Science.gov

Sample records for regular continental-scale coverage

  1. 29 CFR 776.25 - Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. 776.25 Section 776.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. Regular and recurring may mean a very small...

  2. 29 CFR 776.25 - Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. 776.25 Section 776.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. Regular and recurring may mean a very small...

  3. 29 CFR 776.25 - Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. 776.25 Section 776.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. Regular and recurring may mean a very small...

  4. 29 CFR 776.25 - Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. 776.25 Section 776.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. Regular and recurring may mean a very small...

  5. 29 CFR 776.25 - Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. 776.25 Section 776.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Regular and recurring activities as basis of coverage. Regular and recurring may mean a very small...

  6. GEWEX Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) represents the World Climate Research Program activities on clouds, radiation, and land-surface processes. The goal of the program is to reproduce and predict, by means of suitable models, the variations of the global hydrological regime and its impact on atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. However, GEWEX is also concerned with variations in regional hydrological processes and water resources and their response to changes in the environment such as increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, GEWEX contains a major new international project called the GEWEX Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), which is designed to bridge the gap between the small scales represented by hydrological models and those scales that are practical for predicting the regional impacts of climate change. The development and use of coupled mesoscale-hydrological models for this purpose is a high priority in GCIP. The objectives of GCIP are presented.

  7. Mapping Evaporative Stress at Continental Scales Using GOES Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.

    2006-05-01

    Robust, operational methodologies for mapping daily evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and moisture stress over large areas using remote sensing will have widespread utility in a variety of resource management and forecasting applications. Here we examine the utility a regional surface energy balance system -" the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model -" driven primarily by thermal infrared remote sensing data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), for its potential for routine and long-term mapping of ET and soil moisture stress. GOES is an excellent (albeit underutilized) data source for routine land-surface monitoring because it has high temporal frequency (15min) and continental-scale coverage, and its operational status, integral to national weather forecasting applications, means a long history of archived data and a good likelihood of continuation. Using thermal band imagery from GOES and vegetation cover information from MODIS, the ALEXI algorithm has been executed over a 10-km resolution grid covering the continental U.S. for April-October of 2002-2004. In this paper we look more qualitatively at inter- and intra- annual temporal patterns in maps of ET and the ratio of actual to potential ET (fPET) generated with the ALEXI algorithm over this three-year interval. Here, fPET is interpreted as a signature of soil moisture deficiency. Patterns in fPET will be assessed in comparison with contemporaneous gridded precipitation data and with other standard indices of drought and surface moisture stress to determine whether thermal remote sensing, as interpreted by ALEXI, provides useful information regarding drought conditions at continental scales.

  8. Improving continental-scale hydrology simulations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Newman, A. J.; Mendoza, P. A.; Wood, A. W.; Gutmann, E. D.; Brekke, L. D.; Arnold, J.; Raff, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Continental-scale hydrology simulations are constrained by the capabilities of hydrologic models to adequately represent observed hydrologic processes. Model inadequacies stem from: 1) flaws that are introduced as part of model development, e.g., missing processes, inadequate model parameterizations, poor numerical implementation; and 2) shortcomings in the way models are applied, e.g., applications that rely on deterministic single-objective calibration which can lead to compensatory errors and difficulties in regionalizing model parameters, or applications that rely on a-priori parameter values which can lead to model simulations that produce a poor portrayal of hydrologic metrics. This presentation describes efforts to improve continental-scale hydrology simulations by using multivariate (and relatively uncorrelated) hydrologic metrics to identify suitable modeling options and model parameters in a modular process-based hydrologic model. Our hydrologic model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as its structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including multiple options for model parameterizations (e.g., below-canopy wind speed, thermal conductivity, storage and transmission of liquid water through soil). Additionally, multiple options for model architecture are provided; that handle the coupling and organization of different model components (e.g., representations of sub-grid variability and hydrologic connectivity, coupling with groundwater). The model analysis framework uses a suite of relatively uncorrelated hydrologic metrics to directly evaluate the suitability of different modeling options and parameter values in different parts of the model, thereby reducing the dimensionality of the model identification and parameter estimation problem and reducing the problem of compensatory errors. Analysis is presented for both a set of research basins where extensive data are available on individual hydrologic processes as well as 630 watersheds that span a variety of hydroclimatic regimes across the contiguous USA. Results show that the new modeling framework provides realistic simulations of hydrologic states and fluxes at the point scale as well as realistic simulations of streamflow at the basin scale. Moreover, the availability of multiple modeling options improves characterization of model uncertainty. Application of this framework to climate impact assessments provides both greater confidence in the portrayal of the impacts of climate change on water resources, as well as deeper understanding of the uncertainties associated with the choice/configuration/calibration of hydrologic models used in those assessments and more generally.

  9. Mission Design for Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Esper, J.; McClain, C. R.; Hall, F. G.; Middleton, E. M.; Gregg, W. W.; Mannino, A.; Knox, R. G.; Dabney, P. W.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Wood, H. J.; Roberto, M.

    2003-12-01

    Carbon cycle scientific requirements in both land and ocean studies point toward the need for multiple spectrally detailed observations per day. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are needed to identify the geographical locations of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and global climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage provided by most polar-orbiting satellites, and without benefit of spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions that down-regulate photosynthesis. Physiological status can be better assessed with spectral indices based on narrow (<10 nm) bands. Sensors that can measure CWE exchange would also provide accurate biomass observations, although geosynchronous platforms are not required to observe the slowly changing land biomass and biomass change. A hyperspectral instrument (400-1000 nm) would enable improved estimates of seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity, using narrow band and red edge indices not available with current of near-future operational satellites. The overall goal for geosynchronous ocean observations is to predict the variability of carbon uptake in the ocean, and thereby evaluate its role in climate change scenarios. In the plan for developing new observations, we need to: 1)continue to improve estimates of ocean productivity; and 2 expand the emphasis of coastal ocean processes and specific regions of critical importance. Remote sensing of the coastal ocean represents a unique challenge due to the small-scale spatial variability and elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, detritus and chlorophyll, which are difficult to distinguish, because they absorb light intensely in the blue spectrum. Observations in the ultraviolet are essential to improve our capability to distinguish these ocean constituents. A hyperspectral instrument design capable of observing in the ultraviolet, in addition to the visible and near infrared spectrum, is essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world's coastal and open ocean regions. For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geosynchronous hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of between 500 and 1000 to 1. An innovative and bold focal plane design and a large mirror (1.8 meter diameter) will be required.

  10. Comprehensive lake dynamics mapping at continental scales using Landsat 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inland lakes, important water resources, play a crucial role in the global water cycle and are sensitive to global warming and human activities. There clearly is a pressing need to understand temporal and spatial variations of lakes at global and continental scales. The recent operation of Landsat...

  11. Integrative taxonomy for continental-scale terrestrial insect observations.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Cara M; Kao, Rebecca H; Blevins, Kali K; Travers, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    Although 21(st) century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18(th) century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities. PMID:22666362

  12. Integrative Taxonomy for Continental-Scale Terrestrial Insect Observations

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cara M.; Kao, Rebecca H.; Blevins, Kali K.; Travers, Patrick D.

    2012-01-01

    Although 21st century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18th century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities. PMID:22666362

  13. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  14. Species richness at continental scales is dominated by ecological limits.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2015-05-01

    Explaining variation in species richness among provinces and other large geographic regions remains one of the most challenging problems at the intersection of ecology and evolution. Here we argue that empirical evidence supports a model whereby ecological factors associated with resource availability regulate species richness at continental scales. Any large-scale predictive model for biological diversity must explain three robust patterns in the natural world. First, species richness for evolutionary biotas is highly correlated with resource-associated surrogate variables, including area, temperature, and productivity. Second, species richness across epochal timescales is largely stationary in time. Third, the dynamics of diversity exhibit clear and predictable responses to mass extinctions, key innovations, and other perturbations. Collectively, these patterns are readily explained by a model in which species richness is regulated by diversity-dependent feedback mechanisms. We argue that many purported tests of the ecological limits hypothesis, including branching patterns in molecular phylogenies, are inherently weak and distract from these three core patterns. We have much to learn about the complex hierarchy of processes by which local ecological interactions lead to diversity dependence at the continental scale, but the empirical evidence overwhelmingly suggests that they do. PMID:25905501

  15. NEON Data Products: Enabling Continental-Scale Ecological Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berukoff, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF-funded major research and facilities initiative under development, designed to address how climate change, land use change, and invasive species affect ecological science on a continental scale. The standardization of measurement methodologies, engineering practice, and data organization across NEON's sixty sites fosters the creation of ecological data products. These data products are community-approved and Observatory-vetted, and cover the breadth of NEON collection activities, including measurements of physical variables such as air, water, and soil temperature and chemistry, observations and analyses of species and habitats, and airborne spectral and LiDAR remote sensing. Together, these low-level (fundamental measurement and observation data)and high-level (integrative, continental-scale assessments) will be useful for scientists, students, educators, policymakers, and the general public. Here, we discuss the development status of NEON's data product suites, describing how they are constructed and vetted, and provide an example of how one current effort will provide several foundational data products. Further, we discuss and solicit feedback for how stakeholder communities can contribute to their veracity and validation.

  16. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-10-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR), since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e., standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and nonrandom spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that, for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  17. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in Ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR) since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e. standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and non random spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  18. Classifying the water table at regional to continental scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, T.; Marklund, L.; Smith, L.; Manning, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Water tables at regional to continental scales can be classified into two distinct types: recharge-controlled water tables that are largely disconnected from topography and topography-controlled water tables that are closely tied to topography. We use geomatic synthesis of hydrologic, geologic and topographic data sets to quantify and map water-table type over the contiguous United States using a dimensionless criterion introduced by Haitjema and Mitchell-Bruker (2005), called the water-table ratio, which differentiates water-table type. Our analysis indicates that specific regions of the United States have broadly contiguous and characteristic water-table types. Water-table ratio relates to water-table depth and the potential for regional groundwater flow. In regions with recharge-controlled water tables, for example the Southwest or Rocky Mountains, USA, water-tables depths are generally greater and more variable and regional groundwater flow is generally more important as a percentage of the watershed budget. Water-table depths are generally shallow and less variable, and regional groundwater flow is limited in areas with topography-controlled water tables such as the Northeast USA. The water-table ratio is a simple but powerful criterion for evaluating regional groundwater systems over broad areas. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Classifying the water table at regional to continental scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; Marklund, Lars; Smith, Leslie; Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Water tables at regional to continental scales can be classified into two distinct types: recharge-controlled water tables that are largely disconnected from topography and topography-controlled water tables that are closely tied to topography. We use geomatic synthesis of hydrologic, geologic and topographic data sets to quantify and map water-table type over the contiguous United States using a dimensionless criterion introduced by Haitjema and Mitchell-Bruker (2005), called the water-table ratio, which differentiates water-table type. Our analysis indicates that specific regions of the United States have broadly contiguous and characteristic water-table types. Water-table ratio relates to water-table depth and the potential for regional groundwater flow. In regions with recharge-controlled water tables, for example the Southwest or Rocky Mountains, USA, water-tables depths are generally greater and more variable and regional groundwater flow is generally more important as a percentage of the watershed budget. Water-table depths are generally shallow and less variable, and regional groundwater flow is limited in areas with topography-controlled water tables such as the Northeast USA. The water-table ratio is a simple but powerful criterion for evaluating regional groundwater systems over broad areas.

  20. Ecological processes can synchronize marine population dynamics over continental scales

    PubMed Central

    Gouhier, Tarik C.; Guichard, Frédéric; Menge, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the relative importance of local and regional processes for the distribution of population abundance is a fundamental but contentious issue in ecology. In marine systems, classical theory holds that the influence of demographic processes and dispersal is confined to local populations whereas the environment controls regional patterns of abundance. Here, we use spatial synchrony to compare the distribution of population abundance of the dominant mussel Mytilus californianus observed along the West Coast of the United States to that predicted by dynamical models undergoing different dispersal and environmental treatments to infer the relative influence of local and regional processes. We reveal synchronized fluctuations in the abundance of mussel populations across a whole continent despite limited larval dispersal and strong environmental forcing. We show that dispersal among neighboring populations interacts with local demographic processes to generate characteristic patterns of spatial synchrony that can govern the dynamic distribution of mussel abundance over 1,800 km of coastline. Our study emphasizes the importance of dispersal and local dynamics for the distribution of abundance at the continental scale. It further highlights potential limits to the use of “climate envelope” models for predicting the response of large-scale ecosystems to global climate change. PMID:20404141

  1. Quantifying wildland fire emissions at landscape to continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, N. H.

    2009-05-01

    The basic approach to estimating biomass burning emissions was developed over 25 years ago. Since then, refinements in emissions modeling have progressed with techniques developed to look at spatial and temporal (seasonal) patterns at multiple scales. Much of what has been developed has been to understand the impact of wildland fire on carbon dynamics. This research has shown that a substantial proportion of the carbon moving from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere is through fire. Also of interest has been improved quantification of the impact of these natural events on air quality. Pollutants, including CO, ozone, and VOCs, from fire have been shown to rival levels of anthropogenic emissions during some fire events. Smoke from forest fire can be transported vast distances to impact air quality thousands of miles from its origin. Over the past two decades research on refining fire emission estimations at several spatial scales and quantifying the uncertainly in these measures has shown that we still have more to learn. In this presentation we describe the methods of quantifying carbon and pollutant emissions from fire at the North American continental scale using basic information derived from local and landscape scale data and models. We present a review of the tools and science used to improve our understanding of the impact of wildland fire emissions for continental and global carbon cycle modeling and review progress on a current NASA-funded project to provide easy access to the most up-to-date fire emissions estimates for North America.

  2. European Continental Scale Hydrological Model, Limitations and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad, E.; Abbaspour, K.

    2014-12-01

    The pressures on water resources due to increasing levels of societal demand, increasing conflict of interest and uncertainties with regard to freshwater availability create challenges for water managers and policymakers in many parts of Europe. At the same time, climate change adds a new level of pressure and uncertainty with regard to freshwater supplies. On the other hand, the small-scale sectoral structure of water management is now reaching its limits. The integrated management of water in basins requires a new level of consideration where water bodies are to be viewed in the context of the whole river system and managed as a unit within their basins. In this research we present the limitations and challenges of modelling the hydrology of the continent Europe. The challenges include: data availability at continental scale and the use of globally available data, streamgauge data quality and their misleading impacts on model calibration, calibration of large-scale distributed model, uncertainty quantification, and computation time. We describe how to avoid over parameterization in calibration process and introduce a parallel processing scheme to overcome high computation time. We used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) program as an integrated hydrology and crop growth simulator to model water resources of the Europe continent. Different components of water resources are simulated and crop yield and water quality are considered at the Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) level. The water resources are quantified at subbasin level with monthly time intervals for the period of 1970-2006. The use of a large-scale, high-resolution water resources models enables consistent and comprehensive examination of integrated system behavior through physically-based, data-driven simulation and provides the overall picture of water resources temporal and spatial distribution across the continent. The calibrated model and results provide information support to the European Water Framework Directive and lay the basis for further assessment of the impact of climate change on water availability in Europe. The approach and methods developed are general and can be applied to any large region around the world.

  3. A GEO Hyperspectral Mission For Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Dabney, Philip W.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2004-01-01

    For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are needed to identify the geographical locations of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and global climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage provided by most polar-orbiting satellites, and without benefit of spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions that down-regulate photosynthesis. Physiological status can be better assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow (5 nm) bands, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world s coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of Ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change scenarios. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geostationary hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of between 500 and 1000 to 1. However, an innovative and bold focal plane design and a large mirror (1.8 meter diameter) would be required. The development of our science requirements and the results of the initial design study will be presented as well as our most recent technological developments.

  4. Overcoming complexities for consistent, continental-scale flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen; Zaidman, Maxine; Davison, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires all member states to produce flood hazard maps by 2013. Although flood mapping practices are well developed in Europe, there are huge variations in the scale and resolution of the maps between individual countries. Since extreme flood events are rarely confined to a single country, this is problematic, particularly for the re/insurance industry whose exposures often extend beyond country boundaries. Here, we discuss the challenges of large-scale hydrological and hydraulic modelling, using our experience of developing a 12-country model and set of maps, to illustrate how consistent, high-resolution river flood maps across Europe can be produced. The main challenges addressed include: data acquisition; manipulating the vast quantities of high-resolution data; and computational resources. Our starting point was to develop robust flood-frequency models that are suitable for estimating peak flows for a range of design flood return periods. We used the index flood approach, based on a statistical analysis of historic river flow data pooled on the basis of catchment characteristics. Historical flow data were therefore sourced for each country and collated into a large pan-European database. After a lengthy validation these data were collated into 21 separate analysis zones or regions, grouping smaller river basins according to their physical and climatic characteristics. The very large continental scale basins were each modelled separately on account of their size (e.g. Danube, Elbe, Drava and Rhine). Our methodology allows the design flood hydrograph to be predicted at any point on the river network for a range of return periods. Using JFlow+, JBA's proprietary 2D hydraulic hydrodynamic model, the calculated out-of-bank flows for all watercourses with an upstream drainage area exceeding 50km2 were routed across two different Digital Terrain Models in order to map the extent and depth of floodplain inundation. This generated modelling for a total river length of approximately 250,000km. Such a large-scale, high-resolution modelling exercise is extremely demanding on computational resources and would have been unfeasible without the use of Graphics Processing Units on a network of standard specification gaming computers. Our GPU grid is the world's largest flood-dedicated computer grid. The European river basins were split out into approximately 100 separate hydraulic models and managed individually, although care was taken to ensure flow continuity was maintained between models. The flood hazard maps from the modelling were pieced together using GIS techniques, to provide flood depth and extent information across Europe to a consistent scale and standard. After discussing the methodological challenges, we shall present our flood hazard maps and, from extensive validation work, compare these against historical flow records and observed flood extents.

  5. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON already knows to evaluate are the need for geographic expertise in taxonomic identifications and the capacity necessary to handle the volume of samples. NEON is also addressing challenges associated with external entities and the logistics of sample movement, data formatting, data ingestion, and reporting. For example, NEON is considering tools, such as web APIs, which could allow efficient transfer of data from external facilities. Having a standard format in place for that data will be critical to transfer success and quality assessment. NEON is also working on the implementation of quality control measures for diverse analytical and taxonomic processes across laboratories, and is developing an external audit process. Additionally, given NEON's open access approach, the Network is focused on selecting a sample identification protocol that aids in tracking samples with more involved analytical needs and also allows maximum utility for the scientific community. Given the complex nature and breadth of the project, NEON will be developing novel sample management systems as well as metadata schemas. These efforts insure integrity and quality from field to external facility to archive for each sample taken, providing high-quality data now and confidence in future research stemming from raw data generated by NEON and its collection specimens.

  6. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  7. Trace Gas/Aerosol Boundary Concentrations and their Impacts on Continental-scale AQMEII Modelling Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over twenty modeling groups are participating in the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) in which a variety of mesoscale photochemical and aerosol air quality modeling systems are being applied to continental-scale domains in North America and Europe fo...

  8. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  9. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental studies of floristic composition, future floristic studies should focus on forest types poorly represented at regional scales in current datasets such as terra firme forests with high soil fertility from north-western Amazonia.

  10. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Barbern, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Leff, Jonathan W; Pollard, Katherine S; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R; Fierer, Noah

    2015-05-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ?1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  11. Modelling the continental-scale spread of Schmallenberg virus in Europe: Approaches and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gubbins, Simon; Richardson, Jane; Baylis, Matthew; Wilson, Anthony J.; Abrahantes, Jos Cortias

    2014-01-01

    Summary Following its emergence in northern Europe in 2011 Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a vector-borne disease transmitted by the bites of Culicoides midges, has spread across much of the continent. Here we develop simple models to describe the spread of SBV at a continental scale and, more specifically, within and between NUTS2 regions in Europe. The model for the transmission of SBV between regions suggests that vector dispersal is the principle mechanism for transmission, even at the continental scale. The within-region model indicates that there is substantial heterogeneity amongst regions in the force of infection for cattle and sheep farms. Moreover, there is considerable under-ascertainment of SBV-affected holdings, though the level of under-ascertainment varies between regions. We contrast the relatively simple approach adopted in this study with the more complex continental-scale micro-simulation models which have been developed for pandemic influenza and discuss the strengths, weaknesses and data requirements of both approaches. PMID:24630403

  12. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Pollard, Katherine S.; Menninger, Holly L.; Dunn, Robert R.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  13. GEMAS: a new view of the lead isotopic soil landscape at the European continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Clemens; Négrel, Philippe; Flem, Belinda; Fabian, Karl; Birke, Manfred; Ladenberger, Anna; Hoogewerff, Jurian

    2014-05-01

    Soil formation through weathering of bedrock and sediments is an extremely slow process, and soils must be considered an essential and non-renewable resource. Knowledge and extrapolation of threats to soils, e.g., changes in element concentrations and the reasons thereof are of primary importance for society as recently diffuse contamination has been identified as one of the major threats to soil quality. In this frame the addition of isotope tracing at the continental scale is an important supplementary constraint on the origin and behaviour of elements in soils. Lead has been mined and utilized by humans for several thousand years. The accumulated world production is estimated to be over 300 Mt. Detailed studies on environmental samples (e.g., peat bogs, ice cores, sediment cores) suggest a major Pb contamination of the northern hemisphere since ancient times. In spite of its importance the continental scale distribution of lead and lead isotopes combined has never been documented for any geochemical sample material. As the result of a combined effort of the European Geological Surveys, backed by the European metals industry, we present the first continental investigation of Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb,207Pb, 208Pb) landscape using agricultural soil samples (Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) collected at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 (2211 samples in total). Thus we here provide the first geochemical reference maps of Pb concentrations combined with Pb isotope ratios at the European scale against which the impact of contamination can be realistically judged. The maps localize the major concentration anomalies of Pb in soils and help to identify the processes that generate the observed distribution patterns. The European continental-scale patterns of Pb concentrations and Pb isotopes show a high variability dominated by geology and influenced by climate. Positive Pb concentration anomalies mark most of the known mineralized areas throughout Europe. Some few rather local Pb anomalies on the map have a distinct anthropogenic origin.

  14. A new view of the lead isotopic soil landscape at the European continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, C.; Negrel, P. J.; Flem, B.; Fabian, K.; Birke, M.; Ladenberger, A.; Hoogewerff, J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil formation through weathering of bedrock and sediments is an extremely slow process, and soils must be considered an essential and non-renewable resource. Knowledge and extrapolation of threats to soils, e.g., changes in element concentrations and the reasons thereof are of primary importance for society as recently diffuse contamination has been identified as one of the major threats to soil quality. In this frame the addition of isotope tracing at the continental scale is an important supplementary constraint on the origin and behaviour of elements in soils. Lead has been mined and utilized by humans for several thousand years. The accumulated world production is estimated to be over 300 Mt. Detailed studies on environmental samples (e.g., peat bogs, ice cores, sediment cores) suggest a major Pb contamination of the northern hemisphere since ancient times. In spite of its importance the continental scale distribution of lead and lead isotopes combined has never been documented for any geochemical sample material. As the result of a combined effort of the European Geological Surveys, backed by the European metals industry, we present the first continental investigation of Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb,207Pb, 208Pb) landscape using agricultural soil samples (Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) collected at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 (2211 samples in total). Thus we here provide the first geochemical reference maps of Pb concentrations combined with Pb isotope ratios at the European scale against which the impact of contamination can be realistically judged. The maps localize the major concentration anomalies of Pb in soils and help to identify the processes that generate the observed distribution patterns. The European continental-scale patterns of Pb concentrations and Pb isotopes show a high variability dominated by geology and influenced by climate. Positive Pb concentration anomalies mark most of the known mineralized areas throughout Europe. Some few Pb anomalies have a distinct anthropogenic origin.

  15. A midterm report on the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    1999-08-01

    The GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) is being carried out in the Mississippi River Basin under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program and its Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). This paper provides a brief history of GCIP's development and its mission and objectives. The scientific achievements of GCIP are then reviewed against each of these objectives. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of options for the period beyond 2000 after the current phase of the project is completed.

  16. Comparing Geodetic Data Quality from PBO and non-PBO GPS Stations at Decadal and Continental Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Blewitt, G.; Walls, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The UNAVCO GAGE GPS data Analysis Centers (ACs) and Analysis Center Coordinator (ACC) currently process more than 1800 GPS stations. Approximately 1100 of these stations are from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, with 700+ non-PBO stations from COCONet, SCIGN, NGS CORS, and other regional networks. The 700+ stations provide improved coverage across North America plus additional reference frame constraints. The extra stations were incorporated into the standard daily processing stream during a massive reprocessing effort from 2012-2014. The combined, continental-scale data set of all GPS positions spans an 18-year time period from 1996-2014 and not only represents a significant opportunity to explore mm-scale geophysical phenomena, but also allows the examination and comparison of data quality parameters between stations and networks. The overall data quality of PBO and non-PBO stations is investigated using a variety of quality parameters. Signal-to-noise and multipath histories derived from TEQC preprocessing are used to assess instrument health. Quality parameters from daily processing are used for station health determination. Position time series are used for noise analysis to characterize site stability based on white and colored noise. Further anomalies can be identified by direct inspection of a station's time series, network velocity field, and strain rate. Non-geophysical factors such as monument instability, equipment failure, and incorrect metadata can also affect data quality. Non-PBO stations were built with a variety of monument designs, equipment, and installation practices, and do not generally have consistently recorded operational and maintenance histories in a central database, because stations were installed by various organizations. Our quality analysis will identify any significant differences between PBO and non-PBO stations, and the resulting overview will help inform time series analysis for geophysical investigations.

  17. Developing partnerships for implementing continental-scale citizen science programs at the local-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology that resides at the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON, Inc). A central question for Project BudBurst and other national outreach programs is: what are the most effective means of engaging and connecting with diverse communities throughout the country? How can continental scale programs like NEON's Project BudBurst engage audiences in such a way as to be relevant at both the local and continental scales? Staff with Project BudBurst pursued partnerships with several continental scale organizations: the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Park Service, and botanic gardens to address these questions. The distributed nature of wildlife refuges, national parks, and botanic gardens around the country provided the opportunity to connect with participants locally while working with leadership at multiple scales. Project BudBurst staff talked with hundreds of staff and volunteers prior to setting a goal of obtaining and developing resources for several Refuge Partners, a pilot National Park partner, and an existing botanic garden partner during 2011. We were especially interested in learning best practices for future partnerships. The partnership efforts resulted in resource development for 12 Refuge partners, a pilot National Park partner, and 2 botanic garden partners. Early on, the importance of working with national level leaders to develop ownership of the partner program and input about resource needs became apparent. Once a framework for the partnership program was laid out, it became critical to work closely with staff and volunteers on the ground to ensure needs were met. In 2012 we began to develop an online assessment to allow our current and potential partners to provide feedback about whether or not the partnership program was meeting their needs and how the program could be improved. As the year progressed, the timeline for resource development became more of a suggestion than a set schedule. Maintaining flexibility was critical to the success of the partnerships. Unanticipated fieldwork, new priorities within organizations, and differing levels of involvement from partner staff, advisory boards, or Friends groups, led to varying resource development timelines. The distributed nature of and the willingness of partner staff and volunteers to implement Project BudBurst at their facilities have broadened the participation of the public in this program more than could have been accomplished alone. The new partners benefit from the free and customized education and outreach materials provided by Project BudBurst, while Project BudBurst benefits from the local knowledge and contacts with the public from the partner organizations.

  18. Quantifying continental-scale distribution of transmissivity using inversion of groundwater level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijendijk, E.; Gleeson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Transmissivity and permeability are crucial variables for large-scale groundwater model studies. Current large-scale datasets of permeability are based on calibrated groundwater models and high resolution lithology maps. We aim to extend continental-scale estimates of transmissivity of the shallow subsurface by using large databases of waterlevel data in combination with inverse analytical and numerical models. We use a dataset of 4000 stable long-term waterlevel records from the United States in combination with new datasets of perennial streams and watershed delineations and existing estimates of groundwater recharge. Transmissivity was calculated using simple analytical solutions and numerical models of groundwater flow that include a more realistic exchange with surface water bodies and evapotranspiration. We perform an uncertainty analysis to account for uncertainty in recharge, waterlevels and elevation data. We discuss how well we can predict transmissivity using these large-scale datasets and how the calibrated values of transmissivity correlate with lithology and geological setting.

  19. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food production

    SciTech Connect

    Chameides, W.L.; Kasibhatla, P.S. ); Yienger, J.; Levy, H. II )

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O[sub 3]) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO[sub x] emissions are not abated.

  20. Temperature drives the continental-scale distribution of key microbes in topsoil communities.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Loza, Virginia; Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Mateo, Pilar; Potrafka, Ruth M

    2013-06-28

    Global warming will likely force terrestrial plant and animal species to migrate toward cooler areas or sustain range losses; whether this is also true for microorganisms remains unknown. Through continental-scale compositional surveys of soil crust microbial communities across arid North America, we observed a latitudinal replacement in dominance between two key topsoil cyanobacteria that was driven largely by temperature. The responses to temperature of enrichment cultures and cultivated strains support this contention, with one cyanobacterium (Microcoleus vaginatus) being more psychrotolerant and less thermotolerant than the other (M. steenstrupii). In view of our data and regional climate predictions, the latter cyanobacterium may replace the former in much of the studied area within the next few decades, with unknown ecological consequences for soil fertility and erodibility. PMID:23812714

  1. The Role of Continental-scale Landmass in Monsoonal and Global Precipitation Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2008-01-01

    It was argued by Chao and Chen (20011) that land-sea thermal contrast on the continental scale is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon is an ITCZ that have moved into the subtropics in its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. Chao and Chen supported their contention by GCM experiments in which they replaced landmass by ocean and were able to generate monsoons. However, land-sea thermal contrast does exist and must play a role in monsoonal rainfall distribution. Land-sea thermal contrast is one facet of continental-scale landmass. in this article the roles of land-sea thermal contrast in monsoonal rainfall distribution and in middle latitude storm tracks are examined through GCM experiments. Comparison of a set of two GCM experiments in which the sea surface temperature (SST) from observations is prescribed from observations with and without a six-month delay reveals the role of land-sea thermal contrast. These experiments confirm that land-sea thermal contrast is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon should be viewed as an ITCZ displaced into the subtropics, instead of a continent-sized giant sea breeze. However, land-sea thermal contrast does have influence on the distribution of monsoonal rainfall. The temperature rise over south Asia as the season moves into summer helps the Asian monsoon to start early. However, this role is not the same as that of the land-sea thermal contrast as in the conventional explanation for the cause of monsoon. The heated Landmass in summer contributes to the displacement of 1TCZ into the subtropics Also, the heated landmass in summer, by drawing moisture toward itself, limits the range of the summer storm tracks in the middle latitude oceans. On the other band, in winter the landmass does not present a competition for rainfall and thus allow middle latitude storm tracks to expand over the ocean.

  2. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey wolves Canis lupus are known to kill coyotes Canis latrans, and coyotes, in turn, may kill foxes Vulpes spp., but the spatial effects of these competitive interactions at large scales are unknown. Here, we analyse fur return data across eight jurisdictions in North America to test whether the presence or absence of wolves has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox Vulpes vulpes density. Our results support the existence of a continental scale cascade whereby coyotes outnumber red foxes in areas where wolves have been extirpated by humans, whereas red foxes outnumber coyotes in areas where wolves are present. However, for a distance of up to 200 km on the edge of wolf distribution, there is a transition zone where the effects of top-down control are weakened, possibly due to the rapid dispersal and reinvasion capabilities of coyotes into areas where wolves are sporadically distributed or at low densities. Our results have implications for understanding how the restoration of wolf populations across North America could potentially affect co-occurring predators and prey. We conclude that large carnivores may need to occupy large continuous areas to facilitate among-carnivore cascades and that studies of small areas may not be indicative of the effects of top-down mesopredator control. PMID:24930631

  3. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sam W.; Prior, Lynda D.; Stephens, Helen C.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between climate and growth, mortality and carbon dynamics of eucalypt forests. PMID:26368919

  4. Integrating Phenological, Trait and Environmental Data For Continental Scale Analysis: A Community Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Walls, R.; Guralnick, R. P.; Rosemartin, A.; Deck, J.; Powers, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is a wealth of biodiversity and environmental data that can provide the basis for addressing global scale questions of societal concern. However, our ability to discover, access and integrate these data for use in broader analyses is hampered by the lack of standardized languages and systems. New tools (e.g. ontologies, data standards, integration tools, unique identifiers) are being developed that enable establishment of a framework for linked and open data. Relative to other domains, these tools are nascent in biodiversity and environmental sciences and will require effort to develop, though work can capitalize on lessons learned from previous efforts. Here we discuss needed next steps to provide consistently described and formatted ecological data for immediate application in ecological analysis, focusing on integrating phenology, trait and environmental data to understand local to continental-scale biophysical processes and inform natural resource management practices. As more sources of data become available at finer spatial and temporal resolution, e.g., from national standardized earth observing systems (e.g., NEON, LTER and LTAR Networks, USA NPN), these challenges will become more acute. Here we provide an overview of the standards and ontology development landscape specifically related to phenological and trait data, and identify requirements to overcome current challenges. Second, we outline a workflow for formatting and integrating existing datasets to address key scientific and resource management questions such as: "What traits determine differential phenological responses to changing environmental conditions?" or "What is the role of granularity of observation, and of spatiotemporal scale, in controlling phenological responses to different driving variables?" Third, we discuss methods to semantically annotate datasets to greatly decrease time needed to assemble heterogeneous data for use in ecological analyses on varying spatial scales. We close by making a call to interested community members for a working group to model phenology, trait and environmental data products from continental-scale efforts (e.g. NEON, USA-NPN and others) focusing on ways to assure discoverability and interoperability.

  5. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  6. Testing a growth efficiency hypothesis with continental-scale phenological variations of common and cloned plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2014-10-01

    Variation in the timing of plant phenology caused by phenotypic plasticity is a sensitive measure of how organisms respond to weather and climate variability. Although continental-scale gradients in climate and consequential patterns in plant phenology are well recognized, the contribution of underlying genotypic difference to the geography of phenology is less well understood. We hypothesize that different temperate plant genotypes require varying amount of heat energy for resuming annual growth and reproduction as a result of adaptation and other ecological and evolutionary processes along climatic gradients. In particular, at least for some species, the growing degree days (GDD) needed to trigger the same spring phenology events (e.g., budburst and flower bloom) may be less for individuals originated from colder climates than those from warmer climates. This variable intrinsic heat energy requirement in plants can be characterized by the term growth efficiency and is quantitatively reflected in the timing of phenophases—earlier timing indicates higher efficiency (i.e., less heat energy needed to trigger phenophase transitions) and vice versa compared to a standard reference (i.e., either a uniform climate or a uniform genotype). In this study, we tested our hypothesis by comparing variations of budburst and bloom timing of two widely documented plants from the USA National Phenology Network (i.e., red maple- Acer rubrum and forsythia- Forsythia spp.) with cloned indicator plants (lilac- Syringa x chinensis `Red Rothomagensis') at multiple eastern US sites. Our results indicate that across the accumulated temperature gradient, the two non-clonal plants showed significantly more gradual changes than the cloned plants, manifested by earlier phenology in colder climates and later phenology in warmer climates relative to the baseline clone phenological response. This finding provides initial evidence supporting the growth efficiency hypothesis, and suggests more work is warranted. More studies investigating genotype-determined phenological variations will be useful for better understanding and prediction of the continental-scale patterns of biospheric responses to climate change.

  7. Toward a Continental-Scale Mesonet: USDA National Resources Conservation Service SCAN and SNOTEL System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, G.; Marks, D.

    2004-12-01

    Since 1978 snow deposition and SWE in the inter-mountain western US have been monitored by the NRCS SNOTEL (SNOwpack TELemetry) system. This revolutionary network utilizes Meteorburst technology to telemeter data back to a central location in near real-time. With a pilot program starting in 1991, NRCS introduced SCAN (Soil Climate and Analysis Network) adding a focus on soil moisture and climate in regions outside the intermountain west. In the mid-1990's SNOTEL sites began to be augmented to match the full climate instrumentation (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind, and soil moisture and temperature in addition to precipitation, snow depth and SWE) of the SCAN system. At present there are nearly 700 SNOTEL sites in 12 states in the western US and Alaska, and over 100 SCAN sites in 40 states, Puerto Rico, and several foreign countries. Though SNOTEL was originally a western snow-monitoring network, differences between SCAN and SNOTEL have largely disappeared. The combined SNOTEL/SCAN system provides a continental-scale mesonet to support river basin to continental scale hydro-climatic analysis. The system is flexible and based on off-the-shelf data recording technology, allowing instrumentation, sampling and averaging intervals to be specified by site conditions, issues, or scientific questions. Because of the NRCS data management structure, all sites have active telemetery and provide near real-time access to data through the internet. An ongoing research program is directed to improved instrumentation for measuring precipitation, snow depth and SWE, and soil moisture and temperature. Future directions include expansion of the network to be more comprehensive, and to develop focused monitoring efforts to more effectively observe elevational and regional gradients, and to capture high intensity hydro-climatic events such as potential flooding from convective storms and rain-on-snow.

  8. Striving for consistency in a national assessment: The challengest of applying a reference-condition approach at a continental scale

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the biggest challenges when conducting a continental-scale assessment of streams is setting appropriate expectations for the assessed sites. The challenge occurs for 2 reasons: 1) tremendous natural environmental heterogeneity exists within a continental landscape and 2) r...

  9. Warming and Chilling: Assessing Aspects of Changing Plant Ecology with Continental-scale Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. D.; Hanes, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Many recent ecological studies have concentrated on the direct impacts of climate warming, such as modifications to seasonal plant and animal life cycle events (phenology). There are many examples, with most indicating earlier onset of spring plant growth and delayed onset of autumn senescence. However, the implication of continued warming for plant species’ chilling requirements has received comparatively less attention. Temperate zone woody plants often require a certain level of cool season "chilling" (accumulated time at temperatures below a specific threshold) to break dormancy and prepare to respond to springtime warming. Thus, the potential impacts of insufficient chilling must be included in a comprehensive assessment of plant species' responses to climate warming. Vegetation phenological data, when collected for specific plant species at continental-scale, can be used to extract information relating to the combined impacts of reduced chilling and warming on plant species physiology. In a recent study, we demonstrated that common lilac first leaf and first bloom phenology (collected from multiple locations in the western United States and matched with air temperature records) can estimate the species' chilling requirement (in this case 1748 chilling hours, below a base temperature of 7.2°C) and highlight the changing impact of warming on the plant's phenological response in light of that requirement. Specifically, when chilling is above the requirement, lilac first leaf dates advance at a rate of -5.0 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction, and lilac first bloom dates advance at a rate of -4.2 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction. In contrast, when chilling is below the requirement, the lilac event dates advance at a much reduced rate of -1.6 days per 100 hour reduction for first leaf date and -2.2 days per 100 hour reduction for first bloom date. Overall, these encouraging results for common lilac suggest that similar continental-scale phenological measurements could facilitate a better understanding of relationships among phenological response, springtime warming, and chilling requirements for other species. Further, it should be possible to address more detailed follow-up plant ecology questions in future studies using similar methodology. Example questions would include: 1) Are the chilling requirements for a species the same across its entire range? 2) Do species adapt to warming conditions by changing their chilling requirements? and 3) How much variation is there among species chilling requirements within the same community? Continental-scale phenological data sets are being developed by the USA National Phenology Network (http://www.usanpn.org), that will facilitate such investigations, and in turn be essential for understanding of (and eventually consideration of possible adaptations to) the coming impacts of climate warming on temperate plant communities. Additionally, these phenological data, because they provide plants species’ responses across large portions of species geographic ranges, will facilitate deeper understanding of the full range of plant-environment responses and consequently foster development of more robust phenological models.

  10. The Role of Continental-scale Landmass in Monsoons-A GCM Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston

    2008-01-01

    It was argued by Chao and Chen (2001) that land-sea thermal contrast on the continental scale is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon is an ITCZ that have moved into the subtropics in its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. Chao and Chen supported their contention by GCM experiments in which they replaced landmass by ocean and were able to generate monsoons. However, land-sea thermal contrast does exist and must play a role in monsoonal rainfall distribution. Land-sea thermal contrast is one facet of continental-scale landmass. The other important characteristic of landmass is its topography. In this article the roles of landmass in monsoonal rainfall distribution and in middle latitude storm tracks are examined through GCM experiments. Comparison of a set of two GCM experiments in which the sea surface temperature (SST) from observations is prescribed from observations with and without a six-month delay reveals the role of Land-sea thermal contrast. Another set of experiments, which repeats the first set but with topography of all landmass reduced to zero, reveals the role of topography of landmass. These experiments confirm that land-sea thermal contrast is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon should be viewed as an ITCZ displaced into the subtropics, instead of a continent-sized giant sea breeze. However, land-sea thermal contrast does have influence on the distribution of monsoonal rainfall. The temperature rise over south Asia as the season moves into summer helps the Asian monsoon to start early. However, this role is not the same as that of the land-sea thermal contrast as in the conventional explanation for the cause of monsoon. The heated landmass in summer contributes to the displacement of ITCZ into the subtropics. Also, the heated landmass in summer, by drawing moisture toward itself, limits the range of the summer storm tracks in the middle latitude oceans. On the ether hand, in winter the landmass does not present a competition for rainfall and thus allow middle latitude storm tracks to expand over the ocean.

  11. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment hydrology on lake eco-hydrology (NSF-INSPIRE, IIS1344272). The research attempts to use a virtual environment (www.organicdatascience.org) to break down disciplinary barriers and support emergent communities of science. [1] Source: Leonard and Duffy, 2013, Environmental Modelling & Software; [2] Source: Yu et al, 2014, Computers in Geoscience; [3] Source: Duffy et al, 2014, Procedia Earth and Planetary Science; [4] Source: Shi et al, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2014; [5] Source: Bhatt et al, 2014, Environmental Modelling & Software ; [6] Leonard and Duffy, 2014, Environmental Modelling and Software.

  12. An objective and parsimonious approach for classifying natural flow regimes at a continental scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydro-ecological stream classification-the process of grouping streams by similar hydrologic responses and, by extension, similar aquatic habitat-has been widely accepted and is considered by some to be one of the first steps towards developing ecological flow targets. A new classification of 1543 streamgauges in the contiguous USA is presented by use of a novel and parsimonious approach to understand similarity in ecological streamflow response. This novel classification approach uses seven fundamental daily streamflow statistics (FDSS) rather than winnowing down an uncorrelated subset from 200 or more ecologically relevant streamflow statistics (ERSS) commonly used in hydro-ecological classification studies. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the distributions of 33 tested ERSS are consistently different among the classification groups derived from the seven FDSS. It is further shown that classification based solely on the 33 ERSS generally does a poorer job in grouping similar streamgauges than the classification based on the seven FDSS. This new classification approach has the additional advantages of overcoming some of the subjectivity associated with the selection of the classification variables and provides a set of robust continental-scale classes of US streamgauges. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Continental-Scale Validation of Modis-Based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM + Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstratedby several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent freeavailability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicableto large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correctionmethods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive ProcessingSystem (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmosphericcharacterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamicaerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions ineach coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from eachLandsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validationresults are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methodswith AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 mpixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based methodhas better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  14. Continental-scale Validation of MODIS-based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM+ Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstrated by several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent free availability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicable to large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correction methods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmospheric characterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamic aerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions in each coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from each Landsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validation results are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methods with AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km×10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 m pixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based method has better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  15. Observed Land Impacts on Clouds, Water Vapor, and Rainfall at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Menglin; King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    How do the continents affect large-scale hydrological cycles? How important can one continent be to the climate system? To address these questions, 4-years of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) global precipitation analysis, were used to assess the land impacts on clouds, rainfall, and water vapor at continental scales. At these scales, the observations illustrate that continents are integrated regions that enhance the seasonality of atmospheric and surface hydrological parameters. Specifically, the continents of Eurasia and North America enhance the seasonality of cloud optical thickness, cirrus fraction, rainfall, and water vapor. Over land, both liquid water and ice cloud effective radii are smaller than over oceans primarily because land has more aerosol particles. In addition, different continents have similar impacts on hydrological variables in terms of seasonality, but differ in magnitude. For example, in winter, North America and Eurasia increase cloud optical thickness to 17.5 and 16, respectively, while in summer, Eurasia has much smaller cloud optical thicknesses than North America. Such different land impacts are determined by each continent s geographical condition, land cover, and land use. These new understandings help further address the land-ocean contrasts on global climate, help validate global climate model simulated land-atmosphere interactions, and help interpret climate change over land.

  16. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens

    PubMed Central

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R.; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies. PMID:21227965

  17. Estimating Root Mean Square Errors in Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Continental Scale Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Clara S.; Reichle, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard; Naeimi, Vahid; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using two methods: triple colocation (RMSETC ) and error propagation through the soil moisture retrieval models (RMSEEP ). In the absence of an established consensus for the climatology of soil moisture over large domains, presenting a RMSE in soil moisture units requires that it be specified relative to a selected reference data set. To avoid the complications that arise from the use of a reference, the RMSE is presented as a fraction of the time series standard deviation (fRMSE). For both sensors, the fRMSETC and fRMSEEP show similar spatial patterns of relatively highlow errors, and the mean fRMSE for each land cover class is consistent with expectations. Triple colocation is also shown to be surprisingly robust to representativity differences between the soil moisture data sets used, and it is believed to accurately estimate the fRMSE in the remotely sensed soil moisture anomaly time series. Comparing the ASCAT and AMSR-E fRMSETC shows that both data sets have very similar accuracy across a range of land cover classes, although the AMSR-E accuracy is more directly related to vegetation cover. In general, both data sets have good skill up to moderate vegetation conditions.

  18. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C.; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P.; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health. PMID:24979762

  19. Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devictor, Vincent; van Swaay, Chris; Brereton, Tom; Brotons, LluíS.; Chamberlain, Dan; Heliölä, Janne; Herrando, Sergi; Julliard, Romain; Kuussaari, Mikko; Lindström, Åke; Reif, Jiří; Roy, David B.; Schweiger, Oliver; Settele, Josef; Stefanescu, Constantí; van Strien, Arco; van Turnhout, Chris; Vermouzek, Zdeněk; Wallisdevries, Michiel; Wynhoff, Irma; Jiguet, Frédéric

    2012-02-01

    Climate changes have profound effects on the distribution of numerous plant and animal species. However, whether and how different taxonomic groups are able to track climate changes at large spatial scales is still unclear. Here, we measure and compare the climatic debt accumulated by bird and butterfly communities at a European scale over two decades (1990-2008). We quantified the yearly change in community composition in response to climate change for 9,490 bird and 2,130 butterfly communities distributed across Europe. We show that changes in community composition are rapid but different between birds and butterflies and equivalent to a 37 and 114km northward shift in bird and butterfly communities, respectively. We further found that, during the same period, the northward shift in temperature in Europe was even faster, so that the climatic debts of birds and butterflies correspond to a 212 and 135km lag behind climate. Our results indicate both that birds and butterflies do not keep up with temperature increase and the accumulation of different climatic debts for these groups at national and continental scales.

  20. Predicting continental-scale patterns of bird species richness with spatially explicit models

    PubMed Central

    Rahbek, Carsten; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Colwell, Robert K; Entsminger, Gary L; Rangel, Thiago Fernando L.V.B; Graves, Gary R

    2006-01-01

    The causes of global variation in species richness have been debated for nearly two centuries with no clear resolution in sight. Competing hypotheses have typically been evaluated with correlative models that do not explicitly incorporate the mechanisms responsible for biotic diversity gradients. Here, we employ a fundamentally different approach that uses spatially explicit Monte Carlo models of the placement of cohesive geographical ranges in an environmentally heterogeneous landscape. These models predict species richness of endemic South American birds (2248 species) measured at a continental scale. We demonstrate that the principal single-factor and composite (species-energy, water-energy and temperature-kinetics) models proposed thus far fail to predict (r2⩽0.05) the richness of species with small to moderately large geographical ranges (first three range-size quartiles). These species constitute the bulk of the avifauna and are primary targets for conservation. Climate-driven models performed reasonably well only for species with the largest geographical ranges (fourth quartile) when range cohesion was enforced. Our analyses suggest that present models inadequately explain the extraordinary diversity of avian species in the montane tropics, the most species-rich region on Earth. Our findings imply that correlative climatic models substantially underestimate the importance of historical factors and small-scale niche-driven assembly processes in shaping contemporary species-richness patterns. PMID:17148246

  1. A new harmonised soil map of Africa at the continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Spaargaren, Otto; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Brossard, Michel; Dampha, Almami; Deckers, Jozef; Gallali, Tahar; Hallett, Stephen; Jones, Robert; Kilasara, Method; Le Roux, Pieter; Michéli, Erika; Montanarella, Luca; Thiombiano, Lamourdia; Van Ranst, Eric; Yemefack, Martin; Zougmore, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Problem and statement: In the context of major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss, the protection and the sustainable management of soil resources in Africa are of paramount importance. To raise the awareness of the general public, stakeholders, policy makers and the science community to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has produced the Soil Atlas of Africa. Aim: To that end, a new harmonised soil map at the continental scale has been produced. Method: The steps of the construction of the new area-class map are presented, the basic information being derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). We show how the original data were updated and modified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources classification system. The corrections concerned boundary issues, areas with no information, soil patterns, river and drainage networks, and dynamic features such as sand dunes, water bodies and coastlines. Results and discussion: In comparison to the initial map derived from HWSD, the new map represents a correction of 13% of the soil data for the continent. The soil map and associated database also have the potential to enhance global studies on climate change, food production and land degradation for example. The explanation of the decisions that were made to produce the map will be useful to others who are attempting to harmonise legacy soil data sources to provide a usable information base. The map is available for downloading.

  2. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  3. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines.

    PubMed

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Miller, David A W; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Adams, Michael J; Amburgey, Staci M; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S; Fisher, Robert N; Green, David M; Hossack, Blake R; Johnson, Pieter T J; Joseph, Maxwell B; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Ryan, Maureen E; Waddle, J Hardin; Walls, Susan C; Bailey, Larissa L; Fellers, Gary M; Gorman, Thomas A; Ray, Andrew M; Pilliod, David S; Price, Steven J; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a "smoking gun" was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed. PMID:27212145

  4. Discovering exceptional diversifications at continental scales: the case of the endemic families of neotropical suboscine passerines.

    PubMed

    Claramunt, Santiago

    2010-07-01

    The study of continental adaptive radiations has lagged behind research on their island counterparts in part because the mere identification of adaptive radiations is more challenging at continental scales. Here, I demonstrate a new method based on simulations for discovering clades that show exceptionally high phenotypic diversity. The method does not require a phylogeny but accounts for differences in age and species richness among clades and incorporates effects of the phylogenetic structure of data. In addition, I developed a new multivariate measure of phenotypic diversity, which has the advantage over other measures of disparity in that it takes covariation into account. I applied these methods to a clade of endemic Neotropical suboscine passerines, within which the family Furnariidae has been considered an adaptive radiation. I found that the families Thamnophilidae, Furnariidae, and Dendrocolaptidae have experienced a higher rate of cladogenesis than have other clades. Although Thamnophilidae is exceptionally diverse in body size, only Furnariidae and Dendrocolaptidae are exceptionally diverse in shape. The combination of high rates of cladogenesis and high morphometric diversity in traits related to feeding and locomotion suggest that the clade Furnariidae-Dendrocolaptidae represent an authentic continental adaptive radiation. PMID:20148949

  5. The Footprint of Continental-Scale Ocean Currents on the Biogeography of Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.; Waters, Jonathan M.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Kraft, Gerald T.; Sanderson, Craig; West, John A.; Gurgel, Carlos F. D.

    2013-01-01

    Explaining spatial patterns of biological organisation remains a central challenge for biogeographic studies. In marine systems, large-scale ocean currents can modify broad-scale biological patterns by simultaneously connecting environmental (e.g. temperature, salinity and nutrients) and biological (e.g. amounts and types of dispersed propagules) properties of adjacent and distant regions. For example, steep environmental gradients and highly variable, disrupted flow should lead to heterogeneity in regional communities and high species turnover. In this study, we investigated the possible imprint of the Leeuwin (LC) and East Australia (EAC) Currents on seaweed communities across ~7,000 km of coastline in temperate Australia. These currents flow poleward along the west and east coasts of Australia, respectively, but have markedly different characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that, regional seaweed communities show serial change in the direction of current flow and that, because the LC is characterised by a weaker temperature gradient and more un-interrupted along-shore flow compared to the EAC, then coasts influenced by the LC have less variable seaweed communities and lower species turnover across regions than the EAC. This hypothesis was supported. We suggest that this pattern is likely caused by a combination of seaweed temperature tolerances and current-driven dispersal. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the characteristics of continental-scale currents can influence regional community organisation, and that the coupling of ocean currents and marine biological structure is a general feature that transcends taxa and spatial scales. PMID:24260352

  6. Extended-Range High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling over a Continental-Scale Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution mesoscale simulations, when applied for downscaling meteorological fields over large spatial domains and for extended time periods, can provide valuable information for many practical application scenarios including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. In the present study, a strategy has been proposed to dynamically downscale coarse-resolution meteorological fields from Environment Canada's regional analyses for a period of multiple years over the entire Canadian territory. The study demonstrates that a continuous mesoscale simulation over the entire domain is the most suitable approach in this regard. Large-scale deviations in the different meteorological fields pose the biggest challenge for extended-range simulations over continental scale domains, and the enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is not sufficient to restrict such deviations. A scheme has therefore been developed to spectrally nudge the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields at the different model vertical levels towards those embedded in the coarse-resolution driving fields derived from the regional analyses. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimal nudging strategy including the appropriate nudging length scales, nudging vertical profile and temporal relaxation. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil-moisture, and snow conditions, towards their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme was also devised to limit any considerable deviation in the evolving surface fields due to extended-range temporal integrations. The study shows that ensuring large-scale atmospheric similarities helps to deliver near-surface statistical scores for temperature, dew point temperature and horizontal wind speed that are better or comparable to the operational regional forecasts issued by Environment Canada. Furthermore, the meteorological fields resulting from the proposed downscaling strategy have significantly improved spatiotemporal variance compared to those from the operational forecasts, and any time series generated from the downscaled fields do not suffer from discontinuities due to switching between the consecutive forecasts.

  7. Numerical simulation of the geographical sources of water for Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Sud, Yogesh; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several important research questions that the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is actively pursuing, namely: What is the intensity of the water cycle and how does it change? And what is the sustainability of water resources? Much of the research to address these questions is directed at understanding the atmospheric water cycle. In this paper, we have used a new diagnostic tool, called Water Vapor Tracers (WVTs), to quantify the how much precipitation originated as continental or oceanic evaporation. This shows how long water can remain in the atmosphere and how far it can travel. The model-simulated data are analyzed over regions of interest to the GEWEX community, specifically, their Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) that are in place in the United States, Europe, Asia, Brazil, Africa and Canada. The paper presents quantitative data on how much each continent and ocean on Earth supplies water for each CSE. Furthermore, the analysis also shows the seasonal variation of the water sources. For example, in the United States, summertime precipitation is dominated by continental (land surface) sources of water, while wintertime precipitation is dominated by the Pacific Ocean sources of water. We also analyze the residence time of water in the atmosphere. The new diagnostic shows a longer residence time for water (9.2 days) than more traditional estimates (7.5 days). We emphasize that the results are based on model simulations and they depend on the model s veracity. However, there are many potential uses for the new diagnostic tool in understanding weather processes and large and small scales.

  8. Understanding Monthly Land Surface Relationships at the Continental Scale Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, R. D.; Mehra, V.; Kumar, P.; Bajcsy, P.; Tcheng, D.

    2006-12-01

    In the past few decades, remotely sensed Earth observation data has been gathered at rates now on the order of tens of terabytes per day. These collections of data are valuable reserves of "scientific ore." However, mining the ore for useful science has been challenging due to the sheer volume of data, esoteric formats, varying temporal scales, and varying spatial scales. Regardless, the wide geographic and temporal ranges allow investigations at scales inaccessible by other presently existing methods. We developed a technology called GeoLearn to facilitate data preparation and basic exploration so this data can be more readily available for scientific purposes. GeoLearn is used to prepare the data which we examine for relationships between several land surface variables across the entire continental USA during each month in the summer of 2004. We employ two approaches: k-means style clustering and regression tree approaches. Using k-means, we try to identify geographic regions of similarity using only remotely sensed characteristics. The resulting geographic regions often, but not always, correspond to EPA ecoregion boundaries. Using regressions trees, we try to predict a greenness index (EVI) based on other characteristics. In this case, the differing resolutions of the datasets became important. EVI is the most detailed variable we use. Since regression trees are capable of quite detailed approximations, the best naive model turns out to be based on the one or two most detailed explanatory variables. This results in a model which merely uses the explanatory variables as ID numbers rather than identifying any general relationships. We are able to develop alternative models which maintain flexibility without succumbing to the "ID number" problem as easily. These models allow us to identify what variables are most important for determining vegetation greenness at continental scales as well as how those relationships changed throughout the summer of 2004.

  9. NEON: Developing a Platform for Regional to Continental Scale Biological Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, J.

    2004-05-01

    Climate variation, introductions of alien species, and patterns of land use are some of the important interacting drivers of biological change that are affecting our nation's ecosystems. Many of these drivers operate over large spatial and temporal scales, and our understanding of how these phenomena interact to drive biological change is limited by our inability to link traditionally local and short-term ecological approaches to larger and longer scales. Similarly, our ability to forecast such changes and respond to their consequences is constrained. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a proposed shared-use research and education platform intended to improve our capacity to understand and predict biological phenomena operating from regional to continental scales. NEON is envisioned as a system of field and laboratory-based facilities distributed across the United States, which will provide the physical infrastructure and human capabilities necessary to coordinate and integrate research and education campaigns on the following types of issues: (1) biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functioning; (2) ecological aspects of biogeochemical cycles; (3) ecological implications of climate change; (4) ecology and evolution of infectious disease; (5) invasive species; and (6) land use and habitat alteration. Themes such as data sharing, multidisciplinary collaboration, and the development of technologies for sensing, forecasting, and visualizing biological information are central to the NEON concept. Development of the NEON science plan and the design of the network itself are proceeding through a variety of workshops and community planning meetings. A national project office is expected to form toward the end of 2004 to lead the development and creation of NEON. Ultimately, the project office will reside within an independent national organization devoted to the coordinated operation of NEON for the scientific community.

  10. Interpretation of Continental Scale Gravity Signatures from GOCE at Smaller Scale Mineral Hosting outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    The GOCE gravity field is globally homogeneous at the resolution of about 50km or better allowing for the first time to analyze tectonic structures on the continental scale. Geologic correlation studies propose to continue the tectonic lineaments across continents to the pre-breakup position. Tectonic events that induce density changes, as metamorphic events and magmatic events, should then show up in the gravity field. Applying geodynamic plate reconstructions to the GOCE gravity field places today's observed field at the pre-breakup position (Braitenberg, 2014). The same reconstruction can be applied to the seismic velocity models, to allow a joint gravity-velocity analysis. The geophysical fields bear information to control the likeliness of the hypothesized continuation of lineations. Total absence of a signal, makes the cross-continental continuation of the lineament unprobable, as continental-wide lineaments are controlled by rheologic and compositional differences of crust and upper mantle. Special attention is given to Greenstone belts, which are associated to a class of important mineralizations. The outcrops are limited in extent, but are associated with a much broader gravity signature, which cannot be explained by the outcropping masses alone. The gravity requires a mass source residing at lower crustal level, giving evidence of the mantle-crust melting processes influencing the tectonic characteristic at surface. The study is carried out over the African and South American continents. Reference Braitenberg C. (2014). Exploration of tectonic structures with GOCE in Africa and across-continents. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.013

  11. EarthScope: Earth Science Education and Outreach on a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    EarthScope, funded by the National Science Foundation, enables the exploration of the structure and evolution of the North American continent by scientists accessing a range of seismological, geodetic, in situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high resolution topography resources. Interdisciplinary EarthScope science produces transformative knowledge for studying Earth processes and structures, addressing hazards, and informing resource exploration and environmental management. In addition, these data and technologies offer superb opportunities to enhance formal and informal science education in the solid Earth and Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves the broad and diverse community of EarthScope stakeholders, including EarthScope researchers, formal and informal educators in Earth science, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes education and outreach (E&O) at a level comparable to that of its support for EarthScope science. This is accomplished through effective programs such as the EarthScope E&O website, Speaker Series, Interpretive Workshops for informal educators, newsletters, and the biannual EarthScope National Meeting. ESNO is adding further value to the programmatic E&O portfolio through new initiatives to: rapidly channel EarthScope science through social media; pilot and disseminate exemplary new Earth science content for K-12 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teacher professional development (in partnership with organizations such as American Geological Institute); use regional and local results from EarthScope research in promoting place-based teaching; and deliver continuing education for university researchers and educators. EarthScope E&O, infused with a place-based and educator-centered ethos, coordinates the compilation and presentation of the spectacular findings and scientific legacy of the continental-scale EarthScope program.

  12. A high-resolution approach to estimating ecosystem respiration at continental scales using operational satellite data.

    PubMed

    Jägermeyr, Jonas; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Hostert, Patrick; Migliavacca, Mirco; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2014-04-01

    A better understanding of the local variability in land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is crucial to improving the accuracy of global carbon budgets. Operational satellite data backed by ground measurements at Fluxnet sites proved valuable in monitoring local variability of gross primary production at highly resolved spatio-temporal resolutions. Yet, we lack similar operational estimates of ecosystem respiration (Re) to calculate net carbon fluxes. If successful, carbon fluxes from such a remote sensing approach would form an independent and sought after measure to complement widely used dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we establish an operational semi-empirical Re model, based only on data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a resolution of 1 km and 8 days. Fluxnet measurements between 2000 and 2009 from 100 sites across North America and Europe are used for parameterization and validation. Our analysis shows that Re is closely tied to temperature and plant productivity. By separating temporal and intersite variation, we find that MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) are sufficient to explain observed Re across most major biomes with a negligible bias [R² = 0.62, RMSE = 1.32 (g C m(-2) d(-1)), MBE = 0.05 (g C m(-2) d(-1))]. A comparison of such satellite-derived Re with those simulated by the DGVM LPJmL reveals similar spatial patterns. However, LPJmL shows higher temperature sensitivities and consistently simulates higher Re values, in high-latitude and subtropical regions. These differences remain difficult to explain and they are likely associated either with LPJmL parameterization or with systematic errors in the Fluxnet sampling technique. While uncertainties remain with Re estimates, the model formulated in this study provides an operational, cross-validated and unbiased approach to scale Fluxnet Re to the continental scale and advances knowledge of spatio-temporal Re variability. PMID:24259306

  13. PhenoCam: A continental-scale observatory for monitoring the phenology of terrestrial vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Friedl, M. A.; Frolking, S.; Pless, R.; PhenoCam Collaborators

    2011-12-01

    The term phenology refers to both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, such as when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to year-to-year variation in weather as well as longer-term changes in climate, particularly as related to temperature and precipitation. Understanding and predicting the impacts of climate change on plants and ecosystems requires better data with which predictive models of phenology can be developed and tested. PhenoCam uses networked, digital cameras as multi-channel imaging sensors to track the seasonal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation across a range of ecosystem types. The original network, which began in 2006 as a project focusing on the northeast region, consists of a dozen cameras deployed at pre-existing long term research sites. At eight of these sites, cameras are co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation with which surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water and energy are being measured. This provides opportunities for investigating relationships between phenology and ecosystem function and climate system feedbacks. We plan to expand PhenoCam from a regional network to a continental-scale observatory. We will deploy 20 additional cameras at FLUXNET sites across North America, spanning a wide range of vegetation types. We will further explore the feasibility of exploiting information related to phenology from an existing image archive of approximately 17,000 publicly available cameras located across the continent. We will use computer vision and machine learning approaches to develop new processing algorithms for this imagery, and will link these data products both to ground observations by USA-National Phenology Network "citizen scientists" and various satellite-based data streams, e.g. the MODIS phenology product. This project will develop predictions of how phenology may be affected by future climate change, and will quantify how future changes in phenology may impact some of the services that society derives from natural and managed ecosystems, such as agricultural crops, forest products, and clean water. In addition, the data produced from this project will be used improve the representation of phenological processes in large-scale climate models, which will help to reduce uncertainties in future climate forecasts.

  14. Hydrogen isotopes from source water to leaf lipid in a continental-scale sample network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary plant waxes are useful paleoclimate proxies because they are preserved in depositional settings on geologic timescales and the isotopic composition of the hydrogen in these molecules reflects that of the source water available during biosynthesis. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. However, the importance of variable net isotopic fractionation between source water and lipid for different species and environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Mechanistic models can predict the mean leaf water hydrogen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments. This will provide a more focused framework for understanding the environmental signal captured in leaf waxes, and will be used to refine models of isotopic processes within plants as well as the impact of these processes on surface and atmospheric water.

  15. Development and Application of a Process-based River System Model at a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Yang, A.; Teng, J.

    2014-12-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate model, are of very course spatial resolutions and they lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing streamflow forecast at fine spatial resolution and water accounts at sub-catchment levels, which are important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scale. A large-scale river system model has been developed and implemented for water accounting in Australia as part of the Water Information Research and Development Alliance between Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and CSIRO. The model, developed using node-link architecture, includes all major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. It includes an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. An auto-calibration tool has been built within the modelling system to automatically calibrate the model in large river systems using Shuffled Complex Evolution optimiser and user-defined objective functions. The auto-calibration tool makes the model computationally efficient and practical for large basin applications. The model has been implemented in several large basins in Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin, covering more than 2 million km2. The results of calibration and validation of the model shows highly satisfactory performance. The model has been operalisationalised in BoM for producing various fluxes and stores for national water accounting. This paper introduces this newly developed river system model describing the conceptual hydrological framework, methods used for representing different hydrological processes in the model and the results and evaluation of the model performance. The operational implementation of the model for water accounting is discussed.

  16. Continental Scale research of the coupled carbon and water cycles in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleugh, Helen; van Gorsel, Eva; Held, Alex; Huete, Alfredo; Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Phinn, Stuart; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    It is essential to understand the drivers and processes that regulate uptake and release of carbon and water by the terrestrial biosphere to quantify the sink and source strengths under current climatic conditions. In addition, understanding the consequences of a changing climate on the capacity of the biosphere to sequester carbon by using a certain amount of water and the impacts of disturbances on resilience and thresholds of the terrestrial biosphere is critical. Recently there has been increasing general interest in how human activities may be affecting Australia's natural carbon cycles. Quantification of carbon and water exchanges requires process understanding over long temporal and large spatial scales, but at fine levels of detail. This requires integration of long term, high frequency observations, models and information from process studies and can only be achieved through research infrastructure that can provide easy access to meta-data and data that have been collected in a systematic and standardized way. The Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) provides such nationally networked infrastructure, along with multi-disciplinary capabilities and end-user-focused products to deliver better ways of measuring and estimating Australia's current and future environmental carbon stocks and flows. Multiple Facilities in TERN are studying carbon and water dynamics across a range of distance and time scales. OzFlux, the Australasian arm of the global initiative Fluxnet, is the most obvious deployment of field hardware in TERN with close to 30 flux towers and their associated micrometeorological instrumentation in place around the country, from Central Australia to the Alps, covering ecosystems ranging from rainforest to alpine grasslands to mulga. Intensive monitoring is carried out at the 10 TERN Supersites which carry a suite of environmental instrumentation and perform standardised vegetation, faunal, soil and water monitoring.TERN AusCover provides a national expert network and data delivery service for provision of Australian biophysical remote sensing time-series data, continental-scale map products, and select high-resolution datasets over TERN OzFlux and Supersites. Integration of data streams and modeling is carried out through the TERN eMAST Facility. This presentation will give an overview of the infrastructure related to research in biogeochemistry through TERN. We will show how the deployment of large-scale infrastructure, observations, the curation of data and assimilation and integration of data into modelling is enhancing our process understanding of carbon uptake and water use in a large range of ecosystems.

  17. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Jacobi, Sarah; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie Y.; Fox, Timothy J.; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Tim; Kenow, Kevin P.; Lyons, James E.; Luke, Kirsten E.; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 days of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% CI = 89.2%, 91.9%) whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 days of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1,036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are essential locations for efficient migration and increasing survivorship during spring migration but not locations in Ontario and Massachusetts. This sort of spatially explicit information may allow decision-makers to prioritize their conservation actions toward locations most influential to migratory success. Thus, this mechanistic model of avian migration provides a decision-analytic medium integrating the potential consequences of local actions to flyway-scale phenomena.

  18. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF funded national investment in physical and information infrastructure. Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we develop climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. NEON's goal is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology by providing physical and information infrastructure. The NEON framework will take standardized, long-term, coordinated measurements of related environmental variables at each of its 62 sites across the nation. These observations, collected by automated instruments, field crews, and airborne instruments, will be processed into more than 700 data products that are provided freely over the web to support research, education, and environmental management. NEON is envisioned to be an integral component of an interoperable ecosystem of credible data and information sources. Other members of this information ecosystem include Federal, commercial, and non-profit entities. NEON is actively involved with the interoperability community via forums like the Foundation for Earth Science Information Partners and the USGS Community for Data Integration in a collective effort to identify the technical standards, best practices, and organizational principles that enable the emergence of such an information ecosystem. These forums have proven to be effective innovation engines for the experimentation of new techniques that evolve into emergent standards. These standards are, for the most part, discipline agnostic. It is becoming increasingly evident that we need to include socio-economic and public health data sources in interoperability initiatives, because the dynamics of coupled natural-human systems cannot be understood in the absence of data about the human dimension. Another essential element is the community of tool and platform developers who create the infrastructure for scientists, educators, resource managers, and policy analysts to discover, analyze, and collaborate on problems using the diverse data that are required to address emerging large-scale environmental challenges. These challenges are very unlikely to be problems confined to this generation: they are urgent, compelling, and long-term problems that require a sustained effort to generate and curate data and information from observations, models, and experiments. NEON's long-term national physical and information infrastructure for environmental observation is one of the cornerstones of a framework that transforms science and information for the benefit of society.

  19. Continental scale variation in 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuning; Levin, Naomi E.; Chesson, Lesley A.

    2015-09-01

    High-precision triple oxygen isotope analysis of waters is an emerging tool in hydrological and paleoclimate research. The existing research on 17O-excess in waters includes surveys of meteoric waters and region-specific studies of high-latitude snow and tropical storms. However, a better understanding of the variation in 17O-excess of waters across large geographic regions is needed to expand the utility of triple oxygen isotope measurements. Here we present 17O-excess data from tap waters across the continental U.S., which we used as a proxy for precipitation. The 17O-excess values of tap waters ranged from -6 to +43 per meg and averaged 17 ± 11 per meg which is lower than the average 17O-excess reported for global meteoric waters, but overlaps with reported 17O-excess values of rainfall from the tropics. We observed relatively high 17O-excess values (>25 per meg) of tap waters in the northwestern U.S. and some of the lowest 17O-excess values (<5 per meg) in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The latitudinal variation of 17O-excess among tap waters likely reflects the different controls on 17O-excess in precipitation. For example, re-evaporation of precipitation and convective processes influence the isotopic composition of tap waters from the southern portions of the U.S., resulting in relatively low 17O-excess values. In contrast, these effects are reduced in tap waters from the northern portions of the U.S. where snow and cold-season rainfall are primarily responsible for the majority of annual precipitation. Exceptions to the latitudinal trend are prevalent in the central portions of the U.S., where mixing and convection are likely responsible for 17O-excess values that are lower than would be expected at their latitudes. The results of this study provide both a first look at the variation of 17O-excess in meteoric waters on a continental scale and a predictive map for 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the U.S.

  20. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a plethora of open access software packages for the calculation of earthquake, volcanic, tsunami, storm surge, wind and flood have been produced globally. As part of the World Bank GFDRR Review released at the Understanding Risk 2014 Conference, over 80 such open access risk assessment software packages were examined. Commercial software was not considered in the evaluation. A preliminary analysis was used to determine whether the 80 models were currently supported and if they were open access. This process was used to select a subset of 31 models that include 8 earthquake models, 4 cyclone models, 11 flood models, and 8 storm surge/tsunami models for more detailed analysis. By using multi-criteria analysis (MCDA) and simple descriptions of the software uses, the review allows users to select a few relevant software packages for their own testing and development. The detailed analysis evaluated the models on the basis of over 100 criteria and provides a synopsis of available open access natural hazard risk modelling tools. In addition, volcano software packages have since been added making the compendium of risk software tools in excess of 100. There has been a huge increase in the quality and availability of open access/source software over the past few years. For example, private entities such as Deltares now have an open source policy regarding some flood models (NGHS). In addition, leaders in developing risk models in the public sector, such as Geoscience Australia (EQRM, TCRM, TsuDAT, AnuGA) or CAPRA (ERN-Flood, Hurricane, CRISIS2007 etc.), are launching and/or helping many other initiatives. As we achieve greater interoperability between modelling tools, we will also achieve a future wherein different open source and open access modelling tools will be increasingly connected and adapted towards unified multi-risk model platforms and highly customised solutions. It was seen that many software tools could be improved by enabling user-defined exposure and vulnerability. Without this function, many tools can only be used regionally and not at global or continental scale. It is becoming increasingly easy to use multiple packages for a single region and/or hazard to characterize the uncertainty in the risk, or use as checks for the sensitivities in the analysis. There is a potential for valuable synergy between existing software. A number of open source software packages could be combined to generate a multi-risk model with multiple views of a hazard. This extensive review has simply attempted to provide a platform for dialogue between all open source and open access software packages and to hopefully inspire collaboration between developers, given the great work done by all open access and open source developers.

  1. Non-climatic factors and long-term, continental-scale changes in seasonally frozen ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.

    2012-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that the northern high latitudes are experiencing an unprecedented rate of environmental change, including an increase in air temperatures (e.g. Serreze and Francis 2006), reduction of snow cover (e.g. Brown and Robinson 2011), ecosystem transformations and land cover changes (e.g. Callaghan et al 2011). Many of the potential environmental impacts of global warming in the high latitudes are associated with frozen ground, which occupies about 55% of the unglaciated land area in the northern hemisphere and consists of both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground. Frozen soils have a tremendous impact on hydrologic, climatic and biologic systems. Periodic freezing and thawing promote changes in soil structure, affect the surface and subsurface water cycle, and regulate the availability of nutrients in the soil for plants and biota that depend upon them. Freezing and thawing cycles can affect the decomposition of organic substances in the soil and greenhouse gas exchange between the atmosphere and land surface. Significant efforts have been devoted to permafrost-related studies, including the establishment of standardized observations (e.g. Romanovsky et al 2010, Shiklomanov et al 2008), modeling (e.g. Riseborough et al 2008), and climate-related feedback processes (e.g. Schuur et al 2008). Despite its vast extent and importance, seasonally frozen ground has received much less attention. One of the major obstacles in assessing changes in seasonally frozen ground is the lack of long-term data. In general, observations on soil temperature and freeze propagation are available for a limited area and involve a relatively short time period, precluding assessment of long-term, climate-driven change. A few known exceptions include shallow soil temperature and freeze/thaw depth observations conducted as part of the standard hydrometeorological monitoring system in China (e.g. Zhao et al 2004) and the Soviet Union/Russia (e.g. Gilichinsky et al 2000). In their recent paper entitled 'An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in Eurasian high latitudes', Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) provided detailed analysis of soil temperature data to assess 1930-2000 trends in seasonal freezing depth. The data were obtained from 387 Soviet non-permafrost meteorological stations. The authors performed systematic, quality-controlled, integrative analysis over the entire former Soviet Union domain. The long-term changes in depth of seasonal freezing were discussed in relation to such forcing variables as air temperature, degree days of freezing/thawing, snow depth and summer precipitation as well as modes of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The spatially average approach adopted for the study provides a generalized continental-scale trend. The study greatly improves, expands and extends previous 1956-90 analysis of the ground thermal regime over the Eurasian high latitudes (Frauenfeld et al 2004). Although the work of Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) is the most comprehensive assessment of the continental-scale long-term trends in seasonal freezing available to date, more detailed analysis is needed to determine the effect of climate change on seasonally frozen ground. It should be noted that, in addition to the variables considered for analysis, other non-climatic factors affect the depth of freezing propagation. Unlike the surface, which is influenced by the climate directly, the ground even at shallow depth receives a climatic signal that is substantially modified by edaphic processes, contributing to highly localized thermal sensitivities of the ground to climatic forcing. Subsurface properties, soil moisture, and snow and vegetation covers influence the depth of freezing. Topography also plays an important role in establishing the ground thermal regime. It is an important determinant of the amount of heat received by the ground surface, affects the distribution of snow and vegetation, and influences the surface and subsurface moisture regimes. As a result, the ground temperature and the related depth of freezing propagation are characterized by very high variability over short lateral distances. The data used for analysis by Frauenfeld and Zhang are single-point measurements obtained from a network of stations sparsely distributed over a very large spatial domain. Since no variability in edaphic conditions was considered, the presented results should be interpreted with some degree of caution. In addition, long-term soil observations at a single point using unautomated techniques unavoidably cause site disturbance, which may significantly modify the ground thermal regime over time. I would like to emphasize that the generalized continental trend in the depth of seasonal freezing presented by Frauenfeld and Zhang is very likely associated with changes in atmospheric forcing. However, any long-term continental trends of such a spatially heterogeneous and sensitive parameter as shallow soil temperature potentially include a significant non-climatic component. Although the single-point temperature data used by Frauenfeld and Zhang might not be sufficient to fully evaluate the localized effects on the overall trend, they are a terrific asset for further studies on climate and ground thermal regime. Detailed spatial assessment of the available ground temperature records over relatively homogeneous regions is a necessary next step in the assessment of climate-induced changes in seasonally frozen ground. Such an analysis is likely to show significant regional differences in long-term freeze propagation trends over Northern Eurasia and reveal region-specific sensitivities of the ground thermal regime to climatic forcing. References Brown R D and Robinson D A 2011 Northern hemisphere spring snow cover variability and change over 1922-2010 including an assessment of uncertainty Cryosphere 5 219-29 Callaghan T V, Tweedie C E and Webber P J 2011 Multi-decadal changes in tundra environments and ecosystems: the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPYBTF) AMBIO 40 555-7 Frauenfeld O W and Zhang T 2011 An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in the Eurasian high latitudes Environ. Res. Lett. 6 044024 Frauenfeld O W, Zhang T, Barry R G and Gilichinsky D 2004 Interdecadal changes in seasonal freeze and thaw depths in Russia J. Geophys. Res. 109 D5101 Gilichinsky D A et al 2000 Use of the data of hydrometeorological survey for century history of soil temperature trends in the seasonally frozen and permafrost areas of Russia Earth Cryosp. 4 59-66 (in Russian) Riseborough D, Shiklomanov N I, Etselmuller B and Gruber S 2008 Recent advances in permafrost modeling Permafr. Pereglac. Process. 19 137-56 Romanovsky V E et al 2010 Thermal state of permafrost in Russia Permafr. Periglac. Process. 21 136-55 Schuur E A G et al 2008 Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: implications for the global carbon cycle Bioscience 58 701-14 Serreze M C and Francis J A 2006 The Arctic amplification debate Clim. Change 76 241-64 Shiklomanov N I, Nelson F E, Streletskiy D A, Hinkel K M and Brown J 2008 The circumpolar active layer monitoring (CALM) program: data collection, management, and dissemination strategies Proc. of the 9th International Conf. on Permafrost (Fairbanks, AK, 29 June-3 July 2008) vol 1, pp 1647-52 Zhao L, Ping C L, Yang D, Cheng G, Ding Y and Liu S 2004 Changes of climate and seasonally frozen ground over the past 30 years in Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau, China Glob. Planet. Change 43 19-31

  2. The Impact of Detailed Snow Physics on the Simulation of Snow Cover and Subsurface Thermodynamics at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieglitz, Marc; Ducharne, Agnes; Koster, Randy; Suarez, Max; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The three-layer snow model is coupled to the global catchment-based Land Surface Model (LSM) of the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) project, and the combined models are used to simulate the growth and ablation of snow cover over the North American continent for the period 1987-1988. The various snow processes included in the three-layer model, such as snow melting and re-freezing, dynamic changes in snow density, and snow insulating properties, are shown (through a comparison with the corresponding simulation using a much simpler snow model) to lead to an improved simulation of ground thermodynamics on the continental scale.

  3. China is a `Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plex` and its role in regional and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Chameides, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses one of the three continental-scale metro-agroplexes - China - which is by far the most populous and rapidly developing. Analysed are the effects of regional environmental changes on China`s agricultural output, critical to its future. The environmental changes, potentially driven by China`s growing economic engine and changing land use characteristics, as well as by global environmental trends, include degradation in regional air quality, increases in regional air quality, increases in acid and trace element deposition, and shifts in key climatic parameters.

  4. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America.

    PubMed

    Drew, Lawrence J; Grunsky, Eric C; Sutphin, David M; Woodruff, Laurel G

    2010-12-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy. PMID:20952047

  5. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Grunsky, E.C.; Sutphin, D.M.; Woodruff, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy. ?? 2010.

  6. The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Buhnerkempe, Michael G.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Lindström, Tom; Grear, Daniel A.; Portacci, Katie; Miller, Ryan S.; Lombard, Jason E.; Werkman, Marleen; Keeling, Matt J.; Wennergren, Uno; Webb, Colleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United States’s cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak. PMID:24670977

  7. Continental-Scale Increase in Lake and Stream Phosphorus: Are Oligotrophic Systems Disappearing in the United States?

    PubMed

    Stoddard, John L; Van Sickle, John; Herlihy, Alan T; Brahney, Janice; Paulsen, Steven; Peck, David V; Mitchell, Richard; Pollard, Amina I

    2016-04-01

    We describe continental-scale increases in lake and stream total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, identified through periodic probability surveys of thousands of water bodies in the conterminous U.S. The increases, observed over the period 2000-2014 were most notable in sites in relatively undisturbed catchments and where TP was initially low (e.g., less than 10 μg L(-1)). Nationally, the percentage of stream length in the U.S. with TP ≤ 10 μg L(-1) decreased from 24.5 to 10.4 to 1.6% from 2004 to 2009 to 2014; the percentage of lakes with TP ≤ 10 μg L(-1) decreased from 24.9 to 6.7% between 2007 and 2012. Increasing TP concentrations appear to be ubiquitous, but their presence in undeveloped catchments suggests that they cannot be entirely attributed to either point or common non-point sources of TP. PMID:26914108

  8. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia.

    PubMed

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Phillips, Oliver L; Chave, Jerome; Sabatier, Daniel; Duque, Alvaro; Molino, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Spichiger, Rodolphe; Castellanos, Hernán; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Vásquez, Rodolfo

    2006-09-28

    The world's greatest terrestrial stores of biodiversity and carbon are found in the forests of northern South America, where large-scale biogeographic patterns and processes have recently begun to be described. Seven of the nine countries with territory in the Amazon basin and the Guiana shield have carried out large-scale forest inventories, but such massive data sets have been little exploited by tropical plant ecologists. Although forest inventories often lack the species-level identifications favoured by tropical plant ecologists, their consistency of measurement and vast spatial coverage make them ideally suited for numerical analyses at large scales, and a valuable resource to describe the still poorly understood spatial variation of biomass, diversity, community composition and forest functioning across the South American tropics. Here we show, by using the seven forest inventories complemented with trait and inventory data collected elsewhere, two dominant gradients in tree composition and function across the Amazon, one paralleling a major gradient in soil fertility and the other paralleling a gradient in dry season length. The data set also indicates that the dominance of Fabaceae in the Guiana shield is not necessarily the result of root adaptations to poor soils (nodulation or ectomycorrhizal associations) but perhaps also the result of their remarkably high seed mass there as a potential adaptation to low rates of disturbance. PMID:17006512

  9. Continental-scale temperature variability in PMIP3 simulations and PAGES 2k regional temperature reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pages2k-Pmip3 Group

    2015-06-01

    Estimated external radiative forcings, model results and proxy-based climate reconstructions have been used over the past several decades to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying observed climate variability and change over the past millennium. Here, the recent set of temperature reconstructions at the continental-scale generated by the PAGES 2k project and the collection of state-of-the-art model simulations driven by realistic external forcings following the PMIP3 protocol are jointly analysed. The first aim is to estimate the consistency between model results and reconstructions for each continental-scale region over time and frequency domains. Secondly, the links between regions are investigated to determine whether reconstructed global-scale covariability patterns are similar to those identified in model simulations. The third aim is to assess the role of external forcings in the observed temperature variations. From a large set of analyses, we conclude that models are in relatively good agreement with temperature reconstructions for Northern Hemisphere regions, particularly in the Arctic. This is likely due to the relatively large amplitude of the externally forced response across northern and high latitudes regions, which results in a clearly detectable signature in both reconstructions and simulations. Conversely, models disagree strongly with the reconstructions in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the simulations are more regionally coherent than the reconstructions perhaps due to an underestimation of the magnitude of internal variability in models or to an overestimation of the response to the external forcing in the Southern Hemisphere. Part of the disagreement might also reflect large uncertainties in the reconstructions, specifically in some Southern Hemisphere regions which are based on fewer paleoclimate records than in the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Continental-scale temperature variability in PMIP3 simulations and PAGES 2k regional temperature reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pages 2k-Pmip3 Group

    2015-12-01

    Estimated external radiative forcings, model results, and proxy-based climate reconstructions have been used over the past several decades to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying observed climate variability and change over the past millennium. Here, the recent set of temperature reconstructions at the continental-scale generated by the PAGES 2k project and a collection of state-of-the-art model simulations driven by realistic external forcings are jointly analysed. The first aim is to estimate the consistency between model results and reconstructions for each continental-scale region over the time and frequency domains. Secondly, the links between regions are investigated to determine whether reconstructed global-scale covariability patterns are similar to those identified in model simulations. The third aim is to assess the role of external forcings in the observed temperature variations. From a large set of analyses, we conclude that models are in relatively good agreement with temperature reconstructions for Northern Hemisphere regions, particularly in the Arctic. This is likely due to the relatively large amplitude of the externally forced response across northern and high-latitude regions, which results in a clearly detectable signature in both reconstructions and simulations. Conversely, models disagree strongly with the reconstructions in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the simulations are more regionally coherent than the reconstructions, perhaps due to an underestimation of the magnitude of internal variability in models or to an overestimation of the response to the external forcing in the Southern Hemisphere. Part of the disagreement might also reflect large uncertainties in the reconstructions, specifically in some Southern Hemisphere regions, which are based on fewer palaeoclimate records than in the Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Founder effects and stochastic dispersal at the continental scale of the fungal pathogen of bananas Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Gonzalo-Galileo; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Abadie, Catherine; Carlier, Jean

    2004-02-01

    The worldwide destructive epidemic of the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana started recently, spreading from South-East Asia. The founder effects detected in the global population structure of M. fijiensis reflected rare migration events among continents through movements of infected plant material. The main objective of this work was to infer gene flow and dispersal processes of M. fijiensis at the continental scale from population structure analysis in recently invaded regions. Samples of isolates were collected from banana plantations in 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Africa. The isolates were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that a high level of genetic diversity was maintained at the plantation and the plant scales. The loci were at gametic equilibrium in most of the samples analysed, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of random-mating populations of M. fijiensis, even at the plant scale. A low level of gene diversity was observed in some populations from the Africa and Latin America-Caribbean regions. Nearly half the populations analysed showed a significant deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium with gene diversity excess. Finally, a high level of genetic differentiation was detected between populations from Africa (FST = 0.19) and from the Latin America-Caribbean region (FST = 0.30). These results show that founder effects accompanied the recent invasion of M. fijiensis in both regions, suggesting stochastic spread of the disease at the continental scale. This spread might be caused by either the limited dispersal of ascospores or by movements of infected plant material. PMID:14717901

  12. Prediction of Continental-Scale Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange by Combining MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Zhuang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    There is growing interest in scaling up net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measured at eddy covariance flux towers to regional scales. Here we used remote sensing data from the MODIS instrument on board NASA's Terra satellite to extrapolate NEE measured at AmeriFlux sites to the continental scale. We combined MODIS data and NEE measurements from a number of AmeriFlux sites with a variety of vegetation types (e.g., forests, grasslands, shrublands, savannas, and croplands) to develop a predictive NEE model using a regression tree approach. The model was trained using 2000-2003 NEE measurements, and the performance of the model was evaluated using independent data over the period 2004-2006. We found that the model predicted NEE with reasonable accuracy at the continental scale. The R-squared values are 0.50 for all vegetation types combined and 0.72 for deciduous forests. We then applied the model to the conterminous U.S. and predicted NEE for each 500m by 500m cell over the period 2001-2006. Based on the wall-to-wall NEE estimates, we examined the spatial and temporal distributions of annual NEE and interannual variability of annual NEE across the conterminous U.S. over the study period (2001-2006). Our scaling-up approach implicitly considered the effects of climate variability, land use/land cover change, disturbances, extreme climate events, and management practices, and thus our annual NEE estimates represents the net carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in the conterminous U.S.

  13. Long-term aerosol study on continental scale through EARLINET vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Linne, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla

    2015-04-01

    Lidar techniques offer the opportunity for investigating the aerosol vertical profiles, which is an important information for climatological, meteorological and air quality issues. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) has been providing aerosol optical properties vertical profiles over Europe since May 2000. Long-term aerosol observations performed within EARLINET allows a climatological study of aerosol properties over Europe. All EARLINET stations perform almost simultaneously measurements three times per week following a scheduling established in 2000. Besides these climatological measurements, additional measurements are performed in order to monitor special events (as volcanic eruptions and desert dust intrusion), for satellite data evaluation and integrated studies and during intensive measurements campaigns. Aerosol optical properties vertical profiles are freely available at www.earlinet.org and through ACRIS data center http://www.actris.net/. This data are currently published on the CERA database with an associated doi number. Based mainly on Raman technique, EARLINET stations typically provide direct measurement of extinction profiles, and therefore of the aerosol optical depth (AOD), a key parameter for understanding the aerosol role on radiation budget. The free troposphere contribution to AOD and altitude of lofted layers are provided thanks to the vertical profiling capability of lidar technique. The representativeness of EARLINET regular scheduling for climatological studies is investigating through the comparison with AERONET and MODIS measurements. We find that the regular measurements schedule is typically sufficient for climatological studies. In addition lidar punctual measurements are representative for a larger area (1°x1°) in a climatological sense. Long term analysis of EARLINET profiles shows that the AOD in generally decreasing over Europe in agreement with both passive-sensors and in situ measurements. Mean vertical profiles and aerosol intensive properties are investigated for improving knowledge about aerosol property modifications and trends over the European continent. Acknowledgments: The financial support for EARLINET provided by the European Union under grant RICA 025991 within the framework of the Sixth Framework Programme is gratefully acknowledged. Since 2011 EARLINET has been integrated in the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Project supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 262254.

  14. Continental-scale ICESat canopy height modelling sensitivity and random forest simulations in Australia and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C.; Mahoney, C.; Held, A. A.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), previously onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) uniquely offers near global waveform LiDAR coverage, however, data quality are subject to system, temporal, and spatial issues. These subtleties are investigated here with respect to canopy height comparisons with 3 airborne LiDAR sites in Australia. Optimal GLAS results were obtained from high energy laser transmissions from laser 3 during leaf-on conditions; GLAS data best corresponded with 95th percentile heights from an all return airborne LiDAR point cloud. In addition, best GLAS results were obtained over relatively open canopies, where prominent ground returns can be retrieved. Optimized GLAS data within Australian forests were employed as canopy height observations, and related to 6 predictor variables (landcover, cover fraction, elevation, slope, soils, and species) by random forest (RF) models. Fifty seven RF models were trained, varying by binomial combinations of predictor data, from 2 to 6 inputs. Trained models were separately utilized to predict Australia wide canopy heights; RF canopy height outputs were validated against spatially concurrent airborne LiDAR 95th percentile canopy heights from an all return point cloud for 10 sites, encompassing multiple ecosystems. The best RF output was obtained from predictor data inputs: landcover, cover fraction, elevation soils, and species, yielding a RMSE=7.98 m, and R2=0.97. Results indicate inherent issues (noted in existing literature) in GLAS observations that propagate through RF algorithms, manifested as canopy height underestimations for taller vegetation (>45 m). To extend this research to the Canadian boreal forest context, research is also targeting canopy height model development in the Northwest Territories, allowing investigations of time-variant phenology and landcover sensitivity due to wetland extent and growth, snow cover and other land cover changes common within boreal forest ecosystems.

  15. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of major and minor trace elements concentration in soils from continental scale transects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine diffuse reflectance (DF) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (DRIFTS) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy for the determination of major and minor trace elements in soils obtained from two continental scale transects. Samples (n=720) came from two transec...

  16. Recent Developments and Applications of the WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Continental Scale Water Cycle Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Clark, M. P.; Wood, A. W.; Sampson, K. M.; Rasmussen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The translation of weather and climate forcing through complex landscapes to drive terrestrial hydrologic processes is a true multi-scale problem. Model architectures that attempt to capture these processes and feedbacks in a physically realistic way must be able to bridge spatial scales from meters to kilometers. To represent these processes across continental domains modeling systems must fully embrace high performance computing. Also, because there are both scientific and computational trade-offs in modeling many terrestrial hydrologic and land-atmosphere exchange processes, it is often highly advantageous to support multiple physics options in order to test competing hypotheses and apply scale-appropriate parameterizations for different prediction problems. In this talk we provide an update of new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in meeting these needs from both a process representation and high performance computing perspective. A key feature of these developments centers on new multi-scale modeling capabilities recently added to WRF-Hydro. We will discuss prediction and computational performance metrics for several recent large river basin and continental scale applications of the WRF-Hydro system over the coterminous U.S. and over Mexico in modes both coupled and uncoupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We will also provide updates on new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in the areas of water management applications and hydrologic data assimilation.

  17. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L.; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species - those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  18. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity.

    PubMed

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species--those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  19. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  20. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale. PMID:26148974

  1. Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale international project (GCIP); reference data sets CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic reference data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.

  2. The Mara Rosa 2010 GT-5 earthquake and its possible relationship with the continental-scale transbrasiliano lineament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Lucas V.; Assumpção, Marcelo; Chimpliganond, Cristiano; Carvalho, Juraci M.; Von Huelsen, Mônica G.; Caixeta, Daniel; França, George Sand; de Albuquerque, Diogo F.; Ferreira, Vinicius M.; Fontenele, Darlan P.

    2015-07-01

    On October 8th, 2010, a 5.0 mb earthquake with intensity VI (MM) occurred close to Mara Rosa, in the North of Goiás State, central Brazil, in an area where previous low magnitude seismicity had been observed. This earthquake was felt up to 300 km away from the epicenter, and was the biggest event ever detected in Central Brazil Seismic Zone. Despite the difficulty of associating earthquakes in Stable Continental Interior with geological structures, this event is possibly related to the reactivation of a geological fault of the continental-scale Transbrasiliano Lineament (TBL): the aftershock activity observed with an 8-station seismic network, indicates a NW dipping, SW-NE trending reverse fault, parallel to the TBL. The P axis is NW-SE oriented, consistent with expected stress direction in the region. Cross correlation technique was used to synchronize the weak P- and S- wave phases of some of the aftershocks, recorded at regional stations, with the corresponding arrivals of the main shock producing a consistent set of relative arrival times. The use of regional station corrections allowed the mainshock to be located with uncertainties small enough to qualify for a GT5 event, which will help to constrain 3D velocity models in South America. We found that the aftershocks were distributed around a circular area about 1.5-2.0 km across, with no events in the middle. This is interpreted as the mainshock rupture completely releasing all stresses. The rupture area and the mainshock moment correspond to a stress-drop of about 2 MPa.

  3. The application of a continental-scale radar database to hydrological process parametrization within Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, C. G.

    1993-02-01

    Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for climate research operate on a resolution of about 250 km and provide outputs averaged on a daily and monthly basis. The formation and evaporation of precipitation within cloud systems produces large latent heating effects. These effects constitute an important source of uncertainty in climate and, to a lesser extent, weather-forecasting models. There remains a large impact from this uncertainty on the performance of these models, produced by inadequate parametrization on scales of around 100-300 km. Likewise, variations of soil properties and of infiltration are not adequately defined at these scales, and therefore it is necessary to parametrize these processes. Unfortunately, the relationship between rainfall and runoff is highly non-linear, and the rate of infiltration will vary throughout a catchment area, making parametrization very difficult. Since 1986 the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) COST-73 Weather Radar Networking Project has encouraged the exchange of weather radar data between the countries of Europe. As part of the work undertaken in this project, instantaneous radar composite images over NW Europe were generated every hour with a grid resolution of about 5 km. Data from radars located in the UK, Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Belgium have been used. In the paper we discuss the nature of this database, and consider its reliability for estimating daily and monthly precipitation. We explore how this database might be used to develop a more effective parametrization scheme for surface hydrological processes within GCMs. Finally, the adequacy of such a database for continental-scale hydrological studies is assessed. It is noted that there is considerable scope for further studies of this type using radar data from most countries in both Western and Eastern Europe.

  4. Evaluation of forest interception estimation in the continental scale Australian Water Resources Assessment - Landscape (AWRA-L) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; Macfarlane, Craig; McJannet, Dave; Ellis, Tim; Grigg, Andrew; van Dijk, Albert

    2013-08-01

    The AWRA-L model is a core component of the joint Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and CSIRO Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system which integrates hydrological models and a variety of observations and satellite products to produce a National Water Accounting system for Australia. AWRA-L is a continental scale sub-model which provides surface water balance component estimates for all landscape types, including forests ranging from sparse woody vegetation in dry climates to dense tropical rainforest in wet climates. This paper describes the AWRA-L interception sub-routine, which is based on the widely used Gash model, and considers how its predictions compare with measurements of interception in tropical rainforests in north Queensland and sparse jarrah forests in Western Australia. The results demonstrate the importance of having accurate estimates of the three parameters which dominate the interception loss (as a fraction of rainfall), i.e. canopy water holding capacity, S, the average wet canopy evaporation rate, E, and the average rainfall rate, R. The current ‘default’ values of these parameters used in AWRA-L lead to significant errors in interception, which will also be reflected in the AWRA stream flow estimates. Analysis of how E and R values vary across the Australian continent have led to recommendations for how the interception calculations made by the AWRA-L model can be improved using values of E and R calculated from forest height and latitude. Revisions of the canopy storage parameters based on regressions derived from measured values at the rainforest and jarrah sites are also evaluated. Overall, the adoption of both updated canopy storage and E/R ratios outlined in this paper does provide a measurable improvement to the performance of the AWRA-L interception model. The approach developed in this study also has direct relevance to other applications of interception models for water balance modelling at large spatial scales.

  5. Generalized Continental Scale Hydrologic Model Parameter Estimates: Application to a VIC model implementation for the Contiguous United States (CONUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Parameter estimation is one of the biggest challenges in hydrologic modeling, particularly over large spatial scales. Model uncertainty as a result of parameter values can be as large as that from other sources such as the choice of hydrologic model or the choice of model forcing data. Thus far, parameter estimation has been performed in an inconsistent manner across the model domain, e.g., using patchy calibration or spatially constant parameters. This can produce artifacts in the spatial variability of model outputs, e.g., discontinuity of simulated hydrologic fields, difficulty with spatially consistent parameter adjustments, and so on. We implement a framework that is suitable for use across multiple model physics options to map between geophysical attributes (i.e., soil, vegetation) and model parameters that describe the storage and transmission of water and energy. Specifically, we apply the transfer functions that transform geophysical attributes into model parameters and apply these transfer functions at the native resolution of the geophysical attribute data rather than at the resolution of the model application. The model parameters are then aggregated to the spatial scale of the model simulation with several scaling functions - arithmetic mean, harmonic mean, geometric mean. Model parameter adjustments are made by calibrating the parameters of the transfer function rather than the model parameters themselves.We demonstrate this general parameter estimation approach using a continental scale VIC implementation at a 12km resolution. The VIC soil parameters were generated by a set of transfer functions developed with nation-wide STATSGO soil data. The VIC model with new soil parameters is forced with Maurer et al. 2002 climate dataset (1979-2008) and the simulation results are compared with the previous simulations with parameters used in past studies as well as observed streamflows at selected basins.

  6. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    Climate dynamics at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual scales shape global fire activity, although difficulties of assembling reliable fire and meteorological data with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution have frustrated quantification of this variability. Using Australia as a case study, we combine data from 4760 meteorological stations with 12 years of satellite-derived active fire detections to determine day and night time fire activity, fire season start and end dates, and inter-annual variability, across 61 objectively defined climate regions in three climate zones (monsoon tropics, arid and temperate). We show that geographic patterns of landscape burning (onset and duration) are related to fire weather, resulting in a latitudinal gradient from the monsoon tropics in winter, through the arid zone in all seasons except winter, and then to the temperate zone in summer and autumn. Peak fire activity precedes maximum lightning activity by several months in all regions, signalling the importance of human ignitions in shaping fire seasons. We determined median daily McArthur forest fire danger index (FFDI50) for days and nights when fires were detected: FFDI50 varied substantially between climate zones, reflecting effects of fire management in the temperate zone, fuel limitation in the arid zone and abundance of flammable grasses in the monsoon tropical zone. We found correlations between the proportion of days when FFDI exceeds FFDI50 and the Southern Oscillation index across the arid zone during spring and summer, and Indian Ocean dipole mode index across south-eastern Australia during summer. Our study demonstrates that Australia has a long fire weather season with high inter-annual variability relative to all other continents, making it difficult to detect long term trends. It also provides a way of establishing robust baselines to track changes to fire seasons, and supports a previous conceptual model highlighting multi-temporal scale effects of climate in shaping continental-scale pyrogeography.

  7. The Niassa Gold Belt, northern Mozambique - A segment of a continental-scale Pan-African gold-bearing structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkgard, T.; Stein, H. J.; Bingen, B.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Sandstad, J. S.; Moniz, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Niassa Gold Belt, in northernmost Mozambique, is hosted in the Txitonga Group, a Neoproterozoic rift sequence overlying Paleoproterozoic crust of the Congo-Tanzania Craton and deformed during the Pan-African Orogeny. The Txitonga Group is made up of greenschist-facies greywacke and schist and is characterized by bimodal, mainly mafic, magmatism. A zircon U-Pb age for a felsic volcanite dates deposition of the sequence at 714 17 Ma. Gold is mined artisanally from alluvial deposits and primary chalcopyrite-pyrite-bearing quartz veins containing up to 19 ppm Au have been analyzed. In the Caguru and M'Papa gold fields, dominantly N-S trending quartz veins, hosted in metagabbro and schist, are regarded as tension gashes related to regional strike-slip NE-SW-trending Pan-African shear zones. These gold deposits have been classified as mesozonal and metamorphic in origin. Re-Os isotopic data on sulfides suggest two periods of gold deposition for the Caguru Gold Field. A coarse-crystalline pyrite-chalcopyrite assemblage yields an imprecise Pan-African age of 483 72 Ma, dating deposition of the quartz veins. Remobilization of early-formed sulfides, particularly chalcopyrite, took place at 112 14 Ma, during Lower Cretaceous Gondwana dispersal. The 483 Ma assemblage yields a chondritic initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.123 0.058. This implies a juvenile source for the ore fluids, possibly involving the hosting Neoproterozoic metagabbro. The Niassa Gold Belt is situated at the eastern end of a SW-NE trending continental-scale lineament defined by the Mwembeshi Shear Zone and the southern end of a NW-SE trending lineament defined by the Rukwa Shear Zone. We offer a review of gold deposits in Zambia and Tanzania associated with these polyphase lineaments and speculate on their interrelation.

  8. Multi-criteria assessment of tensions in resource use at continental scale: a proof of concept with Australian rangelands.

    PubMed

    Hill, Michael J; Lesslie, Robert; Donohue, Randall; Houlder, Paul; Holloway, Jane; Smith, Jodie; Ritman, Kim

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to help to inform policy development for the Australian rangelands, and provide a proof of concept for application of a multi-criteria analysis approach to assessment of competing resource use at continental scale. The study aimed to identify and locate key natural resource and agricultural production assets in the rangelands, define a number of measures of potentially threatening processes, and use a multi-criteria approach to identify areas where threatening processes, agricultural production problems, or valuable natural resources coincided. The analysis used 35 readily available, continental spatial data layers at 5-km pixel resolution ranked from 1 (low) to 5 (high) under three themed groupings: natural resource base, production base, and threatening processes. These measures were aggregated into composite indicators to define attributes such as environmental sensitivity and total grazing pressure. The composites were then compared in a two-way analysis to explore particular interactions between threatening processes such as pastoralism and mining, and the condition of production and natural resource assets. These interactions were defined as "tensions" for purposes of this analysis. Example "tensions" included the association of high grazing intensity with areas of high environmental sensitivity, indicating a risk of land degradation under adverse climatic conditions. A summary of patterns of tension was obtained by extracting area proportions of high-tension classes for selected Natural Heritage Trust Regions, which are a basis for Australian Government funding of improved environmental management. The study provides a basis for further examination of trade-offs in the use of natural assets, opportunities for improved productivity and sustainability, and social and economic implications. PMID:16508800

  9. Machine vision approach to auto-generation of high resolution, continental-scale geomorphometric map from DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiewicz, J.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphometric map (GM) is a map of landforms delineated exclusively on the basis of their morphology; it depicts a classification of landscape into its constituent elements. GM is a valuable tool for visual terrain analysis, but more importantly, it's a perfect terrain representation for its further algorithmic analysis. GMs themselves are auto-generated from DEM. We have developed a new technique for auto-generation of GMs that is based on the principle of machine vision. Such approach approximates more closely the mapping process of human analyst and results in an efficient generation of GMs having quality and utility superior to maps generated by a standard technique based on differential geometry. The core of the new technique is a notion of geomorphon. A geomorphon is a relief-invariant, orientation-invariant, and size-flexible abstracted elementary unit of terrain. It is calculated from DEM using simple ternary patterns defined on a neighborhood which size adapts to the character of local terrain. Geomorphons are both terrain attributes and landform types at the same time; they allow for a direct and highly efficient, single-step classification and mapping of landforms. There are 498 unique geomorphons but only a small fraction of them are found in typical natural terrain. The geomorphon-based mapping technique is implemented as a GRASS GIS extension written in ANSI C and will be available in the public domain. In order to showcase the capabilities of geomorphons we have calculated the GM for the entire conterminous United States from the 30m/pixel NED DEM. The map shows ten most abundant landforms: flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, spur, slope, hollow, footslope, valley, and pit; a lookup table was used to assign each of the remaining 488 infrequent forms to a morphologically closest mapped form. The result is a unique, never before seen, type of map that clearly shows multiple geomorphic features and indicates the underlying geologic processes. The auto-generation of GM from this high resolution, continental size raster having 168000x104000 cells took 60 hours on a single processor computer. Future applications of such GM include coupling it with a search tool capable of querying the continental-scale GM in order to identify all instances of a given type of local landscape.

  10. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on weathered Ordovician limestones in central Kentucky. On local scales, anomalous metal concentrations recognized in soil profiles, such as high P in soils from animal confinement sites, are consistent with local anthropogenic disturbances. At a larger scale, the distribution of Hg across the west to east transect demonstrates that it can be difficult to distinguish between natural or anthropogenic contributions and that many factors can contribute to an element’s spatial distribution. Only three samples in a subset of seventy-three 0–5 cm depth soil samples from the north to south transect had organochlorine pesticides values above the method detection limit, apparently related to historic usage of the pesticides DDT and dieldrin.

  11. Sports Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, James

    1974-01-01

    Compares the results of a national and state survey on student participation in sports and attendence at sports events at the high school level, concluding that the publications staff should use such data to determine sports coverage in the school press. (RB)

  12. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (?14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on ?14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of ?14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in ?14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.81.8. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of ?14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  13. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  14. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Y.; Xiao, H.; Neelin, J.; Ji, X.

    2013-12-01

    An evaluation is presented of the impact on tropical climate of continental-scale perturbations given by different representations of land surface processes (LSP) in a general circulation model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that such perturbations have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific Ocean. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, model experiments are performed with different LSP representations confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. The largest impact found over the tropical Pacific is mainly from perturbations in the tropical African continent where convective heating anomalies associated with perturbed surface heat fluxes trigger global teleconnections through equatorial wave dynamics. In the equatorial Pacific, the remote impacts of the convection anomalies are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as by the effects of ocean memory. LSP perturbations over South America and Asia-Australia have much weaker global impacts. The results further suggest that correct representations of LSP, land use change, and associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty of future climate projections with global climate models under various climate change scenarios. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-641339

  15. Continental-scale assessment of long-term trends in wet deposition trajectories: Role of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Gall, H. E.; Niyogi, D.; Rao, S.

    2012-12-01

    The global trend of increased urbanization, and associated increased intensity of energy and material consumption and waste emissions, has contributed to shifts in the trajectories of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here, we focus on continental-scale spatiotemporal patterns in two atmospheric constituents (nitrate and sulfate), whose global biogeochemical cycles have been dramatically altered by emissions from mobile and fixed sources in urbanized and industrialized regions. The observed patterns in wet deposition fluxes of nitrate and sulfate are controlled by (1) natural hydro-climatic forcing, and (2) anthropogenic forcing (emissions and regulatory control), both of which are characterized by stochasticity and non-stationarity. We examine long-term wet deposition records in the U.S., Europe, and East Asia to evaluate how anthropogenic and natural forcing factors jointly contributed to the shifting temporal patterns of wet deposition fluxes at continental scales. These data offer clear evidence for successful implementation of regulatory controls and widespread adoption of technologies contributed to improving water quality and mitigation of adverse ecological impacts. We developed a stochastic model to project the future trajectories of wet deposition fluxes in emerging countries with fast growing urban areas. The model generates ellipses within which projected wet deposition flux trajectories are inscribed, similar to the trends in observational data. The shape of the ellipses provides information regarding the relative dominance of anthropogenic (e.g., industrial and urban emissions) versus hydro-climatic drivers (e.g., rainfall patterns, aridity index). Our analysis facilitates projections of the trajectory shift as a result of urbanization and other land-use changes, climate change, and regulatory enforcement. We use these observed data and the model to project likely trajectories for rapidly developing countries (BRIC), with a particular emphasis on various approaches to sustainable economic development. Brazil represents the case of shifts to alternate energy sources (bioethanol and hydroelectric power), while India and China are on the fossil fuel dependent trajectories, the same that North America and Europe had followed. Rapid increases in population, urbanization, and economic development of African cities presents an interesting case study for choices available for sustainable development, similar to that of Brazil rather than that followed by India and China. Coordinated air quality monitoring at urban and reference sites needs to be established to follow the fast-changing conditions.

  16. Continental-scale patterns in modern wood cellulose δ18O: Implications for interpreting paleo-wood cellulose δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S. L.; Johnson, A. H.; Dranoff, M. M.; Taylor, K. D.

    2008-06-01

    The isotopic composition of ancient wood may be a useful archive of some climatic or geochemical conditions of the past, but presently there are many uncertainties that constrain such interpretations. We sampled naturally growing, predominantly native trees in forested regions of North America and the Caribbean to evaluate the strength of the relationships among cellulose δ18O (δ18Ocel), relative humidity (RH), precipitation δ18O (δ18Oppt), and mean annual temperature (MAT) at the continental scale, and the general range of variability in δ18Ocel associated with site hydrologic conditions and species differences. We found up to 4‰ differences among different species growing at the same site, that conifer cellulose at a site is more enriched than angiosperm cellulose by 1.5‰ (p < 0.001), and that differences in landscape position, reflecting differing access to the water table, produced differences of <1‰ in δ18Ocel. At the continental scale, δ18Ocel was strongly influenced by modeled δ18Oppt (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001). Average summer minimum RH (RHmin) combined with δ18Oppt explained more of the variability (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.001) in δ18Ocel across North American and Caribbean forests. MAT and δ18Ocel were also strongly correlated across North America (R = 0.91 and 0.95, p < 0.001, for angiosperms and conifers, respectively). The difference between δ18Oppt and δ18Ocel is not constant (varying from 35-44‰) and is inversely correlated with δ18Oppt. The relationships among δ18Oppt, RHmin, δ18Ocel, and MAT established for North America and the Caribbean applied reasonably well when δ18Ocel was used to estimate MAT and δ18Oppt in Asia, Europe, and South America, but there were important exceptions. The most accurate predictions of MAT and δ18Oppt from δ18Ocel require RHmin. Predictions of δ18Oppt and MAT made from δ18Ocel alone produced errors of up to 8‰ and 16 °C, respectively.

  17. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

  18. Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-06-01

    Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugarcane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. The ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting different climate-mediated sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

  19. Sensitivity of aerosol properties to new particle formation mechanism and to primary emissions in a continental-scale chemical transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang,L.S.; Schwartz, S.E.; McGraw, R.; Lewis, E.R.

    2009-04-02

    Four theoretical formulations of new particle formation (NPF) and one empirical formulation are used to examine the sensitivity of observable aerosol properties to NPF formulation and to properties of emitted particles in a continental-scale model for the United States over a 1-month simulation (July 2004). For each formulation the dominant source of Aitken mode particles is NPF with only a minor contribution from primary emissions, whereas for the accumulation mode both emissions and transfer of particles from the Aitken mode are important. The dominant sink of Aitken mode number is coagulation, whereas the dominant sink of accumulation mode number is wet deposition (including cloud processing), with a minor contribution from coagulation. The aerosol mass concentration, which is primarily in the accumulation mode, is relatively insensitive to NPF formulation despite order-of-magnitude differences in the Aitken mode number concentration among the different parameterizations. The dominant sensitivity of accumulation mode number concentration is to the number of emitted particles (for constant mass emission rate). Comparison of modeled aerosol properties with aircraft measurements shows, as expected, better agreement in aerosol mass concentration than in aerosol number concentration for all NPF formulations considered. These comparisons yield instances of rather accurate simulations in the planetary boundary layer, with poor model performance in the free troposphere attributed mainly to lack of representation of biomass burning and/or to long-range transport of particles from outside the model domain. Agreement between model results and measurements is improved by using smaller grid cells (12 km versus 60 km).

  20. Using Gridded Snow Covered Area and Snow-Water Equivalence Spatial Data Sets to Improve Snow-Pack Depletion Simulation in a Continental Scale Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, J. C.; Tracey, J. A.; Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L.

    2014-12-01

    Snow cover areal depletion curves were used in a continuous daily hydrologic model to simulate seasonal spring snowmelt during the period between maximum snowpack accumulation and total melt. The curves are defined as the ratio of snow-water equivalence (SWE) divided by the seasonal maximum snow-water equivalence (Ai) (Y axis) versus the percent snow cover area (SCA) (X axis). The slope of the curve can vary depending on local watershed conditions. Windy sparsely vegetated high elevation watersheds, for example, can have a steeper slope than lower elevation forested watersheds. To improve the accuracy of simulated runoff at ungaged watersheds, individual snow cover areal depletion curves were created for over 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRU) in the continental scale U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM). NHM includes the same components of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff-Modeling System (PRMS), except it uses consistent land surface characterization and model parameterization across the U.S. continent. Weighted-mean daily time series of 1-kilometer gridded SWE, from Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), and 500-meter gridded SCA, from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), for 2003-2014 were computed for each HRU using the USGS Geo Data Portal. Using a screening process, pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA from the snowmelt period of each year were selected. SCA values derived from imagery that did not have any cloud cover and were >0 and <100 percent were selected. Unrealistically low and high SCA values that were paired with high and low SWE/Ai ratios, respectively, were removed. Second order polynomial equations were then fit to the remaining pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA to create a unique curve for each HRU. Simulations comparing these new curves with an existing single default curve in NHM will be made to determine if there are significant improvements in runoff.

  1. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicare Part D Medicaid Expansion menu KFF.org Twitter Facebook Email Women's Health Policy Search Graphics & Interactives ... Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Feb 02, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print Health insurance coverage is a ...

  2. Drug Coverage (Part D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov About Us Glossary MyMedicare.gov Login Search Medicare.gov Main Menu , collapsed Main Menu Sign Up / Change Plans Getting started with Medicare Your Medicare coverage choices When & how to sign ...

  3. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  4. The search for coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Laseter, W.S.

    1993-06-01

    Anyone involved with the purchase or management of corporate liability insurance is familiar with the onerous pollution exclusions'' that accompany virtually all liability and property policies issued in recent years. As a result of these provisions, many businesses mistakenly presume their insurance program provides no coverage for environmental losses. Most companies, however, already own substantial sums of environmental coverage in the form of old comprehensive general liability (CGL) and first party, all risks'' property insurance policies issued before the introduction of pollution exclusions in the early 1970s. Unfortunately, due to records destruction policies, office moves, changes in ownership and other opportunities to lose files, most businesses have a difficult time reconstructing their past coverage.

  5. Mapping the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins using Landsat-7: first steps towards an integrated multi-sensor pipeline for tracking populations at the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather J; Schwaller, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution. PMID:25412466

  6. Mapping the Abundance and Distribution of Adélie Penguins Using Landsat-7: First Steps towards an Integrated Multi-Sensor Pipeline for Tracking Populations at the Continental Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Heather J.; Schwaller, Mathew R.

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution. PMID:25412466

  7. The Coverage Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinobu, Stan; Jones, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant issue mathematics instructors face is how to cover all the material. Mathematics teachers of all levels have some external and internal pressures to "get through" all the required material. The authors define "the coverage issue" to be the set of difficulties that arise in attempting to cover a lengthy list of topics. Principal among

  8. Coverage That Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    As the shrinking pool of applicants forces colleges to adapt new approaches to recruiting, media campaigns are emerging as an effective way to send key messages to target audiences. Media relations can lend credibility (news coverage is considered more credible than advertising); save money; reach targeted areas; and communicate key themes. (MLW)

  9. Mapping AIS coverage for trusted surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Isenor, Anthony W.

    2010-10-01

    Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an unattended vessel reporting system developed for collision avoidance. Shipboard AIS equipment automatically broadcasts vessel positional data at regular intervals. The real-time position and identity data from a vessel is received by other vessels in the area thereby assisting with local navigation. As well, AIS broadcasts are beneficial to those concerned with coastal and harbour security. Land-based AIS receiving stations can also collect the AIS broadcasts. However, reception at the land station is dependent upon the ship's position relative to the receiving station. For AIS to be used as a trusted surveillance system, the characteristics of the AIS coverage area in the vicinity of the station (or stations) should be understood. This paper presents some results of a method being investigated at DRDC Atlantic, Canada) to map the AIS coverage characteristics of a dynamic AIS reception network. The method is shown to clearly distinguish AIS reception edges from those edges caused by vessel traffic patterns. The method can also be used to identify temporal changes in the coverage area, an important characteristic for local maritime security surveillance activities. Future research using the coverage estimate technique is also proposed to support surveillance activities.

  10. Regular phantom black holes.

    PubMed

    Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C

    2006-06-30

    We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity. PMID:16907293

  11. The Coverage of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David

    2009-01-01

    The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…

  12. Synchronization of Regular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caucal, Didier

    Functional graph grammars are finite devices which generate the class of regular automata. We recall the notion of synchronization by grammars, and for any given grammar we consider the class of languages recognized by automata generated by all its synchronized grammars. The synchronization is an automaton-related notion: all grammars generating the same automaton synchronize the same languages. When the synchronizing automaton is unambiguous, the class of its synchronized languages forms an effective boolean algebra lying between the classes of regular languages and unambiguous context-free languages. We additionally provide sufficient conditions for such classes to be closed under concatenation and its iteration.

  13. Seeking a Regularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol, William

    This autoinstructional unit deals with the phenomena of regularity in chemical behavior. The prerequisites suggested are two other autoinstructional lessons (Experiments 1 and 2) identified in the Del Mod System as SE 018 020 and SE 018 023. The equipment needed is listed and 45 minutes is the suggested time allotment. The Student Guide includes…

  14. Geometry of spinor regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.; Lounesto, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Kustaanheimo theory of spinor regularization is given a new formulation in terms of geometric algebra. The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel matrix and its subsidiary condition are put in a spinor form directly related to the geometry of the orbit in physical space. A physically significant alternative to the KS subsidiary condition is discussed. Derivations are carried out without using coordinates.

  15. A Novel Deployment Scheme Based on Three-Dimensional Coverage Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Ruchuan; Sun, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Coverage pattern and deployment strategy are directly related to the optimum allocation of limited resources for wireless sensor networks, such as energy of nodes, communication bandwidth, and computing power, and quality improvement is largely determined by these for wireless sensor networks. A three-dimensional coverage pattern and deployment scheme are proposed in this paper. Firstly, by analyzing the regular polyhedron models in three-dimensional scene, a coverage pattern based on cuboids is proposed, and then relationship between coverage and sensor nodes' radius is deduced; also the minimum number of sensor nodes to maintain network area's full coverage is calculated. At last, sensor nodes are deployed according to the coverage pattern after the monitor area is subdivided into finite 3D grid. Experimental results show that, compared with traditional random method, sensor nodes number is reduced effectively while coverage rate of monitor area is ensured using our coverage pattern and deterministic deployment scheme. PMID:25045747

  16. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  17. Krein regularization of QED

    SciTech Connect

    Forghan, B. Takook, M.V.; Zarei, A.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, the electron self-energy, photon self-energy and vertex functions are explicitly calculated in Krein space quantization including quantum metric fluctuation. The results are automatically regularized or finite. The magnetic anomaly and Lamb shift are also calculated in the one loop approximation in this method. Finally, the obtained results are compared to conventional QED results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Krein regularization yields finite values for photon and electron self-energies and vertex function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic anomaly is calculated and is exactly the same as the conventional result. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Lamb shift is calculated and is approximately the same as in Hilbert space.

  18. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  19. Antenna Beam Coverage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The strawman Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) design calls for the use of a CONUS beam for transmission between the supplier and the satellite and for fixed beams for transmission between the basic personal terminal and the satellite. The satellite uses a 3 m main reflector for transmission at 20 GHz and a 2 m main reflector for reception at 30 GHz. There are several types of spot beams under consideration for the PASS system besides fixed beams. The beam pattern of a CONUS coverage switched beam is shown along with that of a scanning beam. A switched beam refers to one in which the signal from the satellite is connected alternatively to various feed horns. Scanning beams are taken to mean beams whose footprints are moved between contiguous regions in the beam's coverage area. The advantages and disadvantages of switched and/or scanning beams relative to fixed beams. The consequences of using switched/scanning in lieu of fixed beams in the PASS design and attempts are made to evaluate the listed advantages and disadvantages. Two uses of switched/scanning beams are examined. To illustrate the implications of switched beams use on PASS system design, operation at two beam scan rates is explored.

  20. Surface radiation budgets in support of the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP), including the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Tarpley, J. Dan; Laszlo, Istvan; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Houser, Paul R.; Wood, Eric F.; Schaake, John C.; Robock, Alan; Lohmann, Dag; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Sheffield, Justin; Duan, Qingyun; Luo, Lifeng; Higgins, R. Wayne

    2003-11-01

    In support of the World Climate Research Program GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP), real-time estimates of shortwave radiative fluxes, both at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere, are being produced operationally by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service using observations from GOES images. The inference scheme has been developed at the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, and the atmospheric and surface model input parameters are produced and provided by the NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The radiative fluxes are being evaluated on hourly, daily, and monthly timescales using observations at about 50 stations. The satellite estimates have been found to be within acceptable limits during snow-free periods, but the difficulty in detecting clouds over snow affects the accuracy during the winter season. In what follows, this activity is discussed, and evaluation results of the derived fluxes against ground observations for time periods of 1-2 years are presented.

  1. Creating consensus on coverage choices.

    PubMed

    Davis, Karen; Schoen, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    The framework for reaching near-universal coverage outlined in this paper combines tax credits for private insurance and public program expansions. It illustrates how a series of incremental steps could be phased in to achieve near-universal coverage. Hallmarks include creation of a Congressional Health Plan; use of the income tax system to provide tax credits and enroll uninsured people; creation of a state Family Health Insurance Program open to everyone below 150 percent of poverty; and creation of a Medicare Part E, open to the disabled and uninsured older adults. The paper provides coverage and cost estimates and identifies potential sources of revenue to finance coverage. PMID:14527253

  2. CONTINENTAL SCALE BIOME RESPONSES TO CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current projections of climatic change call for a global average temperature increase of 2.8 to 5.2 degrees C and a 7% to 16% increase in rainfall by about 2030. he potential ecological responses to these changes have been estimated using a variety of techniques, but have general...

  3. Origin of regular satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The regular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are generally believed to have accreted within cooling circumplanetary nebulae. Small silicate bodies are lost into the planet by gas drag before ice can condense. Larger silicate protosatellites survive by exerting tidal torques on the gas, clearing low-density 'tunnels' around their orbits. The nebula is thus divided into a series of gas rings depleted in silicates. Cooling eventually allows ice condensation, yielding another generation of icy bodies. Collisional accretion of these objects accounts for stochastic density variations of Saturn's inner satellites. High dynamic pressure may have prevented accretion in the inner part of the Jovian nebula; J5 may be an ablated remnant of a larger body.

  4. POLYGONAL HYDROLOGY COVERAGE AND DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This coverage and dataset contain the polygonal hydrology for EPA Region 8. This coverage contains ponds, lakes, and linear hydrology that has been re-digitized for small scale mapping projects. The database is limited to just the pseudo items created by ArcInfo and one item use...

  5. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  6. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Brown, David W; Sodha, Samir V

    2014-11-21

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; global coverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use of immunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25412062

  7. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG COVERAGE Closing the Coverage Gap Medicare Prescription Drugs Are Becoming More Affordable The Affordable Care Act includes benefits to make your Medicare prescription drug coverage (Part D) more ...

  8. Regularized Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenhaus, Arthur; Tenenhaus, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) is a generalization of regularized canonical correlation analysis to three or more sets of variables. It constitutes a general framework for many multi-block data analysis methods. It combines the power of multi-block data analysis methods (maximization of well identified criteria) and…

  9. Natural selection and mechanistic regularity.

    PubMed

    DesAutels, Lane

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether natural selection operates regularly enough to qualify as a mechanism of the sort characterized by Machamer, Darden, and Craver (2000). Contrary to an influential critique by Skipper and Millstein (2005), I argue that natural selection can be seen to be regular enough to qualify as an MDC mechanism just fine-as long as we pay careful attention to some important distinctions regarding mechanistic regularity and abstraction. Specifically, I suggest that when we distinguish between process vs. product regularity, mechanism-internal vs. mechanism-external sources of irregularity, and abstract vs. concrete regularity, we can see that natural selection is only irregular in senses that are unthreatening to its status as an MDC mechanism. PMID:26921876

  10. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  11. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-11-08

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.

  12. Extended Locus of Regular Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, L.; Casten, R. F.

    2007-04-01

    A new family of IBM Hamiltonians, characterized by certain parameter values, was found about 15 years ago by Alhassid and Whelan to display almost regular dynamics, and yet these solutions to the IBM do not belong to any of the known dynamical symmetry limits (vibrational, rotational and γ - unstable). Rather, they comprise an ``Arc of Regularity'' cutting through the interior of the symmetry triangle from U(5) to SU(3) where suddenly there is a decrease in chaoticity and a significant increase in regularity. A few years ago, the first set of nuclei lying along this arc was discovered. The purpose of the present work is to search more broadly in the nuclear chart at all nuclei from Z = 40 - 100 for other examples of such ``regular'' nuclei. Using a unique signature for such nuclei involving energy differences of certain excited states, we have identified an additional set of 12 nuclei lying near or along the arc. Some of these nuclei are known to have low-lying intruder states and therefore care must be taken, however, in judging their structure. The regularity exhibited by nuclei near the arc presumably reflects the validity or partial validity of some new, as yet unknown, quantum number describing these systems and giving the regularity found for them.

  13. Extended Locus of Regular Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Amon, L.; Casten, R. F.

    2007-04-23

    A new family of IBM Hamiltonians, characterized by certain parameter values, was found about 15 years ago by Alhassid and Whelan to display almost regular dynamics, and yet these solutions to the IBM do not belong to any of the known dynamical symmetry limits (vibrational, rotational and {gamma} - unstable). Rather, they comprise an 'Arc of Regularity' cutting through the interior of the symmetry triangle from U(5) to SU(3) where suddenly there is a decrease in chaoticity and a significant increase in regularity. A few years ago, the first set of nuclei lying along this arc was discovered. The purpose of the present work is to search more broadly in the nuclear chart at all nuclei from Z = 40 - 100 for other examples of such 'regular' nuclei. Using a unique signature for such nuclei involving energy differences of certain excited states, we have identified an additional set of 12 nuclei lying near or along the arc. Some of these nuclei are known to have low-lying intruder states and therefore care must be taken, however, in judging their structure. The regularity exhibited by nuclei near the arc presumably reflects the validity or partial validity of some new, as yet unknown, quantum number describing these systems and giving the regularity found for them.

  14. LINEAR HYDROLOGY COVERAGE AND DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This coverage contains linear hydrology (streams, creeks, rivers, etc.) for EPA Region 8. These data were derived from the USGS Digital Line Graph (DLG) files. For a complete copy of the USGS metadata for the DLG information at the 1:100,000 scale refer to http://edcwww.cr.usgs....

  15. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Challenges and Opportunities in the Selection of Coverage Indicators for Global Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Newby, Holly; Bryce, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live. PMID:23667336

  16. Regularization Analysis of SAR Superresolution

    SciTech Connect

    DELAURENTIS,JOHN M.; DICKEY,FRED M.

    2002-04-01

    Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. In a previous report the application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar was investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. This work treats the problem from the standpoint of regularization. Both the operator inversion approach and the regularization approach show that the ability to superresolve SAR imagery is severely limited by system noise.

  17. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Toward universal coverage in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Linda J; Holahan, John; Weil, Alan; Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Buettgens, Matthew; Blavin, Fredric; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents several options designed to help the Commonwealth of Massachusetts move to universal health insurance coverage. The alternatives all build upon a common base that includes an expansion of the Medicaid program, income-related tax credits, a purchasing pool, and government-sponsored reinsurance. These measures in themselves would not yield universal coverage, nor would an employer mandate by itself. We show that an individual mandate, and an employer mandate combined with an individual mandate, both would yield universal coverage with a relatively small increase in government costs relative to state gross domestic product and current health spending. The cost of an employer mandate--with a "pay or play" design--is sensitive to the payroll tax rate and base, the number and kind of exemptions, and whether workers whose employers "pay" receive discounts when they purchase health insurance. The development of these alternatives and their analyses contributed to the eventual health care compromise that emerged in Massachusetts in April 2006. PMID:17004641

  19. Sparsity regularization in dynamic elastography.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, M; Sahebjavaher, R S; Salcudean, S E; Rohling, R

    2012-10-01

    We consider the inverse problem of continuum mechanics with the tissue deformation described by a mixed displacement-pressure finite element formulation. The mixed formulation is used to model nearly incompressible materials by simultaneously solving for both elasticity and pressure distributions. To improve numerical conditioning, a common solution to this problem is to use regularization to constrain the solutions of the inverse problem. We present a sparsity regularization technique that uses the discrete cosine transform to transform the elasticity and pressure fields to a sparse domain in which a smaller number of unknowns is required to represent the original field. We evaluate the approach by solving the dynamic elastography problem for synthetic data using such a mixed finite element technique, assuming time harmonic motion, and linear, isotropic and elastic behavior for the tissue. We compare our simulation results to those obtained using the more common Tikhonov regularization. We show that the sparsity regularization is less dependent on boundary conditions, less influenced by noise, requires no parameter tuning and is computationally faster. The algorithm has been tested on magnetic resonance elastography data captured from a CIRS elastography phantom with similar results as the simulation. PMID:22955065

  20. Giftedness in the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anne

    This paper presents a rationale for serving gifted students in the regular classroom and offers guidelines for recognizing students who are gifted in the seven types of intelligence proposed by Howard Gardner. Stressed is the importance of creating in the classroom a community of learners that allows all children to actively explore ideas and…

  1. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  2. Resource Guide for Regular Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampert, George J.

    The resource guide for regular teachers provides policies and procedures of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school district regarding special education of handicapped students. Individual sections provide guidelines for the following areas: the referral process; individual assessment; participation on student evaluation and placement committee; special…

  3. Operator regularization and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. B.; Tarasov, L.; Mckeon, D. G. C.; Steele, T.

    1989-01-01

    Operator regularization has been shown to be a symmetry preserving means of computing Green functions in gauge symmetric and supersymmetric theories which avoids the explicit occurrence of divergences. In this paper we examine how this technique can be applied to computing quantities in non-renormalizable theories in general and quantum gravity in particular. Specifically, we consider various processes to one- and two-loop order in φ4N theory for N > 4 for which the theory is non-renormalizable. We then apply operator regularization to determine the one-loop graviton correction to the spinor propagator. The effective action for quantum scalars in a background gravitational field is evaluated in operator regularization using both the weak-field method and the normal coordinate expansion. This latter case yields a new derivation of the Schwinger-de Witt expansion which avoids the use of recursion relations. Finally we consider quantum gravity coupled to scalar fields in n dimensions, evaluating those parts of the effective action that (in other methods) diverge as n → 4. We recover the same divergence structure as is found using dimensional regularization if n ≠ 4, but if n = 4 at the outset no divergence arises at any stage of the calculation. The non-renormalizability of such theories manifests itself in the scale-dependence at one-loop order of terms that do not appear in the original lagrangian. In all cases our regularization procedure does not break any invariances present in the theory and avoids the occurence of explicit divergences.

  4. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. PMID:23200441

  5. Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2013-04-01

    Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

  6. Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-09-01

    The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4 solutions (RL04) from the Center for Space Research (CSR). Post-fit residual analysis shows that the regularized solutions fit the data to within the noise level of GRACE. A time series of filtered hydrological model is used to confirm that signal attenuation for basins in the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) database over 320 km radii is less than 1 cm equivalent water height RMS, which is within the noise level of GRACE.

  7. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  8. 29 CFR 1975.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 1975.4 Section 1975.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.4 Coverage. (a) General. Any employer employing...

  9. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  10. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  11. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  12. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968... vehicle classes comprise the subject vehicles. (a) Subject vehicles. (1) All vehicles of a covered...

  13. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  14. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  15. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  16. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  17. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  18. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  20. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  1. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  2. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  3. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  4. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  5. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  6. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  7. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  8. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  9. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. A relevant universal coverage proposal.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Karen Davis and Cathy Schoen offer a strategic vision for universal coverage that attempts to move beyond ideological battles that have stifled progress. However, I believe that there are a few specific shortcomings with the proposal's logic that could thwart political consensus. I review some of these shortcomings and make suggestions for incremental technical improvements. In particular, I suggest that future versions of the proposal consider administering the tax credits as a "passthrough" from the government through employers to individuals. I also believe that reform proposals should address more directly the issues of provider accountability and patient information needs. PMID:14527255

  11. Statistical regularities reduce perceived numerosity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiaying; Yu, Ru Qi

    2016-01-01

    Numerical information can be perceived at multiple levels (e.g., one bird, or a flock of birds). The level of input has typically been defined by explicit grouping cues, such as contours or connecting lines. Here we examine how regularities of object co-occurrences shape numerosity perception in the absence of explicit grouping cues. Participants estimated the number of colored circles in an array. We found that estimates were lower in arrays containing colors that consistently appeared next to each other across the experiment, even though participants were not explicitly aware of the color pairs (Experiments 1a and 1b). To provide support for grouping, we introduced color duplicates and found that estimates were lower in arrays with two identical colors (Experiment 2). The underestimation could not be explained by increased attention to individual objects (Experiment 3). These results suggest that statistical regularities reduce perceived numerosity consistent with a grouping mechanism. PMID:26451701

  12. Children on the move and vaccination coverage in a low-income, urban Latino population.

    PubMed Central

    Findley, S E; Irigoyen, M; Schulman, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of childhood moves and foreign birth on vaccination coverage among Latino children in New York City. METHODS: Vaccination coverage was assessed in a survey of 314 children younger than 5 years at 2 immunization clinics. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of the study children had moved abroad. After adjustment for health insurance, regular source of care, and country of birth, child moves had no independent effect on vaccination coverage. Foreign-born children had diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, oral polio vaccine, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage rates similar to those of US-born children, but they were underimmunized in regard to Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign birth, but not childhood moves, is a barrier to vaccinations among low-income, urban Latino children. PMID:10553396

  13. Deep learning regularized Fisher mappings.

    PubMed

    Wong, W K; Sun, Mingming

    2011-10-01

    For classification tasks, it is always desirable to extract features that are most effective for preserving class separability. In this brief, we propose a new feature extraction method called regularized deep Fisher mapping (RDFM), which learns an explicit mapping from the sample space to the feature space using a deep neural network to enhance the separability of features according to the Fisher criterion. Compared to kernel methods, the deep neural network is a deep and nonlocal learning architecture, and therefore exhibits more powerful ability to learn the nature of highly variable datasets from fewer samples. To eliminate the side effects of overfitting brought about by the large capacity of powerful learners, regularizers are applied in the learning procedure of RDFM. RDFM is evaluated in various types of datasets, and the results reveal that it is necessary to apply unsupervised regularization in the fine-tuning phase of deep learning. Thus, for very flexible models, the optimal Fisher feature extractor may be a balance between discriminative ability and descriptive ability. PMID:21843987

  14. Adaptive regularization of earthquake slip distribution inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chisheng; Ding, Xiaoli; Li, Qingquan; Shan, Xinjian; Zhu, Jiasong; Guo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Regularization is a routine approach used in earthquake slip distribution inversion to avoid numerically abnormal solutions. To date, most slip inversion studies have imposed uniform regularization on all the fault patches. However, adaptive regularization, where each retrieved parameter is regularized differently, has exhibited better performances in other research fields such as image restoration. In this paper, we implement an investigation into adaptive regularization for earthquake slip distribution inversion. It is found that adaptive regularization can achieve a significantly smaller mean square error (MSE) than uniform regularization, if it is set properly. We propose an adaptive regularization method based on weighted total least squares (WTLS). This approach assumes that errors exist in both the regularization matrix and observation, and an iterative algorithm is used to solve the solution. A weight coefficient is used to balance the regularization matrix residual and the observation residual. An experiment using four slip patterns was carried out to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed regularization method can derive a smaller MSE than uniform regularization and resolution-based adaptive regularization, and the improvement in MSE is more significant for slip patterns with low-resolution slip patches. In this paper, we apply the proposed regularization method to study the slip distribution of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The retrieved slip distribution is less smooth and more detailed than the one retrieved with the uniform regularization method, and is closer to the existing slip model from joint inversion of the geodetic and seismic data.

  15. Differences in coverage patterns in cervical cytology screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Amy; Gale, Alastair G.; Wooding, David S.; Purdy, Kevin J.

    2003-05-01

    The visual screening of cervical smears is a complex process requiring appropriate slide coverage to detect any unusual appearances without making any omission errors. In examining a smear the observer has both to move the microscope stage appropriately to bring different slide areas into view, plus visually search the information presented within the binocular visual field. This study examined the patterns of slide coverage by different individuals when they inspected liquid based cervical smears. A binocular microscope was first adapted in order to record both the physical movement of the stage by the observer and also to access the microscope"s visual field. An image of the area of the smear under the microscope was displayed on a PC monitor and observers" eye movements were recorded as they searched this. By manually adjusting the microscope controls they also moved the stage and all stage movements and focussing were also recorded. The behaviour was examined of both novices and an expert screener as they searched a number of test cervical smears. It was found that novices adopted a regular examination pattern, which maximized slide coverage, albeit slowly. In contrast, the experienced screener covered the slides faster and more effectively ensuring more overlap between microscope fields.

  16. Attack Coverage in High-Level Men's Volleyball: Organization on the Edge of Chaos?

    PubMed

    Laporta, Lorenzo; Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Thomas, Luke; Afonso, José

    2015-09-29

    Change is pervasive, but emerging patterns are occasionally detectable through analysis of systemic behaviors. Match analysis uses these patterns in order to reduce the degree of improvisation and to optimize the training process. However, it is possible that certain game phases elude systematic patterning. In this vein, our aim was to analyze the case of attack coverage in men's volleyball, as we suspected it would elude systematic patterning and has received negligible attention in scientific research. We analyzed the occurrence of attack coverage in 4544 plays of the 2011 Volleyball World League. A Chi-square test with residual adjusted values was applied to explore significant associations between variables. A Monte Carlo correction was applied, as some cells had n<5. Effect sizes were determined using Cramer's V. Overall, attack coverage occurred in 3.89% of ball possessions, and 23 distinct structures emerged. These structures lacked significant associations with the game complex, setting zone, and effect of attack coverage. Conversely, attack coverage structures showed significant associations with the attack zone and tempo, with very strong effect sizes (V=0.472 and V=0.521, respectively). As certain attack zones are deeply associated with attack tempo, it is apparent that quicker attack plays affect attack coverage structuring, promoting the formation of less complex structures. Ultimately, attack coverage structures seem to depend on momentary constraints, thereby rendering rigid systematization impracticable. Still, we contended that a principle-based approach might be suitable. This invites researchers to rethink how to interpret game regularities. PMID:26557208

  17. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    PubMed

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention. PMID:23669083

  18. Knowledge and regularity in planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John A.; Langley, Pat; Matwin, Stan

    1992-01-01

    The field of planning has focused on several methods of using domain-specific knowledge. The three most common methods, use of search control, use of macro-operators, and analogy, are part of a continuum of techniques differing in the amount of reused plan information. This paper describes TALUS, a planner that exploits this continuum, and is used for comparing the relative utility of these methods. We present results showing how search control, macro-operators, and analogy are affected by domain regularity and the amount of stored knowledge.

  19. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An individual permanently and directly employed by...

  20. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  1. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  2. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular rate. 779.18 Section 779.18 Labor Regulations... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.18 Regular rate. As explained in the interpretative... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act...

  3. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regular rate. 779.18 Section 779.18 Labor Regulations... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.18 Regular rate. As explained in the interpretative... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act...

  4. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regular rate. 779.18 Section 779.18 Labor Regulations... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.18 Regular rate. As explained in the interpretative... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act...

  5. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit union may become a Regular member of the Facility by: (1) Making application on a form approved by...

  6. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regular rate. 779.18 Section 779.18 Labor Regulations... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.18 Regular rate. As explained in the interpretative... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act...

  7. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regular rate. 779.18 Section 779.18 Labor Regulations... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.18 Regular rate. As explained in the interpretative... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act...

  8. Some Cosine Relations and the Regular Heptagon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Heng, Phongthong

    2007-01-01

    The ancient Greek mathematicians sought to construct, by use of straight edge and compass only, all regular polygons. They had no difficulty with regular polygons having 3, 4, 5 and 6 sides, but the 7-sided heptagon eluded all their attempts. In this article, the authors discuss some cosine relations and the regular heptagon. (Contains 1 figure.)

  9. 28 CFR 540.44 - Regular visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regular visitors. 540.44 Section 540.44... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Visiting Regulations § 540.44 Regular visitors. An inmate desiring to have regular visitors must submit a list of proposed visitors to the designated staff. See § 540.45...

  10. 28 CFR 540.44 - Regular visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regular visitors. 540.44 Section 540.44... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Visiting Regulations § 540.44 Regular visitors. An inmate desiring to have regular visitors must submit a list of proposed visitors to the designated staff. See § 540.45...

  11. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit union may become a Regular member of the Facility by: (1) Making application on a form approved by...

  12. 28 CFR 540.44 - Regular visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regular visitors. 540.44 Section 540.44... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Visiting Regulations § 540.44 Regular visitors. An inmate desiring to have regular visitors must submit a list of proposed visitors to the designated staff. See § 540.45...

  13. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit union may become a Regular member of the Facility by: (1) Making application on a form approved by...

  14. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit union may become a Regular member of the Facility by: (1) Making application on a form approved by...

  15. 28 CFR 540.44 - Regular visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regular visitors. 540.44 Section 540.44... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Visiting Regulations § 540.44 Regular visitors. An inmate desiring to have regular visitors must submit a list of proposed visitors to the designated staff. See § 540.45...

  16. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit union may become a Regular member of the Facility by: (1) Making application on a form approved by...

  17. Regular Pentagons and the Fibonacci Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how to draw a regular pentagon. Shows the sequence of a succession of regular pentagons formed by extending the sides. Calculates the general formula of the Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. Presents a regular icosahedron as an example of the golden ratio. (YP)

  18. Regional Differences in Intervention Coverage and Health System Strength in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kumalija, Claud J.; Perera, Sriyanjit; Masanja, Honorati; Rubona, Josibert; Ipuge, Yahya; Mboera, Leonard; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Boerma, Ties

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessments of subnational progress and performance coverage within countries should be an integral part of health sector reviews, using recent data from multiple sources on health system strength and coverage. Method As part of the midterm review of the national health sector strategic plan of Tanzania mainland, summary measures of health system strength and coverage of interventions were developed for all 21 regions, focusing on the priority indicators of the national plan. Household surveys, health facility data and administrative databases were used to compute the regional scores. Findings Regional Millennium Development Goal (MDG) intervention coverage, based on 19 indicators, ranged from 47% in Shinyanga in the northwest to 71% in Dar es Salaam region. Regions in the eastern half of the country have higher coverage than in the western half of mainland. The MDG coverage score is strongly positively correlated with health systems strength (r = 0.84). Controlling for socioeconomic status in a multivariate analysis has no impact on the association between the MDG coverage score and health system strength. During 1991–2010 intervention coverage improved considerably in all regions, but the absolute gap between the regions did not change during the past two decades, with a gap of 22% between the top and bottom three regions. Interpretation The assessment of regional progress and performance in 21 regions of mainland Tanzania showed considerable inequalities in coverage and health system strength and allowed the identification of high and low-performing regions. Using summary measures derived from administrative, health facility and survey data, a subnational picture of progress and performance can be obtained for use in regular health sector reviews. PMID:26536351

  19. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  20. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.602 Coverage. An employee who meets the requirements of section 6304(b) of title 5, United States Code, for the accumulation of a maximum...

  1. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a...

  2. 5 CFR 319.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 319.201 Section 319.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.201 Coverage. This...

  3. 5 CFR 534.501 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 534.501 Section 534.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.501 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5376 and applies to— (1)...

  4. Computational Methods for Analyzing Health News Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Delano J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers that investigate the media's coverage of health have historically relied on keyword searches to retrieve relevant health news coverage, and manual content analysis methods to categorize and score health news text. These methods are problematic. Manual content analysis methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and inherently…

  5. 43 CFR 3933.51 - Bond coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bond coverage. 3933.51 Section 3933.51... and Subleases § 3933.51 Bond coverage. Before the BLM will approve an assignment, the assignee must submit to the proper BLM office a new bond in an amount to be determined by the BLM, or, in lieu...

  6. 43 CFR 3933.51 - Bond coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bond coverage. 3933.51 Section 3933.51... Assignments and Subleases § 3933.51 Bond coverage. Before the BLM will approve an assignment, the assignee must submit to the proper BLM office a new bond in an amount to be determined by the BLM, or, in...

  7. 43 CFR 3933.51 - Bond coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bond coverage. 3933.51 Section 3933.51... Assignments and Subleases § 3933.51 Bond coverage. Before the BLM will approve an assignment, the assignee must submit to the proper BLM office a new bond in an amount to be determined by the BLM, or, in...

  8. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS (Eff. until 2-2-10) Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less 752.201 Coverage. (a) Actions covered. This...

  9. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage....

  10. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage....

  11. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage....

  12. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage....

  13. Earthquake Coverage by the Western Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Gary D.; Tanjong, Enoh

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the type and quantity of Western news coverage of Third World earthquakes. Finds little evidence of geographical bias in coverage studied, and suggests that care must be taken to examine the underlying news events before bias is alleged. (MS)

  14. 5 CFR 550.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 550.602 Section 550.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Computation of Pay for Biweekly Pay Periods § 550.602 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to— (1) An employee in or under an agency, except...

  15. Computational Methods for Analyzing Health News Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Delano J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers that investigate the media's coverage of health have historically relied on keyword searches to retrieve relevant health news coverage, and manual content analysis methods to categorize and score health news text. These methods are problematic. Manual content analysis methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and inherently

  16. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330 Section 1006.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage....

  17. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to any... of lie detector, including polygraph, tests which occur within the territorial jurisdiction of the... a polygraph test that is to be administered on the high seas or in some foreign location....

  18. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to any... of lie detector, including polygraph, tests which occur within the territorial jurisdiction of the... a polygraph test that is to be administered on the high seas or in some foreign location....

  19. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.356 Vehicle coverage. The...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... planting period; and ends on the earlier of the date harvest is complete; the normal harvest date of the... harvest is complete; or the normal harvest date. (g) For biennial and perennial forage crops the coverage..., the date the crop was planted; or the date following the normal harvest date. The coverage ends on...

  1. 12 CFR 1005.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer that authorizes a financial institution to debit or credit a...

  2. 12 CFR 1005.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 1005.3 Coverage... Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and...

  3. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  4. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  5. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  6. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 2001.71 Section 2001.71 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL... Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 2001.71 Section 2001.71 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL... Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a...

  8. 42 CFR 423.566 - Coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and supplemental benefits as specified in 423.104(f)(1)(ii), and the amount, including cost sharing... the amount of cost sharing for a drug. (c) Who can request a coverage determination. Individuals who... professional with sufficient medical and other expertise, including knowledge of Medicare coverage...

  9. 43 CFR 3933.51 - Bond coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bond coverage. 3933.51 Section 3933.51 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Assignments and Subleases § 3933.51 Bond coverage. Before the BLM will approve an assignment, the...

  10. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. (a) Introduction. (1) In enacting...

  11. 5 CFR 531.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 5305 and 5 CFR part 530, subpart C. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 531.202 Section 531.202... Determining Rate of Basic Pay General Provisions § 531.202 Coverage. This subpart covers employees who...

  12. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  13. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  14. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  15. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  16. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  17. 5 CFR 531.402 - Employee coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee coverage. 531.402 Section 531... GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.402 Employee coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this subpart applies to employees who— (1) Are classified and paid under...

  18. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  20. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  1. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  2. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage. This subpart applies to the...

  3. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer that authorizes a financial institution to debit...

  4. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  5. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  6. Newspaper Promotions and Coverage of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.; Crook, James

    1993-01-01

    Shows that, via a content analysis of six large U.S. newspapers during the late 1980s, their coverage of literacy varied widely, with most coverage getting inside rather than front-page placement and that it was mostly staff generated. (SR)

  7. 5 CFR 319.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 319.201 Section 319.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.201 Coverage. This...

  8. 5 CFR 319.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 319.201 Section 319.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.201 Coverage. This...

  9. 5 CFR 319.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 319.201 Section 319.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.201 Coverage. This...

  10. 5 CFR 319.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 319.201 Section 319.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.201 Coverage. This...

  11. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  12. Quality and extent of locum tenens coverage in pediatric surgical practices.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tracy L; Kandel, Jessica J; Nakayama, Don K

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence and quality of locum tenens coverage in pediatric surgery have not been determined. An Internet-based survey of American Pediatric Surgical Association members was conducted: 1) practice description; 2) use and frequency of locum tenens coverage; 4) whether the surgeon provided such coverage; and 5) Likert scale responses (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree) to statements addressing its acceptability and quality (two × five contingency table and χ(2) analyses, significance at P < 0.05). Three hundred sixteen of 1163 members (27.2% response rate) responded. One-fourth (24.1%) used a locum tenens regularly. Reasons were long-term inability to recruit a full-time surgeon (35.2%) and short-term vacancies (32.4%). One-fifth (20.4%) did locum tenens work; one-fourth (27.0%) plan to do so in the future. Two-thirds (64.2%) believe that surgical care in a locum tenens situation does not provide the same level of care as a full-time community-based surgeon. Most support locum tenens for short-term coverage (87.3%) and recruitment problems (72.1%), but not long-term vacancies (38.8%; P < 0.001) or permanent coverage (27.0%; P < 0.001). locum tenens coverage is an established feature of pediatric surgery. Most view it as a stopgap solution to the surgical workforce shortage. PMID:25831184

  13. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers. PMID:26084948

  14. Monitoring coverage of fully immunized children.

    PubMed

    Tsega, Asnakew; Daniel, Fussum; Steinglass, Robert

    2014-12-12

    Immunization programs monitor 3rd dose of DPT-containing vaccine coverage as a principal indicator; however, this does not inform about coverage with other vaccines. A mini-survey was conducted to assess the status of monitoring coverage of fully immunized children (FIC) in Eastern and Southern African countries. We designed and distributed a structured self-administered questionnaire to all 19 national program managers attending a meeting in March 2014 in Harare, Zimbabwe. We learned that most countries already monitor FIC coverage and managers appreciate the importance of monitoring this as a national indicator, as it aligns with the full benefits of immunization. This mini-survey concluded that at national level, FIC coverage could be used as a principal indicator; however, at global level DPT3 has some additional advantages across all countries in standardizing the capacity of the immunization program to deliver multiple doses of the same vaccine to all children by 12 months of age. PMID:25444826

  15. Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a U (1 ) gauge transformation and under the T -duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three Kähler moduli Ti obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars (PV) regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cutoff has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D -term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

  16. Increasing Coverage and Decreasing Inequity in Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Use among Rural Kenyan Children

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Amin, Abdinasir A; Akhwale, Willis S; Snow, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Background Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. Methods and Findings We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 04 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni) annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004), the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005), and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006). The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281); 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131), and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000). The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial social marketing favoured the least poor. Conclusions Rapid scaling up of ITN coverage among Africa's poorest rural children can be achieved through mass distribution campaigns. These efforts must form an important adjunct to regular, routine access to ITNs through clinics, and each complimentary approach should aim to make this intervention free to clients to ensure equitable access among those least able to afford even the cost of a heavily subsidized net. PMID:17713981

  17. Emerging challenges in implementing universal health coverage in Asia.

    PubMed

    Bredenkamp, Caryn; Evans, Timothy; Lagrada, Leizel; Langenbrunner, John; Nachuk, Stefan; Palu, Toomas

    2015-11-01

    As countries in Asia converge on the goal of universal health coverage (UHC), some common challenges are emerging. One is how to ensure coverage of the informal sector so as to make UHC truly universal; a second is how to design a benefit package that is responsive and appropriate to current health challenges, yet fiscally sustainable; and a third is how to ensure "supply-side readiness", i.e. the availability and quality of services, which is a necessary condition for translating coverage into improvements in health outcomes. Using examples from the Asia region, this paper discusses these three challenges and how they are being addressed. On the first challenge, two promising approaches emerge: using general revenues to fully cover the informal sector, or employing a combination of tax subsidies, non-financial incentives and contributory requirements. The former can produce fast results, but places pressure on government budgets and may induce informality, while the latter will require a strong administrative mandate and systems to track the ability-to-pay. With respect to benefit packages, we find considerable variation in the nature and rigor of processes underlying the selection and updating of the services included. Also, in general, packages do not yet focus sufficiently on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and related preventive outpatient care. Finally, there are large variations and inequities in the supply-side readiness, in terms of availability of infrastructure, equipment, essential drugs and staffing, to deliver on the promises of UHC. Health worker competencies are also a constraint. While the UHC challenges are common, experience in overcoming these challenges is varied and many of the successes appear to be highly context-specific. This implies that researchers and policymakers need to rigorously, and regularly, assess different approaches, and share these findings across countries in Asia - and across the world. PMID:26271404

  18. Regular attractors and nonautonomous perturbations of them

    SciTech Connect

    Vishik, Marko I; Zelik, Sergey V; Chepyzhov, Vladimir V

    2013-01-31

    We study regular global attractors of dissipative dynamical semigroups with discrete or continuous time and we investigate attractors for nonautonomous perturbations of such semigroups. The main theorem states that the regularity of global attractors is preserved under small nonautonomous perturbations. Moreover, nonautonomous regular global attractors remain exponential and robust. We apply these general results to model nonautonomous reaction-diffusion systems in a bounded domain of R{sup 3} with time-dependent external forces. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  19. P-adic coverage method in fractal analysis of showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedovich, T. G.; Tokarev, M. V.

    2011-11-01

    Self-similarity in multiple processes at high energies is considered. It is assumed that a parton cascade transforms into a hadron shower with a fractal structure. The box counting (BC) method used to calculate the fractal dimension is analyzed. The parton shower with permissible 1/3 parts of pseudorapidity space, which corresponds to a triadic Cantor set, was used as a test fractal. It was found that there is an optimal set of bins (a parameter of the BC method) that allows one to find the fractal dimension with maximal accuracy. The optimal set of bins is shown to depend on the fractal generation law. The P-adic coverage (PaC) method is proposed and used in the fractal analysis. This method makes it possible to determine the fractal dimension of a shower as accurately as possible, the number of fractal levels and partons at each branching point during the parton shower evolution, the type of cascade (either random or regular), and its structure. It is shown to be applicable to an analysis of the regular and random N-ary cascades with permissible 1/ k parts of the space studied.

  20. Your Guide to Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Part B benefits. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Private Fee-for-Service ... certain doctors’ services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services. Medicare prescription drug coverage (Part D) —Optional ...

  1. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Security Education and Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a formal security education and training program which provides for initial training, refresher...

  2. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Security Education and Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a formal security education and training program which provides for initial training, refresher...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage period... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  4. STATE BOUNDARIES COVERAGE FOR EPA REGION 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    This coverage contains the state boundaries for Montana, Colorado, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming, and Utah. These states make up EPA Region 8. The associated attributes include only the state name and the state Federal Information Processing Standards code.

  5. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    ... you’ll get these: • A discount on covered brand-name drugs when you buy them at a ... through the mail. • Some coverage for generic and brand-name drugs. • Additional savings on your generic and ...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.503 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... civilian employees in organizations and functional units of the Department at any time in accordance with... in DoD organizational and functional units are eligible for coverage under this subpart:...

  7. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... enrollment. An individual who enrolls under this subpart may elect coverage for self alone or self and...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.202 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible...

  9. Televised news coverage of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H.

    1996-12-31

    Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global warming, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

  10. Hispanic-Asian Immigrant Inequality in Perceived Medical Need and Access to Regular Physician Care.

    PubMed

    Howe Hasanali, Stephanie; De Jong, Gordon F; Graefe, Deborah Roempke

    2016-02-01

    In the face of continuing large immigrant streams, Hispanic and Asian immigrants' human and social capital inequalities will heighten U.S. race/ethnic health and health care disparities. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study assessed Hispanic-Asian immigrant disparity in access to health care, measured by perceived medical need and regular access to a physician. Logistic regression results indicated that Hispanics had lower perceived met medical need and were less likely to see a doctor regularly. These disparities were significantly attenuated by education and health insurance. Assimilation-related characteristics were significantly associated with a regular doctor visit and were not fully mediated by socioeconomic variables. Findings indicate the importance of education above and beyond insurance coverage for access to health care and suggest the potential for public health efforts to improve preventive care among immigrants. PMID:25420782

  11. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  12. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  13. 44 CFR 61.3 - Types of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.3 Types of coverage. Insurance coverage under the Program is available for structures...

  14. 45 CFR 800.107 - Levels of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to offer an MSP pursuant to a contract with OPM. (b) Bronze or platinum metal levels of coverage... coverage or the platinum level of coverage, or both, on any Exchange or SHOP in any State. (c)...

  15. 45 CFR 800.107 - Levels of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to offer an MSP pursuant to a contract with OPM. (b) Bronze or platinum metal levels of coverage... coverage or the platinum level of coverage, or both, on any Exchange or SHOP in any State. (c)...

  16. On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.

  17. A linear functional strategy for regularized ranking.

    PubMed

    Kriukova, Galyna; Panasiuk, Oleksandra; Pereverzyev, Sergei V; Tkachenko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    Regularization schemes are frequently used for performing ranking tasks. This topic has been intensively studied in recent years. However, to be effective a regularization scheme should be equipped with a suitable strategy for choosing a regularization parameter. In the present study we discuss an approach, which is based on the idea of a linear combination of regularized rankers corresponding to different values of the regularization parameter. The coefficients of the linear combination are estimated by means of the so-called linear functional strategy. We provide a theoretical justification of the proposed approach and illustrate them by numerical experiments. Some of them are related with ranking the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia of diabetes patients. PMID:26519932

  18. On regularized reconstruction of vector fields.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Pouya Dehghani; Unser, Michael

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we give a general characterization of regularization functionals for vector field reconstruction, based on the requirement that the said functionals satisfy certain geometric invariance properties with respect to transformations of the coordinate system. In preparation for our general result, we also address some commonalities of invariant regularization in scalar and vector settings, and give a complete account of invariant regularization for scalar fields, before focusing on their main points of difference, which lead to a distinct class of regularization operators in the vector case. Finally, as an illustration of potential, we formulate and compare quadratic (L(2)) and total-variation-type (L(1)) regularized denoising of vector fields in the proposed framework. PMID:21659026

  19. 42 CFR 422.68 - Effective dates of coverage and change of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and... continuity of health benefits coverage. (e) Special election period for individual age 65. For an election...

  20. Attack Coverage in High-Level Men’s Volleyball: Organization on the Edge of Chaos?

    PubMed Central

    Laporta, Lorenzo; Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Thomas, Luke; Afonso, José

    2015-01-01

    Change is pervasive, but emerging patterns are occasionally detectable through analysis of systemic behaviors. Match analysis uses these patterns in order to reduce the degree of improvisation and to optimize the training process. However, it is possible that certain game phases elude systematic patterning. In this vein, our aim was to analyze the case of attack coverage in men’s volleyball, as we suspected it would elude systematic patterning and has received negligible attention in scientific research. We analyzed the occurrence of attack coverage in 4544 plays of the 2011 Volleyball World League. A Chi-square test with residual adjusted values was applied to explore significant associations between variables. A Monte Carlo correction was applied, as some cells had n<5. Effect sizes were determined using Cramer’s V. Overall, attack coverage occurred in 3.89% of ball possessions, and 23 distinct structures emerged. These structures lacked significant associations with the game complex, setting zone, and effect of attack coverage. Conversely, attack coverage structures showed significant associations with the attack zone and tempo, with very strong effect sizes (V=0.472 and V=0.521, respectively). As certain attack zones are deeply associated with attack tempo, it is apparent that quicker attack plays affect attack coverage structuring, promoting the formation of less complex structures. Ultimately, attack coverage structures seem to depend on momentary constraints, thereby rendering rigid systematization impracticable. Still, we contended that a principle-based approach might be suitable. This invites researchers to rethink how to interpret game regularities. PMID:26557208

  1. Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevidimova, O.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation Modern methods of the theory of complex systems allow to build mathematical models of complex systems where self-organizing processes are largely determined by nonlinear effects and feedback. However, there exist some factors that exert significant influence on the dynamics of geomorphosystems, but hardly can be adequately expressed in the language of mathematical models. Conceptual modeling allows us to overcome this difficulty. It is based on the methods of synergetic, which, together with the theory of dynamic systems and classical geomorphology, enable to display the dynamics of geomorphological systems. The most adequate for mathematical modeling of complex systems is the concept of model dynamics based on equilibrium. This concept is based on dynamic equilibrium, the tendency to which is observed in the evolution of all geomorphosystems. As an objective law, it is revealed in the evolution of fluvial relief in general, and in river channel processes in particular, demonstrating the ability of these systems to self-organization. Channel process is expressed in the formation of river reaches, rifts, meanders and floodplain. As floodplain is a periodically flooded surface during high waters, it naturally connects river channel with slopes, being one of boundary expressions of the water stream activity. Floodplain dynamics is inseparable from the channel dynamics. It is formed at simultaneous horizontal and vertical displacement of the river channel, that is at Y=Y(x, y), where х, y - horizontal and vertical coordinates, Y - floodplain height. When dу/dt=0 (for not lowering river channel), the river, being displaced in a horizontal plane, leaves behind a low surface, which flooding during high waters (total duration of flooding) changes from the maximum during the initial moment of time t0 to zero in the moment tn. In a similar manner changed is the total amount of accumulated material on the floodplain surface. Thus, the floodplain dynamics is determined by the amount of material Q(t), left as sediment (amount of warp on a unit of area) during the period of flooding, and the amount of material q(t), removed during the time between floods. With the floodplain height approaching some limit height Yl, which equals the maximal height of floods, Q(t)  0, а q(t)  max. From here, we can build a functional diagram of the floodplain height change depending on time: dY/dt=Q (t) - q (t) (1) This equation allows us to describe non-monotonous behavior of different floodplain massifs. As floodplain systems, like all geomorphosystems, are dissipative structures, they should eventually come to a stable condition: dY/dt=0. This mode is possible in cases: Q=q=0 and Q=q=const. In the first case, the floodplain level would reach the maximum height of flooding and would not be flooded any more. It would cause significant decrease in the amount of material left on its surface as sediments and the system would start to degrade. This variant is purely theoretical, as such conditions, where the streams of matter are absent, can appear only in a homogeneous environment. The second case characterizes the final stage in the formation of floodplain system as an integral unity in concrete external conditions and determines its dynamic equilibrium. In terms of the theory of dynamic systems, this condition corresponds to the limit cycle. Real floodplain systems never achieve it, but approach to it indefinitely closely, repeating themselves and not changing essentially in their basic morphological parameters. Thus, a high floodplain, approaching its limit height, shows morphological completeness. If for any reasons the floodplain surface becomes higher than the limit height Yl, it will not be flooded any more and will become a terrace, which means that the limit cycle of the floodplain system will be destroyed, as well as the system itself. The equation (1) allows to take into account the river incision, accumulation of material onto the floodplain from slopes and denudation from the floodplain surface, also the dynamics of mobile inundated islands and vegetative communities on them. It is known, that Yп(t)=Y0+N×m and thus, with the increase in height, the amount of flooding is changed proportionally to the difference of the floodplain limit height (Yl) and its height at the present time Yп(t). Using this formula, it is possible to calculate the duration of flooding at a set moment of time at any point of the floodplain surface and to determine the increase of the floodplain height, which surface is complicated with former river-bed depressions or banks. In summary, we can say that dynamic equilibrium can be established in a wide range of hierarchical levels of river channel relief. Floodplain systems, being a part of fluvial geomorphosystems, show structural time-space orderliness in the process of self-organization. Despite the fact, that floodplain is under the stochastic influence of water stream, the floodplain dynamics fits a deterministic scenario.

  2. Coupling regularizes individual units in noisy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Cheng; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2010-01-01

    The regularity of a noisy system can modulate in various ways. It is well known that coupling in a population can lower the variability of the entire network; the collective activity is more regular. Here, we show that diffusive (reciprocal) coupling of two simple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) processes can regularize the individual, even when it is coupled to a noisier process. In cellular networks, the regularity of individual cells is important when a select few play a significant role. The regularizing effect of coupling surprisingly applies also to general nonlinear noisy oscillators. However, unlike with the O-U process, coupling-induced regularity is robust to different kinds of coupling. With two coupled noisy oscillators, we derive an asymptotic formula assuming weak noise and coupling for the variance of the period (i.e., spike times) that accurately captures this effect. Moreover, we find that reciprocal coupling can regularize the individual period of higher dimensional oscillators such as the Morris-Lecar and Brusselator models, even when coupled to noisier oscillators. Coupling can have a counterintuitive and beneficial effect on noisy systems. These results have implications for the role of connectivity with noisy oscillators and the modulation of variability of individual oscillators.

  3. Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694

  4. Health service coverage and its evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, T.

    1978-01-01

    Health service coverage is considered as a concept expressing the extent of interaction between the service and the people for whom it is intended, this interaction not being limited to a particular aspect of service provision but ranging over the whole process from resource allocation to achievement of the desired objective. For the measurement of coverage, several key stages are first identified, each of them involving the realization of an important condition for providing the service; a coverage measure is then defined for each stage, namely the ratio between the number of people for whom the condition is met and the target population, so that a set of these measures represents the interaction between the service and the target population. This definition of coverage allows for variations, which are called ”specific coverage”, by limiting the target population to specific subgroups differentiated by certain conditions related to service provision or by demographic or socioeconomic factors. The evaluation of coverage on the basis of these concepts enables management to identify bottlenecks in the operation of the service, to analyse the constraining factors responsible for such bottlenecks, and to select effective measures for service development. PMID:96953

  5. Continuum regularization of gauge theory with fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.S.

    1987-03-01

    The continuum regularization program is discussed in the case of d-dimensional gauge theory coupled to fermions in an arbitrary representation. Two physically equivalent formulations are given. First, a Grassmann formulation is presented, which is based on the two-noise Langevin equations of Sakita, Ishikawa and Alfaro and Gavela. Second, a non-Grassmann formulation is obtained by regularized integration of the matter fields within the regularized Grassmann system. Explicit perturbation expansions are studied in both formulations, and considerable simplification is found in the integrated non-Grassmann formalism.

  6. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung F.

    1990-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  7. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung Fung

    1988-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  8. Parameter Identification by Iterative Constrained Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zama, Fabiana

    2015-11-01

    Parameter identification from noisy data is an ill-posed inverse problem and data noise leads to poor solutions. Regularization methods are necessary to obtain stable solutions. In this paper we introduce the regularization by means of an iteratively weighted constraint and define an algorithm to compute the weights and solve the constrained problems using as prior information the given measurements. Although this approach is general, in the present work we prove the convergence in the case of least squares data fit with ℓ2 regularization term. The data reported in the numerical experiments prove the efficiency and good quality of the results.

  9. Perplexity Analysis of Obesity News Coverage

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Delano J.; Elhadad, Noémie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-01-01

    An important task performed during the analysis of health news coverage is the identification of news articles that are related to a specific health topic (e.g. obesity). This is often done using a combination of keyword searching and manual encoding of news content. Statistical language models and their evaluation metric, perplexity, may help to automate this task. A perplexity study of obesity news was performed to evaluate perplexity as a measure of the similarity of news corpora to obesity news content. The results of this study showed that perplexity increased as news coverage became more general relative to obesity news (obesity news ≈ 187, general health news ≈ 278, general news ≈ 378, general news across multiple publishers ≈ 382). This indicates that language model perplexity can measure the similarity news content to obesity news coverage, and could be used as the basis for an automated health news classifier. PMID:20351893

  10. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  11. Aspects of coverage in medical DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wendl, Michael C; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA sequencing is now emerging as an important component in biomedical studies of diseases like cancer. Short-read, highly parallel sequencing instruments are expected to be used heavily for such projects, but many design specifications have yet to be conclusively established. Perhaps the most fundamental of these is the redundancy required to detect sequence variations, which bears directly upon genomic coverage and the consequent resolving power for discerning somatic mutations. Results We address the medical sequencing coverage problem via an extension of the standard mathematical theory of haploid coverage. The expected diploid multi-fold coverage, as well as its generalization for aneuploidy are derived and these expressions can be readily evaluated for any project. The resulting theory is used as a scaling law to calibrate performance to that of standard BAC sequencing at 8 to 10 redundancy, i.e. for expected coverages that exceed 99% of the unique sequence. A differential strategy is formalized for tumor/normal studies wherein tumor samples are sequenced more deeply than normal ones. In particular, both tumor alleles should be detected at least twice, while both normal alleles are detected at least once. Our theory predicts these requirements can be met for tumor and normal redundancies of approximately 26 and 21, respectively. We explain why these values do not differ by a factor of 2, as might intuitively be expected. Future technology developments should prompt even deeper sequencing of tumors, but the 21 value for normal samples is essentially a constant. Conclusion Given the assumptions of standard coverage theory, our model gives pragmatic estimates for required redundancy. The differential strategy should be an efficient means of identifying potential somatic mutations for further study. PMID:18485222

  12. Continental-scale transport of sea salt aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. H.; Perley, B. P.; Poirot, R. L.; Dann, T. F.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2010-12-01

    Compared to soil dust, for which there is an extensive literature documenting transport across and between continents, little attention has been given to the possible occurrence of sea salt far from its marine home. This paper examines an incursion of sea salt aerosol into the North American interior, more than 1000 km from any ocean water. On 14 December 2008, high fine-particle (< 2.5 um) chloride concentrations were recorded by three independent air-quality monitoring programs across several states and provinces of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1). Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, and Sr were all present in the proportions of sea water and at fine-particle concentrations normally found only at exposed coastal sites. This detailed marine chemical signature, together with the observed paucity of coarse particles, allows regional saline lakes and road de-icing chemicals to be ruled out as possible sources (Figure 2). The 14 December 2008 sea salt came to the Great Plains from the north, and its chemical and particle-size signatures resemble those found above 60 deg N, at Yellowknife and Point Barrow. Forward and backward trajectories support such a sub-arctic or arctic origin, but are inconclusive as to mechanisms of mobilization and exact transport pathways. Figure 1. Fine-particle chloride on 14 December 2008 in three national air monitoring networks: IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments, rural US); CSN (Chemical Speciation Network, urban US); and NAPS (National Air Pollution Surveillance, Canada). Bubble areas are proportional to 24h concentrations. Figure 2. Sodium and chloride concentrations in coarse (Dp > 2.5 um) and fine (Dp < 2.5 um) particles at Winnipeg, MB. Winnipeg salt is normally coarse road salt; the 14 December 2008 sample was fine sea salt.

  13. Arctic-alpine distributions--metapopulations on a continental scale?

    PubMed

    Muster, Christoph; Maddison, Wayne P; Uhlmann, Stefan; Berendonk, Thomas U; Vogler, Alfried P

    2009-03-01

    Cold-adapted species in the Northern Hemisphere frequently show arctic-alpine discontinuous ranges at high latitudes and on mountains farther south, but area connectivity through current and historical gene flow remains unclear. We used the coalescent-based program IMa (Isolation with Migration-analytic) to test for migration among disjunct European areas of arctic-alpine wolf spiders of the Pardosa saltuaria group. Mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) markers were analyzed simultaneously. Gene flow was unidirectional from Scandinavia to the Alps and the Carpathians, complex with respect to intermediate relict areas in central Europe, and very limited in outlying areas in the Balkans and Pyrenees. Population connectivity may have been greater during glacial events that might alternatively account for the inferred arctic-alpine links. A simulation study under various demographic histories (using a new module in the Mesquite package, which models episodic migration) showed that the empirical results are equally consistent with moderate levels of ongoing (continuous) migration or, alternatively, with strong migration bursts at the last glacial maximum but not at earlier times. Habitat connectivity was probably maximal during glacial events, illustrating the potential influence of ecology and life history on organismal responses to past climatic change. PMID:19199524

  14. Modeling fluvial erosion on regional to continental scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Alan D.; Dietrich, William E.; Seidl, Michele A.

    1994-01-01

    The fluvial system is a major concern in modeling landform evolution in response to tectonic deformation. Three stream bed types (bedrock, coarse-bed alluvial, and fine-bed alluvial) differ in factors controlling their occurrence and evolution and in appropriate modeling approaches. Spatial and temporal transitions among bed types occur in response to changes in sediment characteristics and tectonic deformation. Erosion in bedrock channels depends upon the ability to scour or pluck bed material; this detachment capacity is often a power function of drainage area and gradient. Exposure of bedrock in channel beds, due to rapid downcutting or resistant rock, slows the response of headwater catchments to downstream baselevel changes. Sediment routing through alluvial channels must account for supply from slope erosion, transport rates, abrasion, and sorting. In regional landform modeling, implicit rate laws must be developed for sediment production from erosion of sub-grid-scale slopes and small channels.

  15. Continental-scale Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Snow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.; Sun, C.; Walker, J. P.

    2001-12-01

    Snow plays an important role in governing both the global energy and water budgets, as a result of its high albedo, thermal properties, and being a medium-term water store. However, the problem of accurately forecasting snow in regional and global atmospheric and hydrologic models is difficult, as a result of snow related features that display variability at scales below those resolved by the models and errors in model forcing data. Hence, any Land Surface Model (LSM) snow initialization based on model spin-up will be affected by these errors. By assimilating snow observation products into the LSM the effects of these errors may be offset, but special care must be taken to avoid erroneous systematic influences on the water budget as a result of the assimilation. We have developed Kalman Filter based methods for the assimilation of relevant microwave (SSM/I) and visible (MODIS) remotely sensed snow observation products into the catchment-based LSM that is being used by the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP). This work is focused on a retrospective study of North America, using the uncoupled NSIPP LSM, with a perspective of eventual coupled global implementation.

  16. Limited phylogeographic structure for five bathyal ophiuroids at continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Timothy D.; England, Phillip R.; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M.; Naughton, Kate M.

    2014-02-01

    There have been comparatively few large-scale studies on spatial genetic structure of bathyal seafloor fauna, despite the importance of these data to the successful management of the world's oceans. We use a comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA from five bathyal (200-3500 m) species of brittle-stars (Ophiuroidea) to assess phylogeographic structure along an extensive (8000 km) longitudinal gradient at temperate latitudes (28-56°S) from south-west Australia (113°E) to seamounts east of New Zealand (175°W). We found no evidence of a genetic discontinuity between Australia and New Zealand, either across the temperate Tasman Sea or across the Southern Ocean between the South Tasman Rise and the Macquarie Ridge. However, there were latitudinal phylogeographical breaks between tropical, temperate and polar regions; longitudinal breaks across the eastern Indian Ocean; and a bathymetric break at approximately 1700 m. Although there was limited regional structure in the frequency of haplotype distributions within the major clades, and no clade appeared to be strictly panmictic, the regional structure in general was not concordant with a simple isolation-by-distance model. Demographic structure varied with three clades having a simplified haplotype network, low effective population sizes and no evidence of significant population expansion, and two clades having a high diversity of haplotypes, relatively high effective population sizes and signs of recent population expansion. These results are discussed with respect to putative dispersal strategies. We hypothesise that the 'brooding' species produce both brooded young and pelagic larvae, allowing for both the maintenance of local populations and long-distance dispersal.

  17. Monitoring drought at continental scales using thermal remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status: soil surface temperature increases with decreasing water content, while moisture depletion in the plant root zone leads to stomatal closure, reduced transpirat...

  18. Mapping Evaporative Stress at Continental Scales Using GOES Thermal Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Robust, operational methodologies for mapping daily evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and moisture stress over large areas using satellite remote sensing will have widespread utility in applications such as drought detection, crop yield forecasting, irrigation scheduling, water resource manage...

  19. Epigenetic adaptation to regular exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ling, Charlotte; Rönn, Tina

    2014-07-01

    Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a sedentary life is dramatically increasing worldwide. Researchers have searched for molecular mechanisms explaining the health benefits of regular exercise for decades and it is well established that exercise alters the gene expression pattern in multiple tissues. However, until recently it was unknown that regular exercise can modify the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in humans. This review will focus on recent progress in the field of regular exercise and epigenetics. PMID:24632002

  20. Scaling behavior of regularized bosonic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We implement a proper-time UV regularization of the Nambu-Goto string, introducing an independent metric tensor and the corresponding Lagrange multiplier, and treating them in the mean-field approximation justified for long strings and/or when the dimension of space-time is large. We compute the regularized determinant of the 2D Laplacian for the closed string winding around a compact dimension, obtaining in this way the effective action, whose minimization determines the energy of the string ground state in the mean-field approximation. We discuss the existence of two scaling limits when the cutoff is taken to infinity. One scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by the hypercubic regularization of the Nambu-Goto string as well as by the use of the dynamical triangulation regularization of the Polyakov string. The other scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by canonical quantization of the Nambu-Goto string.

  1. The Volume of the Regular Octahedron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    Five methods are given for computing the area of a regular octahedron. It is suggested that students first construct an octahedron as this will aid in space visualization. Six further extensions are left for the reader to try. (LS)

  2. Parallelization of irregularly coupled regular meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Craig; Crowley, Kay; Saltz, Joel; Reeves, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Regular meshes are frequently used for modeling physical phenomena on both serial and parallel computers. One advantage of regular meshes is that efficient discretization schemes can be implemented in a straight forward manner. However, geometrically-complex objects, such as aircraft, cannot be easily described using a single regular mesh. Multiple interacting regular meshes are frequently used to describe complex geometries. Each mesh models a subregion of the physical domain. The meshes, or subdomains, can be processed in parallel, with periodic updates carried out to move information between the coupled meshes. In many cases, there are a relatively small number (one to a few dozen) subdomains, so that each subdomain may also be partitioned among several processors. We outline a composite run-time/compile-time approach for supporting these problems efficiently on distributed-memory machines. These methods are described in the context of a multiblock fluid dynamics problem developed at LaRC.

  3. Health insurance coverage among disabled Medicare enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jeffrey I.; Wilcox-Gök, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    In this article, we use the Survey of Income and Program Participation to identify patterns of non-Medicare insurance coverage among disabled Medicare enrollees. Compared with the aged, the disabled are less likely to have private insurance coverage and more likely to have Medicaid. Probit analysis of the determinants of private insurance for disabled Medicare enrollees shows that income, education, marital status, sex, and having an employed family member are positively related to the likelihood of having private health insurance, whereas age and the probability of Medicaid enrollment are negatively related to this likelihood. PMID:10170806

  4. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. PMID:26598303

  5. Extreme sports: injuries and medical coverage.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C

    2002-10-01

    Extreme sports (including in-line skating, snowboarding, mountain bicycling, extreme skiing, rock climbing, indoor tackle football, kickboxing, skateboarding, and ultra-endurance racing) are growing in popularity. Often these sports are designed to expose athletes to greater thrills and risks than are found in traditional sporting activities. Despite this increased risk of injury, athletes competing in these sports often have little or no formal medical coverage. This article reviews what is known about this emerging area of sports medicine to assist physicians in preparing for medical coverage of these athletes and their competitions. PMID:12831694

  6. Blind Poissonian images deconvolution with framelet regularization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Houzhang; Yan, Luxin; Liu, Hai; Chang, Yi

    2013-02-15

    We propose a maximum a posteriori blind Poissonian images deconvolution approach with framelet regularization for the image and total variation (TV) regularization for the point spread function. Compared with the TV based methods, our algorithm not only suppresses noise effectively but also recovers edges and detailed information. Moreover, the split Bregman method is exploited to solve the resulting minimization problem. Comparative results on both simulated and real images are reported. PMID:23455078

  7. Nonlinear inversion: Regularization as a priori information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Regularization is an approach to ill-posed or ill-conditioned inverse problems, and using it can be viewed as adding prior information about the parameters of interest. There are many approaches to choosing a regularization parameter, but it is still an open question as to how to weight the additional information. The discrepancy principle considers the residual norm to determine the regularization parameter or weight while a similar approach, the chi-squared method, uses the regularized residual in a statistical test to find the weight. Using the regularized residual has the benefit of giving a clear chi-squared test with a fixed noise level. Recently, this approach has been developed for nonlinear problems. We will give the appropriate chi-squared tests in the Gauss-Newton and Levenburg Marquart algorithms, and these tests are used to find a regularization parameter or weight on initial parameter estimate errors. This algorithm is applied to two benchmark problems in nonlinear geophysics: two-dimensional cross-well tomography, and one dimensional subsurface conductivity estimation.

  8. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  9. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  10. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  13. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  14. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  15. 29 CFR 2590.701-5 - Evidence of creditable coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in section 607(3) of the Act) entitled to elect COBRA continuation coverage, an automatic certificate... absence of COBRA continuation coverage or alternative coverage elected instead of COBRA continuation... (relating to notices required under COBRA). (B) Other individuals when coverage ceases. In the case of...

  16. 29 CFR 2590.701-5 - Evidence of creditable coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in section 607(3) of the Act) entitled to elect COBRA continuation coverage, an automatic certificate... absence of COBRA continuation coverage or alternative coverage elected instead of COBRA continuation... (relating to notices required under COBRA). (B) Other individuals when coverage ceases. In the case of...

  17. 29 CFR 2590.701-5 - Evidence of creditable coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in section 607(3) of the Act) entitled to elect COBRA continuation coverage, an automatic certificate... absence of COBRA continuation coverage or alternative coverage elected instead of COBRA continuation... (relating to notices required under COBRA). (B) Other individuals when coverage ceases. In the case of...

  18. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  19. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  20. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  1. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  2. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  3. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  9. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of...

  10. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of...

  11. 5 CFR 352.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 352.402 Section 352.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Employment of Presidential Appointees and Elected Officers by the International Atomic Energy Agency §...

  12. 5 CFR 352.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 352.402 Section 352.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Employment of Presidential Appointees and Elected Officers by the International Atomic Energy Agency §...

  13. 5 CFR 352.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 352.402 Section 352.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Employment of Presidential Appointees and Elected Officers by the International Atomic Energy Agency §...

  14. 5 CFR 352.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 352.402 Section 352.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Employment of Presidential Appointees and Elected Officers by the International Atomic Energy Agency §...

  15. 5 CFR 352.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 352.402 Section 352.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Employment of Presidential Appointees and Elected Officers by the International Atomic Energy Agency §...

  16. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate or license in a medical or dental field; or (3) Any student-employee not otherwise covered under... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5...

  17. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certificate or license in a medical or dental field; or (3) Any student-employee not otherwise covered under... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5...

  18. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certificate or license in a medical or dental field; or (3) Any student-employee not otherwise covered under... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5...

  19. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificate or license in a medical or dental field; or (3) Any student-employee not otherwise covered under... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5...

  20. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certificate or license in a medical or dental field; or (3) Any student-employee not otherwise covered under... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5...

  1. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Code, for the accumulation of a maximum of 45 days of annual leave earns and may be granted home leave... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260.131 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131...

  3. 5 CFR 319.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... See 5 CFR part 534, subpart E, for pay provisions. (b) Positions that meet the criteria for placement... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.101 Coverage. (a) This part covers senior-level (SL)...

  4. 42 CFR 457.470 - Prohibited coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited coverage. 457.470 Section 457.470 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State...

  5. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.402 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible employees and... covered by 5 U.S.C. chapter 43; (2) Employees and positions excluded from chapter 43 by OPM under 5 CFR... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS...

  7. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employer engaged in or affecting commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” (Section 3 of EPPA; 29 U.S.C. 2002.) In interpreting the phrase “affecting commerce” in other statutes, courts have found coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  8. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employer engaged in or affecting commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” (Section 3 of EPPA; 29 U.S.C. 2002.) In interpreting the phrase “affecting commerce” in other statutes, courts have found coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  9. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employer engaged in or affecting commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” (Section 3 of EPPA; 29 U.S.C. 2002.) In interpreting the phrase “affecting commerce” in other statutes, courts have found coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See,...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.505 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. This subpart...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.402 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible DHS... covered by 5 U.S.C. chapter 43; and (2) Employees who were excluded from chapter 43 by OPM under 5 CFR...

  12. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants as Federal employees under 5 U.S.C. 3109. They do not apply to the appointments of experts and...

  13. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants as Federal employees under 5 U.S.C. 3109. They do not apply to the appointments of experts and...

  14. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes of this subpart the title “consultant” will be used to include those who are appointed to serve as experts..., experts, consultants, and advisory committee members are included in the group of employees designated...

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes of this subpart the title “consultant” will be used to include those who are appointed to serve as experts..., experts, consultants, and advisory committee members are included in the group of employees designated...

  16. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes of this subpart the title “consultant” will be used to include those who are appointed to serve as experts..., experts, consultants, and advisory committee members are included in the group of employees designated...

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes of this subpart the title “consultant” will be used to include those who are appointed to serve as experts..., experts, consultants, and advisory committee members are included in the group of employees designated...

  18. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants as Federal employees under 5 U.S.C. 3109. They do not apply to the appointments of experts and...

  19. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants as Federal employees under 5 U.S.C. 3109. They do not apply to the appointments of experts and...

  20. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants as Federal employees under 5 U.S.C. 3109. They do not apply to the appointments of experts and...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes of this subpart the title “consultant” will be used to include those who are appointed to serve as experts..., experts, consultants, and advisory committee members are included in the group of employees designated...

  2. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH, COUNSELING, AND WORK/LIFE PROGRAMS Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs and Services...

  3. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs...

  4. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH, COUNSELING, AND WORK/LIFE PROGRAMS Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs and Services...

  5. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs...

  6. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs...

  7. Spatial Coverage Planning for Exploration Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel; Estlin, Tara; Chouinard, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for an onboard planning and execution technology to support the exploration and characterization of geological features by autonomous rovers. A rover that is capable of deciding which observations are more important relieves the engineering team from much of the burden of attempting to make accurate predictions of what the available rover resources will be in the future. Instead, the science and engineering teams can uplink a set of observation requests that may potentially oversubscribe resources and let the rover use observation priorities and its current assessment of available resources to make decisions about which observations to perform and when to perform them. The algorithm gives the rover the ability to model spatial coverage quality based on data from different scientific instruments, to assess the impact of terrain on coverage quality, to incorporate user-defined priorities among subregions of the terrain to be covered, and to update coverage quality rankings of observations when terrain knowledge changes. When the rover is exploring large geographical features such as craters, channels, or boundaries between two different regions, an important factor in assessing the quality of a mission plan is how the set of chosen observations spatially cover the area of interest. The algorithm allows the rover to evaluate which observation to perform and to what extent the candidate observation will increase the spatial coverage of the plan.

  8. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN...

  9. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN...

  10. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN...

  11. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN...

  12. Network Evening News Coverage of Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael R.; And Others

    Focusing on ABC, NBC, and CBS's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986, a study examined network news coverage of environmental risk--defined as manmade chemical, biological, and physical agents that create risk in the indoor, outdoor, and occupational environments. Using the Vanderbilt University "Television News Index…

  13. Magazine Coverage of Issues of Nuclear Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight William

    To see whether the subject matter of magazines of general circulation and the subject matter of public concern coincide, a study examined the volume of coverage of United States-Soviet relations, communism, and issues of nuclear warfare between the two nations in twentieth century popular magazines. The "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" in…

  14. Cancer News Coverage and Information Seeking

    PubMed Central

    NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; FROSCH, DOMINICK L.; HORNIK, ROBERT C.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future. PMID:18300068

  15. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148) was enacted on March 23, 2010, and the Health Care and Education... health insurance issuers in the group and individual markets. ] Section 1560(c) of the Affordable Care... proposed rule (76 FR 7767) regarding section 1560(c) entitled ``Student Health Insurance Coverage.'' In...

  16. Microsurgery for root coverage: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Meng, Shu; Li, Chunjie; Luo, Zhenhua; Guo, Shujuan; Wu, Yafei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether microsurgery gains better result in root coverage compared to conventional surgical techniques. Methods: A number of databases were searched to identify eligible studies from January 1992 to January 2015. The following outcomes were evaluated: number of sites exhibiting complete root coverage and patients’ esthetic satisfaction. Results: Four Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A pooled estimate from the two RCTs regarding sub-epithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTG) showed significant achievement in complete root coverage in the microsurgical group [relative risk (RR):1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 2.36; P=0.01] with acceptable heterogeneity. The other two studies were about coronal advanced flap (CAF) with enamel matrix derivative or free rotated papilla autograft and did not qualify for meta-analysis. Patients’ esthetic satisfaction was analyzed only by one study. Conclusions: Using microsurgical technique for treating gingival recessions may be effective in achieving complete root coverage for SCTG. PMID:26649026

  17. 12 CFR 1005.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Banks and... Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer... 2010, Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Pub. L. 111-203,...

  18. Cancer news coverage and information seeking.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Frosch, Dominick L; Hornik, Robert C

    2008-03-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future. PMID:18300068

  19. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards §...

  20. 5 CFR 9901.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9901.202 Section 9901.202... otherwise be covered by the General Schedule classification system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 51; (2) Employees in senior-level (SL) and scientific or professional (ST) positions who would otherwise be...

  1. 5 CFR 9901.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9901.302 Section 9901.302... would otherwise be covered by the General Schedule pay system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 53, subchapter III; (2) Employees in senior-level (SL) and scientific or professional (ST) positions who...

  2. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this part affects individuals serving in positions described in 18 U.S.C. 207(c)(2)(A)(i), (iii), (iv...) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject to...(b)(1) of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2004: (1) Any individual, including a...

  3. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this part affects individuals serving in positions described in 18 U.S.C. 207(c)(2)(A)(i), (iii), (iv...) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject to...(b)(1) of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2004: (1) Any individual, including a...

  4. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this part affects individuals serving in positions described in 18 U.S.C. 207(c)(2)(A)(i), (iii), (iv...) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject to...(b)(1) of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2004: (1) Any individual, including a...

  5. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 26 CFR 54.9802-1(d) may be used as a reference for this purpose). However, in no event shall..., including an automobile liability insurance or no-fault insurance carrier and a workers' compensation... from the operation of a motor vehicle. (4) Exceptions. Double coverage plans do not include: (i)...

  6. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 26 CFR 54.9802-1(d) may be used as a reference for this purpose). However, in no event shall... health plan by contract or agreement, including an automobile liability insurance or no-fault insurance... personal injuries resulting from the operation of a motor vehicle. (4) Exceptions. Double coverage plans...

  7. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 26 CFR 54.9802-1(d) may be used as a reference for this purpose). However, in no event shall..., including an automobile liability insurance or no-fault insurance carrier and a workers' compensation... from the operation of a motor vehicle. (4) Exceptions. Double coverage plans do not include: (i)...

  8. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 26 CFR 54.9802-1(d) may be used as a reference for this purpose). However, in no event shall..., including an automobile liability insurance or no-fault insurance carrier and a workers' compensation... from the operation of a motor vehicle. (4) Exceptions. Double coverage plans do not include: (i)...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  14. The Sad State of Education Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batory, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    A 1997 report by Public Agenda, a nonpartisan public-opinion research firm, confirmed that educators deplore the quality of press coverage of public education. While questioning journalistic effectiveness and credibility, the study offers objective insights about citizens' expectations. Superintendents must communicate concerns to editors and…

  15. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  16. An Indexing Coverage Study of Toxicological Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Ruth Reinke

    1973-01-01

    The goal of this study was an appraisal of indexing coverage for the interdisciplinary field of toxicology. Information of research significance was limited to primary literature, defined as published documents containing original data from experimental work or case studies. (6 references) (Author/NH)

  17. 5 CFR 317.301 - Conversion coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.301 Conversion coverage... implementation of the Senior Executive Service effective on July 13, 1979, and the initial conversions thereto. (2) The implementation of the Senior Executive Service in an agency following the revocation of...

  18. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  19. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  20. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  1. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  2. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  3. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301... another retirement system, or as President, deductions for the Fund shall be made under 5 U.S.C. 8422(a...(a) of title 5, United States Code, as is applicable....

  4. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for United States Hostages in Iraq and Kuwait and United...

  5. 5 CFR 551.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Provisions § 551.103 Coverage. (a) Covered. Any employee of an agency who is not specifically excluded by another statute is covered by the Act. This includes any person... whether or not formally appointed. (b) Not covered. The following persons are not covered by the Act:...

  6. 5 CFR 551.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Provisions § 551.103 Coverage. (a) Covered. Any employee of an agency who is not specifically excluded by another statute is covered by the Act. This includes any person... whether or not formally appointed. (b) Not covered. The following persons are not covered by the Act:...

  7. 5 CFR 551.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Provisions § 551.103 Coverage. (a) Covered. Any employee of an agency who is not specifically excluded by another statute is covered by the Act. This includes any person... whether or not formally appointed. (b) Not covered. The following persons are not covered by the Act:...

  8. 5 CFR 551.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Provisions § 551.103 Coverage. (a) Covered. Any employee of an agency who is not specifically excluded by another statute is covered by the Act. This includes any person... whether or not formally appointed. (b) Not covered. The following persons are not covered by the Act:...

  9. 5 CFR 551.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Provisions § 551.103 Coverage. (a) Covered. Any employee of an agency who is not specifically excluded by another statute is covered by the Act. This includes any person... whether or not formally appointed. (b) Not covered. The following persons are not covered by the Act:...

  10. The First Debate and the Coverage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Gladys Engel; Lang, Kurt

    1978-01-01

    The audio breakdown during the first Ford-Carter presidential debate in the 1976 presidential campaign raises questions concerning the role of the media in this news event and whether the debate was a news event without regard to television coverage. (JMF)

  11. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  18. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service and to Schedules A and B in the excepted service. (b) Agencies may not use temporary help services...

  19. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service and to Schedules A and B in the excepted service. (b) Agencies may not use temporary help services...

  20. 5 CFR 319.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... See 5 CFR part 534, subpart E, for pay provisions. (b) Positions that meet the criteria for placement... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.101 Coverage. (a) This part covers senior-level (SL)...

  1. 5 CFR 534.501 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.501 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5....C. 5108; and (2) Scientific or professional (ST) positions established under 5 U.S.C. 3104. (b)...

  2. 5 CFR 319.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... See 5 CFR part 534, subpart E, for pay provisions. (b) Positions that meet the criteria for placement... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.101 Coverage. (a) This part covers senior-level (SL)...

  3. 5 CFR 319.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... See 5 CFR part 534, subpart E, for pay provisions. (b) Positions that meet the criteria for placement... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.101 Coverage. (a) This part covers senior-level (SL)...

  4. 5 CFR 319.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... See 5 CFR part 534, subpart E, for pay provisions. (b) Positions that meet the criteria for placement... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.101 Coverage. (a) This part covers senior-level (SL)...

  5. 5 CFR 534.501 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.501 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5....C. 5108; and (2) Scientific or professional (ST) positions established under 5 U.S.C. 3104. (b)...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies...

  7. 5 CFR 534.501 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.501 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5....C. 5108; and (2) Scientific or professional (ST) positions established under 5 U.S.C. 3104. (b)...

  8. 5 CFR 534.501 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.501 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5....C. 5108; and (2) Scientific or professional (ST) positions established under 5 U.S.C. 3104. (b)...

  9. Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, U.; Mindekem, R.; Yémadji, N.; Vounatsou, P.; Kaninga, Y.; Ndoutamia, A. G.; Zinsstag, J.

    2003-01-01

    Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in parenteral campaigns. This study aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage in dogs in three study zones of N'Djaména, Chad, after a pilot free parenteral mass vaccination campaign against rabies. We used a capture-mark-recapture approach for population estimates, with a Bayesian, Markov chain, Monte Carlo method to estimate the total number of owned dogs, and the ratio of ownerless to owned dogs to calculate vaccination coverage. When we took into account ownerless dogs, the vaccination coverage in the dog populations was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84-89%) in study zone I, 71% (95% CI, 64-76%) in zone II, and 64% (95% CI, 58-71%) in zone III. The proportions of ownerless dogs to owned dogs were 1.1% (95% CI, 0-3.1%), 7.6% (95% CI, 0.7-16.5%), and 10.6% (95% CI, 1.6-19.1%) in the three study zones, respectively. Vaccination coverage in the three populations of owned dogs was 88% (95% CI, 84-92%) in zone I, 76% (95% CI, 71-81%) in zone II, and 70% (95% CI, 66-76%) in zone III. Participation of dog owners in the free campaign was high, and the number of inaccessible ownerless dogs was low. High levels of vaccination coverage could be achieved with parenteral mass vaccination. Regular parenteral vaccination campaigns to cover all of N'Djaména should be considered as an ethical way of preventing human rabies when post-exposure treatment is of limited availability and high in cost. PMID:14758434

  10. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Odusanya, Olumuyiwa O; Alufohai, Ewan F; Meurice, Francois P; Ahonkhai, Vincent I

    2008-01-01

    Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State) at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership). The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO) immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), three doses of oral polio (OPV), three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT), three doses of hepatitis B (HB) and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child) were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1%) had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria). Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0%) had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it was significantly higher (p = 0.002) amongst those who had a vaccination card (131/188, 69.7%) than in those assessed by maternal history (79/151, 52.3%). Multiple logistic regression showed that mothers' knowledge of immunization (p = 0.006) and vaccination at a privately funded health facility (p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with the rate of full immunization. Conclusion Eight years after initiation of this privately financed vaccination project (private-public partnership), vaccination coverage in this rural community is at a level that provides high protection (81%) against DPT/OPV. Completeness of vaccination was significantly correlated with knowledge of mothers on immunization and adequate attention should be given to this if high coverage levels are to be sustained. PMID:18986544

  11. Optimization of Partial or Regional Coverage Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Ma, Xingrui; Li, Ming

    The optimal continual global or zonal coverage constellations are found by Walker constellations and they are based on unperturbed satellite motion. But sometime there is no need to establish a continual or global coverage constellation. Therefore, to find optimal partial or regional coverage constellations is essential. Some work has been done in this field, but due to the various properties of the problem, there are still much to do. In this paper, a constellation model named 3+4N is established. All the satellites in the constellation have the same semimajor axis a, eccentricity e and inclination i. It is assumed that the constellation has N orbit planes. The number of satellites per orbit Q[N] can be different, but the satellites are evenly distributed in that orbit. There are still other 3N parameters to define the constellation: the right ascension of ascending node [N], the argument of perigee [N], and the mean anomaly of the first satellite M1[N] of every orbit. There are totally 3+4N parameters, so the model is such named. The model has some generality in optimizing partial or regional coverage constellations. A gradual optimization method is introduced. In this method, Genetic Algorithm is used first to get a good global optimal constellation. And then the Simplex Method is used to improve the local optimization ability. The objective function can be chosen from several functions such as the coverage percentage of the region, the maximum coverage intermission, and the average responding time and so on according to the specific application. The performance of the constellation is calculated and analyzed on the check points. The orbit model used generally takes into account J2 perturbation. But some more complicated orbit models might also be considered. It should be noted that the orbit elements in the parameters of the constellation must be the mean orbit elements to maximize the stability of the configuration. Some examples and conclusions are given. Before calculating some orbit elements are analyzed and confined taking into account mission constraints to decrease the optimizing time. Keywords: constellation optimization, partial or regional coverage, genetic algorithm, simplex method

  12. Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or spatial smoothing.

  13. Health insurance coverage within sibships: prevalence of mixed coverage and associations with health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Percheski, Christine; Bzostek, Sharon

    2013-08-01

    An increasing proportion of children in the United States lives in families with complicated family structures and a mix of immigrant and US-born family members. Eligibility rules for health insurance coverage, however, were not designed with these families in mind. The result can be complicated insurance patterns among siblings within families, with some "sibships" only being partially-insured, and other sibships having both private and public coverage. We hypothesize that mixed coverage among siblings causes confusion and logistical difficulties for parents and may lead to less access to appropriate health care for their children. In this article, we use data from the 2009-2011 National Health Interview Survey (n = 51,418 children in 20,478 sibships) to present estimates of the prevalence of mixed health insurance coverage among siblings and describe the predictors of such coverage. We also use linked data from the 2001-2005 National Health Interview Survey and 2002-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (n = 17,871) to show how mixed coverage is related to health care utilization. We find that although few sibships are characterized by different health insurance coverage types, mixed coverage among siblings is far more common among families with mixed nativity status, and blended families with step- and half-siblings. In terms of outcomes, children living in sibships with mixed coverage have significantly lower odds of having a usual source of health care. We also consider whether the association between mixed insurance coverage and health care outcomes differs across particular combinations of insurance coverage. We find that both publicly-insured children who have uninsured siblings and privately-insured children with publicly-insured siblings are less likely to have a usual source of care than similar children with uniformly-insured siblings. Because a usual source of care is associated with better health care outcomes, we argue that policymakers should consider ways to reduce mixed coverage among children and families. PMID:23746603

  14. Conservative regularization of ideal hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Thyagaraja, A.

    2010-03-15

    Inviscid, incompressible hydrodynamics and incompressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) share many properties such as time-reversal invariance of equations, conservation laws, and certain topological features. In three dimensions, these systems may lead to singular solutions (involving vortex and current sheets). While dissipative (viscoresistive) effects can regularize the equations leading to bounded solutions to the initial-boundary value (Cauchy) problem which presumably exist uniquely, the time-reversal symmetry and associated conservation properties are certainly destroyed. The present work is analogous to (and suggested by) the Korteweg-de Vries regularization of the one-dimensional, nonlinear kinematic wave equation. Thus the regularizations applied to the original equations of hydrodynamics and ideal MHD retain conservation properties and the symmetries of the original equations. Integral invariants which generalize those known for the original systems are shown to imply bounded enstrophy. The regularization developed can also be applied to the corresponding dissipative models (such as the Navier-Stokes equations and the viscoresistive MHD equations) and may imply interesting regularity properties for the solutions of the latter as well. The models developed thus have intrinsic mathematical interest as well as possible applications to large-scale numerical simulations in systems where dissipative effects are extremely small or even absent.

  15. Modified sparse regularization for electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenru; Wang, Huaxiang; Xue, Qian; Cui, Ziqiang; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) aims to estimate the electrical properties at the interior of an object from current-voltage measurements on its boundary. It has been widely investigated due to its advantages of low cost, non-radiation, non-invasiveness, and high speed. Image reconstruction of EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, regularization techniques like Tikhonov regularization are used to solve the inverse problem. A sparse regularization based on L1 norm exhibits superiority in preserving boundary information at sharp changes or discontinuous areas in the image. However, the limitation of sparse regularization lies in the time consumption for solving the problem. In order to further improve the calculation speed of sparse regularization, a modified method based on separable approximation algorithm is proposed by using adaptive step-size and preconditioning technique. Both simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the image quality and real-time performance in the presence of different noise intensities and conductivity contrasts.

  16. Modified sparse regularization for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenru; Wang, Huaxiang; Xue, Qian; Cui, Ziqiang; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) aims to estimate the electrical properties at the interior of an object from current-voltage measurements on its boundary. It has been widely investigated due to its advantages of low cost, non-radiation, non-invasiveness, and high speed. Image reconstruction of EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, regularization techniques like Tikhonov regularization are used to solve the inverse problem. A sparse regularization based on L1 norm exhibits superiority in preserving boundary information at sharp changes or discontinuous areas in the image. However, the limitation of sparse regularization lies in the time consumption for solving the problem. In order to further improve the calculation speed of sparse regularization, a modified method based on separable approximation algorithm is proposed by using adaptive step-size and preconditioning technique. Both simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the image quality and real-time performance in the presence of different noise intensities and conductivity contrasts. PMID:27036798

  17. Variation in cervical and breast cancer screening coverage in England: a cross-sectional analysis to characterise districts with atypical behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Massat, Nathalie J; Douglas, Elaine; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reducing cancer screening inequalities in England is a major focus of the 2011 Department of Health cancer outcome strategy. Screening coverage requires regular monitoring in order to implement targeted interventions where coverage is low. This study aimed to characterise districts with atypical coverage levels for cervical or breast screening. Design Observational study of district-level coverage in the English Cervical and Breast screening programmes in 2012. Setting England, UK. Participants All English women invited to participate in the cervical (age group 25–49 and 50–64) and breast (age group 50–64) screening programmes. Outcomes Risk adjustment models for coverage were developed based on district-level characteristics. Funnel plots of adjusted coverage were constructed, and atypical districts examined by correlation analysis. Results Variability in coverage was primarily explained by population factors, whereas general practice characteristics had little independent effect. Deprivation and ethnicity other than white, Asian, black or mixed were independently associated with poorer coverage in both screening programmes, with ethnicity having the strongest effect; by comparison, the influence of Asian, black or mixed ethnic minority was limited. Deprivation, ethnicity and urbanisation largely accounted for the lower cervical screening coverage in London. However, for breast screening, being located in London remained a strong negative predictor. A subset of districts was identified as having atypical coverage across programmes. Correlates of deprivation in districts with relatively low adjusted coverage were substantially different from overall correlates of deprivation. Discussion These results inform the continuing drive to reduce avoidable cancer deaths in England, and encourage implementation of targeted interventions in communities residing in districts identified as having atypically low coverage. Sequential implementation to monitor the impact of local interventions would help accrue evidence on ‘what works’. PMID:26209119

  18. Full Coverage for Hypertension Drugs in Rural Communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Baorong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Guijing

    2015-01-01

    Background The control rate for hypertension is unacceptably low worldwide, and poor adherence to medication is a primary reason. Objectives To evaluate the impact of full coverage for hypertension drugs on adherence to medication, medical costs, and hypertension control in Shandong Province, China. Methods In November 2009, we interviewed 110 hypertensive patients who had been participating in a free medication program since May 2008 and 241 hypertensive patients who were not participating. We used a 1:1 propensity-score matching technique to obtain matched samples of 102 program participants (intervention) and 102 nonparticipants (control). We used univariate analysis to compare patient drug-taking behaviors, medical costs, and hypertension control between the 2 groups. Results All intervention patients took ≥1 drugs for hypertension control and 93% of them took ≥3 such drugs, 15 control patients (15%) did not take any, and only 39% took 3 or more (P <.001). Three-fourths (75%) of the intervention patients took the prescribed drugs regularly, whereas 66% of the control group (P = .034) did so. Participation in the program was associated with lower annual out-of-pocket medical costs both overall and for outpatient services (P <.001 for both). Conclusions Low-income rural residents in China receiving free drugs had enhanced medication adherence and reduced total medical costs. Providing hypertension drugs at no charge may be a promising strategy for preventing costly cardiovascular events associated with hypertension in China and other parts of the world with growing rates of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23379776

  19. Shadow of rotating regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Amir, Muhammed; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2016-05-01

    We study the shadows cast by the different types of rotating regular black holes viz. Ayón-Beato-García (ABG), Hayward, and Bardeen. These black holes have in addition to the total mass (M ) and rotation parameter (a ), different parameters as electric charge (Q ), deviation parameter (g ), and magnetic charge (g*). Interestingly, the size of the shadow is affected by these parameters in addition to the rotation parameter. We found that the radius of the shadow in each case decreases monotonically, and the distortion parameter increases when the values of these parameters increase. A comparison with the standard Kerr case is also investigated. We have also studied the influence of the plasma environment around regular black holes to discuss its shadow. The presence of the plasma affects the apparent size of the regular black hole's shadow to be increased due to two effects: (i) gravitational redshift of the photons and (ii) radial dependence of plasma density.

  20. Regularization of IR divergent loop integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Doncker, E.; Yuasa, F.; Kurihara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We report results of a new numerical regularization technique for infrared (IR) divergent loop integrals using dimensional regularization, where a positive regularization parameter ɛ, satisfying that the dimension d = 4 + 2ɛ, is introduced in the integrand to keep the integral from diverging as long as ɛ > 0. A sequence of integrals is computed for decreasing values of ɛ, in order to carry out a linear extrapolation as ɛ → 0. Each integral in the sequence is calculated according to the Direct Computation Method (DCM) to handle (threshold) integrand singularities in the interior of the domain. The technique of this paper is applied to one-loop N-point functions. In order to simplify the computation of the integrals for small ɛ, particularly in the case of a threshold singularity, a reduction of the N-point function is performed numerically to a set of 3-point and 4-point integrals, and DCM is applied to the resulting vertex and box integrals.

  1. The Origins of Personal Responsibility Rhetoric in News Coverage of the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Lori; Cheyne, Andrew; Nixon, Laura; Friedman, Lissy; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The tobacco industry consistently frames smoking as a personal issue rather than the responsibility of cigarette companies. To identify when personal responsibility framing became a major element of the tobacco industry’s discourse, we analyzed news coverage from 1966 to 1991. Industry representatives began to regularly use these arguments in 1977. By the mid 1980s, this frame dominated the industry’s public arguments. This chronology illustrates that the tobacco industry’s use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public preceded the ascension of personal responsibility rhetoric commonly associated with the Reagan Administration in the 1980s. PMID:24825205

  2. Learning with regularizers in multilayer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, David; Rattray, Magnus

    1998-02-01

    We study the effect of regularization in an on-line gradient-descent learning scenario for a general two-layer student network with an arbitrary number of hidden units. Training examples are randomly drawn input vectors labeled by a two-layer teacher network with an arbitrary number of hidden units that may be corrupted by Gaussian output noise. We examine the effect of weight decay regularization on the dynamical evolution of the order parameters and generalization error in various phases of the learning process, in both noiseless and noisy scenarios.

  3. Variational Data Assimilation via Sparse Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Ebtehaj, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    We examine the role of regularization in variational data assimilation (VDA) problems. Specifically, we focus on data assimilation of noisy and down-sampled observations while the geophysical state of interest exhibits a sparse representation in a properly chosen basis. We show that as long as sparsity holds (which we demonstrate holds for several variables of interest in the spatial domain such as precipitation, soil moisture, topography, etc. and in the time domain such as in the presence of weather fronts), L1-norm regularization produces more accurate and stable solutions than the classic methods. Examples are provided via assimilating observations into the linear Burgers' equation in the wavelet and discrete cosine domains.

  4. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F.; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.

  5. Demosaicing as the problem of regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunina, Irina; Volkov, Aleksey; Gladilin, Sergey; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Demosaicing is the process of reconstruction of a full-color image from Bayer mosaic, which is used in digital cameras for image formation. This problem is usually considered as an interpolation problem. In this paper, we propose to consider the demosaicing problem as a problem of solving an underdetermined system of algebraic equations using regularization methods. We consider regularization with standard l1/2-, l1 -, l2- norms and their effect on quality image reconstruction. The experimental results showed that the proposed technique can both be used in existing methods and become the base for new ones

  6. Efficient quadratic regularization for expression arrays.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2004-07-01

    Gene expression arrays typically have 50 to 100 samples and 1000 to 20,000 variables (genes). There have been many attempts to adapt statistical models for regression and classification to these data, and in many cases these attempts have challenged the computational resources. In this article we expose a class of techniques based on quadratic regularization of linear models, including regularized (ridge) regression, logistic and multinomial regression, linear and mixture discriminant analysis, the Cox model and neural networks. For all of these models, we show that dramatic computational savings are possible over naive implementations, using standard transformations in numerical linear algebra. PMID:15208198

  7. REGULAR VERSUS DIFFUSIVE PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2011-04-20

    Observations of photospheric flux cancellation on the Sun imply that cancellation can be a diffusive rather than regular process. A criterion is derived, which quantifies the parameter range in which diffusive photospheric cancellation should occur. Numerical estimates show that regular cancellation models should be expected to give a quantitatively accurate description of photospheric cancellation. The estimates rely on a recently suggested scaling for a turbulent magnetic diffusivity, which is consistent with the diffusivity measurements on spatial scales varying by almost two orders of magnitude. Application of the turbulent diffusivity to large-scale dispersal of the photospheric magnetic flux is discussed.

  8. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system. PMID:25019866

  9. Silicon nanosheets and their self-assembled regular stacking structure.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hirotaka; Kumai, Yoko; Sugiyama, Yusuke; Mitsuoka, Takuya; Nakanishi, Koji; Ohta, Toshiaki; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Shirai, Soichi; Nakano, Hideyuki

    2010-03-01

    Silicon nanomaterials are encouraging candidates for application to photonic, electronic, or biosensing devices, due to their size-quantization effects. Two-dimensional silicon nanosheets could help to realize a widespread quantum field, because of their nanoscale thickness and microscale area. However, there has been no example of a successful synthesis of two-dimensional silicon nanomaterials with large lateral size and oxygen-free surfaces. Here we report that oxygen-free silicon nanosheets covered with organic groups can be obtained by exfoliation of layered polysilane as a result of reaction with n-decylamine and dissolution in an organic solvent. The amine residues are covalently bound to the Si(111) planes. It is estimated that there is ca. 0.7 mol of residue per mole of Si atoms in the reaction product. The amine-modified layered polysilane can dissolve in chloroform and exfoliate into nanosheets that are 1-2 microm wide in the lateral direction and with thicknesses on the order of nanometers. The nanosheets have very flat and smooth surfaces due to dense coverage of n-decylamine, and they are easily self-assembled in a concentrated state to form a regularly stacked structure. The nanosheets could be useful as building blocks to create various composite materials. PMID:20121277

  10. Global Moon Coverage via Hyperbolic Flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Campagnola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The scientific desire for global coverage of moons such as Jupiter's Galilean moons or Saturn's Titan has invariably led to the design of orbiter missions. These orbiter missions require a large amount of propellant needed to insert into orbit around such small bodies, and for a given launch vehicle, the additional propellant mass takes away from mass that could otherwise be used for scientific instrumentation on a multiple flyby-only mission. This paper will present methods--expanding upon techniques developed for the design of the Cassini prime and extended missions--to obtain near global moon coverage through multiple flybys. Furthermore we will show with proper instrument suite selection, a flyby-only mission can provide science return similar (and in some cases greater) to that of an orbiter mission.

  11. Medicaid coverage and medical interventions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Leo; Robst, John; Polachek, Solomon

    2005-09-01

    This paper extends prior research on the effect of Medicaid coverage on medical interventions during pregnancy (prenatal ultrasound) and birth (ultrasound during delivery, cesarean delivery, inducement, and fetal monitor). The data are from two sources: the New York State Vital Statistics (VS) matched infant birth-death file and the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) file for 1993--1996. Medicaid coverage increases the likelihood of teens and adults receiving prenatal care relative to being uninsured. Overall, the effect of insurance type varies depending on whether the procedure is part of standard care (ultrasound and fetal monitor) or more likely to be elective (inducement and cesarean delivery). Insurance type has a greater effect for elective procedures than for procedures that are part of standard care. PMID:16082518

  12. Coverage, continuity, and visual cortical architecture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary visual cortex of many mammals contains a continuous representation of visual space, with a roughly repetitive aperiodic map of orientation preferences superimposed. It was recently found that orientation preference maps (OPMs) obey statistical laws which are apparently invariant among species widely separated in eutherian evolution. Here, we examine whether one of the most prominent models for the optimization of cortical maps, the elastic net (EN) model, can reproduce this common design. The EN model generates representations which optimally trade of stimulus space coverage and map continuity. While this model has been used in numerous studies, no analytical results about the precise layout of the predicted OPMs have been obtained so far. Results We present a mathematical approach to analytically calculate the cortical representations predicted by the EN model for the joint mapping of stimulus position and orientation. We find that in all the previously studied regimes, predicted OPM layouts are perfectly periodic. An unbiased search through the EN parameter space identifies a novel regime of aperiodic OPMs with pinwheel densities lower than found in experiments. In an extreme limit, aperiodic OPMs quantitatively resembling experimental observations emerge. Stabilization of these layouts results from strong nonlocal interactions rather than from a coverage-continuity-compromise. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that optimization models for stimulus representations dominated by nonlocal suppressive interactions are in principle capable of correctly predicting the common OPM design. They question that visual cortical feature representations can be explained by a coverage-continuity-compromise. PMID:22329968

  13. [Mexican health insurance: uncertain universal coverage].

    PubMed

    Laurell, Asa Cristina

    2011-06-01

    The Mexican health system is comprised of the Department of Health, state labor social security and the private sector. It is undergoing a reform process initiated in 1995 to achieve universal coverage and separate the regulation, financing and service functions; a reform that after fifteen years is incomplete and problematic. The scope of this paper is to assess the problems that underlie the successive reforms. Special emphasis is given to the last reform stage with the introduction of the "Insurance of the People" aimed at the population without labor social security. In the analysis, health reform is seen as part of the Reform of the State in the context of neoliberal reorganization of society. Unlike other Latin American countries, this process did not include a new Constitution. The study is based on official documents and a systematic review of the process of the implementation of the System of Social Health Protection and its impact on coverage and access to health services. The analysis concludes that it is unlikely that universal population coverage will be accomplished much less universal access to services. However, reforms are leading to the commodification of the health system even in the context of a weak private sector. PMID:21709977

  14. Emergency room coverage: an evolving crisis.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Historically, a newly graduated plastic surgeon in the United States could build a practice from his or her emergency room coverage. The historical cliche was for the surgeon to be affable, able, and available, and from that basis one's practice would grow. Emergency room exposure was an avenue for starting a practice, developing recognition, and, after that, building a referral pattern. Recently, the cross-shifting influence of management care, rising malpractice insurance costs, and risk ratio are changing this cliche to a crisis. An evaluation of a 2 1/2-year exposure to emergency room coverage has revealed a completely different profile. A total of 300 patient visits resulting in 69 surgical operations were evaluated for insurance and remuneration history. The findings indicated a significant remuneration dilemma for emergency room coverage. Interestingly, a remuneration problem exists in a market different from what one would expect. In this study, a sample from a suburban hospital, rather than an inner-city university hospital, is the greater problem. PMID:15277813

  15. Measuring the geographic coverage of methadone maintenance programme in Hong Kong by using geographic information system (GIS)

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tak Ting P; Lee, Shui Shan

    2008-01-01

    Objective While access and utilization form core components in assessing the effectiveness of a health service, the concept of coverage is often neglected. In this study we propose to develop a GIS-based methodological framework for the measurement of district-based geographic coverage to examine the service effectiveness of methadone treatment programme (MTP) in Hong Kong on a regular basis. Methods To overcome the incompatibility of spatial units, population data and data of heroin addiction of the year 2001 are interpolated by population-weighted and area-weighted algorithms. Standard overlay and proximity analytical functions are used to delineate altogether 20 accessible zones around each methadone clinic at a fixed 1.5 km Euclidean distance. Geographic coverage here is defined as the percentage of heroin addicts covered by a methadone clinic within the accessible zone by district. Results A total of 6413 out of 11000 reported heroin addicts are found geographically covered. The average geographic coverage in Hong Kong is 44.6%, with the figure varying from 0% to 96% by district. One district having no clinic results in 0% coverage whereas another without a clinic yields 15.3% coverage from the clinic in adjacent district. Maps illustrating district-based geographic coverage are generated. Conclusion As continuous data collection is required for a monitoring system, the simplified approach facilitates the handling of large volume data and relevant data analysis. It is concluded that the number of methadone clinics is as important as their locations. Geographic coverage could become an important consideration for monitoring harm reduction. PMID:18234088

  16. Regular Education Initiative: The General Educator's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolliopoulos, Theofani

    This report discusses the Regular Education Initiative (REI) and how it is currently being implemented in a middle school in Illinois, how it potentially benefits students, and how to promote use of accommodations by all teachers. Accommodations and modification appropriate to the Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) of nine students with…

  17. Dyslexia in Regular Orthographies: Manifestation and Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Heinz; Schurz, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes our research on the manifestation of dyslexia in German and on cognitive deficits, which may account for the severe reading speed deficit and the poor orthographic spelling performance that characterize dyslexia in regular orthographies. An only limited causal role of phonological deficits (phonological awareness,…

  18. Handicapped Children in the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    Reported was a project in which 60 educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 30 educationally handicapped (EH) elementary school students were placed in regular classrooms to determine whether they could be effectively educated in those settings. Effective education was defined in terms of improvement in reading, mathematics, student and teacher…

  19. Life Values, Regular Educators, and Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Karen Derk

    1986-01-01

    Rokeach's Value Survey (1973) was used to assess possible differences in the life values of special education (N=133) and regular (N=128) classroom teachers . Generally, their value systems were not significantly different; however, 18 values (10 defining personal life goals and 8 defining self conduct and others' conduct) differentiated one group…

  20. RBOOST: RIEMANNIAN DISTANCE BASED REGULARIZED BOOSTING.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meizhu; Vemuri, Baba C

    2011-03-30

    Boosting is a versatile machine learning technique that has numerous applications including but not limited to image processing, computer vision, data mining etc. It is based on the premise that the classification performance of a set of weak learners can be boosted by some weighted combination of them. There have been a number of boosting methods proposed in the literature, such as the AdaBoost, LPBoost, SoftBoost and their variations. However, the learning update strategies used in these methods usually lead to overfitting and instabilities in the classification accuracy. Improved boosting methods via regularization can overcome such difficulties. In this paper, we propose a Riemannian distance regularized LPBoost, dubbed RBoost. RBoost uses Riemannian distance between two square-root densities (in closed form) - used to represent the distribution over the training data and the classification error respectively - to regularize the error distribution in an iterative update formula. Since this distance is in closed form, RBoost requires much less computational cost compared to other regularized Boosting algorithms. We present several experimental results depicting the performance of our algorithm in comparison to recently published methods, LP-Boost and CAVIAR, on a variety of datasets including the publicly available OASIS database, a home grown Epilepsy database and the well known UCI repository. Results depict that the RBoost algorithm performs better than the competing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency. PMID:21927643

  1. Learning regular expressions for clinical text classification

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Natural language processing (NLP) applications typically use regular expressions that have been developed manually by human experts. Our goal is to automate both the creation and utilization of regular expressions in text classification. Methods We designed a novel regular expression discovery (RED) algorithm and implemented two text classifiers based on RED. The RED+ALIGN classifier combines RED with an alignment algorithm, and RED+SVM combines RED with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Two clinical datasets were used for testing and evaluation: the SMOKE dataset, containing 1091 text snippets describing smoking status; and the PAIN dataset, containing 702 snippets describing pain status. We performed 10-fold cross-validation to calculate accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure metrics. In the evaluation, an SVM classifier was trained as the control. Results The two RED classifiers achieved 80.9–83.0% in overall accuracy on the two datasets, which is 1.3–3% higher than SVM's accuracy (p<0.001). Similarly, small but consistent improvements have been observed in precision, recall, and F-measure when RED classifiers are compared with SVM alone. More significantly, RED+ALIGN correctly classified many instances that were misclassified by the SVM classifier (8.1–10.3% of the total instances and 43.8–53.0% of SVM's misclassifications). Conclusions Machine-generated regular expressions can be effectively used in clinical text classification. The regular expression-based classifier can be combined with other classifiers, like SVM, to improve classification performance. PMID:24578357

  2. 28 CFR 55.7 - Termination of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.7 Termination of coverage... the applicable language minority group is equal to or less than the national illiteracy rate....

  3. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... applicable Federal and State workers' compensation and occupational disease statutes. If...

  4. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Coverage Enhancement Option for the 2009 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC policies: United States Department of Agriculture, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. Reinsured policies: (Appropriate title for insurance provider). Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option. Both...

  5. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Coverage Enhancement Option for the 2009 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC policies: United States Department of Agriculture, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. Reinsured policies: (Appropriate title for insurance provider). Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option. Both...

  6. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Coverage Enhancement Option for the 2009 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC policies: United States Department of Agriculture, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. Reinsured policies: (Appropriate title for insurance provider). Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option. Both...

  7. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Coverage Enhancement Option for the 2009 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC policies: United States Department of Agriculture, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. Reinsured policies: (Appropriate title for insurance provider). Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option. Both...

  8. Gains in Kids' Health Coverage Continue, But Many Still Uninsured

    MedlinePlus

    ... coverage for kids is essential for their healthy development," Kathy Hempstead, the foundation's director of coverage issues, said in a news release from the organization. "The last year has shown continued progress in ...

  9. 28 CFR 55.7 - Termination of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.7 Termination of coverage... United States district court, that the illiteracy rate of the applicable language minority group is...

  10. Trends in Magazine Coverage of Environmental Issues, 1961-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Liz

    1989-01-01

    Described is a study conducted to measure trends in the coverage of environmental issues by popular magazines during 1961-86. Suggested that coverage increased during this period and that environmental articles have become more mainstream. (CW)

  11. Maximum-likelihood constrained regularized algorithms: an objective criterion for the determination of regularization parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanteri, Henri; Roche, Muriel; Cuevas, Olga; Aime, Claude

    1999-12-01

    We propose regularized versions of Maximum Likelihood algorithms for Poisson process with non-negativity constraint. For such process, the best-known (non- regularized) algorithm is that of Richardson-Lucy, extensively used for astronomical applications. Regularization is necessary to prevent an amplification of the noise during the iterative reconstruction; this can be done either by limiting the iteration number or by introducing a penalty term. In this Communication, we focus our attention on the explicit regularization using Tikhonov (Identity and Laplacian operator) or entropy terms (Kullback-Leibler and Csiszar divergences). The algorithms are established from the Kuhn-Tucker first order optimality conditions for the minimization of the Lagrange function and from the method of successive substitutions. The algorithms may be written in a `product form'. Numerical illustrations are given for simulated images corrupted by photon noise. The effects of the regularization are shown in the Fourier plane. The tests we have made indicate that a noticeable improvement of the results may be obtained for some of these explicitly regularized algorithms. We also show that a comparison with a Wiener filter can give the optimal regularizing conditions (operator and strength).

  12. Optimized polar orbit constellations for redundant earth coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, L.

    1985-06-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained to identify the minimum number of satellite polar orbit families which provide at least two fold redundant coverage at or above a latitude of 50 degrees. It is shown that the required number of satellites required varies in relation to the altitude of the coverage and the desired redundancy of coverage n. The orbit families providing two-, four-, and sixfold redundant coverage at a latitude of zero degrees are given in a table.

  13. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  14. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  15. 39 CFR 6.1 - Regular meetings, annual meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular meetings, annual meeting. 6.1 Section 6.1... (ARTICLE VI) § 6.1 Regular meetings, annual meeting. The Board shall meet regularly on a schedule established by the Board. The first regular meeting of each calendar year is designated as the annual...

  16. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  17. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  18. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  19. The evolution equations for regularized Dirac-geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branding, Volker

    2016-02-01

    We study the evolution equations for a regularized version of Dirac-geodesics, which are the one-dimensional analogue of Dirac-harmonic maps. We show that for the regularization being sufficiently large, the evolution equations subconverge to a regularized Dirac-geodesic. Finally, we discuss the relation between the regularized and the original problem.

  20. 29 CFR 778.408 - The specified regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The specified regular rate. 778.408 Section 778.408 Labor... Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.408 The specified regular rate. (a) To qualify under section 7(f), the contract must specify “a regular rate of pay of...