeographic distribution are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the occurrence of root endophytes in the non-mycorrhizal plant genus Microthlaspi, and the effect of environmental factors and geographic distance in structuring their communities at a continental scale. We sampled 52 plant populations across the northern Mediterranean and central Europe and used a cultivation approach to study their endophytic communities. Cultivation of roots yielded 2601 isolates, which were grouped into 296 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by internal transcribed spacer sequencing of 1998 representative colonies. Climatic and spatial factors were the best descriptors of the structure of endophytic communities, outweighing soil characteristics, host genotype and geographical distance. OTU richness was negatively affected by precipitation, and the composition of communities followed latitudinal gradients of precipitation and temperature. Only six widespread OTUs belonging to the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Helotiales represented about 50% of all isolates. Assessments of their individual distribution revealed particular ecological preferences or a cosmopolitan occurrence. Our findings support a strong influence of the local environment in determining root endophytic communities, and show a different niche occupancy by individual endophytes. PMID:26530450

  17. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C.; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P.; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health. PMID:24979762

  18. The Footprint of Continental-Scale Ocean Currents on the Biogeography of Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.; Waters, Jonathan M.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Kraft, Gerald T.; Sanderson, Craig; West, John A.; Gurgel, Carlos F. D.

    2013-01-01

    Explaining spatial patterns of biological organisation remains a central challenge for biogeographic studies. In marine systems, large-scale ocean currents can modify broad-scale biological patterns by simultaneously connecting environmental (e.g. temperature, salinity and nutrients) and biological (e.g. amounts and types of dispersed propagules) properties of adjacent and distant regions. For example, steep environmental gradients and highly variable, disrupted flow should lead to heterogeneity in regional communities and high species turnover. In this study, we investigated the possible imprint of the Leeuwin (LC) and East Australia (EAC) Currents on seaweed communities across ~7,000 km of coastline in temperate Australia. These currents flow poleward along the west and east coasts of Australia, respectively, but have markedly different characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that, regional seaweed communities show serial change in the direction of current flow and that, because the LC is characterised by a weaker temperature gradient and more un-interrupted along-shore flow compared to the EAC, then coasts influenced by the LC have less variable seaweed communities and lower species turnover across regions than the EAC. This hypothesis was supported. We suggest that this pattern is likely caused by a combination of seaweed temperature tolerances and current-driven dispersal. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the characteristics of continental-scale currents can influence regional community organisation, and that the coupling of ocean currents and marine biological structure is a general feature that transcends taxa and spatial scales. PMID:24260352

  19. Estimating Root Mean Square Errors in Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Continental Scale Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Clara S.; Reichle, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard; Naeimi, Vahid; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using two methods: triple colocation (RMSETC ) and error propagation through the soil moisture retrieval models (RMSEEP ). In the absence of an established consensus for the climatology of soil moisture over large domains, presenting a RMSE in soil moisture units requires that it be specified relative to a selected reference data set. To avoid the complications that arise from the use of a reference, the RMSE is presented as a fraction of the time series standard deviation (fRMSE). For both sensors, the fRMSETC and fRMSEEP show similar spatial patterns of relatively highlow errors, and the mean fRMSE for each land cover class is consistent with expectations. Triple colocation is also shown to be surprisingly robust to representativity differences between the soil moisture data sets used, and it is believed to accurately estimate the fRMSE in the remotely sensed soil moisture anomaly time series. Comparing the ASCAT and AMSR-E fRMSETC shows that both data sets have very similar accuracy across a range of land cover classes, although the AMSR-E accuracy is more directly related to vegetation cover. In general, both data sets have good skill up to moderate vegetation conditions.

  20. Worldwide F(ST) estimates relative to five continental-scale populations.

    PubMed

    Steele, Christopher D; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Balding, David J

    2014-11-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter FST (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. FST is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate FST comparing subpopulations with a hypothetical ancestral population, which is the approach most widely used in population genetics, and also compare a subpopulation with a sampled reference population, which is more appropriate for forensic applications. Both estimation methods are likelihood-based, in which FST is related to the variance of the multinomial-Dirichlet distribution for allele counts. Overall, we find low FST values, with posterior 97.5 percentiles < 3% when comparing a subpopulation with the most appropriate population, and even for inter-population comparisons we find FST < 5%. These are much smaller than single nucleotide polymorphism-based inter-continental FST estimates, and are also about half the magnitude of STR-based estimates from population genetics surveys that focus on distinct ethnic groups rather than a general population. Our findings support the use of FST up to 3% in forensic calculations, which corresponds to some current practice. PMID:26460400

  1. A new harmonised soil map of Africa at the continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Spaargaren, Otto; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Brossard, Michel; Dampha, Almami; Deckers, Jozef; Gallali, Tahar; Hallett, Stephen; Jones, Robert; Kilasara, Method; Le Roux, Pieter; Michéli, Erika; Montanarella, Luca; Thiombiano, Lamourdia; Van Ranst, Eric; Yemefack, Martin; Zougmore, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Problem and statement: In the context of major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss, the protection and the sustainable management of soil resources in Africa are of paramount importance. To raise the awareness of the general public, stakeholders, policy makers and the science community to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has produced the Soil Atlas of Africa. Aim: To that end, a new harmonised soil map at the continental scale has been produced. Method: The steps of the construction of the new area-class map are presented, the basic information being derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). We show how the original data were updated and modified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources classification system. The corrections concerned boundary issues, areas with no information, soil patterns, river and drainage networks, and dynamic features such as sand dunes, water bodies and coastlines. Results and discussion: In comparison to the initial map derived from HWSD, the new map represents a correction of 13% of the soil data for the continent. The soil map and associated database also have the potential to enhance global studies on climate change, food production and land degradation for example. The explanation of the decisions that were made to produce the map will be useful to others who are attempting to harmonise legacy soil data sources to provide a usable information base. The map is available for downloading.

  2. Continental-scale Validation of MODIS-based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM+ Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstrated by several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent free availability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicable to large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correction methods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmospheric characterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamic aerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions in each coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from each Landsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validation results are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methods with AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km×10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 m pixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based method has better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  3. Continental-Scale Validation of Modis-Based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM + Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstratedby several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent freeavailability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicableto large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correctionmethods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive ProcessingSystem (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmosphericcharacterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamicaerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions ineach coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from eachLandsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validationresults are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methodswith AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 mpixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based methodhas better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  4. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  5. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines.

    PubMed

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Miller, David A W; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Adams, Michael J; Amburgey, Staci M; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S; Fisher, Robert N; Green, David M; Hossack, Blake R; Johnson, Pieter T J; Joseph, Maxwell B; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Ryan, Maureen E; Waddle, J Hardin; Walls, Susan C; Bailey, Larissa L; Fellers, Gary M; Gorman, Thomas A; Ray, Andrew M; Pilliod, David S; Price, Steven J; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a "smoking gun" was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed. PMID:27212145

  6. USGS Geospatial Fabric and Geo Data Portal for Continental Scale Hydrology Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Viger, R.; Hay, L.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) data products and server-based resources for continental-scale hydrologic simulations. The USGS Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) group provides a consistent national geospatial fabric built on NHDPlus. They have defined more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs) over the continental United States based on points of interest (POIs) and split into left and right bank based on the corresponding stream segment. Geophysical attributes are calculated for each HRU that can be used to define parameters in hydrologic and land-surface models. The Geo Data Portal (GDP) project at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) provides access to downscaled climate datasets and processing services via web-interface and python modules for creating forcing datasets for any polygon (such as an HRU). These resources greatly reduce the labor required for creating model-ready data in-house, contributing to efficient and effective modeling applications. We will present an application of this USGS cyber-infrastructure for assessments of impacts of climate change on hydrology over the continental United States.

  7. A Satellite Perspective on Continental-Scale Energy Balance and Heat Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Ecuyer, Tristan

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts to balance the surface and atmospheric energy budgets on global and regional scales using satellite-derived observation or observation-integrating datasets will be highlighted. In the absence of closure constraints, unrealistically large imbalances are found between net radiation into the surface and corresponding turbulent heat fluxes, particularly over the global oceans. These imbalances can be traced, in part, to the fact that component fluxes tend to be estimated independently with no explicit reliance on closure constraints. A new approach for simultaneously introducing energy and water cycle balance constraints will be described that adjusts all component fluxes based on their relative uncertainties. The method yields estimates of all components of the energy and water cycles and provides explicit metrics for assessing the extent to which global and regional budgets can be balanced within assumed error bounds. This presentation will provide an overview of the resulting continental-scale energy budgets and their annual cycles. The behavior of fluxes in land and oceanic regions will be contrasted in the context of understanding the annual cycle of heat transport between the oceans and continents.

  8. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J; Butlin, Roger K; Snook, Rhonda R

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species' distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  9. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed. PMID:27212145

  10. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  11. An objective and parsimonious approach for classifying natural flow regimes at a continental scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydro-ecological stream classification-the process of grouping streams by similar hydrologic responses and, by extension, similar aquatic habitat-has been widely accepted and is considered by some to be one of the first steps towards developing ecological flow targets. A new classification of 1543 streamgauges in the contiguous USA is presented by use of a novel and parsimonious approach to understand similarity in ecological streamflow response. This novel classification approach uses seven fundamental daily streamflow statistics (FDSS) rather than winnowing down an uncorrelated subset from 200 or more ecologically relevant streamflow statistics (ERSS) commonly used in hydro-ecological classification studies. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the distributions of 33 tested ERSS are consistently different among the classification groups derived from the seven FDSS. It is further shown that classification based solely on the 33 ERSS generally does a poorer job in grouping similar streamgauges than the classification based on the seven FDSS. This new classification approach has the additional advantages of overcoming some of the subjectivity associated with the selection of the classification variables and provides a set of robust continental-scale classes of US streamgauges. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry A; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  13. Non-climatic factors and long-term, continental-scale changes in seasonally frozen ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.

    2012-03-01

    ). In their recent paper entitled 'An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in Eurasian high latitudes', Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) provided detailed analysis of soil temperature data to assess 1930-2000 trends in seasonal freezing depth. The data were obtained from 387 Soviet non-permafrost meteorological stations. The authors performed systematic, quality-controlled, integrative analysis over the entire former Soviet Union domain. The long-term changes in depth of seasonal freezing were discussed in relation to such forcing variables as air temperature, degree days of freezing/thawing, snow depth and summer precipitation as well as modes of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The spatially average approach adopted for the study provides a generalized continental-scale trend. The study greatly improves, expands and extends previous 1956-90 analysis of the ground thermal regime over the Eurasian high latitudes (Frauenfeld et al 2004). Although the work of Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) is the most comprehensive assessment of the continental-scale long-term trends in seasonal freezing available to date, more detailed analysis is needed to determine the effect of climate change on seasonally frozen ground. It should be noted that, in addition to the variables considered for analysis, other non-climatic factors affect the depth of freezing propagation. Unlike the surface, which is influenced by the climate directly, the ground even at shallow depth receives a climatic signal that is substantially modified by edaphic processes, contributing to highly localized thermal sensitivities of the ground to climatic forcing. Subsurface properties, soil moisture, and snow and vegetation covers influence the depth of freezing. Topography also plays an important role in establishing the ground thermal regime. It is an important determinant of the amount of heat received by the ground surface, affects the distribution of snow and vegetation, and influences the

  14. A high-resolution approach to estimating ecosystem respiration at continental scales using operational satellite data.

    PubMed

    Jägermeyr, Jonas; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Hostert, Patrick; Migliavacca, Mirco; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2014-04-01

    A better understanding of the local variability in land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is crucial to improving the accuracy of global carbon budgets. Operational satellite data backed by ground measurements at Fluxnet sites proved valuable in monitoring local variability of gross primary production at highly resolved spatio-temporal resolutions. Yet, we lack similar operational estimates of ecosystem respiration (Re) to calculate net carbon fluxes. If successful, carbon fluxes from such a remote sensing approach would form an independent and sought after measure to complement widely used dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we establish an operational semi-empirical Re model, based only on data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a resolution of 1 km and 8 days. Fluxnet measurements between 2000 and 2009 from 100 sites across North America and Europe are used for parameterization and validation. Our analysis shows that Re is closely tied to temperature and plant productivity. By separating temporal and intersite variation, we find that MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) are sufficient to explain observed Re across most major biomes with a negligible bias [R² = 0.62, RMSE = 1.32 (g C m(-2) d(-1)), MBE = 0.05 (g C m(-2) d(-1))]. A comparison of such satellite-derived Re with those simulated by the DGVM LPJmL reveals similar spatial patterns. However, LPJmL shows higher temperature sensitivities and consistently simulates higher Re values, in high-latitude and subtropical regions. These differences remain difficult to explain and they are likely associated either with LPJmL parameterization or with systematic errors in the Fluxnet sampling technique. While uncertainties remain with Re estimates, the model formulated in this study provides an operational, cross-validated and unbiased approach to scale Fluxnet Re to the continental scale and advances knowledge of spatio-temporal Re variability

  15. Variation in Magnitude of Differential Stress Across an Exhumed Continental-scale Thrust Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, A. D.; Platt, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Moine Thrust Zone (MTZ), located in NW Scotland, formed as a result of the closing of the Iapetus Ocean and docking of various terranes and arcs (Scandian Phase of the Caledonian Orogeny, ca. 445-420 Ma). The MTZ as defined here comprises three major foreland-propagating thrust faults, the latest of which is the Moine Thrust itself, which emplaced Proterozoic Moine Supergroup psammites westward onto Cambro-Ordovician shelf sequence rocks and Lewisian basement gneiss. Presently, the north-south striking Moine Thrust Zone is exposed for more than 200 km along strike, and Scandian deformation can be traced up to 40 km eastward from the Moine Thrust towards the hinterland. The thrust system is thought to have been exhumed while still active, resulting in the exposure of deep structural levels of the MTZ. As part of an ongoing project to study how the stress, rheology, and width of continental-scale faults vary with depth, we use the piezometer based on the grainsize of dynamically recrystallized quartz to determine the variation in magnitude of differential stress across the MTZ. We present a transect from the head of Loch Eriboll in the footwall, eastward to the base of Ben Hope in the hangingwall. Grainsize generally decreases westward and structurally downward to the Moine Thrust, where ultramylonites have grainsizes on the order of 10 μm. Higher stresses towards the foreland likely reflect lower temperatures of deformation in rocks that before thrusting were at higher structural levels, and may have triggered a switch to grainsize sensitive creep, thus resulting in localization of strain and narrowing of shear zone width.

  16. Building a flood climatology and rethinking flood risk at continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Schumann, Guy; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Christopher; Brakenridge, Robert; Kettner, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the a modeling framework that includes the VIC hydrologic and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly Australia. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used as meteorological forcings to the models. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. The implications of having a climatology of flood characteristics are discussed, and in particular We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain water storage to significantly differ from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge, and using the latter can lead to significant overestimation. These results demonstrate that global streamflow statistics or precipitation should not be used to infer flood hazard and risk, but instead a flood inundation climatology is necessary.

  17. Numerical simulation of the geographical sources of water for Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Sud, Yogesh; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several important research questions that the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is actively pursuing, namely: What is the intensity of the water cycle and how does it change? And what is the sustainability of water resources? Much of the research to address these questions is directed at understanding the atmospheric water cycle. In this paper, we have used a new diagnostic tool, called Water Vapor Tracers (WVTs), to quantify the how much precipitation originated as continental or oceanic evaporation. This shows how long water can remain in the atmosphere and how far it can travel. The model-simulated data are analyzed over regions of interest to the GEWEX community, specifically, their Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) that are in place in the United States, Europe, Asia, Brazil, Africa and Canada. The paper presents quantitative data on how much each continent and ocean on Earth supplies water for each CSE. Furthermore, the analysis also shows the seasonal variation of the water sources. For example, in the United States, summertime precipitation is dominated by continental (land surface) sources of water, while wintertime precipitation is dominated by the Pacific Ocean sources of water. We also analyze the residence time of water in the atmosphere. The new diagnostic shows a longer residence time for water (9.2 days) than more traditional estimates (7.5 days). We emphasize that the results are based on model simulations and they depend on the model s veracity. However, there are many potential uses for the new diagnostic tool in understanding weather processes and large and small scales.

  18. EarthScope: Earth Science Education and Outreach on a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    EarthScope, funded by the National Science Foundation, enables the exploration of the structure and evolution of the North American continent by scientists accessing a range of seismological, geodetic, in situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high resolution topography resources. Interdisciplinary EarthScope science produces transformative knowledge for studying Earth processes and structures, addressing hazards, and informing resource exploration and environmental management. In addition, these data and technologies offer superb opportunities to enhance formal and informal science education in the solid Earth and Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves the broad and diverse community of EarthScope stakeholders, including EarthScope researchers, formal and informal educators in Earth science, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes education and outreach (E&O) at a level comparable to that of its support for EarthScope science. This is accomplished through effective programs such as the EarthScope E&O website, Speaker Series, Interpretive Workshops for informal educators, newsletters, and the biannual EarthScope National Meeting. ESNO is adding further value to the programmatic E&O portfolio through new initiatives to: rapidly channel EarthScope science through social media; pilot and disseminate exemplary new Earth science content for K-12 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teacher professional development (in partnership with organizations such as American Geological Institute); use regional and local results from EarthScope research in promoting place-based teaching; and deliver continuing education for university researchers and educators. EarthScope E&O, infused with a place-based and educator-centered ethos, coordinates the compilation and presentation of the spectacular findings and scientific legacy of the continental-scale EarthScope program.

  19. Extended-Range High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling over a Continental-Scale Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution mesoscale simulations, when applied for downscaling meteorological fields over large spatial domains and for extended time periods, can provide valuable information for many practical application scenarios including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. In the present study, a strategy has been proposed to dynamically downscale coarse-resolution meteorological fields from Environment Canada's regional analyses for a period of multiple years over the entire Canadian territory. The study demonstrates that a continuous mesoscale simulation over the entire domain is the most suitable approach in this regard. Large-scale deviations in the different meteorological fields pose the biggest challenge for extended-range simulations over continental scale domains, and the enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is not sufficient to restrict such deviations. A scheme has therefore been developed to spectrally nudge the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields at the different model vertical levels towards those embedded in the coarse-resolution driving fields derived from the regional analyses. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimal nudging strategy including the appropriate nudging length scales, nudging vertical profile and temporal relaxation. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil-moisture, and snow conditions, towards their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme was also devised to limit any considerable deviation in the evolving surface fields due to extended-range temporal integrations. The study shows that ensuring large-scale atmospheric similarities helps to deliver near-surface statistical scores for temperature, dew point temperature and horizontal wind speed that are better or comparable to the operational regional forecasts issued by Environment Canada. Furthermore, the meteorological fields

  20. New insights into the atmospheric mercury cycling in central Antarctica and implications on a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angot, Hélène; Magand, Olivier; Helmig, Detlev; Ricaud, Philippe; Quennehen, Boris; Gallée, Hubert; Del Guasta, Massimo; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Savarino, Joël; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2016-07-01

    Under the framework of the GMOS project (Global Mercury Observation System) atmospheric mercury monitoring has been implemented at Concordia Station on the high-altitude Antarctic plateau (75°06' S, 123°20' E, 3220 m above sea level). We report here the first year-round measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the atmosphere and in snowpack interstitial air on the East Antarctic ice sheet. This unique data set shows evidence of an intense oxidation of atmospheric Hg(0) in summer (24-hour daylight) due to the high oxidative capacity of the Antarctic plateau atmosphere in this period of the year. Summertime Hg(0) concentrations exhibited a pronounced daily cycle in ambient air with maximal concentrations around midday. Photochemical reactions and chemical exchange at the air-snow interface were prominent, highlighting the role of the snowpack on the atmospheric mercury cycle. Our observations reveal a 20 to 30 % decrease of atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations from May to mid-August (winter, 24 h darkness). This phenomenon has not been reported elsewhere and possibly results from the dry deposition of Hg(0) onto the snowpack. We also reveal the occurrence of multi-day to weeklong atmospheric Hg(0) depletion events in summer, not associated with depletions of ozone, and likely due to a stagnation of air masses above the plateau triggering an accumulation of oxidants within the shallow boundary layer. Our observations suggest that the inland atmospheric reservoir is depleted in Hg(0) in summer. Due to katabatic winds flowing out from the Antarctic plateau down the steep vertical drops along the coast and according to observations at coastal Antarctic stations, the striking reactivity observed on the plateau most likely influences the cycle of atmospheric mercury on a continental scale.

  1. Interpretation of Continental Scale Gravity Signatures from GOCE at Smaller Scale Mineral Hosting outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    The GOCE gravity field is globally homogeneous at the resolution of about 50km or better allowing for the first time to analyze tectonic structures on the continental scale. Geologic correlation studies propose to continue the tectonic lineaments across continents to the pre-breakup position. Tectonic events that induce density changes, as metamorphic events and magmatic events, should then show up in the gravity field. Applying geodynamic plate reconstructions to the GOCE gravity field places today's observed field at the pre-breakup position (Braitenberg, 2014). The same reconstruction can be applied to the seismic velocity models, to allow a joint gravity-velocity analysis. The geophysical fields bear information to control the likeliness of the hypothesized continuation of lineations. Total absence of a signal, makes the cross-continental continuation of the lineament unprobable, as continental-wide lineaments are controlled by rheologic and compositional differences of crust and upper mantle. Special attention is given to Greenstone belts, which are associated to a class of important mineralizations. The outcrops are limited in extent, but are associated with a much broader gravity signature, which cannot be explained by the outcropping masses alone. The gravity requires a mass source residing at lower crustal level, giving evidence of the mantle-crust melting processes influencing the tectonic characteristic at surface. The study is carried out over the African and South American continents. Reference Braitenberg C. (2014). Exploration of tectonic structures with GOCE in Africa and across-continents. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.013

  2. Organic compounds in biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterization at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Philip M.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2002-11-01

    Wood smoke in the atmosphere often accounts for 20-30% of the ambient fine-particle concentrations. In communities where wood is burned for home heating, wood smoke can at times contribute the majority of the atmospheric fine-particle burden. Chemical mass balance receptor models that use organic compounds as tracers can be used to determine the contributions of different emission sources, including wood smoke, to atmospheric fine-particle samples. In order for organic chemical tracer techniques to be applied to communities across the United States, differences in wood smoke composition that arise from differences in the type of wood burned in various regions must be understood. A continental-scale accounting of particulate organic compound emissions from residential wood combustion has been constructed which helps to quantify the regional differences in wood smoke composition that exist between different parts of the United States. Data from a series of source tests conducted on 22 North American wood species have been used to assemble a national inventory of emissions for more than 250 individual organic compounds that are released from wood combustion in fireplaces and wood stoves in the United States. The emission rates of important wood smoke markers, such as levoglucosan, certain substituted syringols and guaiacols, and phytosterols vary greatly with wood type and combustor type. These differences at the level of individual wood type and combustion conditions translate into regional differences in the aggregate composition of ambient wood smoke. By weighting the source test results in proportion to the availability of firewood from specific tree species and the quantities of wood burned in each locale, it is possible to investigate systematic differences that exist between wood smokes from different regions of North America. The relative abundance of 10 major wood smoke components averaged over the emissions inventory in different regions of the United States

  3. NEON: Developing a Platform for Regional to Continental Scale Biological Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, J.

    2004-05-01

    Climate variation, introductions of alien species, and patterns of land use are some of the important interacting drivers of biological change that are affecting our nation's ecosystems. Many of these drivers operate over large spatial and temporal scales, and our understanding of how these phenomena interact to drive biological change is limited by our inability to link traditionally local and short-term ecological approaches to larger and longer scales. Similarly, our ability to forecast such changes and respond to their consequences is constrained. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a proposed shared-use research and education platform intended to improve our capacity to understand and predict biological phenomena operating from regional to continental scales. NEON is envisioned as a system of field and laboratory-based facilities distributed across the United States, which will provide the physical infrastructure and human capabilities necessary to coordinate and integrate research and education campaigns on the following types of issues: (1) biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functioning; (2) ecological aspects of biogeochemical cycles; (3) ecological implications of climate change; (4) ecology and evolution of infectious disease; (5) invasive species; and (6) land use and habitat alteration. Themes such as data sharing, multidisciplinary collaboration, and the development of technologies for sensing, forecasting, and visualizing biological information are central to the NEON concept. Development of the NEON science plan and the design of the network itself are proceeding through a variety of workshops and community planning meetings. A national project office is expected to form toward the end of 2004 to lead the development and creation of NEON. Ultimately, the project office will reside within an independent national organization devoted to the coordinated operation of NEON for the scientific community.

  4. PhenoCam: A continental-scale observatory for monitoring the phenology of terrestrial vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Friedl, M. A.; Frolking, S.; Pless, R.; PhenoCam Collaborators

    2011-12-01

    The term phenology refers to both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, such as when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to year-to-year variation in weather as well as longer-term changes in climate, particularly as related to temperature and precipitation. Understanding and predicting the impacts of climate change on plants and ecosystems requires better data with which predictive models of phenology can be developed and tested. PhenoCam uses networked, digital cameras as multi-channel imaging sensors to track the seasonal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation across a range of ecosystem types. The original network, which began in 2006 as a project focusing on the northeast region, consists of a dozen cameras deployed at pre-existing long term research sites. At eight of these sites, cameras are co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation with which surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water and energy are being measured. This provides opportunities for investigating relationships between phenology and ecosystem function and climate system feedbacks. We plan to expand PhenoCam from a regional network to a continental-scale observatory. We will deploy 20 additional cameras at FLUXNET sites across North America, spanning a wide range of vegetation types. We will further explore the feasibility of exploiting information related to phenology from an existing image archive of approximately 17,000 publicly available cameras located across the continent. We will use computer vision and machine learning approaches to develop new processing algorithms for this imagery, and will link these data products both to ground observations by USA-National Phenology Network "citizen scientists" and various satellite-based data streams, e.g. the MODIS phenology product. This project will develop predictions of how phenology may be affected by future climate change

  5. Hydrogen isotopes from source water to leaf lipid in a continental-scale sample network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary plant waxes are useful paleoclimate proxies because they are preserved in depositional settings on geologic timescales and the isotopic composition of the hydrogen in these molecules reflects that of the source water available during biosynthesis. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. However, the importance of variable net isotopic fractionation between source water and lipid for different species and environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Mechanistic models can predict the mean leaf water hydrogen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments

  6. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Eric V; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Jacobi, Sarah; Aagaard, Kevin; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie; Fox, Timothy; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Malcolm T; Kenow, Kevin; Lyons, James E; Luke, Kirsten; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a Mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental-scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 d of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% Cl = 89.2%, 91.9%), whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 d of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry, and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including the Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  7. A spatially consistent seamless predictions of continental-scale hydrologic fluxes and states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohini; Mai, Juliane; Rakovec, Oldrich; Zink, Matthias; Cuntz, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Attinger, Sabine; Schroen, Martin; Schaefer, David; Samaniego, Luis

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the contemporary hydrology is to establish a continental-scale hydrologic model that can provide spatially consistent, seamless prediction of hydrologic fluxes and states to better characterise extreme events like floods and droughts. This requires, among other things, 1) a robust parameterization technique that allows the model to seamlessly operate across a range of spatial resolutions and 2) an efficient parameter estimation technique to derive a representative set of spatially consistent model parameters that avoid inconsistencies in simulated hydrologic fields (e.g., soil moisture). In this study, we demostrate the applicability of a mesoscale hydrologic model parameterized using a multiscale regionalization technique to derive daily gridded fields of hydrologic fluxes/states over the Pan-EU domain since 1950. A multi-basin parameter estimation (MBE) strategy that utilizes observed streamflows from a set of hydrologically diverse basins is introduced to infer a representative set of regional calibration parameters which is applicable over the entire domain. We tested three sampling schemes to select a set of calibration basins incremented sequentially from 2 to 20 basins, based on the 1) random selection procedure, 2) gradient along the hydro-climatic regimes, and 3) diversity in hydro-climatic and basin physiographical properties (e.g., terrain, soil, land cover properties). Results of the MBE approach are contrasted against the benchmark at-site calibration strategy across 400 EU basins varying from approximately 100 to 500,000 km2. At-site calibrated parameters performed best for site-specific streamflow predictions, but their transferability to other sites resulted in poor performance. Moreover, the at-site calibration strategy generated a patchy, spatially inconsistent distribution of parameter fields that further induced large discontinuities in simulated hydrologic fields of soil moisture among other sates/fluxes. These

  8. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF funded national investment in physical and information infrastructure. Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we develop climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. NEON's goal is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology by providing physical and information infrastructure. The NEON framework will take standardized, long-term, coordinated measurements of related environmental variables at each of its 62 sites across the nation. These observations, collected by automated instruments, field crews, and airborne instruments, will be processed into more than 700 data products that are provided freely over the web to support research, education, and environmental management. NEON is envisioned to be an integral component of an interoperable ecosystem of credible data and information sources. Other members of this information ecosystem include Federal, commercial, and non-profit entities. NEON is actively involved with the interoperability community via forums like the Foundation for Earth Science Information Partners and the USGS Community for Data Integration in a collective effort to identify the technical standards, best practices, and organizational principles that enable the emergence of such an information ecosystem. These forums have proven to be effective innovation engines for the experimentation of new techniques that evolve into emergent standards. These standards are, for the most part, discipline agnostic. It is becoming increasingly evident that we need to include socio-economic and public health data sources in interoperability initiatives, because the dynamics of coupled

  9. Continental scale variation in 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuning; Levin, Naomi E.; Chesson, Lesley A.

    2015-09-01

    High-precision triple oxygen isotope analysis of waters is an emerging tool in hydrological and paleoclimate research. The existing research on 17O-excess in waters includes surveys of meteoric waters and region-specific studies of high-latitude snow and tropical storms. However, a better understanding of the variation in 17O-excess of waters across large geographic regions is needed to expand the utility of triple oxygen isotope measurements. Here we present 17O-excess data from tap waters across the continental U.S., which we used as a proxy for precipitation. The 17O-excess values of tap waters ranged from -6 to +43 per meg and averaged 17 ± 11 per meg which is lower than the average 17O-excess reported for global meteoric waters, but overlaps with reported 17O-excess values of rainfall from the tropics. We observed relatively high 17O-excess values (>25 per meg) of tap waters in the northwestern U.S. and some of the lowest 17O-excess values (<5 per meg) in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The latitudinal variation of 17O-excess among tap waters likely reflects the different controls on 17O-excess in precipitation. For example, re-evaporation of precipitation and convective processes influence the isotopic composition of tap waters from the southern portions of the U.S., resulting in relatively low 17O-excess values. In contrast, these effects are reduced in tap waters from the northern portions of the U.S. where snow and cold-season rainfall are primarily responsible for the majority of annual precipitation. Exceptions to the latitudinal trend are prevalent in the central portions of the U.S., where mixing and convection are likely responsible for 17O-excess values that are lower than would be expected at their latitudes. The results of this study provide both a first look at the variation of 17O-excess in meteoric waters on a continental scale and a predictive map for 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the U.S.

  10. Regionalized Hydrologic Parameters Estimates for a Seamless Prediction of Continental scale Water Fluxes and States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Mai, J.; Rakovec, O.; Cuntz, M.; Thober, S.; Zink, M.; Attinger, S.; Schaefer, D.; Schrön, M.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate representation of water fluxes and states is crucial for hydrological assessments of societally relevant events such as floods and droughts. Hydrologic and/or land surface models are now commonly used for this purpose. The seamless prediction of continental scale water fluxes from these models requires among other things (i) a robust parameterization technique that allows the model to operate across a range of spatial resolutions and (ii) an efficient parameter estimation technique to derive a representative set of spatially consistent hydrologic parameters to avoid discontinuities of simulated hydrologic fields. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of a mesoscale hydrologic modeling framework that incorporates a novel multiscale parameter regionalization technique (mHM-MPR) to derive the long-term gridded estimates of water fluxes and states over the Pan-EU domain. The MPR technique allows establishing linkages between hydrologic parameter fields and basin geophysical attributes (e.g., terrain, soil, vegetation properties) through a set of transfer functions and quasi-scale invariant global parameters. We devise a multi-basin parameter estimation strategy that utilizes observed streamflows from a reduced set of hydrologically diverse basins to infer a representative set of global parameters. The selection of diverse basins is guided through a stepwise clustering algorithm based on the basins geophysical and hydro-climatic attributes. Results of this strategy are contrasted against the single-basin calibration strategy across 400 European basins varying from approximately 100 km2 to 500000 km2. The single-basin parameter estimates although produced the site-specific best results, but their transferability to other basins resulted in poor performance. Initial results indicate that the multi-basin calibration strategy is at least as good as the best single-basin cross-validated results. Furthermore, the gridded fields of hydrologic parameters and

  11. Continental scale shear wave splitting analysis: Investigation of seismic anisotropy underneath the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, Maggy; Kennett, Brian L. N.

    2005-07-01

    The structure of the upper mantle beneath the Australian continent is investigated using teleseismic shear wave splitting to extract seismic anisotropy. Measurements have been performed on data recorded at 190 sites with portable broadband seismic recorders, spanning almost the entire surface of the continent since 1992. The average time span of the various deployments, primarily designed for surface wave tomography, is 6 months, which is rather limited for shear wave splitting analysis. However, the data set provides a full continental scale survey using the reasonably favourable distribution of seismicity to Australia. Seismic anisotropy has the potential to provide insights into the lithospheric structure and the possible mechanical coupling between the crust and the upper mantle, but prior results for Australia have indicated relatively small levels of splitting and a complex pattern. These results are confirmed with our new and far more extensive measurements across the whole continent. The pattern of seismic anisotropy from shear wave splitting beneath Australia is rather complex and is not correlated with the almost north-south absolute plate motion (APM) from recent models. Deviation of the asthenospheric mantle flow around the lithospheric roots associated with the extensive Archaean and Proterozoic zones of central and western Australia could be occurring, and so mantle flow-related anisotropy cannot be completely ruled out. Despite the limited geological outcrop, especially in Phanerozoic eastern Australia, that is almost entirely covered by sedimentary basins, some relationships can be highlighted between the orientation of the polarization plane of the fast S-waves and structural trends along, for instance, the Halls Creek orogen bordering the eastern edge of the Kimberley basin or along the New England and Lachlan fold belts in the southeastern part of the continent. Such relationships might account for anisotropy frozen in the lithosphere during post

  12. Development and Application of a Process-based River System Model at a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Yang, A.; Teng, J.

    2014-12-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate model, are of very course spatial resolutions and they lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing streamflow forecast at fine spatial resolution and water accounts at sub-catchment levels, which are important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scale. A large-scale river system model has been developed and implemented for water accounting in Australia as part of the Water Information Research and Development Alliance between Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and CSIRO. The model, developed using node-link architecture, includes all major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. It includes an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. An auto-calibration tool has been built within the modelling system to automatically calibrate the model in large river systems using Shuffled Complex Evolution optimiser and user-defined objective functions. The auto-calibration tool makes the model computationally efficient and practical for large basin applications. The model has been implemented in several large basins in Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin, covering more than 2 million km2. The results of calibration and validation of the model shows highly satisfactory performance. The model has been operalisationalised in BoM for producing various fluxes and stores for national water accounting. This paper introduces this newly developed river system model

  13. Continental Scale research of the coupled carbon and water cycles in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleugh, Helen; van Gorsel, Eva; Held, Alex; Huete, Alfredo; Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Phinn, Stuart; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Cover provides a national expert network and data delivery service for provision of Australian biophysical remote sensing time-series data, continental-scale map products, and select high-resolution datasets over TERN OzFlux and Supersites. Integration of data streams and modeling is carried out through the TERN eMAST Facility. This presentation will give an overview of the infrastructure related to research in biogeochemistry through TERN. We will show how the deployment of large-scale infrastructure, observations, the curation of data and assimilation and integration of data into modelling is enhancing our process understanding of carbon uptake and water use in a large range of ecosystems.

  14. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Jacobi, Sarah; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie Y.; Fox, Timothy J.; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Tim; Kenow, Kevin P.; Lyons, James E.; Luke, Kirsten E.; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 days of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% CI = 89.2%, 91.9%) whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 days of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1,036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  15. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    -defined exposure and vulnerability. Without this function, many tools can only be used regionally and not at global or continental scale. It is becoming increasingly easy to use multiple packages for a single region and/or hazard to characterize the uncertainty in the risk, or use as checks for the sensitivities in the analysis. There is a potential for valuable synergy between existing software. A number of open source software packages could be combined to generate a multi-risk model with multiple views of a hazard. This extensive review has simply attempted to provide a platform for dialogue between all open source and open access software packages and to hopefully inspire collaboration between developers, given the great work done by all open access and open source developers.

  16. Non-climatic factors and long-term, continental-scale changes in seasonally frozen ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.

    2012-03-01

    ). In their recent paper entitled 'An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in Eurasian high latitudes', Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) provided detailed analysis of soil temperature data to assess 1930-2000 trends in seasonal freezing depth. The data were obtained from 387 Soviet non-permafrost meteorological stations. The authors performed systematic, quality-controlled, integrative analysis over the entire former Soviet Union domain. The long-term changes in depth of seasonal freezing were discussed in relation to such forcing variables as air temperature, degree days of freezing/thawing, snow depth and summer precipitation as well as modes of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The spatially average approach adopted for the study provides a generalized continental-scale trend. The study greatly improves, expands and extends previous 1956-90 analysis of the ground thermal regime over the Eurasian high latitudes (Frauenfeld et al 2004). Although the work of Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) is the most comprehensive assessment of the continental-scale long-term trends in seasonal freezing available to date, more detailed analysis is needed to determine the effect of climate change on seasonally frozen ground. It should be noted that, in addition to the variables considered for analysis, other non-climatic factors affect the depth of freezing propagation. Unlike the surface, which is influenced by the climate directly, the ground even at shallow depth receives a climatic signal that is substantially modified by edaphic processes, contributing to highly localized thermal sensitivities of the ground to climatic forcing. Subsurface properties, soil moisture, and snow and vegetation covers influence the depth of freezing. Topography also plays an important role in establishing the ground thermal regime. It is an important determinant of the amount of heat received by the ground surface, affects the distribution of snow and vegetation, and influences the

  17. The Impact of Detailed Snow Physics on the Simulation of Snow Cover and Subsurface Thermodynamics at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieglitz, Marc; Ducharne, Agnes; Koster, Randy; Suarez, Max; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The three-layer snow model is coupled to the global catchment-based Land Surface Model (LSM) of the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) project, and the combined models are used to simulate the growth and ablation of snow cover over the North American continent for the period 1987-1988. The various snow processes included in the three-layer model, such as snow melting and re-freezing, dynamic changes in snow density, and snow insulating properties, are shown (through a comparison with the corresponding simulation using a much simpler snow model) to lead to an improved simulation of ground thermodynamics on the continental scale.

  18. China is a `Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plex` and its role in regional and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Chameides, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses one of the three continental-scale metro-agroplexes - China - which is by far the most populous and rapidly developing. Analysed are the effects of regional environmental changes on China`s agricultural output, critical to its future. The environmental changes, potentially driven by China`s growing economic engine and changing land use characteristics, as well as by global environmental trends, include degradation in regional air quality, increases in regional air quality, increases in acid and trace element deposition, and shifts in key climatic parameters.

  19. The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Buhnerkempe, Michael G.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Lindström, Tom; Grear, Daniel A.; Portacci, Katie; Miller, Ryan S.; Lombard, Jason E.; Werkman, Marleen; Keeling, Matt J.; Wennergren, Uno; Webb, Colleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United States’s cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak. PMID:24670977

  20. Geographic patterns of co-occurrence network topological features for soil microbiota at continental scale in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Haizhen; Dsouza, Melissa; Lou, Jun; He, Yan; Dai, Zhongmin; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Gilbert, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Soil microbiota play a critical role in soil biogeochemical processes and have a profound effect on soil functions. Recent studies have revealed microbial co-occurrence patterns in soil microbial communities, yet the geographic pattern of topological features in soil microbial co-occurrence networks at the continental scale are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the shifts of topological features in co-occurrence networks inferred from soil microbiota along a continental scale in eastern China. Integrating archaeal, bacterial and fungal community datasets, we inferred a meta-community co-occurrence network and analyzed node-level and network-level topological shifts associated with five climatic regions. Both node-level and network-level topological features revealed geographic patterns wherein microorganisms in the northern regions had closer relationships but had a lower interaction influence than those in the southern regions. We further identified topological differences associated with taxonomic groups and demonstrated that co-occurrence patterns were random for archaea and non-random for bacteria and fungi. Given that microbial interactions may contribute to soil functions more than species diversity, this geographic shift of topological features provides new insight into studying microbial biogeographic patterns, their organization and impacts on soil-associated function. PMID:26771927

  1. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Grunsky, E.C.; Sutphin, D.M.; Woodruff, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy. ?? 2010.

  2. Evaluating the relationship between topography and groundwater using outputs from a continental-scale integrated hydrology model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Laura E.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2015-08-01

    We study the influence of topography on groundwater fluxes and water table depths across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Groundwater tables are often conceptualized as subdued replicas of topography. While it is well known that groundwater configuration is also controlled by geology and climate, nonlinear interactions between these drivers within large real-world systems are not well understood and are difficult to characterize given sparse groundwater observations. We address this limitation using the fully integrated physical hydrology model ParFlow to directly simulate groundwater fluxes and water table depths within a complex heterogeneous domain that incorporates all three primary groundwater drivers. Analysis is based on a first of its kind, continental-scale, high-resolution (1 km), groundwater-surface water simulation spanning more than 6.3 million km2. Results show that groundwater fluxes are most strongly driven by topographic gradients (as opposed to gradients in pressure head) in humid regions with small topographic gradients or low conductivity. These regions are generally consistent with the topographically controlled groundwater regions identified in previous studies. However, we also show that areas where topographic slopes drive groundwater flux do not generally have strong correlations between water table depth and elevation. Nonlinear relationships between topography and water table depth are consistent with groundwater flow systems that are dominated by local convergence and could also be influenced by local variability in geology and climate. One of the strengths of the numerical modeling approach is its ability to evaluate continental-scale groundwater behavior at a high resolution not possible with other techniques. This article was corrected on 11 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  3. Continental-scale temperature variability in PMIP3 simulations and PAGES 2k regional temperature reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pages2k-Pmip3 Group

    2015-06-01

    Estimated external radiative forcings, model results and proxy-based climate reconstructions have been used over the past several decades to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying observed climate variability and change over the past millennium. Here, the recent set of temperature reconstructions at the continental-scale generated by the PAGES 2k project and the collection of state-of-the-art model simulations driven by realistic external forcings following the PMIP3 protocol are jointly analysed. The first aim is to estimate the consistency between model results and reconstructions for each continental-scale region over time and frequency domains. Secondly, the links between regions are investigated to determine whether reconstructed global-scale covariability patterns are similar to those identified in model simulations. The third aim is to assess the role of external forcings in the observed temperature variations. From a large set of analyses, we conclude that models are in relatively good agreement with temperature reconstructions for Northern Hemisphere regions, particularly in the Arctic. This is likely due to the relatively large amplitude of the externally forced response across northern and high latitudes regions, which results in a clearly detectable signature in both reconstructions and simulations. Conversely, models disagree strongly with the reconstructions in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the simulations are more regionally coherent than the reconstructions perhaps due to an underestimation of the magnitude of internal variability in models or to an overestimation of the response to the external forcing in the Southern Hemisphere. Part of the disagreement might also reflect large uncertainties in the reconstructions, specifically in some Southern Hemisphere regions which are based on fewer paleoclimate records than in the Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Continental-scale temperature variability in PMIP3 simulations and PAGES 2k regional temperature reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pages 2k-Pmip3 Group

    2015-12-01

    Estimated external radiative forcings, model results, and proxy-based climate reconstructions have been used over the past several decades to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying observed climate variability and change over the past millennium. Here, the recent set of temperature reconstructions at the continental-scale generated by the PAGES 2k project and a collection of state-of-the-art model simulations driven by realistic external forcings are jointly analysed. The first aim is to estimate the consistency between model results and reconstructions for each continental-scale region over the time and frequency domains. Secondly, the links between regions are investigated to determine whether reconstructed global-scale covariability patterns are similar to those identified in model simulations. The third aim is to assess the role of external forcings in the observed temperature variations. From a large set of analyses, we conclude that models are in relatively good agreement with temperature reconstructions for Northern Hemisphere regions, particularly in the Arctic. This is likely due to the relatively large amplitude of the externally forced response across northern and high-latitude regions, which results in a clearly detectable signature in both reconstructions and simulations. Conversely, models disagree strongly with the reconstructions in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the simulations are more regionally coherent than the reconstructions, perhaps due to an underestimation of the magnitude of internal variability in models or to an overestimation of the response to the external forcing in the Southern Hemisphere. Part of the disagreement might also reflect large uncertainties in the reconstructions, specifically in some Southern Hemisphere regions, which are based on fewer palaeoclimate records than in the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Chave, Jerome; Sabatier, Daniel; Duque, Alvaro; Molino, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Spichiger, Rodolphe; Castellanos, Hernán; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Vásquez, Rodolfo

    2006-09-01

    The world's greatest terrestrial stores of biodiversity and carbon are found in the forests of northern South America, where large-scale biogeographic patterns and processes have recently begun to be described. Seven of the nine countries with territory in the Amazon basin and the Guiana shield have carried out large-scale forest inventories, but such massive data sets have been little exploited by tropical plant ecologists. Although forest inventories often lack the species-level identifications favoured by tropical plant ecologists, their consistency of measurement and vast spatial coverage make them ideally suited for numerical analyses at large scales, and a valuable resource to describe the still poorly understood spatial variation of biomass, diversity, community composition and forest functioning across the South American tropics. Here we show, by using the seven forest inventories complemented with trait and inventory data collected elsewhere, two dominant gradients in tree composition and function across the Amazon, one paralleling a major gradient in soil fertility and the other paralleling a gradient in dry season length. The data set also indicates that the dominance of Fabaceae in the Guiana shield is not necessarily the result of root adaptations to poor soils (nodulation or ectomycorrhizal associations) but perhaps also the result of their remarkably high seed mass there as a potential adaptation to low rates of disturbance.

  6. Long-term aerosol study on continental scale through EARLINET vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Linne, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla

    2015-04-01

    Lidar techniques offer the opportunity for investigating the aerosol vertical profiles, which is an important information for climatological, meteorological and air quality issues. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) has been providing aerosol optical properties vertical profiles over Europe since May 2000. Long-term aerosol observations performed within EARLINET allows a climatological study of aerosol properties over Europe. All EARLINET stations perform almost simultaneously measurements three times per week following a scheduling established in 2000. Besides these climatological measurements, additional measurements are performed in order to monitor special events (as volcanic eruptions and desert dust intrusion), for satellite data evaluation and integrated studies and during intensive measurements campaigns. Aerosol optical properties vertical profiles are freely available at www.earlinet.org and through ACRIS data center http://www.actris.net/. This data are currently published on the CERA database with an associated doi number. Based mainly on Raman technique, EARLINET stations typically provide direct measurement of extinction profiles, and therefore of the aerosol optical depth (AOD), a key parameter for understanding the aerosol role on radiation budget. The free troposphere contribution to AOD and altitude of lofted layers are provided thanks to the vertical profiling capability of lidar technique. The representativeness of EARLINET regular scheduling for climatological studies is investigating through the comparison with AERONET and MODIS measurements. We find that the regular measurements schedule is typically sufficient for climatological studies. In addition lidar punctual measurements are representative for a larger area (1°x1°) in a climatological sense. Long term analysis of EARLINET profiles shows that the AOD in generally decreasing over Europe in agreement with both passive-sensors and in situ measurements. Mean vertical

  7. Continental-scale ICESat canopy height modelling sensitivity and random forest simulations in Australia and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C.; Mahoney, C.; Held, A. A.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), previously onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) uniquely offers near global waveform LiDAR coverage, however, data quality are subject to system, temporal, and spatial issues. These subtleties are investigated here with respect to canopy height comparisons with 3 airborne LiDAR sites in Australia. Optimal GLAS results were obtained from high energy laser transmissions from laser 3 during leaf-on conditions; GLAS data best corresponded with 95th percentile heights from an all return airborne LiDAR point cloud. In addition, best GLAS results were obtained over relatively open canopies, where prominent ground returns can be retrieved. Optimized GLAS data within Australian forests were employed as canopy height observations, and related to 6 predictor variables (landcover, cover fraction, elevation, slope, soils, and species) by random forest (RF) models. Fifty seven RF models were trained, varying by binomial combinations of predictor data, from 2 to 6 inputs. Trained models were separately utilized to predict Australia wide canopy heights; RF canopy height outputs were validated against spatially concurrent airborne LiDAR 95th percentile canopy heights from an all return point cloud for 10 sites, encompassing multiple ecosystems. The best RF output was obtained from predictor data inputs: landcover, cover fraction, elevation soils, and species, yielding a RMSE=7.98 m, and R2=0.97. Results indicate inherent issues (noted in existing literature) in GLAS observations that propagate through RF algorithms, manifested as canopy height underestimations for taller vegetation (>45 m). To extend this research to the Canadian boreal forest context, research is also targeting canopy height model development in the Northwest Territories, allowing investigations of time-variant phenology and landcover sensitivity due to wetland extent and growth, snow cover and other land cover changes common within boreal

  8. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of major and minor trace elements concentration in soils from continental scale transects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine diffuse reflectance (DF) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (DRIFTS) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy for the determination of major and minor trace elements in soils obtained from two continental scale transects. Samples (n=720) came from two transec...

  9. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale. PMID:26148974

  10. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  11. Building continental-scale 3D subsurface layers in the Digital Crust project: constrained interpolation and uncertainty estimation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulaeva, E.; Fan, Y.; Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.; Bristol, S.; Peters, S. E.; Zaslavsky, I.; Ingebritsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Crust EarthCube building block creates a framework for integrating disparate 3D/4D information from multiple sources into a comprehensive model of the structure and composition of the Earth's upper crust, and to demonstrate the utility of this model in several research scenarios. One of such scenarios is estimation of various crustal properties related to fluid dynamics (e.g. permeability and porosity) at each node of any arbitrary unstructured 3D grid to support continental-scale numerical models of fluid flow and transport. Starting from Macrostrat, an existing 4D database of 33,903 chronostratigraphic units, and employing GeoDeepDive, a software system for extracting structured information from unstructured documents, we construct 3D gridded fields of sediment/rock porosity, permeability and geochemistry for large sedimentary basins of North America, which will be used to improve our understanding of large-scale fluid flow, chemical weathering rates, and geochemical fluxes into the ocean. In this talk, we discuss the methods, data gaps (particularly in geologically complex terrain), and various physical and geological constraints on interpolation and uncertainty estimation.

  12. Recent Developments and Applications of the WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Continental Scale Water Cycle Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Clark, M. P.; Wood, A. W.; Sampson, K. M.; Rasmussen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The translation of weather and climate forcing through complex landscapes to drive terrestrial hydrologic processes is a true multi-scale problem. Model architectures that attempt to capture these processes and feedbacks in a physically realistic way must be able to bridge spatial scales from meters to kilometers. To represent these processes across continental domains modeling systems must fully embrace high performance computing. Also, because there are both scientific and computational trade-offs in modeling many terrestrial hydrologic and land-atmosphere exchange processes, it is often highly advantageous to support multiple physics options in order to test competing hypotheses and apply scale-appropriate parameterizations for different prediction problems. In this talk we provide an update of new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in meeting these needs from both a process representation and high performance computing perspective. A key feature of these developments centers on new multi-scale modeling capabilities recently added to WRF-Hydro. We will discuss prediction and computational performance metrics for several recent large river basin and continental scale applications of the WRF-Hydro system over the coterminous U.S. and over Mexico in modes both coupled and uncoupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We will also provide updates on new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in the areas of water management applications and hydrologic data assimilation.

  13. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L.; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species - those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  14. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity.

    PubMed

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species--those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  15. Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale international project (GCIP); reference data sets CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic reference data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.

  16. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    shaping continental-scale pyrogeography.

  17. The Niassa Gold Belt, northern Mozambique - A segment of a continental-scale Pan-African gold-bearing structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkgard, T.; Stein, H. J.; Bingen, B.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Sandstad, J. S.; Moniz, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Niassa Gold Belt, in northernmost Mozambique, is hosted in the Txitonga Group, a Neoproterozoic rift sequence overlying Paleoproterozoic crust of the Congo-Tanzania Craton and deformed during the Pan-African Orogeny. The Txitonga Group is made up of greenschist-facies greywacke and schist and is characterized by bimodal, mainly mafic, magmatism. A zircon U-Pb age for a felsic volcanite dates deposition of the sequence at 714 ± 17 Ma. Gold is mined artisanally from alluvial deposits and primary chalcopyrite-pyrite-bearing quartz veins containing up to 19 ppm Au have been analyzed. In the Cagurué and M'Papa gold fields, dominantly N-S trending quartz veins, hosted in metagabbro and schist, are regarded as tension gashes related to regional strike-slip NE-SW-trending Pan-African shear zones. These gold deposits have been classified as mesozonal and metamorphic in origin. Re-Os isotopic data on sulfides suggest two periods of gold deposition for the Cagurué Gold Field. A coarse-crystalline pyrite-chalcopyrite assemblage yields an imprecise Pan-African age of 483 ± 72 Ma, dating deposition of the quartz veins. Remobilization of early-formed sulfides, particularly chalcopyrite, took place at 112 ± 14 Ma, during Lower Cretaceous Gondwana dispersal. The ˜483 Ma assemblage yields a chondritic initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.123 ± 0.058. This implies a juvenile source for the ore fluids, possibly involving the hosting Neoproterozoic metagabbro. The Niassa Gold Belt is situated at the eastern end of a SW-NE trending continental-scale lineament defined by the Mwembeshi Shear Zone and the southern end of a NW-SE trending lineament defined by the Rukwa Shear Zone. We offer a review of gold deposits in Zambia and Tanzania associated with these polyphase lineaments and speculate on their interrelation.

  18. Extended-range high-resolution dynamical downscaling over a continental-scale spatial domain with atmospheric and surface nudging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    Extended-range high-resolution mesoscale simulations with limited-area atmospheric models when applied to downscale regional analysis fields over large spatial domains can provide valuable information for many applications including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. Long-term simulations over a continental-scale spatial domain, however, require mechanisms to control the large-scale deviations in the high-resolution simulated fields from the coarse-resolution driving fields. As enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is insufficient to restrict such deviations, large scales in the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields are therefore spectrally nudged toward the driving fields. Different spectral nudging approaches, including the appropriate nudging length scales as well as the vertical profiles and temporal relaxations for nudging, have been investigated to propose an optimal nudging strategy. Impacts of time-varying nudging and generation of hourly analysis estimates are explored to circumvent problems arising from the coarse temporal resolution of the regional analysis fields. Although controlling the evolution of the atmospheric large scales generally improves the outputs of high-resolution mesoscale simulations within the surface layer, the prognostically evolving surface fields can nevertheless deviate from their expected values leading to significant inaccuracies in the predicted surface layer meteorology. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, toward their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme is therefore proposed to limit any considerable deviation. Finally, wind speed and temperature at wind turbine hub height predicted by different spectrally nudged extended-range simulations are compared against observations to demonstrate possible improvements achievable using higher spatiotemporal

  19. Generalized Continental Scale Hydrologic Model Parameter Estimates: Application to a VIC model implementation for the Contiguous United States (CONUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Parameter estimation is one of the biggest challenges in hydrologic modeling, particularly over large spatial scales. Model uncertainty as a result of parameter values can be as large as that from other sources such as the choice of hydrologic model or the choice of model forcing data. Thus far, parameter estimation has been performed in an inconsistent manner across the model domain, e.g., using patchy calibration or spatially constant parameters. This can produce artifacts in the spatial variability of model outputs, e.g., discontinuity of simulated hydrologic fields, difficulty with spatially consistent parameter adjustments, and so on. We implement a framework that is suitable for use across multiple model physics options to map between geophysical attributes (i.e., soil, vegetation) and model parameters that describe the storage and transmission of water and energy. Specifically, we apply the transfer functions that transform geophysical attributes into model parameters and apply these transfer functions at the native resolution of the geophysical attribute data rather than at the resolution of the model application. The model parameters are then aggregated to the spatial scale of the model simulation with several scaling functions - arithmetic mean, harmonic mean, geometric mean. Model parameter adjustments are made by calibrating the parameters of the transfer function rather than the model parameters themselves.We demonstrate this general parameter estimation approach using a continental scale VIC implementation at a 12km resolution. The VIC soil parameters were generated by a set of transfer functions developed with nation-wide STATSGO soil data. The VIC model with new soil parameters is forced with Maurer et al. 2002 climate dataset (1979-2008) and the simulation results are compared with the previous simulations with parameters used in past studies as well as observed streamflows at selected basins.

  20. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  1. A numerical model of continental-scale topographic evolution integrating thin sheet tectonics, river transport, and orographic precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Jimenez-Munt, Ivone

    2014-05-01

    How much does the erosion and sedimentation at the crust's surface influence on the patterns and distribution of tectonic deformation? This question has been mostly addressed from a numerical modelling perspective, at scales ranging from local to orogenic. Here we present a model that aims at constraining this phenomenon at the continental scale. With this purpose, we couple a thin-sheet viscous model of continental deformation with a stream-power surface transport model. The model also incorporates flexural isostatic compensation that permits the formation of large sedimentary foreland basins and a precipitation model that reproduces basic climatic effects such as continentality and orographic rainfall and rain shadow. We quantify the feedbacks between these 4 processes in a synthetic scenario inspired by the India-Asia collision. The model reproduces first-order characteristics of the growth of the Tibetan Plateau as a result of the Indian indentation. A large intramountain basin (comparable to the Tarim Basin) develops when predefining a hard inherited area in the undeformed foreland (Asia). The amount of sediment trapped in it is very sensitive to climatic parameters, particularly to evaporation, because it crucially determines its endorheic/exorheic drainage. We identify some degree of feedback between the deep and the surface processes occurs, leading locally to a <20% increase in deformation rates if orographic precipitation is account for (relative to a reference model with evenly-distributed precipitation). These enhanced thickening of the crust takes place particularly in areas of concentrated precipitation and steep slope, i.e., at the upwind flank of the growing plateau. This effect is particularly enhanced at the corners of the indenter (syntaxes). We hypothesize that this may provide clues for better understanding the mechanisms underlying the intriguing tectonic aneurisms documented in the syntaxes of the Himalayas.

  2. Immunization Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... underused vaccines is increasing. Immunization currently averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. An ... avoided, however, if global vaccination coverage improves. An estimated 19.4 million infants worldwide are still missing ...

  3. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  4. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  5. Feeling the Pulse of the Stratosphere: An Emerging Opportunity for Predicting Continental-Scale Cold Air Outbreaks One Month in Advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ming

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as cold air outbreaks (CAOs) pose great threats to human life and socioeconomic well-being of the modern society. In the past, our capability to predict their occurrences is constrained by the 2-week predictability limit for weather. We demonstrate here for the first time that a rapid increase of air mass transported into the polar stratosphere, referred to as "the pulse of the stratosphere (PULSE)", can often be predicted with a useful skill 4-6 weeks in advance by operational forecast models. We further show that the probability of the occurrence of continental-scale CAOs in mid-latitudes increases substantially above the normal condition within a short time period from one week before to 1‑2 weeks after the peak day of a PULSE event. In particular, we reveal that the three massive CAOs over North America in January and February of 2014 were preceded by three episodes of extreme mass transport into the polar stratosphere with peak intensities reaching a trillion tons per day, twice of that on an average winter day. Therefore, our capability to predict the PULSEs with operational forecast models, in conjunction with its linkage to continental-scale CAOs, opens up a new opportunity for 30‑day forecasts of continental-scale CAOs, such as those occurring over North America in the 2013-14 winter. A real time forecast experiment inaugurated in the winter of 2014-15 has given support to the idea that it is feasible to forecast CAOs one month in advance.

  6. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  7. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  8. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Y.; Xiao, H.; Neelin, J.; Ji, X.

    2013-12-01

    An evaluation is presented of the impact on tropical climate of continental-scale perturbations given by different representations of land surface processes (LSP) in a general circulation model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that such perturbations have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific Ocean. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, model experiments are performed with different LSP representations confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. The largest impact found over the tropical Pacific is mainly from perturbations in the tropical African continent where convective heating anomalies associated with perturbed surface heat fluxes trigger global teleconnections through equatorial wave dynamics. In the equatorial Pacific, the remote impacts of the convection anomalies are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as by the effects of ocean memory. LSP perturbations over South America and Asia-Australia have much weaker global impacts. The results further suggest that correct representations of LSP, land use change, and associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty of future climate projections with global climate models under various climate change scenarios. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA

  9. Sideline Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Sara J.; Cardone, Dennis A.; Munyak, John; Underwood, Philipp J.; Gould, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sidelines coverage presents unique challenges in the evaluation of injured athletes. Health care providers may be confronted with the question of when to obtain radiographs following an injury. Given that most sidelines coverage occurs outside the elite level, radiographs are not readily available at the time of injury, and the decision of when to send a player for radiographs must be made based on physical examination. Clinical tools have been developed to aid in identifying injuries that are likely to result in radiographically important fractures or dislocations. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords x-ray and decision rule along with the anatomic locations shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle was performed using the PubMed database. No limits were set regarding year of publication. We selected meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and survey results. Our selection focused on the largest, most well-studied published reports. We also attempted to include studies that reported the application of the rules to the field of sports medicine. Study Design: Retrospective literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The Ottawa Foot and Ankle Rules have been validated and implemented and are appropriate for use in both pediatric and adult populations. The Ottawa Knee Rules have been widely studied, validated, and accepted for evaluation of knee injuries. There are promising studies of decision rules for clinically important fractures of the wrist, but these studies have not been validated. The elbow has been evaluated with good outcomes via the elbow extension test, which has been validated in both single and multicenter studies. Currently, there are no reliable clinical decision tools for traumatic sports injuries to the shoulder to aid in the decision of when to obtain radiographs. Conclusion: Clinical decision tools have been developed to aid in the diagnosis and management of injuries commonly sustained during sporting events

  10. Assessment of droughts at a continental scale under different climate change scenarios. Case study: La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, Maria Dolores; Asenjo, Victor; Bianucci, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we characterized and diagnosed the droughts across La Plata Basin for the reference (1961 - 2005) and future (2007 - 2040, 2041 - 2070 and 2071 - 2099) scenarios. La Plata Basin is located in the Centre-South of South America and comprises 3.174.229 km2 and five countries. Despite the significant impact of droughts on agriculture, cattle, water supply, natural water courses and wetlands, droughts are still difficult to predict in the region, both in time and space. We used the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to characterize droughts based on Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) and Precipitation (P) at a monthly scale. PET and P were obtained for all 10 x 10 km-size cells within the basin by using the regional climatic model Eta, under the boundary conditions of the HadGEM2-ES model and the CO2 emissions scenario RCP 4.5. Cell to cell information was integrated into a sub-basin level in order to show and analyze the results. For each sub-basin, climate scenario, and temporal scale of SPEI (1, 3, 6 and 12 months), we identified the beginning of each drought, calculated its duration, magnitude, maximum and mean intensities, and the duration between drought events. Additionally, for each SPEI temporal scale and sub-basin, we described the spatial coverage of droughts for the temporal series of all climate scenarios. Spatially, we found a decrease of PET from North to South. Temporally, results showed a future increase of PET for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin but similar to present values for the remaining basin. Results showed that P will be similar in the future for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin, but will increase within the remaining basin. During the 2007 - 2040 scenario, we expect that the northern sub-basins suffer from several droughts while the southern ones have wetter climate with few short drought events. As we analyzed more distant future scenarios the wet climate

  11. Continental-scale assessment of long-term trends in wet deposition trajectories: Role of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Gall, H. E.; Niyogi, D.; Rao, S.

    2012-12-01

    The global trend of increased urbanization, and associated increased intensity of energy and material consumption and waste emissions, has contributed to shifts in the trajectories of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here, we focus on continental-scale spatiotemporal patterns in two atmospheric constituents (nitrate and sulfate), whose global biogeochemical cycles have been dramatically altered by emissions from mobile and fixed sources in urbanized and industrialized regions. The observed patterns in wet deposition fluxes of nitrate and sulfate are controlled by (1) natural hydro-climatic forcing, and (2) anthropogenic forcing (emissions and regulatory control), both of which are characterized by stochasticity and non-stationarity. We examine long-term wet deposition records in the U.S., Europe, and East Asia to evaluate how anthropogenic and natural forcing factors jointly contributed to the shifting temporal patterns of wet deposition fluxes at continental scales. These data offer clear evidence for successful implementation of regulatory controls and widespread adoption of technologies contributed to improving water quality and mitigation of adverse ecological impacts. We developed a stochastic model to project the future trajectories of wet deposition fluxes in emerging countries with fast growing urban areas. The model generates ellipses within which projected wet deposition flux trajectories are inscribed, similar to the trends in observational data. The shape of the ellipses provides information regarding the relative dominance of anthropogenic (e.g., industrial and urban emissions) versus hydro-climatic drivers (e.g., rainfall patterns, aridity index). Our analysis facilitates projections of the trajectory shift as a result of urbanization and other land-use changes, climate change, and regulatory enforcement. We use these observed data and the model to project likely trajectories for rapidly developing countries (BRIC), with a

  12. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  13. Geochemical evidence for groundwater mixing in the western Great Artesian Basin and recognition of deep inputs in continental-scale flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Love, A.; Priestley, S.; Shand, P.

    2010-12-01

    Mound springs of the western Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, represent a significant proportion of the discharge of the continental-scale confined aquifers of the region. They also provide unique ecological niches, and they are important historical and cultural sites in an austere landscape. Fed by confined aquifers within the GAB, these spring systems are at risk due to anthropogenic drawdown and increasing demand on scarce hydrologic resources. New water and gas geochemical data indicate that they record hydrologic mixing and complex, fault-influenced flow paths within the western GAB. Elevated 3He/4He gas values, termed “xenowhiffs”, with RA up to 0.09 (Bubbler Spring) provide evidence for mantle-derived fluids introduced through fault conduits into the groundwater system in the last several million years and hence an active mantle-to-groundwater fluid linkage. We apply multiple tracers to understand mixing. Major and trace element data show distinctly different water chemistries for Dalhousie versus southern mound springs suggesting different flow paths and mixing proportions. The source of the C for the CO2 -rich springs is evaluated using water chemistry and C-isotope data. Carbon isotope values range from -9 (Bubbler) to -16 (Strangways). Mixing models allow us to distinguish contributions from dissolution of carbonate in the aquifer (Ccarb=Ca+Mg-SO4 and δ13C= 0), from biological/organic sources (δ13C= -28), and from endogenic sources (deeply derived; δ13C= -3). Results show that all of the springs contain appreciable (many > 50%) endogenic CO2, with Dalhousie showing less endogenic CO2 than the southern mound springs and Paralana hot spring system. CO2/3He values of 4 to 8 x 109 (Bubbler and Jersey Springs) are close to MORB end member values of 2 x 109 whereas other springs have values strongly enriched in CO2 (up to 1013 at Elizabeth Spring). Elevated but highly variable 87Sr/86Sr values up to 0.718 at Dalhousie and up to 0.76 at Paralana

  14. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  15. Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-06-01

    Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  16. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  17. Using Gridded Snow Covered Area and Snow-Water Equivalence Spatial Data Sets to Improve Snow-Pack Depletion Simulation in a Continental Scale Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, J. C.; Tracey, J. A.; Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L.

    2014-12-01

    Snow cover areal depletion curves were used in a continuous daily hydrologic model to simulate seasonal spring snowmelt during the period between maximum snowpack accumulation and total melt. The curves are defined as the ratio of snow-water equivalence (SWE) divided by the seasonal maximum snow-water equivalence (Ai) (Y axis) versus the percent snow cover area (SCA) (X axis). The slope of the curve can vary depending on local watershed conditions. Windy sparsely vegetated high elevation watersheds, for example, can have a steeper slope than lower elevation forested watersheds. To improve the accuracy of simulated runoff at ungaged watersheds, individual snow cover areal depletion curves were created for over 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRU) in the continental scale U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM). NHM includes the same components of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff-Modeling System (PRMS), except it uses consistent land surface characterization and model parameterization across the U.S. continent. Weighted-mean daily time series of 1-kilometer gridded SWE, from Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), and 500-meter gridded SCA, from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), for 2003-2014 were computed for each HRU using the USGS Geo Data Portal. Using a screening process, pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA from the snowmelt period of each year were selected. SCA values derived from imagery that did not have any cloud cover and were >0 and <100 percent were selected. Unrealistically low and high SCA values that were paired with high and low SWE/Ai ratios, respectively, were removed. Second order polynomial equations were then fit to the remaining pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA to create a unique curve for each HRU. Simulations comparing these new curves with an existing single default curve in NHM will be made to determine if there are significant improvements in runoff.

  18. Sensitivity of aerosol properties to new particle formation mechanism and to primary emissions in a continental-scale chemical transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang,L.S.; Schwartz, S.E.; McGraw, R.; Lewis, E.R.

    2009-04-02

    Four theoretical formulations of new particle formation (NPF) and one empirical formulation are used to examine the sensitivity of observable aerosol properties to NPF formulation and to properties of emitted particles in a continental-scale model for the United States over a 1-month simulation (July 2004). For each formulation the dominant source of Aitken mode particles is NPF with only a minor contribution from primary emissions, whereas for the accumulation mode both emissions and transfer of particles from the Aitken mode are important. The dominant sink of Aitken mode number is coagulation, whereas the dominant sink of accumulation mode number is wet deposition (including cloud processing), with a minor contribution from coagulation. The aerosol mass concentration, which is primarily in the accumulation mode, is relatively insensitive to NPF formulation despite order-of-magnitude differences in the Aitken mode number concentration among the different parameterizations. The dominant sensitivity of accumulation mode number concentration is to the number of emitted particles (for constant mass emission rate). Comparison of modeled aerosol properties with aircraft measurements shows, as expected, better agreement in aerosol mass concentration than in aerosol number concentration for all NPF formulations considered. These comparisons yield instances of rather accurate simulations in the planetary boundary layer, with poor model performance in the free troposphere attributed mainly to lack of representation of biomass burning and/or to long-range transport of particles from outside the model domain. Agreement between model results and measurements is improved by using smaller grid cells (12 km versus 60 km).

  19. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... D is the name of Medicare's prescription drug coverage. It's insurance that helps people pay for prescription ... monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. ...

  20. Orbital and Millennial-scale Variability Reflected on Continental-scale Vegetation Changes in the Southern Subtropics between MIS 6 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, D. H.; Sanchez Goni, M.; Daniau, A.; Martinez, P.

    2011-12-01

    While our understanding of the effects of orbital and millennial-scale variability on the vegetation has grown during the past decades, empirical data from some climatically important periods and regions are still lacking. Scarce data exist for instance for deep-time glacial-interglacial cycles that could provide suitable analogs for current climate-change. Recent global-scale reconstructions of vegetation responses to rapid events during the last glacial cycle have been useful, however, these global compilations clearly show that some regions, namely the southern tropics and subtropics, remain understudied. Here we present results from one of the few available continental-scale vegetation records from southwestern Africa spanning the last glacial-interglacial cycle. We have conducted multiproxy analyses of marine core MD96 2098 (25°36'S, 12°38'E), retrieved from the Lüderitz slope off the coast of Namibia. Preservation of pollen and other terrestrial microfossils is facilitated at this site by the Benguela upwelling system and the proximity to the Orange River mouth. Chronological control has been derived from radiocarbon dates and marine isotope stratigraphy. We have used pollen analyses, benthic foraminifer d18O (1), X-ray Fluorescence, geochemistry (2), foraminifer assemblages and microcharcoal quantification (3) to reconstruct the terrestrial vegetation and climatic history of the southwestern part of Africa and offshore between 190 and 30 ka. We find that MIS 6 and 4 are characterized by expanding Semidesert and Fynbos vegetation, while expanding grasslands characterized MIS 5. The termination of MIS 5 is also punctuated by an expansion of humid forests. At millennial timescales, variations in grasslands are generally coupled with stadials and interstadials. The expansion of semidesert is associated with decreased continental humidity caused by the strengthening of the Benguela upwelling during MIS 6 and 4. The expansion of grasslands during the

  1. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  2. Constellation Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The design of satellite constellations requires an understanding of the dynamic global coverage provided by the constellations. Even for a small constellation with a simple circular orbit propagator, the combinatorial nature of the analysis frequently renders the problem intractable. Particularly for the initial design phase where the orbital parameters are still fluid and undetermined, the coverage information is crucial to evaluate the performance of the constellation design. We have developed a fast and simple algorithm for determining the global constellation coverage dynamically using image processing techniques. This approach provides a fast, powerful and simple method for the analysis of global constellation coverage.

  3. [Coverage of health services].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Narváez, G

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the concepts and criteria related to health coverage are discussed in the context of the organization of national health systems. The main international agreements based on WHO/PAHO proposals are also described. The relationship between primary health care and health coverage is analyzed and the evolution of the programs for the extension of health coverage in Mexico are discussed, with emphasis on the problems of overlap and definition of the universe in the several institutions of the health sector. Finally, the author reviews the problems to measure coverage in order to guarantee social and operative efficiency of the Mexican health system. PMID:1411776

  4. Regular FPGA based on regular fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Chen; Jianwen, Zhu; Minxuan, Zhang

    2011-08-01

    In the sub-wavelength regime, design for manufacturability (DFM) becomes increasingly important for field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In this paper, an automated tile generation flow targeting micro-regular fabric is reported. Using a publicly accessible, well-documented academic FPGA as a case study, we found that compared to the tile generators previously reported, our generated micro-regular tile incurs less than 10% area overhead, which could be potentially recovered by process window optimization, thanks to its superior printability. In addition, we demonstrate that on 45 nm technology, the generated FPGA tile reduces lithography induced process variation by 33%, and reduce probability of failure by 21.2%. If a further overhead of 10% area can be recovered by enhanced resolution, we can achieve the variation reduction of 93.8% and reduce the probability of failure by 16.2%.

  5. Regular gravitational lagrangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragon, Norbert

    1992-02-01

    The Einstein action with vanishing cosmological constant is for appropriate field content the unique local action which is regular at the fixed point of affine coordinate transformations. Imposing this regularity requirement one excludes also Wess-Zumino counterterms which trade gravitational anomalies for Lorentz anomalies. One has to expect dilatational and SL (D) anomalies. If these anomalies are absent and if the regularity of the quantum vertex functional can be controlled then Einstein gravity is renormalizable. On leave of absence from Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hannover, W-3000 Hannover 1, FRG.

  6. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  7. Immunisation coverage, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2014-09-01

    This, the 6th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2012 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) and coverage in adolescents and adults. The proportion of Australian children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.7%, 92.5% and 91.2%, respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not assessed during 2012 for 'fully vaccinated' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.6%) and varicella at 24 months (84.4%). Although 'fully vaccinated' coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied, reaching a 15 percentage point differential in South Australia but only a 0.4 percentage point differential in the Northern Territory. Overall, Indigenous coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for all jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully vaccinated' coverage estimates for vaccinations due by 60 months of age for Indigenous children exceeded 90% at 91% in 2012. Unlike in 2011, at 60 months of age, there was no dramatic variation in coverage between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children for individual jurisdictions. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only, hepatitis A and pneumococcal vaccine, had

  8. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019

  9. Mapping the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins using Landsat-7: first steps towards an integrated multi-sensor pipeline for tracking populations at the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather J; Schwaller, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution. PMID:25412466

  10. Mapping the Abundance and Distribution of Adélie Penguins Using Landsat-7: First Steps towards an Integrated Multi-Sensor Pipeline for Tracking Populations at the Continental Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Heather J.; Schwaller, Mathew R.

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution. PMID:25412466

  11. Krein regularization of QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghan, B.; Takook, M. V.; Zarei, A.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the electron self-energy, photon self-energy and vertex functions are explicitly calculated in Krein space quantization including quantum metric fluctuation. The results are automatically regularized or finite. The magnetic anomaly and Lamb shift are also calculated in the one loop approximation in this method. Finally, the obtained results are compared to conventional QED results.

  12. Geometry of spinor regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.; Lounesto, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Kustaanheimo theory of spinor regularization is given a new formulation in terms of geometric algebra. The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel matrix and its subsidiary condition are put in a spinor form directly related to the geometry of the orbit in physical space. A physically significant alternative to the KS subsidiary condition is discussed. Derivations are carried out without using coordinates.

  13. The Coverage Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinobu, Stan; Jones, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant issue mathematics instructors face is how to cover all the material. Mathematics teachers of all levels have some external and internal pressures to "get through" all the required material. The authors define "the coverage issue" to be the set of difficulties that arise in attempting to cover a lengthy list of topics. Principal among…

  14. Immunization Coverage: Role of Sociodemographic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Velhal, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12–23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a “felt need” of the mothers in the community. PMID:24386572

  15. Immunization coverage: role of sociodemographic variables.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhuwan; Mahajan, Hemant; Velhal, G D

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a "felt need" of the mothers in the community. PMID:24386572

  16. The Coverage of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David

    2009-01-01

    The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…

  17. A novel deployment scheme based on three-dimensional coverage model for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Ruchuan; Sun, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Coverage pattern and deployment strategy are directly related to the optimum allocation of limited resources for wireless sensor networks, such as energy of nodes, communication bandwidth, and computing power, and quality improvement is largely determined by these for wireless sensor networks. A three-dimensional coverage pattern and deployment scheme are proposed in this paper. Firstly, by analyzing the regular polyhedron models in three-dimensional scene, a coverage pattern based on cuboids is proposed, and then relationship between coverage and sensor nodes' radius is deduced; also the minimum number of sensor nodes to maintain network area's full coverage is calculated. At last, sensor nodes are deployed according to the coverage pattern after the monitor area is subdivided into finite 3D grid. Experimental results show that, compared with traditional random method, sensor nodes number is reduced effectively while coverage rate of monitor area is ensured using our coverage pattern and deterministic deployment scheme. PMID:25045747

  18. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  19. Increasing immunization coverage.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  20. A GPS coverage model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, Trent A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of several case studies using the Global Positioning System coverage model developed at Ohio University are summarized. Presented are results pertaining to outage area, outage dynamics, and availability. Input parameters to the model include the satellite orbit data, service area of interest, geometry requirements, and horizon and antenna mask angles. It is shown for precision-landing Category 1 requirements that the planned GPS 21 Primary Satellite Constellation produces significant outage area and unavailability. It is also shown that a decrease in the user equivalent range error dramatically decreases outage area and improves the service availability.

  1. Antenna Beam Coverage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The strawman Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) design calls for the use of a CONUS beam for transmission between the supplier and the satellite and for fixed beams for transmission between the basic personal terminal and the satellite. The satellite uses a 3 m main reflector for transmission at 20 GHz and a 2 m main reflector for reception at 30 GHz. There are several types of spot beams under consideration for the PASS system besides fixed beams. The beam pattern of a CONUS coverage switched beam is shown along with that of a scanning beam. A switched beam refers to one in which the signal from the satellite is connected alternatively to various feed horns. Scanning beams are taken to mean beams whose footprints are moved between contiguous regions in the beam's coverage area. The advantages and disadvantages of switched and/or scanning beams relative to fixed beams. The consequences of using switched/scanning in lieu of fixed beams in the PASS design and attempts are made to evaluate the listed advantages and disadvantages. Two uses of switched/scanning beams are examined. To illustrate the implications of switched beams use on PASS system design, operation at two beam scan rates is explored.

  2. Wavelet Regularization Per Nullspace Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charléty, J.; Nolet, G.; Sigloch, K.; Voronin, S.; Loris, I.; Simons, F. J.; Daubechies, I.; Judd, S.

    2010-12-01

    Wavelet decomposition of models in an over-parameterized Earth and L1-norm minimization in wavelet space is a promising strategy to deal with the very heterogeneous data coverage in the Earth without sacrificing detail in the solution where this is resolved (see Loris et al., abstract this session). However, L1-norm minimizations are nonlinear, and pose problems of convergence speed when applied to large data sets. In an effort to speed up computations we investigate the application of the nullspace shuttle (Deal and Nolet, GJI 1996). The nullspace shuttle is a filter that adds components from the nullspace to the minimum norm solution so as to have the model satisfy additional conditions not imposed by the data. In our case, the nullspace shuttle projects the model on a truncated basis of wavelets. The convergence of this strategy is unproven, in contrast to algorithms using Landweber iteration or one of its variants, but initial computations using a very large data base give reason for optimism. We invert 430,554 P delay times measured by cross-correlation in different frequency windows. The data are dominated by observations with US Array, leading to a major discrepancy in the resolution beneath North America and the rest of the world. This is a subset of the data set inverted by Sigloch et al (Nature Geosci, 2008), excluding only a small number of ISC delays at short distance and all amplitude data. The model is a cubed Earth model with 3,637,248 voxels spanning mantle and crust, with a resolution everywhere better than 70 km, to which 1912 event corrections are added. In each iteration we determine the optimal solution by a least squares inversion with minimal damping, after which we regularize the model in wavelet space. We then compute the residual data vector (after an intermediate scaling step), and solve for a model correction until a satisfactory chi-square fit for the truncated model is obtained. We present our final results on convergence as well as a

  3. CONTINENTAL SCALE BIOME RESPONSES TO CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current projections of climatic change call for a global average temperature increase of 2.8 to 5.2 degrees C and a 7% to 16% increase in rainfall by about 2030. he potential ecological responses to these changes have been estimated using a variety of techniques, but have general...

  4. Newspaper Coverage of Racial Injustices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn

    Noting that the press was criticized during the 1960s for failing to convey to white readers the problems and injustices experienced by black Americans, a study analyzed the nature and amount of civil rights coverage in five newspapers from 1963 through 1980. News coverage concerning blacks was examined in 66 issues from four major newspapers in…

  5. POLYGONAL HYDROLOGY COVERAGE AND DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This coverage and dataset contain the polygonal hydrology for EPA Region 8. This coverage contains ponds, lakes, and linear hydrology that has been re-digitized for small scale mapping projects. The database is limited to just the pseudo items created by ArcInfo and one item use...

  6. Immunization coverage and social differentiation in urban Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Fassin, D; Jeannee, E

    1989-01-01

    We studied sociocultural factors associated with immunization coverage among a random sample of 500 mothers in the underprivileged suburbs of Dakar, Senegal. Factors associated with immunization of children under age 5 were maternal educational level and socioeconomic conditions (especially husband's regular salary); maternal age on arrival in town was more influential than total number of resident years in town; no effect of ethnicity was evident. PMID:2929817

  7. Effective Coverage: A Metric for Monitoring Universal Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Marie; Fullman, Nancy; Dieleman, Joseph L.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Lim, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric — need, use, and quality — using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations. PMID:25243780

  8. Regularized Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenhaus, Arthur; Tenenhaus, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) is a generalization of regularized canonical correlation analysis to three or more sets of variables. It constitutes a general framework for many multi-block data analysis methods. It combines the power of multi-block data analysis methods (maximization of well identified criteria) and…

  9. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm Credit Administration in...

  10. Regularly timed events amid chaos.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Jonathan N; Cooper, Roy M; Corron, Ned J

    2015-11-01

    We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events. PMID:26651759

  11. Natural selection and mechanistic regularity.

    PubMed

    DesAutels, Lane

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether natural selection operates regularly enough to qualify as a mechanism of the sort characterized by Machamer, Darden, and Craver (2000). Contrary to an influential critique by Skipper and Millstein (2005), I argue that natural selection can be seen to be regular enough to qualify as an MDC mechanism just fine-as long as we pay careful attention to some important distinctions regarding mechanistic regularity and abstraction. Specifically, I suggest that when we distinguish between process vs. product regularity, mechanism-internal vs. mechanism-external sources of irregularity, and abstract vs. concrete regularity, we can see that natural selection is only irregular in senses that are unthreatening to its status as an MDC mechanism. PMID:26921876

  12. Computer copings for partial coverage.

    PubMed

    Denissen, H; van der Zel, J; Reisig, J; Vlaar, S; de Ruiter, W; van Waas, R

    1999-04-01

    Partial coverage posterior tooth preparations are very complex surfaces for computer surface digitization, computer design, and manufacture of ceramic copings. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the Computer Integrated Crown Reconstruction (Cicero) system was compatible with a proposed partial coverage preparation design and capable of producing ceramic copings. Posterior teeth were prepared for partial coverage copings with deep gingival chamfers in the proximal boxes and around the functional cusps (buccal of mandibular and lingual of maxillary posterior teeth). The nonfunctional cusps (lingual of mandibular and buccal of maxillary posterior teeth) were prepared with broad bevels following the inclined occlusal plane pattern. Optical impressions were taken of stone dies by means of a fast laser-line scanning method that measured the three-dimensional geometry of the partial coverage preparation. Computers digitized the images, and designed and produced the ceramic copings. The Cicero system digitized the partial coverage preparation surfaces precisely with a minor coefficient of variance of 0.2%. The accuracy of the surface digitization, the design, and the computer aided milling showed that the system was capable of producing partial coverage copings with a mean marginal gap of 74 microns. This value was obtained before optimizing the marginal fit by means of porcelain veneering. In summary, Cicero computer technology, i.e., surface digitization, coping design, and manufacture, was compatible with the described partial coverage preparations for posterior teeth. PMID:11351490

  13. El Nino, from 1870 to 2014, and other Atmospheric Circulation Forcing by Extreme Apparitions of the Eight Annual, Continental Scale, Aerosol Plumes in the Satellite Era which Point to a Possible Cause for the Current Californian Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Eight continental scale aerosol plumes exist each year as the enclosed image shows. Apparitions of seven plumes only exist for a few months in the same season each year whilst the East Asian Plume is visible all year. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) of all the plumes varies enormously interannually with two studies showing the surface radiative forcing of the South East Asian Plume (SEAP) as -150W/m2 and -286W/m2/AOD. I show that the SEAP, created by volcanic aerosols (natural) and biomass burning and gas flares in the oil industry (anthropogenic), is the sole cause of all El Nino events, the greatest interannual perturbation of the atmospheric circulation system. The SEAP creates an El Nino by absorbing solar radiation at the top of the plume which heats the upper atmosphere and cools the surface. This creates a temperature inversion compared to periods without the plume and reduces convection. With reduced convection in SE Asia, the Maritime Continent, the Trade Winds blowing across the Pacific are forced to relax as their exit into the Hadley and Walker Cells is constrained and the reduced Trade Wind speed causes the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) to rise in the central tropical Pacific Ocean as there is a strong negative correlation between wind speed and SST. The warmer SST in the central Pacific creates convection in the region which further reduces the Trade Wind speed and causes the Walker Cell to reverse - a classic El Nino. Having established the ability of such extreme aerosol plumes to create El Nino events I will then show how the South American, West African, Middle East and SEAP plumes create drought in the Amazon, Spain, Darfur and Australia as well as causing the extremely warm autumn and winter in Europe in 2006-07. All these effects are created by the plumes reducing convection in the region of the plume which forces the regional Hadley Cells into anomalous positions thereby creating persistent high pressure cells in the mid latitudes. This

  14. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  15. Full-coverage film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    Program calculates coolant flow and wall temperatures of full-coverage film-cooled vanes or blades. Thermal barrier coatings may be specified on outer surfaces of blade. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution on UNIVAC 1100.

  16. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  17. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Brown, David W; Sodha, Samir V

    2014-11-21

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; global coverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use of immunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25412062

  18. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  19. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-11-08

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.

  20. Regular patterns stabilize auditory streams.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Denham, Susan L; Gyimesi, Kinga; Winkler, István

    2010-12-01

    The auditory system continuously parses the acoustic environment into auditory objects, usually representing separate sound sources. Sound sources typically show characteristic emission patterns. These regular temporal sound patterns are possible cues for distinguishing sound sources. The present study was designed to test whether regular patterns are used as cues for source distinction and to specify the role that detecting these regularities may play in the process of auditory stream segregation. Participants were presented with tone sequences, and they were asked to continuously indicate whether they perceived the tones in terms of a single coherent sequence of sounds (integrated) or as two concurrent sound streams (segregated). Unknown to the participant, in some stimulus conditions, regular patterns were present in one or both putative streams. In all stimulus conditions, participants' perception switched back and forth between the two sound organizations. Importantly, regular patterns occurring in either one or both streams prolonged the mean duration of two-stream percepts, whereas the duration of one-stream percepts was unaffected. These results suggest that temporal regularities are utilized in auditory scene analysis. It appears that the role of this cue lies in stabilizing streams once they have been formed on the basis of simpler acoustic cues. PMID:21218898

  1. Extended Locus of Regular Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Amon, L.; Casten, R. F.

    2007-04-23

    A new family of IBM Hamiltonians, characterized by certain parameter values, was found about 15 years ago by Alhassid and Whelan to display almost regular dynamics, and yet these solutions to the IBM do not belong to any of the known dynamical symmetry limits (vibrational, rotational and {gamma} - unstable). Rather, they comprise an 'Arc of Regularity' cutting through the interior of the symmetry triangle from U(5) to SU(3) where suddenly there is a decrease in chaoticity and a significant increase in regularity. A few years ago, the first set of nuclei lying along this arc was discovered. The purpose of the present work is to search more broadly in the nuclear chart at all nuclei from Z = 40 - 100 for other examples of such 'regular' nuclei. Using a unique signature for such nuclei involving energy differences of certain excited states, we have identified an additional set of 12 nuclei lying near or along the arc. Some of these nuclei are known to have low-lying intruder states and therefore care must be taken, however, in judging their structure. The regularity exhibited by nuclei near the arc presumably reflects the validity or partial validity of some new, as yet unknown, quantum number describing these systems and giving the regularity found for them.

  2. A Survey of Oral Cancer Screening Insurance Coverage in New York City.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Goh, Charlene; Zavras, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies show that fewer than 25% of people who visit a dentist regularly are screened for oral cancer, and that the majority of oral cancers present at an advanced stage, when cure rates are already abysmal. This study explores the current status of oral cancer screening coverage among a variety of insurance providers in New York City. The study focuses on determining the coverage and frequency of the cluster of salient CDT (dental) codes surrounding oral cancer screenings. PMID:27209714

  3. Regular chemisorption of hydrogen on achiral single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, D. A.; Bulyarskii, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Regular chemisorption of hydrogen on achiral single-walled carbon nanotubes has been investigated with the use of AM1 quantum-chemical semiempirical method. It has been found that regular hydrogen chemisorption deforms nanotubes, in some cases leading to stable prismatic modifications. The dependence of the adsorption energy on the density of hydrogen coverage has been found. A procedure for determining the adsorption energy by the spectra of thermally stimulated desorption has been proposed.

  4. Open, Modular Services for Large, Multi-Dimensional Raster Coverages: The OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) Standards Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recent progress in hardware and software technology opens up vistas where flexible services on large, multi-dimensional coverage data become a commodity. Interactive data browsing like with Virtual Globes, selective download, and ad-hoc analysis services are about to become available routinely, as several sites already demonstrate. However, for easy access and true machine-machine communication, Semantic Web concepts as being investigated for vector and meta data, need to be extended to raster data and other coverage types. Even more will it then be important to rely on open standards for data and service interoperability. The Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC), following a modular approach to specifying geo service interfaces, has issued the Web Coverage Service (WCS) Implementation Standard for accessing coverages or parts thereof. In contrast to the Web Map Service (WMS), which delivers imagery, WCS preserves data semantics and, thus, allows further processing. Together with the Web Catalog Service (CS-W) and the Web Feature Service (WFS) WCS completes the classical triad of meta, vector, and raster data. As such, they represent the core data services on which other services build. The current version of WCS is 1.1 with Corrigendum 2, also referred to as WCS 1.1.2. The WCS Standards Working Group (WCS.SWG) is continuing development of WCS in various directions. One work item is to extend WCS, which currently is confined to regularly gridded data, with support for further coverage types, such as those specified in ISO 19123. Two recently released extensions to WCS are WCS-T ("T" standing for "transactional") which adds upload capabilities to coverage servers and WCPS (Web Coverage Processing Service) which offers a coverage processing language, thereby bridging the gap to the generic WPS (Web Processing Service). All this is embedded into OGC's current initiative to achieve modular topical specification suites through so-called "extensions" which add focused

  5. Regularization Analysis of SAR Superresolution

    SciTech Connect

    DELAURENTIS,JOHN M.; DICKEY,FRED M.

    2002-04-01

    Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. In a previous report the application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar was investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. This work treats the problem from the standpoint of regularization. Both the operator inversion approach and the regularization approach show that the ability to superresolve SAR imagery is severely limited by system noise.

  6. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  8. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  9. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  10. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968... trucks. Other levels of coverage may be approved if the necessary emission reductions are...

  11. 5 CFR 847.415 - OASDI coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false OASDI coverage. 847.415 Section 847.415...) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections of Csrs Or Fers Coverage Based on A...

  12. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 801.3 Section 801.3 Labor Regulations Relating to... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  13. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 801.3 Section 801.3 Labor Regulations Relating to... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  14. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  15. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 801.3 Section 801.3 Labor Regulations Relating to... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  16. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  17. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  18. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  19. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  20. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  1. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968... trucks. Other levels of coverage may be approved if the necessary emission reductions are...

  2. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 801.3 Section 801.3 Labor Regulations Relating to... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  3. 5 CFR 847.415 - OASDI coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false OASDI coverage. 847.415 Section 847.415...) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections of Csrs Or Fers Coverage Based on A...

  4. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 801.3 Section 801.3 Labor Regulations Relating to... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  5. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  6. 42 CFR 457.470 - Prohibited coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibited coverage. 457.470 Section 457.470 Public... Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.470 Prohibited coverage. A State is not required to provide health benefits coverage under the plan for an item or service for which payment is prohibited under title...

  7. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  8. 42 CFR 457.470 - Prohibited coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibited coverage. 457.470 Section 457.470 Public... Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.470 Prohibited coverage. A State is not required to provide health benefits coverage under the plan for an item or service for which payment is prohibited under title...

  9. 42 CFR 457.470 - Prohibited coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited coverage. 457.470 Section 457.470 Public... Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.470 Prohibited coverage. A State is not required to provide health benefits coverage under the plan for an item or service for which payment is prohibited under title...

  10. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. (a... insurance plans do not exceed the total charges. (b) Double coverage plan. A double coverage plan is one...

  11. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. (a... insurance plans do not exceed the total charges. (b) Double coverage plan. A double coverage plan is one...

  12. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. Link to an... charges. (b) Double coverage plan. A double coverage plan is one of the following: (1) Insurance plan....

  13. Rotations of the Regular Polyhedra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, MaryClara; Soto-Johnson, Hortensia

    2006-01-01

    The study of the rotational symmetries of the regular polyhedra is important in the classroom for many reasons. Besides giving the students an opportunity to visualize in three dimensions, it is also an opportunity to relate two-dimensional and three-dimensional concepts. For example, rotations in R[superscript 2] require a point and an angle of…

  14. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  15. Academic Improvement through Regular Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Media reports are rife with claims that students in the United States are overtested and that they and their education are suffering as result. Here I argue the opposite--that students would benefit in numerous ways from more frequent assessment, especially of diagnostic testing. The regular assessment of students serves critical educational and…

  16. LINEAR HYDROLOGY COVERAGE AND DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This coverage contains linear hydrology (streams, creeks, rivers, etc.) for EPA Region 8. These data were derived from the USGS Digital Line Graph (DLG) files. For a complete copy of the USGS metadata for the DLG information at the 1:100,000 scale refer to http://edcwww.cr.usgs....

  17. Operator regularization and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. B.; Tarasov, L.; Mckeon, D. G. C.; Steele, T.

    1989-01-01

    Operator regularization has been shown to be a symmetry preserving means of computing Green functions in gauge symmetric and supersymmetric theories which avoids the explicit occurrence of divergences. In this paper we examine how this technique can be applied to computing quantities in non-renormalizable theories in general and quantum gravity in particular. Specifically, we consider various processes to one- and two-loop order in φ4N theory for N > 4 for which the theory is non-renormalizable. We then apply operator regularization to determine the one-loop graviton correction to the spinor propagator. The effective action for quantum scalars in a background gravitational field is evaluated in operator regularization using both the weak-field method and the normal coordinate expansion. This latter case yields a new derivation of the Schwinger-de Witt expansion which avoids the use of recursion relations. Finally we consider quantum gravity coupled to scalar fields in n dimensions, evaluating those parts of the effective action that (in other methods) diverge as n → 4. We recover the same divergence structure as is found using dimensional regularization if n ≠ 4, but if n = 4 at the outset no divergence arises at any stage of the calculation. The non-renormalizability of such theories manifests itself in the scale-dependence at one-loop order of terms that do not appear in the original lagrangian. In all cases our regularization procedure does not break any invariances present in the theory and avoids the occurence of explicit divergences.

  18. Temporal regularity in speech perception: Is regularity beneficial or deleterious?

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Eveline; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Speech rhythm has been proposed to be of crucial importance for correct speech perception and language learning. This study investigated the influence of speech rhythm in second language processing. German pseudo-sentences were presented to participants in two conditions: ‘naturally regular speech rhythm’ and an ‘emphasized regular rhythm'. Nine expert English speakers with 3.5±1.6 years of German training repeated each sentence after hearing it once over headphones. Responses were transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet and analyzed for the number of correct, false and missing consonants as well as for consonant additions. The over-all number of correct reproductions of consonants did not differ between the two experimental conditions. However, speech rhythmicization significantly affected the serial position curve of correctly reproduced syllables. The results of this pilot study are consistent with the view that speech rhythm is important for speech perception. PMID:22701753

  19. Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-09-01

    The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4

  20. Distributional Stress Regularity: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2009-01-01

    The regularity of stress patterns in a language depends on "distributional stress regularity", which arises from the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, and "durational stress regularity", which arises from the timing of syllables. Here we focus on distributional regularity, which depends on three factors. "Lexical stress patterning"…

  1. Adaptive regularization of earthquake slip distribution inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chisheng; Ding, Xiaoli; Li, Qingquan; Shan, Xinjian; Zhu, Jiasong; Guo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Regularization is a routine approach used in earthquake slip distribution inversion to avoid numerically abnormal solutions. To date, most slip inversion studies have imposed uniform regularization on all the fault patches. However, adaptive regularization, where each retrieved parameter is regularized differently, has exhibited better performances in other research fields such as image restoration. In this paper, we implement an investigation into adaptive regularization for earthquake slip distribution inversion. It is found that adaptive regularization can achieve a significantly smaller mean square error (MSE) than uniform regularization, if it is set properly. We propose an adaptive regularization method based on weighted total least squares (WTLS). This approach assumes that errors exist in both the regularization matrix and observation, and an iterative algorithm is used to solve the solution. A weight coefficient is used to balance the regularization matrix residual and the observation residual. An experiment using four slip patterns was carried out to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed regularization method can derive a smaller MSE than uniform regularization and resolution-based adaptive regularization, and the improvement in MSE is more significant for slip patterns with low-resolution slip patches. In this paper, we apply the proposed regularization method to study the slip distribution of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The retrieved slip distribution is less smooth and more detailed than the one retrieved with the uniform regularization method, and is closer to the existing slip model from joint inversion of the geodetic and seismic data.

  2. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-10-29

    The widespread use of vaccines has greatly improved global public health, preventing millions of childhood hospitalizations and deaths each year. Vaccination of children also is projected to avert adult deaths through the prevention of hepatitis B (HepB) virus--related chronic liver disease and liver cancer and human papilloma virus--related cervical cancer. When the World Health Organization (WHO) began the Expanded Programme on Immunization in 1974, <5% of the world's children had been fully vaccinated with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, oral poliovirus vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) during the first year of life. Since then, increased vaccination coverage has resulted in substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality, including a >99% decline in polio incidence since 1988, with eradication on the horizon, and a 78% decline in measles-associated mortality from 2000 to 2008 With the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, HepB vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), and rotavirus vaccine into many countries' routine vaccination schedules, further reductions in morbidity and mortality are expected. However, based on an annual global birth cohort of approximately 130 million, an estimated 23 million infants worldwide still do not receive the benefits of routine vaccination (i.e., 3 doses of DTP during the first year of life). The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), developed in 2005 by WHO and UNICEF, assists countries in strengthening immunization programs and vaccinating more persons. GIVS aims to achieve 90% national 3-dose DTP (DTP3) coverage by age 12 months in all countries, and 80% coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit by 2010 (and to sustain these levels through 2015). This report summarizes global routine vaccination coverage during 2000--2009 and progress toward achieving GIVS goals. PMID:21030941

  3. Toward universal coverage in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Linda J; Holahan, John; Weil, Alan; Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Buettgens, Matthew; Blavin, Fredric; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents several options designed to help the Commonwealth of Massachusetts move to universal health insurance coverage. The alternatives all build upon a common base that includes an expansion of the Medicaid program, income-related tax credits, a purchasing pool, and government-sponsored reinsurance. These measures in themselves would not yield universal coverage, nor would an employer mandate by itself. We show that an individual mandate, and an employer mandate combined with an individual mandate, both would yield universal coverage with a relatively small increase in government costs relative to state gross domestic product and current health spending. The cost of an employer mandate--with a "pay or play" design--is sensitive to the payroll tax rate and base, the number and kind of exemptions, and whether workers whose employers "pay" receive discounts when they purchase health insurance. The development of these alternatives and their analyses contributed to the eventual health care compromise that emerged in Massachusetts in April 2006. PMID:17004641

  4. Knowledge and regularity in planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John A.; Langley, Pat; Matwin, Stan

    1992-01-01

    The field of planning has focused on several methods of using domain-specific knowledge. The three most common methods, use of search control, use of macro-operators, and analogy, are part of a continuum of techniques differing in the amount of reused plan information. This paper describes TALUS, a planner that exploits this continuum, and is used for comparing the relative utility of these methods. We present results showing how search control, macro-operators, and analogy are affected by domain regularity and the amount of stored knowledge.

  5. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  6. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer that... explanation of how the amount of the fee will be determined. (c) Exclusions from coverage. The term...

  7. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  8. 5 CFR 9901.503 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9901.503 Section 9901.503... (NSPS) Staffing and Employment General § 9901.503 Coverage. (a) At his or her sole and exclusive... in DoD organizational and functional units are eligible for coverage under this subpart:...

  9. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  10. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  11. 5 CFR 890.804 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 890.804 Section 890.804... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.804 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. A former spouse who meets the requirements of § 890.803 may elect coverage for self alone or for self...

  12. 5 CFR 734.401 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 734.401 Section 734.401...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.401 Coverage. (a... agencies and positions described in paragraph (a) of this section are excluded from coverage under...

  13. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  15. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  16. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  17. 5 CFR 890.804 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 890.804 Section 890.804... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.804 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. A former spouse who meets the requirements of § 890.803 may elect coverage for self alone or for self...

  18. 5 CFR 890.804 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 890.804 Section 890.804... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.804 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. A former spouse who meets the requirements of § 890.803 may elect coverage for self alone or for self...

  19. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  20. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  2. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 534.202 Section 534.202...-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5 U... this program whom the Office of Personnel Management approves for coverage as a student-employee...

  3. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  4. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  5. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  6. 29 CFR 1975.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 1975.4 Section 1975.4 Labor Regulations Relating...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.4 Coverage. (a) General. Any employer employing one or more employees would be an “employer engaged in...

  7. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  8. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  9. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  10. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  11. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  12. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a... coverage for housing units that are owned or operated or assisted with more than $5,000 of NHHBG...

  13. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Coverage requirements. 1806.3 Section 1806.3... REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.3 Coverage requirements. The County Supervisor should..., the County Supervisor will see that the coverage is obtained on one or more of the most...

  14. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  15. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  16. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by...

  17. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  18. 29 CFR 1975.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 1975.4 Section 1975.4 Labor Regulations Relating...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.4 Coverage. (a) General. Any employer employing one or more employees would be an “employer engaged in...

  19. 5 CFR 734.401 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 734.401 Section 734.401...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.401 Coverage. (a... agencies and positions described in paragraph (a) of this section are excluded from coverage under...

  20. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  1. 29 CFR 1975.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 1975.4 Section 1975.4 Labor Regulations Relating...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.4 Coverage. (a) General. Any employer employing one or more employees would be an “employer engaged in...

  2. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  3. 5 CFR 890.804 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 890.804 Section 890.804... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.804 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. A former spouse who meets the requirements of § 890.803 may elect coverage for self only or for self...

  4. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  5. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer that... explanation of how the amount of the fee will be determined. (c) Exclusions from coverage. The term...

  6. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  8. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  9. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203... Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 890.1203 Coverage. (a) An individual is covered under this subpart when the U.S. Department of State determines that the individual is eligible for coverage under section...

  10. 12 CFR 1005.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 1005.3 Coverage... applies to any person, other than a person excluded from coverage of this part by section 1029 of...

  11. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  12. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 534.202 Section 534.202...-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5 U... this program whom the Office of Personnel Management approves for coverage as a student-employee...

  13. 12 CFR 1005.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Banks and... Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer that authorizes a financial... applies to any person, other than a person excluded from coverage of this part by section 1029 of...

  14. 5 CFR 734.401 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 734.401 Section 734.401...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.401 Coverage. (a... agencies and positions described in paragraph (a) of this section are excluded from coverage under...

  15. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  16. 5 CFR 752.401 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 752.401 Section 752.401..., or Furlough for 30 Days or Less § 752.401 Coverage. (a) Adverse actions covered. This subpart applies... separate statutory authority in the absence of any provision to place the employee within the coverage...

  17. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203... Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 890.1203 Coverage. (a) An individual is covered under this subpart when the U.S. Department of State determines that the individual is eligible for coverage under section...

  18. 45 CFR 83.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage. 83.4 Section 83.4 Public Welfare... ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.4 Coverage. (a) If an entity receives Federal support for any of its training programs, all of its...

  19. 5 CFR 880.303 - FEHBP coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false FEHBP coverage. 880.303 Section 880.303... FEHBP coverage. (a) If the missing annuitant had a family enrollment, the enrollment will be transferred... she disappeared, subject to the temporary extension of coverage for conversion. (c) If the...

  20. 5 CFR 9901.503 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9901.503 Section 9901.503... (NSPS) Staffing and Employment General § 9901.503 Coverage. (a) At his or her sole and exclusive... in DoD organizational and functional units are eligible for coverage under this subpart:...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  2. 42 CFR 423.566 - Coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage determinations. 423.566 Section 423.566... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Grievances, Coverage Determinations, Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.566 Coverage determinations. (a) Responsibilities...

  3. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  4. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  5. 2 CFR 200.310 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 200.310 Section 200.310... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Post Federal Award Requirements Property Standards § 200.310 Insurance coverage. The non-Federal entity must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real...

  6. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage requirements. 1806.3 Section 1806.3... REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.3 Coverage requirements. The County Supervisor should..., the County Supervisor will see that the coverage is obtained on one or more of the most...

  7. 29 CFR 1975.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 1975.4 Section 1975.4 Labor Regulations Relating...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.4 Coverage. (a) General. Any employer employing one or more employees would be an “employer engaged in...

  8. 5 CFR 890.804 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 890.804 Section 890.804... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.804 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. A former spouse who meets the requirements of § 890.803 may elect coverage for self alone or for self...

  9. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  11. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 534.202 Section 534.202...-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5 U... this program whom the Office of Personnel Management approves for coverage as a student-employee...

  12. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203... Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 890.1203 Coverage. (a) An individual is covered under this subpart when the U.S. Department of State determines that the individual is eligible for coverage under section...

  13. 45 CFR 83.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage. 83.4 Section 83.4 Public Welfare... ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.4 Coverage. (a) If an entity receives Federal support for any of its training programs, all of its...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.505 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. This subpart applies....S.C. chapter 71 are eligible for coverage under this subpart. In addition, this subpart applies...

  16. 45 CFR 83.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage. 83.4 Section 83.4 Public Welfare... ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.4 Coverage. (a) If an entity receives Federal support for any of its training programs, all of its...

  17. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by...

  18. 5 CFR 734.401 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 734.401 Section 734.401...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.401 Coverage. (a... agencies and positions described in paragraph (a) of this section are excluded from coverage under...

  19. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  20. 12 CFR 1005.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Banks and... Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer that authorizes a financial... applies to any person, other than a person excluded from coverage of this part by section 1029 of...

  1. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  2. 42 CFR 423.566 - Coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage determinations. 423.566 Section 423.566... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Grievances, Coverage Determinations, Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.566 Coverage determinations. (a) Responsibilities...

  3. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  4. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  5. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  6. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  7. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  8. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  9. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  10. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203... Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 890.1203 Coverage. (a) An individual is covered under this subpart when the U.S. Department of State determines that the individual is eligible for coverage under section...

  11. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  12. 29 CFR 1975.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 1975.4 Section 1975.4 Labor Regulations Relating...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.4 Coverage. (a) General. Any employer employing one or more employees would be an “employer engaged in...

  13. 5 CFR 880.303 - FEHBP coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FEHBP coverage. 880.303 Section 880.303... FEHBP coverage. (a) If the missing annuitant had a family enrollment, the enrollment will be transferred... she disappeared, subject to the temporary extension of coverage for conversion. (c) If the...

  14. 5 CFR 752.401 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 752.401 Section 752.401..., or Furlough for 30 Days or Less § 752.401 Coverage. (a) Adverse actions covered. This subpart applies... separate statutory authority in the absence of any provision to place the employee within the coverage...

  15. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  16. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by...

  17. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203... Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 890.1203 Coverage. (a) An individual is covered under this subpart when the U.S. Department of State determines that the individual is eligible for coverage under section...

  18. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  19. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  20. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  1. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 534.202 Section 534.202...-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5 U... this program whom the Office of Personnel Management approves for coverage as a student-employee...

  2. 45 CFR 83.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage. 83.4 Section 83.4 Public Welfare... ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.4 Coverage. (a) If an entity receives Federal support for any of its training programs, all of its...

  3. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  4. 5 CFR 317.301 - Conversion coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion coverage. 317.301 Section 317... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.301 Conversion coverage... statutory action extending coverage under 5 U.S.C. 3132(a)(1) to that agency. Except as otherwise...

  5. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer that... explanation of how the amount of the fee will be determined. (c) Exclusions from coverage. The term...

  6. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a... coverage for housing units that are owned or operated or assisted with more than $5,000 of NHHBG...

  7. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 534.202 Section 534.202...-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5 U... this program whom the Office of Personnel Management approves for coverage as a student-employee...

  8. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  9. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  10. 45 CFR 83.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage. 83.4 Section 83.4 Public Welfare... ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.4 Coverage. (a) If an entity receives Federal support for any of its training programs, all of its...

  11. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  12. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  13. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  14. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  15. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  16. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  17. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  18. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  19. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  20. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  1. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  2. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  3. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  4. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  5. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  7. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  9. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  10. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  11. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  12. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  13. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  14. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  15. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  16. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  17. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  18. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  20. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  1. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  3. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  4. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  5. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  6. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self-insurance plans shall provide for payment on behalf of the carrier, within the specific limits of liability... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  7. RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.

  8. A relevant universal coverage proposal.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Karen Davis and Cathy Schoen offer a strategic vision for universal coverage that attempts to move beyond ideological battles that have stifled progress. However, I believe that there are a few specific shortcomings with the proposal's logic that could thwart political consensus. I review some of these shortcomings and make suggestions for incremental technical improvements. In particular, I suggest that future versions of the proposal consider administering the tax credits as a "passthrough" from the government through employers to individuals. I also believe that reform proposals should address more directly the issues of provider accountability and patient information needs. PMID:14527255

  9. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  10. Differences in coverage patterns in cervical cytology screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Amy; Gale, Alastair G.; Wooding, David S.; Purdy, Kevin J.

    2003-05-01

    The visual screening of cervical smears is a complex process requiring appropriate slide coverage to detect any unusual appearances without making any omission errors. In examining a smear the observer has both to move the microscope stage appropriately to bring different slide areas into view, plus visually search the information presented within the binocular visual field. This study examined the patterns of slide coverage by different individuals when they inspected liquid based cervical smears. A binocular microscope was first adapted in order to record both the physical movement of the stage by the observer and also to access the microscope"s visual field. An image of the area of the smear under the microscope was displayed on a PC monitor and observers" eye movements were recorded as they searched this. By manually adjusting the microscope controls they also moved the stage and all stage movements and focussing were also recorded. The behaviour was examined of both novices and an expert screener as they searched a number of test cervical smears. It was found that novices adopted a regular examination pattern, which maximized slide coverage, albeit slowly. In contrast, the experienced screener covered the slides faster and more effectively ensuring more overlap between microscope fields.

  11. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  12. Some Cosine Relations and the Regular Heptagon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Heng, Phongthong

    2007-01-01

    The ancient Greek mathematicians sought to construct, by use of straight edge and compass only, all regular polygons. They had no difficulty with regular polygons having 3, 4, 5 and 6 sides, but the 7-sided heptagon eluded all their attempts. In this article, the authors discuss some cosine relations and the regular heptagon. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Regular Pentagons and the Fibonacci Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how to draw a regular pentagon. Shows the sequence of a succession of regular pentagons formed by extending the sides. Calculates the general formula of the Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. Presents a regular icosahedron as an example of the golden ratio. (YP)

  14. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  15. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  16. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  17. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  18. Pairing effect and misleading regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sayed, A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of energy levels of even-even nuclei classified according to their reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B (E2) ↑ using the available experimental data. We compare between Brody, and Abul-Magd distributions that extract the degree of chaoticity within nuclear dynamics. The results show that Abul-Magd parameter f can represents the chaotic behavior in more acceptable way than Brody, especially if a statistically significant study is desired. A smooth transition from chaos to order is observed as B (E2) ↑ increases. An apparent regularity was located at the second interval, namely: at 0.05 ≤ B (E2) < 0.1 in e2b2 units, and at 10 ≤ B (E2) < 15 in Weisskopf unit. Finally, the chaotic behavior parameterized in terms of B (E2) ↑ does not depend on the unit used.

  19. Attack Coverage in High-Level Men's Volleyball: Organization on the Edge of Chaos?

    PubMed

    Laporta, Lorenzo; Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Thomas, Luke; Afonso, José

    2015-09-29

    Change is pervasive, but emerging patterns are occasionally detectable through analysis of systemic behaviors. Match analysis uses these patterns in order to reduce the degree of improvisation and to optimize the training process. However, it is possible that certain game phases elude systematic patterning. In this vein, our aim was to analyze the case of attack coverage in men's volleyball, as we suspected it would elude systematic patterning and has received negligible attention in scientific research. We analyzed the occurrence of attack coverage in 4544 plays of the 2011 Volleyball World League. A Chi-square test with residual adjusted values was applied to explore significant associations between variables. A Monte Carlo correction was applied, as some cells had n<5. Effect sizes were determined using Cramer's V. Overall, attack coverage occurred in 3.89% of ball possessions, and 23 distinct structures emerged. These structures lacked significant associations with the game complex, setting zone, and effect of attack coverage. Conversely, attack coverage structures showed significant associations with the attack zone and tempo, with very strong effect sizes (V=0.472 and V=0.521, respectively). As certain attack zones are deeply associated with attack tempo, it is apparent that quicker attack plays affect attack coverage structuring, promoting the formation of less complex structures. Ultimately, attack coverage structures seem to depend on momentary constraints, thereby rendering rigid systematization impracticable. Still, we contended that a principle-based approach might be suitable. This invites researchers to rethink how to interpret game regularities. PMID:26557208

  20. 45 CFR 148.124 - Certification and disclosure of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... days of creditable coverage before a significant break in coverage as defined in § 146.113(b)(2)(iii... (for example, family coverage or individual-plus-spouse coverage). (B) Certificates provided on...

  1. Regional Differences in Intervention Coverage and Health System Strength in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kumalija, Claud J.; Perera, Sriyanjit; Masanja, Honorati; Rubona, Josibert; Ipuge, Yahya; Mboera, Leonard; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Boerma, Ties

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessments of subnational progress and performance coverage within countries should be an integral part of health sector reviews, using recent data from multiple sources on health system strength and coverage. Method As part of the midterm review of the national health sector strategic plan of Tanzania mainland, summary measures of health system strength and coverage of interventions were developed for all 21 regions, focusing on the priority indicators of the national plan. Household surveys, health facility data and administrative databases were used to compute the regional scores. Findings Regional Millennium Development Goal (MDG) intervention coverage, based on 19 indicators, ranged from 47% in Shinyanga in the northwest to 71% in Dar es Salaam region. Regions in the eastern half of the country have higher coverage than in the western half of mainland. The MDG coverage score is strongly positively correlated with health systems strength (r = 0.84). Controlling for socioeconomic status in a multivariate analysis has no impact on the association between the MDG coverage score and health system strength. During 1991–2010 intervention coverage improved considerably in all regions, but the absolute gap between the regions did not change during the past two decades, with a gap of 22% between the top and bottom three regions. Interpretation The assessment of regional progress and performance in 21 regions of mainland Tanzania showed considerable inequalities in coverage and health system strength and allowed the identification of high and low-performing regions. Using summary measures derived from administrative, health facility and survey data, a subnational picture of progress and performance can be obtained for use in regular health sector reviews. PMID:26536351

  2. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage level... and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level—The coverage level percentage contained in the actuarial documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO)...

  3. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage level... and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level—The coverage level percentage contained in the actuarial documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO)...

  4. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or members of his immediate family. 779.234 Section 779.234 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business... family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  5. Quality and extent of locum tenens coverage in pediatric surgical practices.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tracy L; Kandel, Jessica J; Nakayama, Don K

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence and quality of locum tenens coverage in pediatric surgery have not been determined. An Internet-based survey of American Pediatric Surgical Association members was conducted: 1) practice description; 2) use and frequency of locum tenens coverage; 4) whether the surgeon provided such coverage; and 5) Likert scale responses (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree) to statements addressing its acceptability and quality (two × five contingency table and χ(2) analyses, significance at P < 0.05). Three hundred sixteen of 1163 members (27.2% response rate) responded. One-fourth (24.1%) used a locum tenens regularly. Reasons were long-term inability to recruit a full-time surgeon (35.2%) and short-term vacancies (32.4%). One-fifth (20.4%) did locum tenens work; one-fourth (27.0%) plan to do so in the future. Two-thirds (64.2%) believe that surgical care in a locum tenens situation does not provide the same level of care as a full-time community-based surgeon. Most support locum tenens for short-term coverage (87.3%) and recruitment problems (72.1%), but not long-term vacancies (38.8%; P < 0.001) or permanent coverage (27.0%; P < 0.001). locum tenens coverage is an established feature of pediatric surgery. Most view it as a stopgap solution to the surgical workforce shortage. PMID:25831184

  6. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a Plan... defects as defined in § 203.200. (c) During the first and second year of coverage, a Plan must provide a... the Plan against damage from the first through the fourth year. (e) From the first through the...

  7. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a Plan... defects as defined in § 203.200. (c) During the first and second year of coverage, a Plan must provide a... the Plan against damage from the first through the fourth year. (e) From the first through the...

  8. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  9. 5 CFR 300.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 300.402 Section 300.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Commercial Recruiting Firms and Nonprofit Employment Services § 300.402 Coverage. This part applies...

  10. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  11. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  12. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.704 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... an administrative grievance procedure, whichever is applicable. (c) The appeal rights in 5 CFR 315... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.704 Section 9701.704... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Appeals § 9701.704 Coverage. (a) Subject to a determination by the Secretary or...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... covered by 5 U.S.C. chapter 43; and (2) Employees who were excluded from chapter 43 by OPM under 5 CFR 430... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.402 Section 9701.402... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.402 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible...

  15. 5 CFR 610.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 610.101 Section 610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.101 Coverage. This subpart applies to each employee to whom subpart A of part...

  16. 5 CFR 339.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 339.101 Section 339.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS General § 339.101 Coverage. This part applies to all applicants for and employees in...

  17. 5 CFR 300.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 300.402 Section 300.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Commercial Recruiting Firms and Nonprofit Employment Services § 300.402 Coverage. This part applies...

  18. 5 CFR 339.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 339.101 Section 339.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS General § 339.101 Coverage. This part applies to all applicants for and employees in...

  19. 5 CFR 1320.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 1320.4 Section 1320.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.4 Coverage. (a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in §...

  20. 5 CFR 359.901 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 752.601(c)(2). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 359.901 Section 359.901... Appointees and Reemployed Annuitants § 359.901 Coverage. (a) This subpart covers the removal from the SES...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage. 73.735-1001 Section 73.735-1001 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes...

  2. 22 CFR 513.610 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coverage. 513.610 Section 513.610 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND... Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to any grantee of the Board. (b) This subpart applies to any...

  3. 5 CFR 550.1402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.1402 Section 550.1402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1402 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in 5...

  4. 7 CFR 1710.103 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area coverage. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Basic Policies § 1710.103 Area coverage. (a) Borrowers shall make a diligent effort to extend...

  5. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...

  6. 5 CFR 630.701 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 630.701 Section 630.701 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.701 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in section 6301 of title 5,...

  7. 5 CFR 534.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 534.302 Section 534.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.302 Coverage. This subpart applies to employees...

  8. 5 CFR 1320.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 1320.4 Section 1320.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.4 Coverage. (a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in §...

  9. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 730.103 Section 730.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject...

  10. 5 CFR 610.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 610.101 Section 610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.101 Coverage. This subpart applies to each employee to whom subpart A of part...

  11. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage....

  12. 22 CFR 513.110 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coverage. 513.110 Section 513.110 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) General § 513.110 Coverage. (a) These...

  13. 22 CFR 513.110 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coverage. 513.110 Section 513.110 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) General § 513.110 Coverage. (a) These...

  14. 5 CFR 534.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 534.302 Section 534.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.302 Coverage. This subpart applies to employees...

  15. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 730.103 Section 730.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject...

  16. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  17. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  18. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage....

  19. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  20. 5 CFR 550.702 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.702 Section 550.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.702 Coverage. Except as provided in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a)(2) (i) through (viii), this...

  1. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  2. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  3. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  4. 5 CFR 550.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 550.802 Section 550.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.802 Coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.103 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area coverage. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Basic Policies § 1710.103 Area coverage. (a) Borrowers shall make a diligent effort to extend...

  6. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...

  7. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  8. 5 CFR 610.304 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 610.304 Section 610.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.304 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  9. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  10. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 1603.101 Section 1603.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR PREVIOUSLY EXEMPT... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of...

  11. 5 CFR 532.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 532.103 Section 532.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.103 Coverage. The provisions of this part shall apply to prevailing rate employees...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.704 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... an administrative grievance procedure, whichever is applicable. (c) The appeal rights in 5 CFR 315... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.704 Section 9701.704... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Appeals § 9701.704 Coverage. (a) Subject to a determination by the Secretary or...

  13. 5 CFR 630.701 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 630.701 Section 630.701 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.701 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in section 6301 of title 5,...

  14. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.602 Coverage. An employee who meets the requirements of section 6304(b) of title 5, United...

  15. 22 CFR 513.110 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coverage. 513.110 Section 513.110 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) General § 513.110 Coverage. (a) These...

  16. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  17. 22 CFR 513.610 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coverage. 513.610 Section 513.610 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND... Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to any grantee of the Board. (b) This subpart applies to any...

  18. 5 CFR 610.304 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 610.304 Section 610.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.304 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... covered by 5 U.S.C. chapter 43; and (2) Employees who were excluded from chapter 43 by OPM under 5 CFR 430... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.402 Section 9701.402... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.402 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible...

  20. 5 CFR 550.1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.1001 Section 550.1001 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Adjustment of Work Schedules for Religious Observances § 550.1001 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  1. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 1603.101 Section 1603.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR PREVIOUSLY EXEMPT... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of...

  2. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage. 73.735-1001 Section 73.735-1001 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes...

  3. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 141.3 Section 141.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public...

  4. 5 CFR 551.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 551.103 Section 551.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Provisions § 551.103 Coverage. (a) Covered. Any employee of an...

  5. 22 CFR 513.110 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coverage. 513.110 Section 513.110 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) General § 513.110 Coverage. (a) These...

  6. 24 CFR 200.17 - Mortgage coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mortgage coverage. 200.17 Section 200.17 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage § 200.17 Mortgage coverage. The...

  7. 5 CFR 1320.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 1320.4 Section 1320.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.4 Coverage. (a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in §...

  8. 29 CFR 9.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coverage. 9.3 Section 9.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISPLACEMENT OF QUALIFIED WORKERS UNDER SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 9.3 Coverage. This part applies to all service contracts and their solicitations, except those excluded by § 9.4 of this...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  10. 5 CFR 550.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 550.802 Section 550.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.802 Coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this...

  11. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  12. 5 CFR 9701.704 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an administrative grievance procedure, whichever is applicable. (c) The appeal rights in 5 CFR 315... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.704 Section 9701.704... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Appeals § 9701.704 Coverage. (a) Subject to a determination by the Secretary or...

  13. 5 CFR 880.304 - FEGLI coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false FEGLI coverage. 880.304 Section 880.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... FEGLI coverage. (a) FEGLI premiums will not be collected during periods when an annuitant is a...

  14. 24 CFR 51.4 - Program coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program coverage. 51.4 Section 51.4 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 51.4 Program coverage. Environmental standards...

  15. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  16. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 2001.71 Section 2001.71 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL... Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a...

  18. 5 CFR 890.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 890.601 Section 890.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Coverage. An annuitant (a retired employee or survivor under part 891 of this chapter) who is enrolled,...

  19. 5 CFR 352.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 352.502 Section 352.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS....502 Coverage. This subpart applies to any of the following serving in a position in the...

  20. 5 CFR 550.1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 550.1001 Section 550.1001 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Adjustment of Work Schedules for Religious Observances § 550.1001 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  1. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Federal Civilian Employees § 792.103 Coverage. This part applies to all positions in Executive agencies...

  2. 5 CFR 550.1402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 550.1402 Section 550.1402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1402 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in 5...

  3. 5 CFR 412.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 412.101 Section 412.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 412.101 Coverage. This part applies to all incumbents of,...

  4. 5 CFR 412.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 412.101 Section 412.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 412.101 Coverage. This part applies to all incumbents of,...

  5. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  6. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  7. 25 CFR 700.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coverage. 700.505 Section 700.505 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.505 Coverage. The regulations contained in this part apply to all...

  8. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Federal Civilian Employees § 792.103 Coverage. This part applies to all positions in Executive agencies...

  9. 5 CFR 752.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 752.601 Section 752.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE... Coverage. (a) Adverse actions covered. This subpart applies to suspensions for more than 14 days...

  10. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  11. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...

  12. 5 CFR 550.702 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 550.702 Section 550.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.702 Coverage. Except as provided in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a)(2) (i) through (viii), this...

  13. 5 CFR 630.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 630.802 Section 630.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.802 Coverage. This subpart applies to: (a) An employee as defined in section 2105 of title...

  14. 5 CFR 630.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 630.802 Section 630.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.802 Coverage. This subpart applies to: (a) An employee as defined in section 2105 of title...

  15. 5 CFR 591.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 591.302 Section 591.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.302 Coverage. (a) Agencies. This subpart applies...

  16. 5 CFR 532.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 532.103 Section 532.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.103 Coverage. The provisions of this part shall apply to prevailing rate employees...

  17. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  18. 29 CFR 9.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 9.3 Section 9.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISPLACEMENT OF QUALIFIED WORKERS UNDER SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 9.3 Coverage. This part applies to all service contracts and their solicitations, except those excluded by § 9.4 of this...

  19. 5 CFR 752.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 752.601 Section 752.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE... Coverage. (a) Adverse actions covered. This subpart applies to suspensions for more than 14 days...

  20. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  1. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  2. 5 CFR 1320.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 1320.4 Section 1320.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.4 Coverage. (a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in §...

  3. 5 CFR 534.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 534.302 Section 534.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.302 Coverage. This subpart applies to employees...

  4. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  5. 5 CFR 591.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 591.302 Section 591.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.302 Coverage. (a) Agencies. This subpart applies...

  6. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  7. 5 CFR 352.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 352.402 Section 352.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Employment... Coverage. This subpart applies to all officers, as defined in § 352.403(b), of any branch of the...

  8. 25 CFR 700.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coverage. 700.505 Section 700.505 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.505 Coverage. The regulations contained in this part apply to all...

  9. 5 CFR 591.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 591.302 Section 591.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.302 Coverage. (a) Agencies. This subpart applies...

  10. 5 CFR 610.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 610.402 Section 610.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.402 Coverage. The regulations contained in this subpart apply only...

  11. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  12. 45 CFR 1225.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage. 1225.4 Section 1225.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINT PROCEDURE General Provisions § 1225.4 Coverage. (a) These procedures apply to all...

  13. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  14. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  15. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 1603.101 Section 1603.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR PREVIOUSLY EXEMPT... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of...

  16. 24 CFR 51.4 - Program coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program coverage. 51.4 Section 51.4 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 51.4 Program coverage. Environmental standards...

  17. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.602 Coverage. An employee who meets the requirements of section 6304(b) of title 5, United...

  18. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  19. 5 CFR 432.102 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 432.102 Section 432.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE BASED REDUCTION IN GRADE AND REMOVAL ACTIONS § 432.102 Coverage. (a) Actions covered. This part covers reduction in...

  20. 5 CFR 610.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 610.402 Section 610.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.402 Coverage. The regulations contained in this subpart apply only...